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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 14, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 14, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 14, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 14, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 14, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 14, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Influence of Isoflavone Intake and Equol-producing Intestinal Flora on Prostate Cancer Risk
Sugiyama, Yukiko ; Masumori, Naoya ; Fukuta, Fumimasa ; Yoneta, Akihiro ; Hida, Tokimasa ; Yamashita, Toshiharu ; Minatoya, Machiko ; Nagata, Yoshie ; Mori, Mitsuru ; Tsuji, Hirokazu ; Akaza, Hideyuki ; Tsukamoto, Taiji ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 1~4
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.1
Background: The age-adjusted incidence rate of prostate cancer (PCa) has been reported to be lower among Asians than Western populations. A traditional Japanese meal, high in soybean products or isoflavones, may be associated with a decreased risk of PCa. Equol, which is converted from daidzein by human intestinal flora, is biologically more active than any other isoflavone aglycone. Materials and Methods: We reviewed not only recent epidemiological studies on association of isoflavones with PCa risk, but also recent research on human intestinal bacteria responsible for converting daidzein into equol. Studies were systematically searched from the database published within the last 5 years of from 2008-2012. Results: Five out of 6 articles showed significant association of isoflavones with a decreased risk of PCa, and two of them consistently showed that equol-producers carry a significantly reduced risk of PCa. Furthermore, 5 human intestinal bacteria that can convert daidzein into equol were identified in the last 5 years. Conclusions: If equol can reduce risk of PCa, a possible strategy for reducing the risk of PCa may be to increase the proportion of equol-producers by changing the intestinal flora to carrying an equol-producing bacterium with dietary alteration or probiotic technology.
Lentivirus-mediated Silencing of Rhomboid Domain Containing 1 Suppresses Tumor Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Hepatoma HepG2 Cells
Liu, Xue-Ni ; Tang, Zheng-Hao ; Zhang, Yi ; Pan, Qing-Chun ; Chen, Xiao-Hua ; Yu, Yong-Sheng ; Zang, Guo-Qing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 5~9
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.5
Rhomboids were identified as the first intramembrane serine proteases about 10 years ago. Since then, the study of the rhomboid protease family has blossomed. Rhomboid domain containing 1 (RHBDD1), highly-expressed in human testis, contains a rhomboid domain with unknown function. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that RHBDD1 was associated with proliferation and apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma using recombinant lentivirus-mediated silencing of RHBDD1 in HepG2 cells. Our results showed that down-regulation of RHBDD1 mRNA levels markedly suppressed proliferation and colony formation capacity of HepG2 human hepatoma cancer cells in vitro, and induced cell cycle arrest. We also found that RHBDD1 silencing could obviously trigger HepG2 cell apoptosis. In summary, it was demonstrated that RHBDD1 might be a positive regulator for proliferative and apoptotic characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Area-to-Area Poisson Kriging Analysis of Mapping of County-Level Esophageal Cancer Incidence Rates in Iran
Asmarian, Naeimeh Sadat ; Ruzitalab, Ahmad ; Amir, Kavousi ; Masoud, Salehi ; Mahaki, Behzad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 11~13
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.11
Background: Esophagus cancer, the third most common gastrointestinal cancer overall, demonstrates high incidence in parts of Iran. The counties of Iran vary in size, shape and population size. The aim of this study was to account for spatial support with Area-to-Area (ATA) Poisson Kriging to increase precision of parameter estimates and yield correct variance and create maps of disease rates. Materials and Methods: This study involved application/ecology methodology, illustrated using esophagus cancer data recorded by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (in the Non-infectious Diseases Management Center) of Iran. The analysis focused on the 336 counties over the years 2003-2007. ATA was used for estimating the parameters of the map with SpaceStat and ArcGIS9.3 software for analysing the data and drawing maps. Results: Northern counties of Iran have high risk estimation. The ATA Poisson Kriging approach yielded variance increase in large sparsely populated counties. So, central counties had the most prediction variance. Conclusions: The ATAPoisson kriging approach is recommended for estimating parameters of disease mapping since this method accounts for spatial support and patterns in irregular spatial areas. The results demonstrate that the counties in provinces Ardebil, Mazandaran and Kordestan have higher risk than other counties.
c-KIT Positive Schistosomal Urinary Bladder Carcinomas are Frequent but Lack KIT Gene Mutations
Shams, Tahany M. ; Metawea, Mokhtar ; Salim, Elsayed I. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 15~20
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.15
Urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), one of the most common neoplasms in Egypt, is attributed to chronic urinary infection with Schistosoma haematobium (Schistosomiasis). The proto-oncogene c-KIT, encoding a tyrosine kinase receptor and implicated in the development of a number of human malignancies, has not been studied so far in schistosomal urinary bladder SCCs. We therefore determined immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of c-KIT in paraffin sections from 120 radical cystectomies of SCCs originally obtained from the Pathology Department of Suez Canal University (Ismailia, Egypt). Each slide was evaluated for staining intensity where the staining extent of >10% of cells was considered positive. c-KIT overexpression was detected in 78.3% (94/120) of the patients, the staining extents in the tumor cells were 11-50% and >50% in 40 (42.6%) and 54 (57.4%) respectively. The positive cases had 14.9%, 63.8%, 21.3% as weak, moderate and strong intensity respectively. Patients with positive bilharzial ova had significantly higher c-KIT expression than patients without (95.2% vs. 38.9%, P=0.000). Mutation analysis of exons 9-13 was negative in thirty KIT positive cases. The high rate of positivity in SBSCC was one of the striking findings; However, CD117 may be a potential target for site specific immunotherapy to improve the outcome of this tumor.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Genetic Polymorphisms and Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Susceptibility: A Meta-analysis of Case-control Studies
Wen, Yuan-Yuan ; Yang, Shu-Juan ; Zhang, Jian-Xing ; Chen, Xin-Yue ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 21~25
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.21
Background: Genetic factors and environmental factors play a role in pathogenesis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Previous studies regarding the association of folate intake and Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism with ESCC was conflicting. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association of MTHFR C677T and folate intake with esophageal cancer risk. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Chinese Biomedical Database were searched in our study. The quality of studies were evaluated by predefined scale, and The association of polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T and folate intake and ESCC risk was estimated by Odds ratio (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: 19 studies (4239 cases and 5575 controls) were included for meta-analysis. A significant association was seen between individuals with MTHFR 677 CT [OR(95%)=1.47(1.32-1.63)] and TT [OR(95%)=1.69(1.49-1.91)] genotypes and ESCC risk (p<0.05). Low intake of folate had significantly higher risk of esophageal cancer among individuals with CT/TT genotype [OR(95%)=1.65(1.1-2.49)], while high intake of folate did not find significant high risk of esophageal cancer among individuals with CT/TT genotype [OR(95%)=1.64 (0.82-3.26)]. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis indicated the folate intake and MTHFR 677CT/TT are associated with the risk of ESCC, and folate showed a significant interaction with polymorphism of MTHFR C677T.
Salivary Gland Tumors: A Clinicopathologic Study of 366 Cases in Southern Iran
Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh ; Ashraf, Mohammad-Javad ; Moshaverinia, Maryam ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 27~30
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.27
Background: Salivary gland tumors (SGT) are one of the most complex human neoplasms, demonstrating variations in their clinicopathological profile related to racial and geographic differences. Few studies with large samples have been reported in Iran. We here investigated a large group of patients in southern Iran. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, all cases of primary epithelial salivary gland tumors, which had been recorded in a 5 years period from 2005-2009, were enrolled. Clinical data such as histopathologic type and site of the lesion as well as patients' age and gender were analyzed. Results: Data of 366 cases of SGTs were recorded. Pleomorphic adenoma (80.2%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (46.6%) were the most common benign and malignant neoplasms. Male to female ratio (M/F) and the mean age of patients were 1:1.05 and 37.7 for benign tumors while they were 1.2:1 and 50.6 for malignant tumors, respectively. Parotid and minor salivary glands were involved more frequently. Conclusions: Although the salivary gland tumours encountered were similar in most of their characteristics to those reported in other countries, some differences such as relative frequency and age and gender prevalence were discovered. These findings should help surgeons and pathologists for more accurate diagnosis, management and treatment.
Surgical Perspective of T1799A BRAF Mutation Diagnostic Value in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Brahma, Bayu ; Yulian, Erwin Danil ; Ramli, Muchlis ; Setianingsih, Iswari ; Gautama, Walta ; Brahma, Putri ; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo ; Harimurti, Kuntjoro ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 31~37
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.31
Background: Throughout Indonesia, thyroid cancer is one of the ten commonest malignancies, with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in our hospital accounting for about 60% of all thyroid nodules. Although fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the most reliable diagnostic tool, some nodules are diagnosed as indeterminate and second surgery is common for PTC. The aim of this study was to establish the diagnostic value and feasibility of testing the BRAF T1799A mutation on FNA specimens for improving PTC diagnosis. Materials and Methods: This prospective study enrolled 95 patients with thyroid nodules and future surgery planned. Results of mutational status were compared with surgical pathology diagnosis. Results: Of the 70 cases included in the final analysis, 62.8% were PTC and the prevalence of BRAF mutation was 38.6%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for BRAF mutation analysis were 36%, 100%, 100% and 48%, respectively. With other data findings, nodules with "onset less than 5 year" and "hard consistency" were proven as diagnostic determinants for BRAF mutation with a probability of 62.5%. This mutation was also a significant risk factor for extra-capsular extension. Conclusions: Molecular analysis of the BRAF T1799A mutation in FNAB specimens has high specificity and positive predictive value for PTC. It could be used in the selective patients with clinical characteristics to facilitate PTC diagnosis and for guidance regarding extent of thyroidectomy.
Survival Analysis of Breast Cancer Patients in Northwest Iran
Ziaei, Jamal Eivazi ; Sanaat, Zohreh ; Asvadi, Iraj ; Dastgiri, Saeed ; Pourzand, Ali ; Vaez, Jalil ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 39~42
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.39
Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer among Iranian women; however limited studies have been conducted to address survival rates. Objective: The objective was to examine survival rates in Tabriz (Northwest of Iran) and comparing with those of data reported from other cities and countries. Methods: Survival rates were calculated for one, three, five, seven and ten years for 271 breast cancer patients referred to one university clinic during 1997-2008. Results: Survival analysis demonstrated a lower survival rate compared to western countries. Conclusions: Survival rates for our patients are similar/better than other cities in Iran, but lower than certain European countries and the US. Further studies with a higher number of patients are now required.
Lower Incidence but More Aggressive Behavior of Right Sided Breast Cancer in Pakistani Women: Does Right Deserve More Respect?
Fatima, Nosheen ; Zaman, Maseeh Uz ; Maqbool, Aamir ; Khan, Shaista H. ; Riaz, Nazia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 43~45
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.43
Background: The aim of this epidemiological study was to establish the laterality of breast cancer (BC) and its association with size, receptor status of the primary tumor and bone metastasis (BM) in a local population. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included cases of BC from Jan-2009 to Dec-2011 who were referred for metastatic work up or follow up survey with Technetium-99m MDP bone scan (BS) to the Nuclear Medicine Department of Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (KIRAN). A total of 384 patients out of 521 were included and all reviewed for age, primary tumor size (PTS), laterality, receptor status like estrogen receptor (ER) progesterone receptor (PR) and Her-2-Neu receptor, presence or absence of BM with sites of involvement and time interval between diagnosis of BC and appearance of BM. Results: The left to right sided BC proportion was significantly higher than unity (59%:41%; p<0.001). The right sided BC was observed in younger age group (46:52 years; p<0.0001) and with a smaller PTS than the left sided (3.43:4.15 cm; p<0.0001). The patients with BM had relatively higher negative receptor status with a significant predominance of right sided BC. The overall incidence of BM on BS was 28% and relatively higher in right than left breast (33%:24% p=0.068). The average number of BM sites was also significantly greater for the right side (6:4, P<0.0001). The % cumulative risk of BM in right breast was noted at significantly smaller PTS than left side with log rank value of 5.579; p<0.05. The Kaplan Meier survival plot for event free survival of BM in left sided BC was significantly higher than for the right side (log rank value=4.155, p<0.05), with an earlier appearance of BM in right BC. Conclusions: 1) A left sided predominance of BC was seen in local population; 2) right sided BC had a more aggressive behavior with extensive and earlier appearance of BM at relatively younger age, smaller PTS and receptor (s) negativity.
Association between Physical Activity and Postoperative Complications after Esophagectomy for Cancer: A Prospective Observational Study
Tatematsu, Noriatsu ; Park, Moonhwa ; Tanaka, Eiji ; Sakai, Yoshiharu ; Tsuboyama, Tadao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 47~51
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.47
Background: Postoperative complications after esophagectomy can lead to considerable patient discomfort and prolonged length of hospital stay. Lack of physical activity can be one of the independent risk factors for postoperative complications because physical activity is closely related to physical function. The objective of this study was to determine whether physical activity among esophageal cancer patients decreases their risk of postoperative complications after esophagectomy. Materials and Methods: We investigated 51 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed resectable esophageal cancer who were scheduled to receive esophagectomy between January 2009 and November 2011. Demographic, clinicopathologic, and treatment information were recorded and physical function was measured. The last 7-days short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess physical activity before the operation. Stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether preoperative physical activity is related to the risk of postoperative complications. Results: Male gender [OR 18.6, (95%CIs: 1.2-284.4); P=0.035], 3-field lymph node dissection (OR 9.6, [95%CIs: 1.4-66.6]; P=0.022), low-level physical activity (OR 28.3, [95%CIs: 3.5-227.7]; P=0.002), and preoperative comorbidities [OR 5.9, (95%CIs: 1.1-31.5); P=0.037] were found to be independently associated with postoperative complications. Conclusions: The present study shows that low-level physical activity, preoperative comorbidities, and 3-field lymph node dissection are independent and significant risk factors for postoperative complications after esophagectomy. Although further study is required, maintaining high-level physical activity preoperatively may decrease the risk of postoperative complications.
Factors Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection, Results from a Developing Country-Pakistan
Valliani, Arif ; Khan, Fazal ; Chagani, Bilawal ; Khuwaja, Ali Khan ; Majid, Syed ; Hashmi, Syed ; Nanji, Kashmira ; Valliani, Salimah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 53~56
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.53
Background: It is known that blood group antigens are related to the development of peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma. Infections due to H. pylori are most widespread among the developing regions due to poor standard of public health. This study sought to determine the association of H. pylori with ABO blood groups, age, gender, and smoking status among inpatients at a public sector hospital in Karachi. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at endoscopy suite at a public sector hospital in Karachi in the year 2011. All the symptomatic patients coming for upper GIT endoscopy were included in this study. Results: Biopsy for histopathology was taken from 93 patients, with an age range from 15-65 years. Age group of 15 to 20 years was found to be associated with H. pylori infection but without significance (p-value 0.83). In all, 36 (38.7%) turned out to be H. pylori positive with a significant male preponderance (p=0.04). Distribution of ABO blood groups in H. pylori positive group were A=31.4%, B=15.4%, AB=25.0% and O=53.7%, with a statistically significant link for blood group O (p=0.05). Rhesus factor was also compared but significant relationship was evident (p-value 0.73). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that H. pylori infection can be related to ABO blood group, middle age persons and male gender. People of blood group O are more prone to develop infection related gastritis, ulcers, and even perforations, so they should be more cautious against transmission of the bacterium.
Beliefs and Behavior of Malaysia Undergraduate Female Students in a Public University Toward Breast Self-examination Practice
Akhtari-Zavare, Mehrnoosh ; Juni, Muhamad Hanafiah ; Said, Salmiah Md. ; Ismail, Irmi Zarina ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 57~61
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.57
Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second principal cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide, including Malaysia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 262 female undergraduate students in University Putra Malaysia using a validated questionnaire which was developed for this study. Results: The mean age of respondents was
years. Most of them were single (83.1%), Malay (42.3%) and 20.7% reported having a family history of breast cancer. Eighty-seven (36.7%) claimed they had practiced BSE. Motivation and self-efficacy of the respondents who performed BSE were significantly higher compared with women who did not (p<0.05).There was no association between BSE practice and demographic details (p<0.05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that women who perceived greater motivation (OR=1.089, 95%CI: 1.016-1.168) and had higher confidence of BSE (OR=1.076, 95%CI: 1.028-1.126) were more likely to perform the screening. Conclusions: The findings show that Malaysian young female's perception regarding breast cancer and the practice of BSE is low. Targeted education should be implemented to improve early detection of breast cancer.
Correlation of Microvessel Density with Nuclear Pleomorphism, Mitotic Count and Vascular Invasion in Breast and Prostate Cancers at Preclinical and Clinical Levels
Muhammadnejad, Samad ; Muhammadnejad, Ahad ; Haddadi, Mahnaz ; Oghabian, Mohammad-Ali ; Mohagheghi, Mohammad-Ali ; Tirgari, Farrokh ; Sadeghi-Fazel, Fariba ; Amanpour, Saeid ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 63~68
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.63
Background: Tumor angiogenesis correlates with recurrence and appears to be a prognostic factor for both breast and prostate cancers. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the correlation of microvessel density (MVD), a measure of angiogenesis, with nuclear pleomorphism, mitotic count, and vascular invasion in breast and prostate cancers at preclinical and clinical levels. Methods: Samples from xenograft tumors of luminal B breast cancer and prostate adenocarcinoma, established by BT-474 and PC-3 cell lines, respectively, and commensurate human paraffin-embedded blocks were obtained. To determine MVD, specimens were immunostained for CD-34. Nuclear pleomorphism, mitotic count, and vascular invasion were determined using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained slides. Results: MVD showed significant correlations with nuclear pleomorphism (r=0.68, P=0.03) and vascular invasion (r=0.77, P=0.009) in breast cancer. In prostate cancer, MVD was significantly correlated with nuclear pleomorphism (r=0.75, P=0.013) and mitotic count (r=0.75, P=0.012). In the breast cancer xenograft model, a significant correlation was observed between MVD and vascular invasion (r=0.87, P=0.011). In the prostate cancer xenograft model, MVD was significantly correlated with all three parameters (nuclear pleomorphism, r=0.95, P=0.001; mitotic count, r=0.91, P=0.001; and vascular invasion, r=0.79, P=0.017; respectively). Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that MVD is correlated with nuclear pleomorphism, mitotic count, and vascular invasion at both preclinical and clinical levels. This study therefore supports the predictive value of MVD in breast and prostate cancers.
Improving Safety-Related Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Nurses Handling Cytotoxic Anticancer Drug: Pharmacists' Experience in a General Hospital, Malaysia
Keat, Chan Huan ; Sooaid, Nor Suhada ; Yun, Cheng Yi ; Sriraman, Malathi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 69~73
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.69
Background: An increasing trend of cytotoxic drug use, mainly in cancer treatment, has increased the occupational exposure among the nurses. This study aimed to assess the change of nurses' safety-related knowledge as well as attitude levels and subsequently to assess the change of cytotoxic drug handling practices in wards after a series of pharmacist-based interventions. Materials and Methods: This prospective interventional study with a before and after design requested a single group of 96 nurses in 15 wards actively providing chemotherapy to answer a self-administered questionnaire. A performance checklist was then used to determine the compliance of all these wards with the recommended safety measures. The first and second assessments took 2 months respectively with a 9-month intervention period. Pharmacist-based interventions included a series of technical, educational and administrative support measures consisting of the initiation of closed-system cytotoxic drug reconstitution (CDR) services, courses, training workshops and guideline updates. Results: The mean age of nurses was
years. Most of them were female (93.8%) and married (72.9%). The mean knowledge score of nurses was significantly increased from
out of 100 (p<0.001) at the end of the second assessment. Overall, the mean practice score among the wards was improved from
out of 20 (p<0.001). Conclusions: The pharmacist-based interventions improved the knowledge, attitude and safe practices of nurses in cytotoxic drug handling. Further assessment may help to confirm the sustainability of the improved practices.
Quality of Breast Cancer Early Detection Services Conducted by Well Woman Clinics in the District of Gampaha, Sri Lanka
Vithana, Palatiyana Vithanage Sajeewanie Chiranthika ; Ariyaratne, M.A.Y. ; Jayawardana, P.L. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 75~80
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.75
Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in females in Sri Lanka and early detection can lead to reduction in morbidity and mortality. Aim: To evaluate selected aspects of breast cancer early detection services implemented through well woman clinics (WWCs) in the Gampaha District. Methods: The study consisted of two components. A retrospective descriptive arm assessed clinical breast examination (CBE) coverage of target age group women (TGW) of 35-59 years in all the WWCs in Gampaha district over 2003-2007. A cross sectional descriptive study additionally assessed quality of breast cancer early detection services. The Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) technique was used to decide on the lot size and threshold values, which were computed as twenty and six clinics. Checklists were employed in assessing coverage, physical facilities and clinic activities. Client satisfaction on WWC services was assessed among 200 TGW attending 20 WWCs using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results: CBE coverage in the Gampaha district increased only from 1.1-2.2% over 2003-2007. With regard to physical facilities, the number of clinics that were rated substandard varied between 7-18 (35-90%). The items that were lacking included dust bins, notice boards, stationary, furniture and linen, and cleanliness of outside premises and toilets. With regard to clinic activities, punctuality of staff, late commencement of clinics, provision of health education, supervision, CBE and breast self-examination (BSE) were substandard in 7-20 clinics (35-100%). Client satisfaction for WWC services was 45.2% (IQR: 38.7-54.8%) and only 11% had a score of
, the cut off set for satisfaction. Conclusions: Breast cancer early detection service coverage in the Gampaha district remained low (2.2%) in 2007, 11 years after commencing WWCs. All 20 clinics were substandard for overall CBE and BSE.
Diagnostic Role of Survivin in Urinary Bladder Cancer
Srivastava, Anupam Kumar ; Singh, Pankaj Kumar ; Srivastava, Kirti ; Singh, Dhramveer ; Dalela, Divakar ; Rath, Srikanta Kumar ; Goel, Madhu Mati ; Bhatt, Madan Lal Brahma ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 81~85
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.81
Background: Early diagnosis of carcinoma of bladder remains a challenge. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family, is frequently activated in bladder carcinoma. The objective of this study was to investigate urinary survivin as a marker for diagnosis of urinary bladder. Materials and Methods: We examined urinary survivin concentration in 28 healthy individuals, 46 positive controls and 117 cases of histologically proven TCC prior to transurethral resection, using ELISA, and compared values with findings for urinary cytology. Results: Survivin was found to be significantly higher in the cancer group (P<0.05). A cut off value of 17.7 pg/ml was proposed, with an approximate sensitivity of 82.9% and specificity of 81.1% (P<0.0001), whereas urine cytology had a sensitivity of 66.7% and a specificity of 96.0%. Conclusions: Urinary survivin can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for TCC bladder, both for primary and recurrent disease.
GSTT1 Null Genotype Distribution in the Kumaun Region of Northern India
Bag, Arundhati ; Upadhyay, Saloni ; Jeena, Lalit M. ; Pundir, Princi ; Jyala, Narayan S. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 87~89
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.87
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute a multigene family of multifunctional phase II metabolic enzymes. GSTT1, an important member of this group has a wide range of substrates including carcinogens. Total homozygous deletion or null genotype resulting in total lack of enzyme activity exists in populations for this enzyme. Since the null genotype may contribute to lower detoxification of carcinogens, this genotype is expected to increase cancer risk. The frequency of the GSTT1 null genotype is known to vary significantly among populations. However, little is known about its distribution in the hilly Kumaun region of northern India. Therefore, in this study, we determined the prevalence of the GSTT1 null polymorphism in the Kumaun popilation by conducting duplex PCR in 365 voluntary healthy individuals. The GSTT1 null genotype was detected in 18.4% of the individuals. Since GSTs play significant role in xenobiotic metabolism, the present data on GSTT1 genotype distribution should contribute in understanding genetic association with cancer risk in this understudied population.
Detection of p53 Common Intron Polymorphisms in Patients with Gastritis Lesions from Iran
Sadeghi, Rouhallah Najjar ; Damavand, Behzad ; Vahedi, Mohsen ; Mohebbi, Seyed Reza ; Zojazi, Homayon ; Molaei, Mahsa ; Zali, Mohamad Reza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 91~96
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.91
Background: p53 alterations have been implicated in the development of many cancers, such as gastric cancer, but there is no evidence of p53 intron alterations in gastritis lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the p53 intron alterations in gastritis along with p53 and mismatch repair protein expression and microsatellite status. Materials and Methods: PCR-sequencing was conducted for introns 2-7 on DNA extracted from 97 paired samples of gastritis lesions and normal adjacent tissue. Abnormal accumulation of p53 and mismatch repair proteins was investigated using immunohistochemistry. In addition, microsatellite status was evaluated with reference to five mononucleotide markers. Results: Gastritis cases included 41 males and 56 females in the age range of 15-83 years, 87.6% being H.pylori positive. IVS2+38, IVS3ins16 and IVS7+72 were the most polymorphic sites. Their minor allele frequency values were as follows: 0.38, 0.21 and 0.06, respectively. Samples with GG genotype at IVS2+38 and CT at IVS7+72 had no insertion. Moreover, most of the stable samples (91.9 %) had a G allele at IVS2+38. All of the samples were IHC negative for p53 protein, microsatellite stable and expressed mismatch repair proteins. p53 alterations were prominent in the H. Pylori+ group, but without statistical significance. Conclusions: According to our results, some p53 polymorphisms such as IVS2+38, IVS3ins16 and IVS7+72, because of their correlations together or with microsatellite status may contribute to gastritis development. However, so far effects on p53 expression and function remain unclear. Therefore, a comprehensive survey is needed to delineate their biological significance.
Support Vector Machine Based Diagnostic System for Thyroid Cancer using Statistical Texture Features
Gopinath, B. ; Shanthi, N. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 97~102
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.97
Objective: The aim of this study was to develop an automated computer-aided diagnostic system for diagnosis of thyroid cancer pattern in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) microscopic images with high degree of sensitivity and specificity using statistical texture features and a Support Vector Machine classifier (SVM). Materials and Methods: A training set of 40 benign and 40 malignant FNAC images and a testing set of 10 benign and 20 malignant FNAC images were used to perform the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Initially, segmentation of region of interest (ROI) was performed by region-based morphology segmentation. The developed diagnostic system utilized statistical texture features derived from the segmented images using a Gabor filter bank at various wavelengths and angles. Finally, the SVM was used as a machine learning algorithm to identify benign and malignant states of thyroid nodules. Results: The SVMachieved a diagnostic accuracy of 96.7% with sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 100%, respectively, at a wavelength of 4 and an angle of 45. Conclusion: The results show that the diagnosis of thyroid cancer in FNAC images can be effectively performed using statistical texture information derived with Gabor filters in association with an SVM.
Lung Cancer Knowledge among Secondary School Male Teachers in Kudat, Sabah, Malaysia
Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed ; Kadir, Samiah Yasmin Abdul ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 103~109
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.103
Background: The objective of this study is to determine knowledge about lung cancer among secondary school male teachers in Kudat, Sabah, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among three secondary schools located in Kudat district, Sabah, Malaysia during the period from June until September 2012. The protocol of this study was approved by ethics committee of Management and Science University, Malaysia. The aims were explained and a consent form was signed by each participant. Respondents were chosen randomly from each school with the help of the headmasters. Self-administrated questionnaires, covering socio-demographic characteristics and general knowledge of lung cancer, were distributed. Once all 150 respondents completed the questionnaire, they passed it to their head master for collecting and recording. All the data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13. ANOVA and t-test were applied for univariate analysis; and multiple linear regression for multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 150 male secondary school teachers participated in this study. Their mean age was
(SD); maximum 50 and minimum 23 years old. More than half of the participants were Malay and married (52%, 79%; respectively). Regarding the knowledge about lung cancer, 57.3% of the participants mentioned that only males are affected by lung cancer. Some 70.7% mentioned that lung cancer can be transmitted from one person to another. More than half (56.7%) reported that lung cancer is not the leading cause of death in Malaysian males. As for risk factors, the majority reported that family history of lung cancer is not involved. However, 91.3% were aware that cigarettes are the main risk factor of lung cancer and more than half (52%) believed that second-hand smoking is one of the risk factor of lung cancer. More than half (51.3%) were not aware that asbestos, ionizing radiation and other cancer causing substances are risk factors for lung cancer. Quitting smoking, avoiding second-hand smoking and avoiding unnecessary x-ray image of the chest (53.3%, 96.0%, 87.3%; respectively) are the main preventive measures mentioned by the participants. For the factors that influence the participants knowledge, univariate and multivariate analysis showed that only race was significant. Conclusions: Overall, the knowledge of school male teachers about lung cancer was low. However, few items were scored high: cigarettes are the main risk factor; avoiding second-hand smoking; and avoiding x-rays. Interventions to increase lung cancer awareness are needed to improve early detection behavior. Increase the price of pack of cigarettes to RM 20 and banning smoking in public places such as restaurants are highly recommended as primary preventive measures.
Finding Genes Discriminating Smokers from Non-smokers by Applying a Growing Self-organizing Clustering Method to Large Airway Epithelium Cell Microarray Data
Shahdoust, Maryam ; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim ; Mozdarani, Hossein ; Chehrei, Ali ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 111~116
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.111
Background: Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for development of lung cancer. Identification of effects of tobacco on airway gene expression may provide insight into the causes. This research aimed to compare gene expression of large airway epithelium cells in normal smokers (n=13) and non-smokers (n=9) in order to find genes which discriminate the two groups and assess cigarette smoking effects on large airway epithelium cells.Materials and Methods: Genes discriminating smokers from non-smokers were identified by applying a neural network clustering method, growing self-organizing maps (GSOM), to microarray data according to class discrimination scores. An index was computed based on differentiation between each mean of gene expression in the two groups. This clustering approach provided the possibility of comparing thousands of genes simultaneously. Results: The applied approach compared the mean of 7,129 genes in smokers and non-smokers simultaneously and classified the genes of large airway epithelium cells which had differently expressed in smokers comparing with non-smokers. Seven genes were identified which had the highest different expression in smokers compared with the non-smokers group: NQO1, H19, ALDH3A1, AKR1C1, ABHD2, GPX2 and ADH7. Most (NQO1, ALDH3A1, AKR1C1, H19 and GPX2) are known to be clinically notable in lung cancer studies. Furthermore, statistical discriminate analysis showed that these genes could classify samples in smokers and non-smokers correctly with 100% accuracy. With the performed GSOM map, other nodes with high average discriminate scores included genes with alterations strongly related to the lung cancer such as AKR1C3, CYP1B1, UCHL1 and AKR1B10. Conclusions: This clustering by comparing expression of thousands of genes at the same time revealed alteration in normal smokers. Most of the identified genes were strongly relevant to lung cancer in the existing literature. The genes may be utilized to identify smokers with increased risk for lung cancer. A large sample study is now recommended to determine relations between the genes ABHD2 and ADH7 and smoking.
Knowledge of Risk Factors & Early Detection Methods and Practices towards Breast Cancer among Nurses in Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India
Fotedar, Vikas ; Seam, Rajeev K. ; Gupta, Manoj K. ; Gupta, Manish ; Vats, Siddharth ; Verma, Sunita ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 117~120
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.117
Background: Breast cancer is an increasing health problem in India. Screening for early detection should lead to a reduction in mortality from the disease. It is known that motivation by nurses influences uptake of screening methods by women. This study aimed to investigate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors & early detection methods and the practice of screening among nurses in Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, early detection methods and practice of screening methods among 457 nurses working in a Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla-H.P. Chi square test, Data was analysed using SPSS version 16. Test of significance used was chi square test. Results: The response rate of the study was 94.9%. The average knowledge of risk factors about breast cancer of the entire population is 49%. 10.5% of nurses had poor knowledge, 25.2% of the nurses had good knowledge, 45% had very good knowledge and 16.3% of the nurses had excellent knowledge about risk factors of breast cancer and early detection methods. The knowledge level was significantly higher among BSC nurses than nurses with Diploma. 54% of participants in this study reportedly practice BSE at least once every year. Less than one-third reported that they had CBE within the past one year. 7% ever had mammogram before this study. Conclusions: Results from this study suggest the frequent continuing medical education programmes on breast cancer at institutional level is desirable.
Significance of HPV Infection and Genic Mutation of APC and K-ras in Patients with Rectal Cancer
Sun, Zhen-Qiang ; Wang, Hai-Jiang ; Zhao, Ze-Liang ; Wang, Qi-San ; Fan, Chuan-Wen ; Kureshi, Kureshi ; Fang, Fa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 121~126
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.121
Background: Significance of HPV infection and genic mutation of APC and K-ras in rectal cancer has been investigated but not clarified. The objective of our study was to investigate these parameters in patients with rectal cancer to analyze correlations with biological behaviour, to determine relationships among the three, and also to demonstrate survival prognosis effects. Methods: From December 2007 to September 2008, 75 rectal cancer cases confirmed by histopathology in the Tumor Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University were enrolled. The control group consisted of normal rectal mucous membrane taken simultaneously, a least 10 cm distant from the carcinoma fringe. HPV DNA, the MCR of APC and exon-1 of K-ras were detected by PCR and PCR-SSCP. All results were analyzed in relation to clinical pathological material, using chi-square and correlation analysis via SPSS.13 and Fisher's Exact Probability via STATA. 9.0. All 75 patients were followed up for survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier and Log-rank tests. Results: 55 out of 75 cases demonstrated gene HPV L1 while it was notdetected in normal rectal mucosa tissue. HPV infection was correlated with age and lymphatic metastasis (P<0.05) but not other characteristics, such as ethnicity, tumor size, histological type, tumor type, Duke's stage and infiltration depth. Some 43 cases exhibited APC genic mutation (57.3%) and 34 K-ras genic mutation (45.3%). APC genic mutation was correlated with gender(P<0.05), but not age, histological type, infiltration depth, lymphatic metastasis and Duke's stage. In 55 cases of rectal cancer with HPV infection, there were 31 cases with genic mutation of APC (56.4%) and 24 with genic mutation of K-ras (43.6%). For the 20 cases of rectal cancer with non-HPV infection, the figures were 12 cases (60%) and 10 (50.0%), respectively, with no significant relation. Survival analysis showed no statistical significance for K-ras genic mutation, APC genic mutation or HPV infection (P>0.05). However, the survival time of the patients with HPV infection was a little shorter than in cases without HPV infection. Conclusions: Our results suggest that HPV infection might be an important factor to bring about malignant phenotype of rectal cancer and influence prognosis. Genic mutation of APC and K-ras might be common early molecular events of rectal cancer, but without prognostic effects on medium-term or early stage patients with rectal cancer.
Effect of MUC1 siRNA on Drug Resistance of Gastric Cancer Cells to Trastuzumab
Deng, Min ; Jing, Da-Dao ; Meng, Xiang-Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 127~131
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.127
Trastuzumab is the first molecular targeting drug to increase the overall survival rate in advanced gastric cancer. However, it has also been found that a high intrinsic or primary trastuzumab resistance exists in some proportion of gastric cancer patients. In order to explore the mechanism of resistance to trastuzumab, firstly we investigated the expression of MUC1 (membrane-type mucin 1) in gastric cancer cells and its relationship with drug-resistance. Then using gene-silencing, we transfected a siRNA of MUC1 into drug-resistant cells. The results showed the MKN45 gastric cell line to be resistant to trastuzumab, mRNA and protein expression of MUC1 being significantly upregulated. After transfection of MUC1 siRNA, protein expression of MUC1 in MKN45cells was significantly reduced. Compared with the junk transfection and blank control groups, the sensitivity to trastuzumab under MUC1 siRNA conditions was significantly increased. These results imply that HER2-positive gastric cancer cell MKN45 is resistant to trastuzumab and this resistance can be cancelled by silencing expression of the MUC1 gene.
Ovarian Transposition for Stage Ib Squamous Cell Cervical Cancer - Lack of Effects on Survival Rates?
Turan, A. Taner ; Keskin, H. Levent ; Dundar, Betul ; Gundogdu, Burcu ; Ozgul, Nejat ; Boran, Nurettin ; Tulunay, Gokhan ; Kose, M. Faruk ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 133~137
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.133
Background: To investigate the impact of ovarian transposition (OT) on survival rates of the patients with stage Ib squamous cell cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Ninety-two subjects who underwent a radical hysterectomy including oophorectomy were evaluated. For nineteen (20.7%), OT was performed. Patients were divided into two groups, OT versus oophorectomy alone. The primary end-point of this study was to investigate the impact of OT on tumor recurrence rate and time, 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). These comparisons were performed for subgroups including patients who received radiotherapy versus who did not. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Chi-square test, T-test and Mann-Whitney test. OS was examined using the Kaplan-Meier method.
was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The median follow-up period was 89 months for OT and 81 months for the oophorectomy group (p>0.05). Both groups experienced similar recurrence rates (31.6% vs. 26.4%, p=0.181). The median duration from surgery to recurrence, and surgery to death were also similar between the groups (p>0.05). The 5-year DFS and OS rates were both 68.4% for the OT group, and 73.6% and 77.8% for the oophorectomy group (p=0.457 and p=0.307, respectively). While the 5-year DFS rate was not statistically significant between the OT and oophorectomy groups who did not receive radiotherapy (p=0.148), the 5-year OS rate was significantly higher in the oophorectomy group (95.4% vs 66.7%, respectively) without radiotherapy (p=0.05). The 5-year DFS and OS rates were statistically similar between the groups who received adjuvant radiotherapy (p>0.05). Conclusions: Ovarian transposition has not significantly negative effect on the survival rates when adjuvant radiotherapy will be applied, while 5-year OS may be less in OT group if radiotherapy is not mandatory.
Screening of MicroRNA in Patients with Esophageal Cancer at Same Tumor Node Metastasis Stage with Different Prognoses
Zhao, Bao-Sheng ; Liu, Shang-Guo ; Wang, Tian-Yun ; Ji, Ying-Hua ; Qi, Bo ; Tao, Yi-Peng ; Li, Han-Chen ; Wu, Xiang-Nan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 139~143
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.139
Patients at the same pathological stage of esophageal cancer (EC) that received the same surgical therapy by the same surgeon may have distinct prognoses. The current study aimed to explore the possibility of differentially-expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) underlying this phenomenon. Samples were collected from EC patients at the same tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage but with different prognoses. Paracancerous normal tissues were taken as controls. The specimens were histopathologically analyzed. Differentially-expressed miRNAs were analyzed using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Compared with patients with poor prognosis, those with good prognosis exhibited 88 two-fold or more than two-fold increased miRNA fragments and 4 half-decreased miRNAs. The most noticeably up-regulated miRNAs included hsa-miR-31, hsa-miR-196b, hsa-miR-652, hsa-miR-125a-5p, hsa-miR-146b, hsa-miR-200c, hsa-miR-23b, hsa-miR-29a, hsa-miR-186, hsa-miR-205, hsa-miR-376a, hsa-miR-410, hsa-miR-532-3p, and hsa-miR-598, whereas the most significantly-downregulated miRNAs were hsa-let-7e, hsa-miR-130b, and hsa-miR-103. EC patients at same TNM stage but with different prognoses show differentially-expressed miRNAs.
Common Variations of DNA Repair Genes are Associated with Response to Platinum-based Chemotherapy in NSCLCs
Li, Xian-Dong ; Han, Ji-Chang ; Zhang, Yi-Jie ; Li, Hong-Bing ; Wu, Xue-Yan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 145~148
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.145
Aim: Individual differences in chemosensitivity and clinical outcome of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients may be induced by host inherited factors. We investigated the impact of XPD Arg156Arg, XPD Asp312Asn, XPD Asp711Asp and XPD Lys751Gln gene polymorphisms on the efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy in NSCLC patients. Methods: A total of 496 were consecutively selected from the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University between Jan. 2003 and Nov. 2006, and all patients were followed-up until Nov. 2011. The genotyping of XPD Arg156Arg, XPD Asp312Asn, XPD Asp711Asp and XPD Lys751Gln was conducted by duplex polymerase-chain-reaction with the confronting-two-pair primer methods. Results: Individuals with XPD 312 C/T+T/T and XPD 711 C/T+T/T exhibited poor responses to chemotherapy when compared with the wild-type genotype, with adjusted ORs(95% CI) of 0.67(0.38-0.97) and 0.54(0.35-0.96), respectively. Cox regression showed the median PFS and OS of patients of XPD 312 C/T+T/T genotype and XPD 711 C/T+T/T genotype to be significantly lower than those with wild-type homozygous genotype. Conclusion: We found polymorphisms in XPD to be associated with response to platinum-based chemotherapy in NSCLC, and our findings provide information for therapeutic decisions for individualized therapy.
Comparison of Psychological Influence on Breast Cancer Patients Between Breast-conserving Surgery and Modified Radical Mastectomy
Sun, Meng-Qing ; Meng, Ai-Feng ; Huang, Xin-En ; Wang, Mei-Xiang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 149~152
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.149
Objective: To compare the influence of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and modified radical mastectomy (MRM) on the psychological state of breast cancer patients. Methods: Patients receiving MRM or BCS, and fulfilling the study criteria, were recruited. Patients were required to complete a self-reporting inventory (SCL-90) on admission and 6 months after surgery and a self-rating depression scale (SDS) when discharged from hospital and 6 months after surgery. Results: A total of 70 patients received MRM and 50 BCS. Compared with the national standard, patients suffered to some extent psychological problems on admission, at discharge from hospital and at 6 months after surgery. Patients received BCS had a higher score of SDS compared with those with MRM when discharged from hospital. However, 6 months after surgery, SDS score increased in MRM and decreased in the BCS group, so the difference was significant. Conclusion: The short-term psychological state of patients receiving BCS is worse than that with MRM but superior to MRM 6 months postoperatively. BCS imposed less influence on long term psychological state of breast cancer patients compared with MRM.
Communication Competencies of Oncology Nurses in Malaysia
Maskor, Nor Aida ; Krauss, Steven Eric ; Muhamad, Mazanah ; Mahmood, Nik Hasnaa Nik ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 153~158
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.153
This paper reports on part of a large study to identify competencies of oncology nurses in Malaysia. It focuses on oncology nurses' communications-related competency. As an important cancer care team member, oncology nurses need to communicate effectively with cancer patients. Literature shows that poor communication can make patients feel anxious, uncertain and generally not satisfied with their nurses' care. This paper deliberates on the importance of effective communication by oncology nurses in the context of a public hospital. Four focus group discussions were used in this study with 17 oncology/cancer care nurses from Malaysian public hospitals. The main inclusion criterion was that the nurses had to have undergone a post-basic course in oncology, or have work experience as a cancer care nurse. The findings indicated that nurses do communicate with their patients, patients' families and doctors to provide information about the disease, cancer treatment, disease recurrence and side effects. Nurses should have good communication skills in order to build relationships as well as to provide quality services to their patients. The paper concludes by recommending how oncology nursing competencies can be improved.
Racial and Social Economic Factors Impact on the Cause Specific Survival of Pancreatic Cancer: A SEER Survey
Cheung, Rex ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 159~163
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.159
Background: This study used Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) pancreatic cancer data to identify predictive models and potential socio-economic disparities in pancreatic cancer outcome. Materials and Methods: For risk modeling, Kaplan Meier method was used for cause specific survival analysis. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test was used to compare survival curves. The Cox proportional hazard method was applied for multivariate analysis. The area under the ROC curve was computed for predictors of absolute risk of death, optimized to improve efficiency. Results: This study included 58,747 patients. The mean follow up time (S.D.) was 7.6 (10.6) months. SEER stage and grade were strongly predictive univariates. Sex, race, and three socio-economic factors (county level family income, rural-urban residence status, and county level education attainment) were independent multivariate predictors. Racial and socio-economic factors were associated with about 2% difference in absolute cause specific survival. Conclusions: This study s found significant effects of socio-economic factors on pancreas cancer outcome. These data may generate hypotheses for trials to eliminate these outcome disparities.
Expression of Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT) and WW-Domain Oxidoreductase Gene (WWOX) in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Chen, Xu ; Li, Ping ; Yang, Zheng ; Mo, Wu-Ning ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 165~171
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.165
The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression of FHIT and WWOX in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and correlations with clinical pathologic features. mRNA expression of the FHIT and WWOX was assessed by real-time fluorescent relatively quantitative PCR in 61 NPC tissues and 45 non-cancerous nasopharyngeal tissues. As a result, mRNA expression levels of both FHIT and WWOX were significantly lower in NPC patients than in control samples (P=0.049 and 0.045, respectively). Moreover, the mRNA expression of both had an inverse relation with larger invasive range (P=0.035 and 0.048, respectively), poor histologic differentiation (P=0.012 and 0.016) and advanced clinical stage (P=0.026 and 0.038). Consistency was found between expression of FHIT and WWOX in the same NPC tissues (r=0.681, P=0.00). In conclusion, synergy between FHIT and WWOX may exist in the development of NPC so that the two factors may be considered as important genetic markers. Detecting the expression of FHIT and WWOX should provide clinically significant information relevatn to tumor diagnosis, progression and treatment modalities for NPC.
Tanshinone IIA Reverses the Malignant Phenotype of SGC7901 Gastric Cancer Cells
Xu, Min ; Cao, Fa-Le ; Li, Nai-Yi ; Liu, Yong-Qiang ; Li, Yan-Peng ; Lv, Chun-Lei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 173~177
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.173
Backgrounds: Tanshinone IIA (TIIA), a phenanthrenequinone derivative extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE, has been reported to be a natural anti-cancer agent in a variety of tumor cells. However, the effect of TIIA on gastric cancer cells remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the influence of TIIA on the malignant phenotype of SGC7901 gastric cancer cells. Methods: Cells cultured in vitro were treated with TIIA (0, 1, 5,
) and after incubation for different periods, cell proliferation was measured by MTT method and cell apoptosis and cell cycling were assessed by flow cytometry (FCM). The sensitivity of SGC7901 gastric cancer cells to anticancer chemotherapy was investigated with the MTT method, while cell migration and invasion were examined by wound-healing and transwell assays, respectively. Results: TIIA (1, 5,
) exerted powerful inhibitory effects on cell proliferation (P < 0.05, and P < 0.01), and this effect was time- and dose-dependent. FCM results showed that TIIA induced apoptosis of SGC7901 cells, reduced the number of cells in S phase and increased those in G0/G1 phase. TIIA also significantly increased the sensitivity of SGC7901 gastric cancer cells to ADR and Fu. Moreover, wound-healing and transwell assays showed that TIIA markedly decreased migratory and invasive abilities of SGC7901 cells. Conclusions: TIIA can reverse the malignant phenotype of SGC7901 gastric cancer cells, indicating that it may be a promising therapeutic agent.
Functional PstI/RsaI Polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 Gene among South Indian Populations
Lakkakula, Saikrishna ; Maram, Rajasekhar ; Munirajan, Arasambattu Kannan ; Pathapati, Ram Mohan ; Visweswara, Subrahmanyam Bhattaram ; Lakkakula, Bhaskar V.K.S. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 179~182
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.179
Human cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) is a well-conserved xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme expressed in liver, kidney, nasal mucosa, brain, lung, and other tissues. CYP2E1 is inducible by ethanol, acetone, and other low-molecular weight substrates and may mediate development of chemically-mediated cancers. CYP2E1 polymorphisms alter the transcriptional activity of the gene. This study was conducted in order to investigate the allele frequency variation in different populations of Andhra Pradesh. Two hundred and twelve subjects belonging to six populations were studied. Genotype and allele frequency were assessed through TaqMan allelic discrimination (rs6413419) and polymerase chain reaction-sequencing (-1295G>C and -1055C>T) after DNA isolation from peripheral leukocytes. The data were compared with other available world populations. The SNP rs6413419 is monomorphic in the present study, -1295G>C and -1055C>T are less polymorphic and followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all the populations studied. The -1295G>C and -1055C>T frequencies were similar and acted as surrogates in all the populations. Analysis of HapMap populations data revealed no significant LD between these markers in all the populations. Low frequency of
could be useful in the understanding of south Indian population gene composition, alcohol metabolism, and alcoholic liver disease development. However, screening of additional populations and further association studies are necessary. The heterogeneity of Indian population as evidenced by the different distribution of
may help in understanding the population genetic and evolutionary aspects of this gene.
A Multicenter Matched Case Control Study of Breast Cancer Risk Factors among Women in Karachi, Pakistan
Shamsi, Uzma ; Khan, Shaista ; Usman, Sheheryar ; Soomro, Saleem ; Azam, Iqbal ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 183~188
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.183
Background: Breast cancer (BC), the most common female cancer in Pakistan, is associated with a very high mortality. However, the roles of individual risk factors for BC among Pakistani women are still controversial. To assess potential risk factors for BC, a matched case-control study was conducted in two tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: The study population included 297 pathologically confirmed incident cases of BC patients diagnosed between January 2009 and December 2010. 586 controls without any history of BC were matched on hospital and
years of ages. Results: Positive family history of BC (MOR=1.72; 95%CI: 1.10, 2.80 for first degree vs. none), single marital status (MOR=1.55; 95%CI: 1.10, 2.39 for single/divorced/widowed women vs. married women), older age at menopause (MOR=3.92; 95%CI: 2.52, 6.18 for menopausal women aged below 45 years, MOR=6.42; 95%CI: 3.47, 11.98 for menopausal women above 45 years of age compared with premenopausal women) conferred an increased risk of BC for women. Increasing parity decreased the risk of BC (MOR=0.90; 95%CI: 0.85, 0.97 for each live birth). Intake of Vitamin D supplements (MOR=0.30; 95%CI: 0.12, 0.81 for
years and MOR=0.27; 95%CI: 0.13, 0.56 for >3 years) was protective compared to non-users of Vitamin D. Conclusions: This study confirmed only few of the recognized risk factors in Pakistani women. The protective effect of Vitamin D is important from public health perspective and needs to be further explored through a randomized controlled trial.
Gene Polymorphism of XRCC1 Arg399Gln and Cervical Carcinoma Susceptibility in Asians: A Meta-analysis Based on 1,759 Cases and 2,497 Controls
Liu, Yi-Ting ; Shi, Jing-Pu ; Fu, Ling-Yu ; Zhou, Bo ; Wang, Hai-Long ; Wu, Xiao-Mei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 189~193
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.189
Many epidemiological studies in Asian populations have investigated associations between the Arg399Gln gene polymorphism of X-ray repair cross complementing gene 1 (XRCC1) and risk of cervical carcinoma, but no conclusions have been available because of controversial results. Therefore a meta-analysis was conducted for clarification. Relevant studies were identified by searching the Pubmed, Embase, the Web of Science, Cochrane Collaboration's database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang database and China Biological Medicinse (CBM) until September, 2012. A total of eight studies were included in the present meta-analysis, which described 1,759 cervical carcinoma cases and 2,497 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) as effect size were calculated by fixed-effect or random-effect models. The overall results indicated that the XRCC1-399G/A polymorphism was marginally associated with cervical carcinoma in Asians: OR (95%CI): 1.16 (1.07, 1.26) in the G/A vs G/G inheritance model, 1.24 (0.87, 1.76)in A/A vs G/G inheritance model, 1.13 (1.01, 1.27) in the dominant inheritance model and 1.18 (0.94, 1.47) in the recessive inheritance model. Subgroup analyses on sample size showed no significant correlation in the small-sample size group but the large-sample size group was consistent with the outcomes of overall meta-analysis. In the subgroup analysis by regions, we only found significant association under the G/A vs G/G inheritance model in the Chinese population. For the non-Chinese populations, no correlation was detected in any genetic inheritance model. In the Asian populations, XRCC1-399G/A gene polymorphism was implied to be associated with cervical carcinoma.
Clinicopathological Significance of Reduced SPARCL1 Expression in Human Breast Cancer
Cao, Fang ; Wang, Kuo ; Zhu, Rong ; Hu, Yong-Wei ; Fang, Wen-Zheng ; Ding, Hou-Zhong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 195~200
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.195
Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteines-like protein 1 (SPARCL1), an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders including cancer. However, little is known about the expression and significance of SPARCL1 in human breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern and clinicopathological significance of SPARCL1 in a Chinese breast cancer cohort. mRNA and protein expression of SPARCL1 in human breast cancer cell lines and breast cancer tissues was detected using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, real-time quantitative PCR, and Western blotting, respectively. Immunostaining of SPARCL1 in 282 Chinese breast cancer samples was examined and associations with clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. Compared to the positive expression in immortalized human breast epithelial cells, SPARCL1 was nearly absent in human breast cancer cell lines. Similarly, a significantly reduced expression of SPARCL1 was observed in human breast cancer tissues compared to that in normal breast epithelial tissues, for both mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.001). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that strong cytoplasmic immunostaining of SPARCL1 was observed in almost all normal breast samples (43/45) while moderate and strong immunostaining of SPARCL1 was only detected in 191 of 282 (67.7%) breast cancer cases. Moreover, down-regulation of SPARCL1 was significantly correlated with lymphatic metastasis (P = 0.020) and poor grade (P = 0.044). In conclusion, SPARCL1 may be involved in the breast tumorigenesis and serve as a promising target for therapy of breast cancer.
Effects of Tiam 1 on Invasive Capacity of Gastric Cancer Cells in vitro and Underlying Mechanisms
Zhu, Jin-Ming ; Yu, Pei-Wu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 201~208
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.201
Objective: To investigate changes in the invasive capacity of gastric cancer cells in vitro after expression inhibition of T lymphoma invasion and metastasis inducing factor 1 (Tiam 1) and underlying mechanisms. Methods: Using adhesion selection, two subpopulations with high (
) or low (
) invasive capacity were separated from the human gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 (
). Tiam 1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN) was transfected into
cells with liposomes, and expression of Tiam 1 mRNA and protein was determined by RT-PCR and quantitative cellular-ELISA. Changes in the cytoskeleton, invasive capacity in vitro and expression of ras-related
botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac 1), integrin
and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP 2) between Tiam 1 ASODN transfected
cells and non-transfected cells were observed by HE staining, cytoskeletal protein staining, scanning electron microscopy, Boyden chamber tests and cyto-immunohistochemistry. Results: A positive correlation existed between the expression level of Tiam l mRNA or protein and the invasion capacity of gastric cancer cells. After ASODN treatment (
for 48 h), Tiam 1 mRNA transcription and protein expression in
cells were decreased by 80% and 24% respectively (P < 0.05), compared with untreated controls, while invasive capacity in vitro was suppressed by 60% (P < 0.05). Morphologic and ultrastructural observation also showed that ASODN-treated
cells exhibited smooth surfaces with obviously reduced filopodia and microspikes, which resembled
cells. Additionally, cytoskeletal distribution dramatically altered from disorder to regularity with reduced long filament-like structure, projections, pseudopodia on cell surface, and with decreased acitn-bodies in cytoplasm. After Tiam 1 ASODN treatment, the expression of Rac 1 and Integrin
cells was not affected (P > 0.05), but that of MMP 2 in
cells was significantly inhibited compared with untreated cells (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Over-expression of Tiam-1 contributes to the invasive phenotype of gastric cancer cells. Inhibition of Tiam 1 expression could impair the invasive capacity of gastric cancer cells through modulating reconstruction of the cytoskeleton and regulating expression of MMP 2.
Burdens, Needs and Satisfaction of Terminal Cancer Patients and their Caregivers
Chang, Yoon-Jung ; Kwon, Yong Chol ; Lee, Woo Jin ; Do, Young Rok ; Lee, Keun Seok ; Kim, Heung Tae ; Park, Sook Ryun ; Hong, Young Seon ; Chung, Ik-Joo ; Yun, Young Ho ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 209~215
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.209
Objectives: Terminal cancer patients and their caregivers often experience traumatic stress and need many types of assistance. In the present study we interviewed terminally ill cancer patients and caregivers to determine how much burden they experienced and to find out what factors are most important for satisfaction. Design: We constructed a questionnaire including overall care burden and needs experienced, and administered it to 659 terminal cancer patients and 659 important caregivers at 11 university hospitals and 1 national cancer center in Korea. Results: Finally, 481 terminal cancer patients and 381 caregivers completed the questionnaire. Care burden was not insubstantial in both and the caregiver group felt more burden than the patient group (P<0.001). While the patient group needed financial support most (39.0%), the caregiver group placed greatest emphasis on discussion about further treatment plans (44.8%). Stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses showed that in the patient group, patient's health status (OR, 2.03; 95%CI, 1.16-3.56) and burden (OR, 2.82; 95%CI, 1.76-4.50) influenced satisfaction about overall care, while in the caregiver group, high education level (OR, 1.84; 95%CI, 1.76-4.50), burden (OR, 2.94; 95%CI, 1.75-4.93) and good family function (OR, 1.94; 95%CI, 1.24-3.04) were important. Conclusions: Our study showed that burden was great in both terminal cancer patients and their caregivers and was perceived to be more severe by caregivers. Our study also showed that burden was the factor most predicting satisfaction about overall care in both groups.
Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Prognoses for Multicentric Occurrence and Intrahepatic Metastasis in Synchronous Multinodular Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients
Li, Shi-Lai ; Su, Ming ; Peng, Tao ; Xiao, Kai-Yin ; Shang, Li-Ming ; Xu, Bang-Hao ; Su, Zhi-Xiong ; Ye, Xin-Ping ; Peng, Ning ; Qin, Quan-Lin ; Chen, De-Feng ; Chen, Jie ; Li, Le-Qun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 217~223
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.217
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and the outcomes for patients are still poor. It is important to determine the original type of synchronous multinodular HCC for preoperative assessment and the choice of treatment therapy as well as for the prediction of prognosis after treatment. Aims: To analyze clinicopathologic characteristics and prognoses in patients with multicentric occurrence (MO) and intrahepatic metastasis (IM) of synchronous multinodular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: The study group comprised 42 multinodular HCC patients with a total of 112 nodules. The control group comprised 20 HCC patients with 16 single nodular HCC cases and 4 HCC cases with a portal vein tumor emboli. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region was sequenced, and the patients of the study group were categorized as MO or IM based on the sequence variations. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the important clinicopathologic characteristics in the two groups. Results: In the study group, 20 cases were categorized as MO, and 22 as IM, whereas all 20 cases in the control group were characterized as IM. Several factors significantly differed between the IM and MO patients, including hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), cumulative tumor size, tumor nodule location, cirrhosis, portal vein and/or microvascular tumor embolus and the histological grade of the primary nodule. Multivariate analysis further demonstrated that cirrhosis and portal vein and/or microvascular tumor thrombus were independent factors differentiating between IM and MO patients. The tumor-free survival time of the MO subjects was significantly longer than that of the IM subjects (
months, p=0.017). Similarly, the overall survival time of the MO subjects was longer (
months, p=0.024). The multivariate analysis further demonstrated that the original type (p=0.035) and Child-Pugh grade (p<0.001) were independent predictors of tumor-free survival time. Cirrhosis (p=0.011), original type (p=0.034) and Child-Pugh grade (p<0.001) were independent predictors of overall survival time. Conclusions: HBeAg, cumulative tumor size, tumor nodule location, cirrhosis, portal vein and/or microvascular tumor embolus and histological grade of the primary nodule are important factors for differentiating IM and MO. MO HCC patients might have a favorable outcome compared with IM patients.
Factors Associated with Discontinuation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Korean Cancer Patients
Kim, So Young ; Kim, Kyung Sook ; Park, Jong Hyock ; Shin, Ji-Yeon ; Kim, Sung Kyeong ; Park, Jae Hyun ; Park, Eun Cheol ; Seo, Hong Gwan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 225~230
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.225
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine patient characteristics and other factors associated with discontinuation of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among cancer patients in Korea. Methods: A national, multicenter, cross-sectional survey of cancer patients was performed in which 674 of 2,661 patients were analyzed for their use of CAM after cancer diagnosis. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify the factors related to CAM discontinuation. Results: Among the surveyed cancer patients, 25.3% (674 of 2,661) had used CAM, whereas 38.3% (258 of 674) of those with CAM experience had discontinued CAM therapy. The most frequently used form of CAM was herbs (43.5%). The major reasons for the discontinuation of CAM included absence of effects (23.9%), financial burden (22.9%), and physician opposition (13.7%). Other factors associated with the discontinuation of CAM included metastatic cancer (OR = 2.06), a long duration of cancer treatment (OR = 3.34), dissatisfaction (OR = 4.34), and side effects (OR = 4.23) of CAM therapy. Conclusions: For cancer patients to correctly employ CAM therapy, increase their satisfaction, and reduce their side effects, efforts should be made to analyze the cost effectiveness of CAM, and valid information must be provided to physicians and cancer patients.
XPD Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn Polymorphisms and Gastric Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-analysis of Case-control Studies
Yin, Qing-Hua ; Liu, Chuan ; Hu, Jian-Bing ; Meng, Rong-Rong ; Li, Lian ; Wang, Ya-Jie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 231~236
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.231
Background: Published data regarding the association between xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn polymorphisms and gastric cancer susceptibility havew been inconclusive. This meta-analysis was therefore performed toobtain a more precise estimation of any relationship. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all case-control studies of Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn polymorphisms and susceptibility to gastric cancer. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and its 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model with the software STATA (version10.0). Results: A total of 12 case-control studies including 3,147 cases and 4,736 controls were included. Overall, no significant associations were found in some models (for Lys751Gln: Lys/Gln vs Lys/Lys: OR=1.144, 95% CI=0.851-1.541, Gln/Gln vs Lys/Lys: OR=1.215, 95% CI = 0.740-1.955, dominant model: OR=1.137, 95% CI=0.818-1.582; recessive model: OR=1.123, 95% CI=0.765-1.650; for Asp312Asn: Asp/Asn vs Asp/Asp: OR=1.180, 95% CI=0.646-2.154, dominant model: OR=1.380, 95% CI = 0.812-2.346), but significantly elevated susceptibility was found for Asp312Asn polymorphism in some models (Asn/Asn vs Asp/Asp: OR=2.045, 95% CI=1.254-3.335, recessive model: OR=1.805, 95% CI =1.219-2.672), for the additive model, the XPD Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn polymorphisms were not significantly associated with gastric cancer susceptibility. In stratified analyses, significantly elevated susceptibility was found for some models in the Chinese population. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggested the XPD Asp312Asn polymorphism might be a potential biomarker of gastric cancer susceptibility in overall population, while both XPD Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn polymorphisms might be risk factors of gastric cancer susceptibility in Chinese.
Induction of Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis by Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) in Human Cervical Cancer Cells
Gupta, Rakesh Kumar ; Banerjee, Ayan ; Pathak, Suajta ; Sharma, Chandresh ; Singh, Neeta ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 237~242
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.237
Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer in women and has a high mortality rate. Cisplatin, an antitumor agent, is generally used for its treatment. However, the administration of cisplatin is associated with side effects and intrinsic resistance. Morinda citrifolia (Noni), a natural plant product, has been shown to have anti-cancer properties. In this study, we used Noni, cisplatin, and the two in combination to study their cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects in cervical cancer HeLa and SiHa cell lines. We demonstrate here, that Noni/Cisplatin by themselves and their combination were able to induce apoptosis in both these cell lines. Cisplatin showed slightly higher cell killing as compared to Noni and their combination showed additive effects. The observed apoptosis appeared to be mediated particularly through the up-regulation of p53 and pro-apoptotic Bax proteins, as well as down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-
proteins and survivin. Augmentation in the activity of caspase-9 and -3 was also observed, suggesting the involvement of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis for both Noni and Cisplatin in HeLa and SiHa cell lines.
Association Between C-reactive Protein and Risk of Cancer: A Meta-analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies
Guo, Yong-Zhong ; Pan, Lei ; Du, Chang-Jun ; Ren, Dun-Qiang ; Xie, Xiao-Mei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 243~248
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.243
Background: Associations between elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and cancer risk have been reported for many years, but the results from prospective cohort studies remains controversial. A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies was therefore conducted to address this issue. Methods: Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed and EMBASE up to October 2012. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) was calculated by using random effects model. Results: Eleven prospective cohort studies involving a total of 194,796 participants and 11,459 cancer cases were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled HR per natural log unit change in CRP was 1.105 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.033-1.178) for all-cancer, 1.308 (95% CI: 1.097-1.519) for lung cancer, 1.040 (95% CI: 0.910-1.170) for breast cancer, 1.063 (95% CI: 0.965-1.161) for prostate cancer, and 1.055 (95% CI: 0.925-1.184) for colorectal cancer. Dose-response analysis showed that the exponentiated linear trend for a change of one natural log unit in CRP was 1.012 (95% CI: 1.006-1.018) for all-cancer. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis showed that the elevated levels of CRP are associated with an increased risk of all-cancer, lung cancer, and possibly breast, prostate and colorectal cancer. The result supports a role of chronic inflammation in carcinogenesis. Further research effort should be performed to identify whether CRP, as a marker of inflammation, has a direct role in carcinogenesis.
Clinicopathological Features of Patients with Malignant Mesothelioma in a Multicenter, Case-Control Study: No Role for ABO-Rh Blood Groups
Utkan, Gungor ; Urun, Yuksel ; Cangir, Ayten Kayi ; Kilic, Dalokay ; Ozdemir, Nuriye Yildirim ; Oztuna, Derya Gokmen ; Bulut, Erhan ; Arslan, Ulku Yalcintas ; Kocer, Murat ; Kavukcu, Sevket ; Icli, Fikri ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 249~253
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.249
Background: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive tumor of mesothelial surfaces. Previous studies have observed an association between ABO blood groups and risk of certain malignancies, including pancreatic and gastric cancer; however, no information on any association with MM risk is available. The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations amoong MM clinicopathological features and ABO blood groups and Rh factor. Materials and Methods: In 252 patients with MM, the ABO blood group and Rh factor were examined and compared with the control group of 3,022,883 healthy volunteer blood donors of Turkish Red Crescent between 2004 and 2011. The relationship of blood groups with various clinicopathological features were also evaluated in the patient group. Results: The median age was 55 (range: 27-86) and 61.5% of patients were male. While 82.8% of patients had a history of exposure to asbestos, 60.7% of patients had a smoking history. Epithelioid (65.1%) was the most common histology and 18.7% of patients had mixed histology. Overall, the ABO blood group distribution of the 252 patients with MM was comparable with the general population. The median overall survival (OS) was 14 months (95% confidence interval, 11.3-16.6 months). The median OS for A, B, AB, and O were 11, 15, 16, and 15 months respectively (p=0.396). First line chemotherapy was administered to 118 patients. The median OS of patients on pemetrexed or gemcitabine was longer than patient who was not administered chemotherapy [17 months (95%CI, 11.7-22.2) vs. 9 months (95%CI, 6.9-11.0); p<0.001]. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that patients with MM can benefit from treatment with pemetrexed or gemcitabine in combination with cisplatin. We did not observe a statistically significant association between ABO blood group and risk of MM.
Living Experiences of Male Spouses of Patients with Metastatic Cancer in Taiwan
Lin, Hui-Chen ; Lin, Wen-Chuan ; Lee, Tzu-Ying ; Lin, Hung-Ru ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 255~259
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.255
Background: Cancer is the leading cause of death in Taiwan. Spouses are generally the main caregivers of affectyed patients but previous studies have seldom investigated the needs of male spouses of patients with metastatic cancer. Purpose: To explore the lived experiences of such male spouses. Methods: A qualitative design using in-depth interviewswasconducted with male spouses of patients with metastatic cancer being treated at the oncology outpatient department in a teaching hospital in northern Taiwan. Results: Nine participants aged 31-78 were interviewed. Content analysis of the interviews revealed five themes: suffering and struggling, difficulty in focusing on communication and interaction, shouldering responsibility, cherishing the love between husband and wife, and enabling each other to live better. This study demonstrated how male spousse experienced physical and psychological suffering when their wives suffered from metastatic cancer. They had to bear the pain of their wife's suffering, and also had to shoulder the responsibility for everything. All their efforts were put towards enabling each other to live a better life. They cherished the rest of the time they could spend with their wives, even though they had to live a hard life. As the male spouses of patients with metastatic cancer, the participants exhibited both the masculinity of men and the ability to express care and tenderness. Conclusions: The results showed that male spouses need more attention in terms of communication and bearing with suffering. Health care professionals should more actively understand the needs and provide assistance when facing the male spouse of patients with cancer, so as make sure that they possess the ability to take care of their wives. Health care professionals should also assist and properly act as a bridge of communication between husbands and wives.
Protective Effects of Scutellaria barbata Against Rat Liver Tumorigenesis
Dai, Zhi-Jun ; Wu, Wen-Ying ; Kang, Hua-Feng ; Ma, Xiao-Bin ; Zhang, Shu-Qun ; Min, Wei-Li ; Lu, Wang-Feng ; Lin, Shuai ; Wang, Xi-Jing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 261~265
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.261
Scutellaria barbata D. Don (S. barbata), a traditional Chinese medicine, is used to treat cancers, inflammation, and urinary diseases. This study aimed to determine any protective effects of S. barbata crude extract (CE-SB) against rat liver tumorigenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine (DENA). Liver malfunction indices in serum were measured by biochemical examination. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to examine liver pathology. Contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured in liver homogenates to evaluate oxidative stress. The levels of liver malfunction indices in the CE-SB groups, especially in the CE-SB high dose group, were lower than that of the model group (P<0.05). The results from histological examination indicated that the number of liver nodules in the CE-SB groups decreased compared with the model group (P<0.05). Content of MDA determined in liver was significantly decreased, and level of SOD elevated by CE-SB. CE-SB can inhibit experimental liver tumorigenesis and relieve hepatic injury in rats.
Socio-economic Factors Influencing Tumor Presentation and Treatment Options in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients
Wang, Ke ; Li, Xiao ; Zhou, Can ; Ren, Yu ; Wang, Xian-Bing ; He, Jian-Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 267~274
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.267
The impact of income and education level on the clinical and pathologic characteristics, implementation of clinical breast examination (CBE), and treatment patterns of a small population of Chinese female breast cancer patients was studeied in order to provide a theoretical basis and statistical reference for further nationwide research. We included 484 pathologically confirmed female primary breast cancer inpatients of the First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Xi'an Jiaotong University from February 2003 to January 2004. All cases were reviewed and relevant information was collected using a designed case report form (CRF). Chisquare tests, rank-sum tests, and Fisher's exact tests were used in the analysis. Our analysis showed that: (1) women in different occupation groups had significant differences in tumor size, pre-operative mammography, surgical options, post-operative estrogen receptor (ER), progestin receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) status, and post-operative radiotherapy and chemotherapy (P < 0.05); and (2) women with different education levels had statistically significant differences in tumor size, post-operative ER, PR and Her2 status, and post-operative chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and endocrine therapy (P < 0.05). In Xi'an, China, women in low-income occupations or with low education levels are more likely to have advanced tumor stages at presentation, lower implementation rate of clinical breast examination, and less treatment.
Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Meta-analysis
Li, Lei ; Wu, Bo ; Yang, Li-Bo ; Yin, Guan-Cheng ; Liu, Ji-Yong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 275~279
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.275
Objectives: A number of studies have shown that chronic hepatitis B virus infection is implicated in susceptibility to pancreatic cancer. However, the results are still controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively assess the relationship between chronic hepatitis B virus infection and incidence of pancreatic cancer of cohort and case-control studies. Methods: A literature search was performed for entries from 1990 to 2012 using PUBMED and EMBASE. Studies were included if they reported odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% CIs of pancreatic cancer with respect to the infection of hepatitis B virus. Results: Eight studies met the inclusion criteria, which included five case-control studies and three cohort studies. Compared with individuals who have not infection of hepatitis B virus, the pooled OR of pancreatic cancer was 1.403 (95%CI: 1.139-1.729, P=0.001) for patients with hepatitis B virus infection. Sub-group analysis by study design showed that the summary OR was 1.43 (95%CI: 1.06-1.94, P=0.021) when pooling case-control studies and 1.31 (95%CI: 1.00-1.72, P=0.05) when pooling cohort studies. Conclusion: Findings from this meta-analysis suggest that chronic hepatitis B virus infection may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. This relationship needs to be confirmed by further follow-up studies.
Effects of FasL Expression in Oral Squamous Cell Cancer
Fang, Li ; Sun, Lin ; Hu, Fang-Fang ; Chen, Qiao-Er ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 281~285
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.281
Purpose: To probe the role of FasL in cell apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). Methods: The expression of Fas/FasL was assessed in 10 cases of normal oral epithelium, 38 cases of OSCC and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), and 11 cases of metastatic lymph nodes by immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis of tumor cells and TIL was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay (TUNEL). FasL-induction of T cell apoptosis was tested by co-culture assay in vitro with SCC-9 and Jurkat T cells. Results: The 10 cases of normal oral epithelium all demonstrated extensive expression of Fas, the positive rate being largely down-regulated in OSCC (21/38) (P<0.05) compared to the normal (10/10). At the same time, the positive rate of FasL significantly increased in OSCC (P<0.05) especially those with lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). The positive rates of Fas in well and middle differentiated OSCC were higher than those in poor differentiated OSCC (P<0.05). The AI of tumor cells in Fas-positive OSCC was remarkably higher than that in Fas-negative OSCC (P<0.01), with a positive correlation between Fas expression and cell differentiation as well as apoptosis (r=0.68, P<0.01). The AI of tumor cells in FasL positive OSCC was remarkably lower than that in control while the AI of TIL was higher than in FasL negative OSCC (P<0.05). The AI of tumor cells reversely correlated with that of TIL (r = -0. 72, P<0.05). It was found that SCC-9 cells expressing functional FasL could induce apoptosis of Jurkat cells as demonstrated by co-culture assays. As a conclusion, it is evident that OSCC cells expressing FasL can induce apoptosis in Fas-expressing T cells. Conclusions: In progression of OSCC, expression of the Fas/FasL changes significantly. The results suggest that FasL is a mediator of immune privilege in OSCC and may serve as an marker for predicting malignant change in oral tissues.
Low Expression of Tyrosine-protein Phosphatase Nonreceptor Type 12 is Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Prognosis in Operable Triple-negative Breast Cancer
Wu, Min-Qing ; Hu, Pan ; Gao, Jie ; Wei, Wei-Dong ; Xiao, Xiang-Sheng ; Tang, Hai-Lin ; Li, Xing ; Ge, Qi-Dong ; Jia, Wei-Hua ; Liu, Ren-Bin ; Xie, Xiao-Ming ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 287~292
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.287
Background: Low tyrosine-protein phosphatase nonreceptor type 12 (PTPN12) expression may be associated with breast cancer growth, proliferation, and metastasis. However, the prognostic value of PTPN12 in breast cancer has not been clearly identified. Patients and Methods: 51 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients and 83 non-TNBC patients with a histopathology diagnosis from October 2001 to September 2006 were included in this study. Immunohistochemical staining for PTPN12 on tissue microarrays was conducted. Results: High PTPN12 expression was seen in 39.2% of TNBC and 60.2 % of non-TNBC cases. Low PTPN12 expression was associated with lymph node status (p = 0.002) and distant metastatic relapse (p = 0.002) in TNBC patients. Similarly, low PTPN12 expression in non-TNBC patients was significantly correlated with lymph node status (p = 0.002), stage (p = 0.002) and distant metastatic relapse (p = 0.039). The high PTPN12 expression group was associated with longer DFS and OS compared with low PTPN12 expression group only in TNBC cases (p = 0.005, p = 0.015), according to univariate Cox regression analysis. Conclusion: These findings provide evidence that low expression of PTPN12 is associated with worse prognosis and may be used as a potential prognostic biomarker in TNBC patients.
Predictive Value of Baseline Plasma D-dimers for Chemotherapy-induced Thrombocytopenia in Patients with Stage III Colon Cancer: A Pilot Study
Tanriverdi, Ozgur ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 293~297
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.293
Background: : Chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (CIT) is an important cause of morbitity in patients with cancer. Aim: To investigate the effect of the baseline plasma D-dimer level, an important marker for thrombotic activity, on chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia in patients with stage III colon cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 (28 men) eligible patients were divided into two groups according to whether they exhibited chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia: Group 1 (n=21) and Group 2 (n=22). Comparison was made using demographic, histopathologic, and laboratory variables. Additionally, baseline plasma D-dimer levels underwent receiver operation characteristics curve analysis, and areas under the curve were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood rates were then determined. Results: The incidence of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia had a significant correlation with baseline platelet count (r=0.568, P=0.031) and baseline plasma D-dimer levels (r=0.617, P=0.036). When the cut-off point for the latter was set as 498 ng/mL, the area under the curve was 0.89 (95%CI: 0.74-0.93), the sensitivity was 91.4%, the specificity was 89.7%, the positive likelihood rate was 3.64 and the negative likelihood rate was 0.24 for chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia diagnosis. Conclusions: The baseline level of plasma D-dimer could help to differentiate high-risk patients for chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia.
Diet Folate, DNA Methylation and Polymorphisms in Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase in Association with the Susceptibility to Gastric Cancer
Gao, Shang ; Ding, Li-Hong ; Wang, Jian-Wei ; Li, Cun-Bao ; Wang, Zhao-Yang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 299~302
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.299
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) has been reported to be associated with DNA methylation, an epigenetic feature frequently found in gastric cancer. We conducted a case-control study to explore the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphisms with gastric cancer risk and its relation with the DNA methylation of COX-2, MGMT, and hMLH1 genes. Genotyping of P16, MGMT and HMLH1 was determined by methylation-specific PCR after sodium bisulfate modification of DNA, and genotyping of MTHFR C677T was conducted by TaqMan assays using the ABI Prism 7911HT Sequence Detection System. Folate intake was calculated with the aid of a questionnaire. Compared with the MTHFR 677CC genotype, the TT genotype was significantly associated with 2.08 fold risk of gastric cancer when adjusting for potential risk factors. Individuals who had an intake of folate above
/day showed protective effects against gastric cancer risk. The effect of MTHFR C677T polymorphisms on the risk of gastric cancer was modified by folate intake and methylation status of MGMT (P for interaction <0.05).
Gender Differences in Responses towards Anti-Smoking Messages and Policy Implementation among Future Doctors in Malaysia
Yasin, Siti Munira ; Ismail, Nurhuda ; Noor, Norizal Mohd ; Azman, Mohd Shafiq Mohd ; Taib, Hanisah ; Jusop, Junainah Mat ; Salaudin, Nur Atirah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 303~308
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.303
Background: Medical students' views may provide some direction for future policy considerations. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess gender differences in future doctors' receptiveness to currently implemented anti-smoking messages and the effectiveness of those messages. Materials and Methods: We administered a questionnaire to all students at a medical university in Malaysia, asking how frequently they noted anti-smoking policies, anti-smoking campaigns, and anti-smoking messages in schools. In addition, the questionnaire investigated most effective methods to convey these messages. Results: A total of 522 (59.7%) students responded. Students were least likely to approve of total bans on cigarettes and increasing the price of cigarettes, and most likely to approve of bans on use of cigarettes in public places and sales to individuals less than 16 years old. Approval of total bans on cigarettes was more common in female students than in males OR=0.39 (95%CI: 0.18-0.86). Furthermore, compared to the female students, the male students thought that printed media; OR=2.32 (95%CI: 1.31-4.10), radio; OR=1.93 (95%CI: 1.15-3.22) and the internet; OR=1.96 (95%CI: 1.15-3.33) were very effective at delivering anti-smoking messages. Conclusions: Gender differences existed in the future doctors' perception of the effectiveness of anti-smoking initiatives. Taking this gender difference into account may increase the receipt of anti-smoking messages in adolescents.
Exosomes from Murine-derived GL26 Cells Promote Glioblastoma Tumor Growth by Reducing Number and Function of CD8+T Cells
Liu, Zhi-Ming ; Wang, Yu-Bin ; Yuan, Xian-Hou ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 309~314
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.309
Aim: Brain tumors almost universally have fatal outcomes; new therapeutics are desperately needed and will only come from improved understandins of glioma biology. Methods: Exosomes are endosomally derived 30~100 nm membranous vesicles released from many cell types. Examples from GL26 cells were here purified using density gradient ultracentrifugation and monitored for effects on GL26 tumor growth in C57BL/6j mice (H-2b). Lactate dehydrogenase release assays were used to detect the cytotoxic activity of CD8+T and NK cells. Percentages of immune cells producing intracellular cytokines were analyzed by FACS. Results: In this study, exosomes from murine-derived GL26 cells significantly promoted in vivo tumor growth in GL26-bearing B6 mice. Then we further analyzed the effects of the GL26 cells-derived exosomes on immune cells including CD8+T, CD4+T and NK cells. Inhibition of CD8+T cell cytotoxic activity was demonstrated by CD8+T cell depletion assays in vivo and LDH release assays in vitro. The treatment of mice with exosomes also led to a reduction in the percentages of CD8+T cells in splenocytes as determined by FACS analysis. Key features of CD8+T cell activity were inhibited, including release of IFN-gamma and granzyme B. There were no effects of exosomes on CD4+T cells and NK cells. Conclusion: Based on our data, for the first time we demonstrated that exosomes from murine derived GL26 cells promote the tumor growth by inhibition of CD8+T cells in vivo and thus may be a potential therapeutic target.
TGF-β-activated Kinase-1: A Potential Prognostic Marker for Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
Wei, Can ; Lai, Yong-Qing ; Li, Xian-Xin ; Ye, Jiong-Xian ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 315~320
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.315
-activated kinase-1 (TAK1) has been found to be over-expressed in a variety of solid malignancies and related to tumor growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression level of TAK1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and assess its value as a novel prognostic marker. Methods: TAK1 mRNA was assessed in 51 paired ccRCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues (ADTs) by real-time PCR. Tissue TAK1 protein was also assessed in 91 ADTs and 177 samples of ccRCC immunohistochemically for evaluation of relationships with clinical characteristics. Results: RT-PCR showed that TAK1 RNA level was significantly higher in ccRCC tissues than in the paired ADTs and immunohistochemistry confirmed higher expression of TAK1 protein in ccRCC samples compared with ADTs. TAK1 protein expression in 177 ccRCC samples was significantly correlated with T stage, N classification, metastasis, recurrence and Fuhrman grade, but not age and gender. Patients with low TAK1 levels had a better survival outcome. TAK1 expression and N stage were independent prognosis factors for the overall survival of ccRCC patients. Conclusions: Overexpression of TAK1 predicts a poor prognosis in patients with ccRCC, so that TAK1 may serve as a novel prognostic marker.
Survival Rate of Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Patients after Surgical Treatment in Thailand
Pattanathien, Pisit ; Khuntikeo, Narong ; Promthet, Supannee ; Kamsa-ard, Supot ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 321~324
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.321
Background: Intra- and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the most common cancer in Thailand, especially in the northeast region. Most extrahepatic CCA patients consult a doctor at a late stage. Surgery is still the best treatment. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate survival rates and factors affecting survival in extrahepatic CCA patients following surgery at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 58 patients who were diagnosed and treated by surgical resection by the same surgeon at Srinagarind Hospital between 2005 and 2009. The patients were followed up until death or the end of the study (31 December, 2011). Survival rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify independent prognostic factors. Results: The total follow-up time was 1,215 person-months, and the mortality rate was 50 per 100 person-years. The cumulative 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 62.1%, 21.7% and 10.8%, respectively. The median survival time after resection was 15 months. After adjusting for age, gender, lymph node metastasis and histological type, resection margin remained as a statistically significant prognostic factor for survival following surgery. A positive resection margin was associated with a 2.3-fold higher mortality rate than a negative margin. Conclusions: Resection margins are important prognostic factors affecting survival of extrahepatic CCA patients after surgery. A negative resection margin can reduce the mortality rate by 56%.
Significance of HCG to Distinguish Parathyroid Carcinoma from Benign Disease and in Adding Prognostic Information: A Hospital Based Study from Nepal
Gupta, Satrudhan Pd. ; Mittal, Ankush ; Sathian, Brijesh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 325~327
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.325
Objective: To differentiate between benign and malignant hyperparathyroidism on the basis of excretion of HCG and its malignant isoforms in urine. Materials and Methods: This hospital based study was carried out using data retrieved from the register maintained in Manipal Teaching Hospital from
January, 2008 and
August, 2012. The variables collected were urinary HCG and HCG malignant isoform, calcium and parathyroid hormone. Preceding the study, approval was obtained from the institutional research ethical committee. Analysis was by descriptive statistics and testing of hypothesis. A p-value of <0.05 (two-tailed) was used to establish statistical significance. Results: Out of the 20 cases, 10 were primary hyperparathyroidism and the remainder were parathyroid carcinomas. The urinary HCG
fmol/mgCr was with in normal range in benign hyperthyroidism but was markedly elevated in three cases of malignant hyperparathyroidism (maximum value of excretion in urine for HCG was 2323 fmol/mgCr). The excretion of malignant isoform of HCG in urine was 0 in benign hyperparathyroidsm and in four cases of malignant hyperparathyroidism which fell into the category of persistantly low HCG. The maximum excretion of the malignant isoform of HCG in urine was 1.8, in the category of very high HCG. Calcium and parathyroid hormone were mildly raised in benign parathyroidism, while parathyroid hormone was markedly elevated in cases of malignant hyperparathyroidism falling into the category of very high HCG. Conclusions: The excretion of urinary HCG in urine has the ability to distinguish between parathyroid adenomas and carcinomas and thus has potential to become a marker of disease progression in malignant parathyroid disease.
Somatic Mutations of K-Ras and BRAF in Thai Colorectal Cancer and their Prognostic Value
Chaiyapan, Welawee ; Duangpakdee, Pongsanae ; Boonpipattanapong, Teeranut ; Kanngern, Samornmas ; Sangkhathat, Surasak ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 329~332
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.329
Background: The study aimed to determine the incidence of K-ras and BRAF mutations in colorectal cancers (CRCs) in Thai patients and evaluate association with clinicopathological parameters including treatment outcomes in terms of event free survival (EFS). Materials and Methods: Two-hundred colorectal cancer specimens were collected for studies of K-Ras codon 12, 13 and 61, and BRAF codon 600 by polymerase chain reaction and direct nucleotide sequencing. Results: The overall incidence of K-Ras mutations in our patients was 23%. K-ras mutation frequencies in CRC stages (AJCC) I, II, III and IV were 6.7%, 16.1%, 23.3% and 26.6%, respectively (p-value>0.05). The three most common mutation forms were G12D, G12V and G13D. K-Ras mutation status was associated with poorer EFS in stage I-III CRCs (p-value 0.03). Conclusions: The study found a lower mutation frequency of K-Ras and BRAF compared to reports involving other ethnic groups. However, K-Ras mutations did have a negative prognostic value in early-stage CRCs.
Promoting Attendance at Cervical Cancer Screening: Understanding the Relationship with Turkish Womens' Health Beliefs
Demirtas, Basak ; Acikgoz, Inci ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 333~340
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.333
Background: The aim of the study was to identify the relationship between 'Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and the Pap Smear Test' subscale scores and demographic/gyneco-obstetric characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 256 women. Data were obtained using the 'Demographic and Gyneco-Obstetric Identification Form' and the 'Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and the Pap Smear Test. Results: The percentage of women who had heard about the Pap test was 77.7 whereas only 32.4% had actually undergone the test. Some 45.7% of the women stated that they did not know the reason for having a Pap test. Women who had obtained a Pap smear test had statistically significantly fewer perceived barriers than those who had never had (p<0.05). Scores with regard to the subscales including 'Benefits of Pap Smear Tests and Health Motivation', 'Perceived Seriousness of Cervical Cancer', 'Susceptibility to Cervical Cancer' and 'Cervical Cancer Health Motivation' did not differ with demographic/gyneco-obstetric characteristics such as womens' educational level, whether or not young age at first marriage, whether or not having family history of female cancer, and whether or not having had a Pap test (p>0.05). Conclusions: Increasing knowledge about benefits of Pap smear tests, increasing motivation to obtain Pap Smear Test and increasing perceived seriousness of cervical cancer could promote attendance at cervical cancer screening. Different strategies are needed for behavioural change. Implementation of educational programmes by nurses in a busy environment could result in a major clinical change, based on the findings of this study.
Polymorphisms in TP53 (rs1042522), p16 (rs11515 and rs3088440) and NQO1 (rs1800566) Genes in Thai Cervical Cancer Patients with HPV 16 Infection
Chansaenroj, Jira ; Theamboonlers, Apiradee ; Junyangdikul, Pairoj ; Swangvaree, Sukumarn ; Karalak, Anant ; Chinchai, Teeraporn ; Poovorawan, Yong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 341~346
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.341
The risk of cervical cancer development in women infected with HPV varies in relation to the individual host's genetic makeup. Many studies on polymorphisms as genetic factors have been aimed at analyzing associations with cervical cancer. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3 genes were investigated in relation to cervical cancer progression in HPV16 infected women with lesions. Two thousand cervical specimens were typed by PCR sequencing methods for TP53 (rs1042522), p16 (rs11515 and rs3088440) and NQO1 (rs1800566). Ninety two HPV16 positive cases and thirty two normal cases were randomly selected. Analysis of TP53 (rs1042522) showed a significantly higher frequency in cancer samples (OR=1.22, 95%CI=1.004-1.481, p-value=0.016) while differences in frequency were not significant within each group (p-value=0.070). The genotype distributions of p16 (rs11515 and rs3088440) and NQO1 (rs1800566) did not show any significantly higher frequency in cancer samples (p-value=0.106, 0.675 and 0.132, respectively) or within each group (p-value=0.347, 0.939 and 0.111, respectively). The results indicated that the polymorphism in TP53 (rs1042522) might be associated with risk of cervical cancer development in HPV16 infected women. Further studies of possible mechanisms of influence on cervical cancer development would be useful to manage HPV infected patients.
Effects of Allogeneic Blood Transfusion in Patients with Stage II Colon Cancer
Meng, Jin ; Lu, Xiao-Bo ; Tang, Yuan-Xin ; Sun, Gong-Ping ; Li, Xin ; Yan, Yi-Fei ; Liang, Gao-Feng ; Ma, Si-Ping ; Li, Xiao-Xia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 347~350
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.347
The aim of the present study was to determine whether allogeneic red blood cell transfusions showed a deleterious effect and what might be preoperative risk factors for blood transfusion in patients with TNM stage II colon cancer. Total 470 patients who fulfilled inclusion criteria were selected for a further 10-year follow-up study. We found that there were statistical significance between non-transfused and transfused group in mortality (P=0.018), local recurrence (P=0.000) and distant metastasis (P=0.040). Local recurrence and distant metastasis between 1 to 3 units and more than 3 units group did not show any significant differences. There was no difference in survival rate between non-transfused and 1 to 3 units group (log rank=0.031, P=0.860). The difference between different blood transfusion volume in transfused patients was found (78.77% vs 63.83%, P=0.006). Meanwhile, the significant difference of survival rate was existed between non-transfused group and more than 3 units group (84.83% vs 63.83%, P=0.002 ). Univariate analysis showed the following 3 variables to be associated with an increased risk of allogeneic blood transfusions: preoperative CEA level (P<0.05), location of tumor (P<0.01) and diameter of tumor (P<0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that location of tumor and diameter of tumor are two independent factors for requirement of perioperative transfusions. Therefore, allogeneic transfusion increase the postoperative tumor mortality, local recurrence and distant metastasis in patients with stage II colon cancer. The postoperative tumor mortality, local recurrence and distant metastasis were not associated with the blood transfusion volume. The blood transfusion volume was associated with the survival rate. Location of tumor and diameter of tumor were the independent preoperative risk factors for blood transfusion.
Clinical Impact and Reliability of Carbonic Anhydrase XII in the Differentiation of Malignant and Tuberculous Pleural Effusions
Liu, Yun-Long ; Jing, Li-Ling ; Guo, Qi-Sen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 351~354
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.351
Objective: To assess the practical utility of pleural fluid carbonic anhydrase XII (CAXII) quantification for differential diagnosis of effusions. Materials and Methods: Fluid was collected prospectively from fifty patients presenting with lymphocytic pleural effusions for investigation and CAXII was quantified by ELISA. Results: Pleural fluid CAXII concentrations were significantly higher in lung cancer patients (n=30) than in tuberculous controls (n=20). The sensitivity and specificity of this biomarker were 60%and 75%, respectively. CAXII measurement was not inferior to cytological examination in the diagnosis and exclusion of pleural effusions from lung cancer patitents (sensitivity 60% vs. 57%; specificity 75% vs. 100%; positive predictive value 77%; negative predictive value 54%). In patients with negative cytology, it offered a sensitivity of 54%. Conclusions: Pleural fluid CAXII is elevated in pleural effusions from lung cancer patients. Measurement of CAXII may be used in the future as a valuable adjunct to cytology in the diagnostic assessment of patients with pleural effusions related to lung cancer, especially when cytological examination is inconclusive.
Implication of Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes in Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Yue, Ai-Min ; Xie, Zhen-Bin ; Guo, Shu-Ping ; Wei, Qi-Dong ; Yang, Xiao-Wei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 355~358
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.355
XRCC1 genetic polymorphisms could be associated with increased risk of various cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the fifth most common cancer. We here conducted a study to explore the role of selective SNPs of the XRCC1 and XPD genes in the prognosis of HCC. A total of 231 cases were collected, and genotyping of XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XPD Lys751Gln and XPD Asp312Asn was performed by duplex polymerase-chain-reaction with the confronting-two-pair primer method. Our findings indicated XRCC1 399Gln/Gln genotype was associated with a significant difference in the median survival time compared with patients carrying Arg/Trp and Arg/Arg genotypes, and individuals with XPD 751 Gln/ Gln genotype had a significantly greater survival time than patients carrying Lys/Lys and Lys/Gln genotypes. The Cox's regression analysis showed individuals carrying XRCC1 399Trp/Trp genotype had 0.55 fold risk of death from HCC than Arg/Arg genotype. Similarly, XPD 751Gln/Gln had a strong decreasein comparison to XPD Lys/Lys carriers with an HR of 0.34. These results suggest that polymorphisms in XRCC1 and XPD may have functional significance in the prognosis of HCC.
Tax is Involved in Up-regulation of HMGB1 Expression Levels by Interaction with C/EBP
Zhang, Chen-Guang ; Wang, Hui ; Niu, Zhi-Guo ; Zhang, Jing-Jing ; Yin, Ming-Mei ; Gao, Zhi-Tao ; Hu, Li-Hua ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 359~365
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.359
The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a multifunctional cytokine-like molecule that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tumors. In this study, real-time polymerase chain reactions and Western blot assays indicated that HMGB1 transcriptional activity and protein level are increased in
-T cells (TaxP). To clarify the mechanisms, a series of HMGB1 deletion reporter plasmids (pHLuc1 to pHLuc6) were transfected into
-T cells (TaxN, Jurkat) and
-T cells (TaxP). We found that promoter activity in
-T cells to be higher than that in
-T cells, indicating a significant increase in pHLuc6. Bay11-7082 (NF-
inhibitor) treatment did not block the enhancing effect. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that Tax was retained on a HMGB1 promoter fragment encompassing -1163 to -975. Bioinformatics analysis showed six characteristic cis-elements for CdxA, AP-1, AML-1a, USF, v-Myb, and C/EBP in the fragment in question. Mutation of cis-elements for C/EBP reduced significant HMGB1 promoter activity induced by Tax. These findings indicate that Tax enhances the expression of HMGB1 gene at the transcriptional level, possibly by interacting with C/EBP.
Proteomics Analysis of Gastric Epithelial AGS Cells Infected with Epstein-Barr Virus
Ding, Yong ; Li, Xiao-Rong ; Yang, Kai-Yan ; Huang, Li-Hua ; Hu, Gui ; Gao, Kai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 367~372
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.367
Effects of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) on cellular protein expression are essential for viral pathogenesis. To characterize the cellular response to EBV infection, differential proteomes of gastric epithelial AGS cells were analyzed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and liquid chromatography electrospray/ionization ion trap (LC-ESI-IT) mass spectrometry identification. Mass spectrometry identified 9 altered cellular proteins, including 5 up-regulated and 4 down-regulated proteins after EBV infection. Notably 2-DE analysis revealed that EBV infection induced increased expression of heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, actin cytoplasmic 1, pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidase, caspase 9, and t-complex protein 1 subunit alpha. In addition, EBV infection considerably suppressed those cellular proteins of zinc finger protein 2, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, macrophage-capping protein, and growth/differentiation factor 11. Furthermore, the differential expressional levels of partial proteins (cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and caspase 9) were confirmed by Western blot analysis.Thus, this work effectively provided useful protein-related information to facilitate further investigation of the mechanisms underlying EBV infection and pathogenesis.
Employment Status and Work-Related Difficulties among Family Members of Terminally Ill Patients Compared with the General Population
Kim, Seon Young ; Chang, Yoon-Jung ; Do, Young Rok ; Kim, Sam Yong ; Park, Sang Yoon ; Jeong, Hyun Sik ; Kang, Jung Hun ; Kim, Si-Yung ; Ro, Jung Sil ; Lee, Jung Lim ; Lee, Woo Jin ; Park, Sook Ryun ; Yun, Young Ho ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 373~379
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.373
Background: Although caregiving to patients with terminal illness is known to be a stressful burden to family members, little attention has been focused on work-related problems. We aimed to investigate employment status and work-related difficulties of family caregivers of terminal cancer patients, comparing with the general population. Methods: Using structured questionnaires, we assessed family caregivers of 481 cancer patients determined by physicians to be terminally ill, from 11 university hospitals and the National Cancer Center in Korea. Results: Among 381 family caregivers of terminal cancer patients (response rate, 87.6%), 169 (43.9%) were not working before cancer diagnosis, but currently 233 (63.7%) were not working. Compared with the general population (36.5%), the percentage of not working among the family caregivers was higher (OR=2.39; 95%CI=1.73-3.29). A major reason for not working was to provide assistance to the patients (71.6%). 40.6% of those who continued working and 32.3% of those who not working family members reported extreme fatigue. Caregivers of old age, those who were female, those with a lower household income, and those caring for patients with a low performance status were not working at a more significant rate. Conclusion: Family caregivers of terminal cancer patients suffer job loss and severe work-related difficulties, probably due to caregiving itself and to fatigue. We need to develop supportive programs to overcome the burden of caregivers of the terminally ill.
Impact of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Cycles on Prognosis of Resectable Stomach Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis
Zhang, Wen-Ying ; Zhang, Wen-Jun ; Bai, Yu ; Yuan, Hai-Hua ; Liu, Feng ; Gao, Jun ; Gong, Yan-Fang ; Jiang, Bin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 381~386
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.381
Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adjuvant chemotherapy cycles on the prognosis of patients with post-operative stomach cancer through retrospective analysis. Methods: A total of 128 patients with gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of epirubicin, cisplatin or oxaliplatin, leucovorin, and 5-fluorouracil, according to a defined schedule, were divided into three groups according to the number of chemotherapy cycles: Group I (<6 cycles); Group II (6 cycles); and Group III (>6 cycles). Results: The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 20.8% in Group I, 45.0% in Group II, and 42.9% in Group III, with a median follow-up of 43 months. The 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) was 15.1% in Group I, 40% in Group II, and 40% in Group III. The OS and RFS in Groups II and III were significantly better than in Group I (OS, p = 0.002 and p=0.003; RFS, P<0.001 and P=0.002). There was no difference in OS (p = 0.970) or in RFS (p = 0.722) between Groups II and III. Multivariate Cox hazard analysis determined that the number of adjuvant chemotherapy cycles was an independent factor that influenced OS and RFS. Conclusion: Six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy gave encouraging outcomes in patients with resectable gastric cancer. Further prospective randomized controlled investigations are warranted in a multi-center setting.
Let-7c Inhibits NSCLC Cell Proliferation by Targeting HOXA1
Zhan, Min ; Qu, Qiang ; Wang, Guo ; Liu, Ying-Zi ; Tan, Sheng-Lan ; Lou, Xiao-Ya ; Yu, Jing ; Zhou, Hong-Hao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 387~392
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.387
Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore mechanisms by which let-7c suppresses NSCLC cell proliferation. Methods: The expression level of let-7c was quantified by qRT-PCR. A549 and H1299 cells were transfected with let-7c mimics to restore the expression of let-7c. The effects of let-7c were then assessed by cell proliferation, colony formation and cell cycle assay. Mouse experiments were used to confirm the effect of let-7c on tumorigenicity in vivo. Luciferase reporter assays and Western blotting were performed to identify target genes for let-7c. Results: HOXA1 was identified as a novel target of let-7c. MTS, colony formation and flow cytometry assays demonstrated that forced expression of let-7c inhibited NSCLC cell proliferation by inducing G1 arrest in vitro, consistent with inhibitory effects induced by knockdown of HOXA1. Mouse experiments demonstrated that let-7c expression suppressed tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we found that let-7c could regulate the expression of HOXA1 downstream effectors CCND1, CDC25A and CDK2. Conclusions: Collectively, these results demonstrate let-7c inhibits NSCLC cell proliferation and tumorigenesis by partial direct targeting of the HOXA1 pathway, which suggests that restoration of let-7c expression may thus offer a potential therapeutic intervention strategy for NSCLC.
Genetic Polymorphisms of Glutathione S-transferase M1 and Prostate Cancer Risk in Asians: A Meta-analysis of 18 Studies
Hu, Zheng-Hui ; Lin, Yi-Wei ; Xu, Xin ; Chen, Hong ; Mao, Ye-Qing ; Wu, Jian ; Zhu, Yi ; Xu, Xiang-Lai ; Xie, Li-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 393~398
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.393
Background: Many studies have investigated associations between the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null polymorphism and risk of prostate cancer, but the impact of GSTM1 in people who live in Asian countries is still unclear owing to inconsistencies across results. Methods: We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Ovid and CNKI databases for studies of associations between the GSTM1 null genotype and risk of prostate cancer in people who live in Asian countries, and estimated summary odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results: A total of 18 case-control studies with 2,172 cases and 3,258 controls were included in this meta-analysis, which showed the GSTM1 null genotype to be significantly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in people who live in Asian countries (random-effects OR=1.74, 95% CI1.44-2.09, P<0.001). Similar results were found in East Asians (OR=1.41; 95% CI: 1.12-1.78; P=0.004) and Caucasians in Asia (OR=2.19; 95% CI: 1.85-2.60; P<0.001). No evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusions: This meta-analysis of available data suggested that the GSTM1 null genotype does contribute to increased risk of prostate cancer in people who live in Asian countries.
The miR-146a rs2910164 G > C Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Digestive Cancer in Chinese
Wu, Dong ; Wang, Fan ; Dai, Wei-Qi ; He, Lei ; Lu, Jie ; Xu, Ling ; Guo, Chuan-Yong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 399~403
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.399
Background: Several studies have reported the role of the miR-146a rs2910164 G > C polymorphism as a susceptibility factor for several digestive cancers. However, the results have been controversial. Therefore, we conducted the present meta-analysis to obtain the most reliable estimate of the association. Methods: PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases were searched. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted and pooled to assess the strength of the association between miR-146a rs2910164 G > C polymorphism and digestive cancer risk. A total of four eligible studies including 3,447 cases and 5,041 controls based on the search criteria were included. Results: We observed that miR-146a rs2910164 G > C polymorphism was not significantly correlated with digestive cancer risks when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. While we found that miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism was not associated with gastric cancer, it was significantly linked with hepatocellular cancer risk (the homozygote codominant model: OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.04-1.87). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, significant associations were observed in Chinese population for the allele contrast model (OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.12-1.38), for the homozygote codominant model (OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.28-2.04), and for the recessive model (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.16-1.64). However, studies with Asian groups presented no significant association for all genetic models. Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that the miR-146a rs2910164 G > C polymorphism is a low-penetrant risk factor for digestive cancers in Chinese.
Knockdown of Bcl-3 Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces DNA Damage in HTLV-1-infected Cells)
Gao, Cai ; Wang, Xia ; Chen, Lin ; Wang, Jin-Heng ; Gao, Zhi-Tao ; Wang, Hui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 405~408
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.405
Oncoprotein Bcl-3 is perceived as an unusual member of
family since it can both stimulate and suppress NF-
activation. Aberrant Bcl-3 results in increased cell proliferation and survival, suggesting a contribution to malignant potential and elevated levels of Bcl-3 have been observed in many HTLV-1-infected T cell lines and ATL cells. To investigate the specific roles of Bcl-3 in HTLV-1-infected cells, we knocked down Bcl-3 expression using shRNA and then examined the consequences with regard to DNA damage and cell proliferation, as well as NF-
activation. The HTLV-1 encoded protein Tax promotes Bcl-3 expression and nuclear translocation. In HTLV-1-infected cells, Bcl-3 knockdown obviously induced DNA damage. Cell growth and NF-
activation were reduced in HTLV-1-infected or Tax positive cells when Bcl-3 expression was decreased. Together, our results revealed positive roles of Bcl-3 in DNA stabilization, growth and NF-
activation in HTLV-1-infected cells.
In Vivo Evaluation of Curcumin-loaded Nanoparticles in a A549 Xenograft Mice Model
Yin, Hai-Tao ; Zhang, De-Geng ; Wu, Xiao-Li ; Huang, Xin-En ; Chen, Gang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 409~412
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.409
Curcumin (Cum) has been reported to have potential chemo-preventive and chemotherapeutic activity through influencing various processes, inducing cell cycle arrest, differentiation and apoptosis in a series of cancers. However, the poor solubility of Cum limits its further applications in the treatment of cancer. We have previously reported Cum-loaded nanoparticles (Cum-NPs) prepared with amphilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-polycaprolactone (mPEG-PCL) block copolymers. The current study demonstrated superior antitumor efficacy of Cum-NPs over free Cum in the treatment of lung cancer. In vivo evaluation further demonstrated superior anticancer effects of Cum-NPs by delaying tumor growth compared to free Cum in an established A549 transplanted mice model. Moreover, Cum-NPs showed little toxicity to normal tissues including bone marrow, liver and kidney at a therapeutic dose. These results suggest that Cum-NPs are effective to inhibit the growth of human lung cancer with little toxicity to normal tissues, and could provide a clinically useful therapeutic regimen. They thus merit more research to evaluate the feasibility of clinical application.
Phase II Trial of Loubo
(Lobaplatin) and Pemetrexed for Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer not Responding to Anthracycline or Taxanes
Deng, Qian-Qian ; Huang, Xin-En ; Ye, Li-Hong ; Lu, Yan-Yan ; Liang, Yong ; Xiang, Jin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 413~417
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.413
Purpose: This phase II study was undertaken to determine the efficacy and safety of Loubo
(Lobaplatin) in combination with pemetrexed in treating patients with metastatic breast cancer who failed to respond to anthracycline or taxanes. Patients and Methods: Metastatic breast cancer cases who had previously received an anthracycline and a taxane in either adjuvant or metastatic settings, were enrolled. All patients were recruited from Jiangsu Cancer Hospital and Research Institute, and were treated with Loubo
(intravenous; on day 1) and pemetrexed 500
(intravenous; on day 1) every 21 days. Efficacy and side effects were evaluated after at least two cycles of chemotherapy. Results: All eligible 19 patients completed at least 2 cycles of chemotherapy with pemetrexed and lobaplatin, and were evaluable. Overall, 3 (15.8%) patients achieved partial response, 11 (57.9%) stable disease, 5 (26.3%) progression of disease, with no complete remission. Response rate was 15.8%, disease control rate was 42.1%. The median survival time was 10.3 months. Neutrophil suppression occurred in 36.8% of patients who had grade 2 toxicity, and 26.3% had grade 3, 26.4% had grade 4. Thrombocytopenia was encountered as follows: 21.1% grade 2, 15.8% grade 3 and 5.5% grade 4. Incidences of anemia were 10.5% in grade 2, 5.3% grade 3 and 0% grade 4. Only 5.3% of patients required packed red blood cell transfusion. Grade 3 digestive tract toxicity occurred in 5.5% of patients. Other toxicities included elevated transaminase,oral mucositis and skin rashes. Conclusions: The regimen of lobaplatin and pemetrexed is modestly active in metastatic breast cancer patients who failed anthracycline or taxanes, and the toxicity profile suggesting that the doses of chemotherapy should be further modified.
Prognostic Impact of Cyclin D1, Cyclin E and P53 on Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours
Liu, Shu-Zheng ; Zhang, Fang ; Chang, Yu-Xi ; Ma, Jie ; Li, Xu ; Li, Xiao-Hong ; Fan, Jin-Hu ; Duan, Guang-Cai ; Sun, Xi-Bin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 419~422
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.419
Conventional classifications of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NETs) are rather unsatisfactory because of the variation in survival within each subgroup. Molecular markers are being found able to predict patient outcome in more and more tumours. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of the proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E and P53 in GEP-NETs and assess any prognostic impact. Tumor specimens from 68 patients with a complete follow-up were studied immunohistochemically for cyclin D1, cyclin E and P53 expression. High cyclin D1 and cyclin E immunostaining (
5% positive nuclei) was found in 48 (71%) and 24 (35%) cases, and high P53 staining (
10% positive nuclei) in 33 (49%). High expression of P53 was more common in gastric neuroendocrine tumors and related to malignant behavior, being associate with a worse prognosis on univariate analysis (RR=1.9, 95%CI=1.1-3.2). High expression of cyclin E was significantly associated with shorter survival in the univariate analysis (RR=2.0, 95%CI=1.2-3.6) and multivariate analysis (RR=2.1, 95%CI=1.1-4.0). We found no significant correlation between the expression of cyclin D1 and any clinicopathological variables. Our study indicated a prognostic relevance for cyclin E and P53 immunoreactivity. Cyclin E may be an independent prognostic factor from the 2010 WHO Classification which should be evaluated in further studies.
Low-Dose Docetaxel/Cisplatin - Leucovorin and 46 Hour Infusional Fluorouracil in Metastatic Gastric Carcinoma
Alici, Suleyman ; Buyukberber, Suleyman ; Alkis, Necati ; Benekli, Mustafa ; Ozkan, Metin ; Bilici, Ahmet ; Demirci, Umut ; Karaca, Halit ; Arpaci, Erkan ; Gumus, Mahmut ; Altunbas, Mustafa ; Dane, Faysal ; Turk, H. Mehmet ; Anatolian Society of Medical Oncology ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 423~427
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.423
Background: Phase II and III trials of docetaxel, cisplatin and fluorouracil (DCF) have shown superior efficacy versus cisplatin and fluorouracil alone but with high rates of hematologic toxicity in metastatic gastric cancer cases. To reduce toxicity while maintaining the efficacy of DCF, we investigated low dose docetaxel (D), cispatin (C) - leucovorin and fluorouracil (De Gramont regimen). Patient and methods: Chemotherapy-naïve patients with metastatic gastric cancer (MGC) received D 60 mg/
on day 1 and cisplatin 30 mg/
on day 1-2 and the De Gramont regimen (Folinic acid 400 mg/m2 on day 1 and 5-FU 2400 mg/
/46h continuous infusion) every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was response rate. Results: One hundred twenty patients with a median age of 52.5 years (range, 32-78) received a median of 6 cycles (range, 2-12 cycles). Of the 120 evaluable patients, 4 showed complete remission and 36 achieved a partial response. The overall response rate was 56.6%. Twenty eight patients (23.3%) showed stable disease and 52 (43.3%) progression. The median time to progression was 7 months (95%CI 6-7.9). The median overall survival was 15 months (95%CI 13.7-16.2). The most frequent hematological toxicity was leucopenia, which occurred at grade 3/4 intensity in 24 patients (20%). Conclusions: Low-dose DC-De Gramont regimen is active in MGC with a tolerable toxicity profile.
Clinical Study of Tumor Angiogenesis and Perfusion Imaging Using Multi-slice Spiral Computed Tomography for Breast Cancer
Xu, Na ; Lei, Zhen ; Li, Xiao-Long ; Zhang, Jun ; Li, Chen ; Feng, Guo-Quan ; Li, Di-Nuo ; Liu, Jing-Yi ; Wei, Qiang ; Bian, Ting-Ting ; Zou, Tian-Yu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 429~433
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.429
Objectives: To explore the correlation between multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) perfusion parameters and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in breast cancer. Methods: Forty five breast cancer patients and 16 patients with benign breast tumor, both confirmed by pathology examination, were enrolled. All underwent MSCT perfusion imaging to obtain perfusion maps and data for parameters including blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and permeability surface (PS). Cancer patients did not receive treatment prior to surgery. The expression of VEGF and MMP-2 were examined with both immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results: The levels of VEGF and MMP-2 by immunohistochemistry were significantly higher in the breast cancer group (P < 0.01) than the benign tumor group. Relative OD values from Western blotting were also higher in cancer cases (P < 0.05). Similarly, the mean MSCT perfusion parameters (BF, BV, PS) were significantly higher in the breast cancer group (P < 0.01), BF and BV positively correlating with VEGF expression (r = 0.878 and 0.809 respectively, P < 0.01); PS and VEGF and MMP-2 expression were also positively correlated (r= 0.860, 0.786 respectively, P < 0.01). Conclusion: There is a correlation between breast cancer MSCT perfusion parameters and VEGF andMMP-2 expression, which might be useful for detection of breast lesions, qualitative diagnosis of breast cancer, and evaluation of breast cancer treatment.
Quality of Life in Malay and Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer in Kelantan, Malaysia
Yusuf, Azlina ; Hadi, Imi Sairi Ab. ; Mahamood, Zainal ; Ahmad, Zulkifli ; Keng, Soon Lean ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 435~440
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.435
Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in Malaysia. A diagnosis is very stressful for women, affecting all aspects of their being and quality of life. As such, there is little information on quality of life of women with breast cancer across the different ethnic groups in Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of life in Malay and Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer in Kelantan. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study involved 58 Malays and 15 Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer prior to treatment. Quality of life was measured using the Malay version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its breast-specific module (QLQ-BR23). Socio-demographic and clinical data were also collected. All the data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results: Most of the women were married with at least a secondary education and were in late stages of breast cancer. The Malay women had lower incomes (p=0.046) and more children (p=0.001) when compared to the Chinese women. Generally, both the Malay and Chinese women had good functioning quality-of-life scores [mean score range: 60.3-84.8 (Malays); 65.0-91.1 (Chinese)] and global quality of life [mean score 60.3, SD 22.2 (Malays); mean score 65.0, SD 26.6 (Chinese)]. The Malay women experienced more symptoms such as nausea and vomiting (p=0.002), dyspnoea (p=0.004), constipation (p<0.001) and breast-specific symptoms (p=0.041) when compared to the Chinese. Conclusions: Quality of life was satisfactory in both Malays and Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer in Kelantan. However, Malay women had a lower quality of life due to high general as well as breast-specific symptoms. This study finding underlined the importance of measuring quality of life in the newly diagnosed breast cancer patient, as it will provide a broader picture on how a cancer diagnosis impacts multi-ethnic patients. Once health care professionals understand this, they might then be able to determine how to best support and improve the quality of life of these women during the difficult times of their disease and on-going cancer treatments.
Diabetes Mellitus Reduces Prostate Cancer Risk - No Function of Age at Diagnosis or Duration of Disease
Xu, Hua ; Mao, Shan-Hua ; Ding, Guan-Xiong ; Ding, Qiang ; Jiang, Hao-Wen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 441~447
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.441
Background: Prior studies examining the relation between diabetes mellitus (DM) and prostate cancer risk have reported controversial findings. We examined this association by conducting a detailed meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed literature. Methods: A comprehensive search for articles of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and bibliographies of retrieved articles published up to November, 2012 was performed. Methodological quality assessment of the trials was based on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scaleq and the meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. Dose-response regression was conducted with SPSS 19.0. Results: We included 29 studies in the meta-analysis (13 case-control studies, 16 cohort studies), and found an inverse association between DM and prostate cancer (relative risk (RR) 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78-0.91). An inverse association was also observed in non-Asian populations (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.76-0.87) and population-based studies (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.77-0.91). No statistical significance was found of the association between prostate cancer risk and the duration of DM (p=0.338), and risk seemed not related with the age of DM diagnosis. Conclusions: This study suggested an inverse relationship between DM and prostate cancer, but without links to duration of disease or age of diagnosis.
Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes and Risk of Glioma and Meningioma
Luo, Ke-Qin ; Mu, Shi-Qing ; Wu, Zhong-Xue ; Shi, Yi-Ni ; Peng, Ji-Cai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 449~452
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.449
Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes have been shown to influence DNA repair processes and to modify cancer susceptibility. Here we conducted a case-control study to assess the role of potential SNPs of DNA repair genes on the risk of glioma and meningioma. We included 297 cases and 458 cancer-free controls. Genotyping of XRCC1 Gln399Arg, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC2 Arg188His, XRCC3 Thr241Met, XRCC4 Ala247Ser, ERCC1 Asn118Asp, ERCC2 Lys751Gln and ERCC5 Asp1558His were performed in a 384-well plate format on the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. XRCC1 Arg194Trp (rs1799782) and ERCC2 Asp312Asn rs1799793 did not follow the HWE in control group, and genotype distributions of XRCC1 Gln399Arg rs25487, XRCC2 Arg188His rs3218536 and ERCC2 Asp312Asn rs1799793 were significantly different between cases and controls (P<0.05). We found XRCC1 399G/G, XRCC1 194 T/T and XRCC3 241T/T were associated with a higher risk when compared with the wild-type genotype. For ERCC5 Asp1558His, we found G/G genotype was associated with elevated susceptibility. In conclusion, our study has shown that XRCC1 Gln399Arg, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC3 Thr241Met and ERCC5 Asp1558His are associated with risk of gliomas and meningiomas. This finding could be useful in identifying the susceptibility genes for these cancers.
Lack of any Association between Blood Groups and Lung Cancer, Independent of Histology
Oguz, Arzu ; Unal, Dilek ; Tasdemir, Arzu ; Karahan, Samet ; Aykas, Fatma ; Mutlu, Hasan ; Cihan, Yasemin Benderli ; Kanbay, Mehmet ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 453~456
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.453
Introduction: Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths, is divided into 2 main classes based on its biology, therapy and prognosis: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Many cases are at an advanced stage at diagnosis, which is a major obstacle to improving outcomes. It is important to define the high risk group patients for early diagnosis and chance of cure. Blood group antigens are chemical components on erythrocyte membranes but they are also expressed on a variety of epithelial cells. Links between ABO blood groups with benign or malignant diseases, such as gastric and pancreas cancers, have been observed for a long time. In this study, we aimed to investigate any possible relationship between lung cancer histological subtypes and ABO-Rh blood groups. Materials and Methods: The files of 307 pathologically confirmed lung cancer patients were reviewed retrospectively. Cases with a serologically determined blood group and Rh factor were included and those with a history of another primary cancer were excluded, leaving a total of 221. The distribution of blood groups of the lung cancer patients were compared with the distribution of blood groups of healthy donors admitted to the Turkish Red Crescent Blood Service in our city in the year 2012. Results: There was no significant difference between patients with lung cancer of either type and the control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups and Rh factor (p: 0.073). There was also no relationship with non small cell cancer histological subtypes. Conclusions: In this study, we found no relationship between the ABO-Rhesus blood groups and NSCLC and SCLC groups. To our knowledge this is the first analysis of ABO blood groups in SCLC patients.
Meta-analysis of Gene Expression Data Identifies Causal Genes for Prostate Cancer
Wang, Xiang-Yang ; Hao, Jian-Wei ; Zhou, Rui-Jin ; Zhang, Xiang-Sheng ; Yan, Tian-Zhong ; Ding, De-Gang ; Shan, Lei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 457~461
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.457
Prostate cancer is a leading cause of death in male populations across the globe. With the advent of gene expression arrays, many microarray studies have been conducted in prostate cancer, but the results have varied across different studies. To better understand the genetic and biologic mechanisms of prostate cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of two studies on prostate cancer. Eight key genes were identified to be differentially expressed with progression. After gene co-expression analysis based on data from the GEO database, we obtained a co-expressed gene list which included 725 genes. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that these genes are involved in actin filament-based processes, locomotion and cell morphogenesis. Further analysis of the gene list should provide important clues for developing new prognostic markers and therapeutic targets.
Reliability and Validity of the Malay Version of the Breast-Impact of Treatment Scale (MVBITS) in Breast Cancer Women undergoing Chemotherapy
Zainal, Nor Zuraida ; Shuib, Norley ; Bustam, Anita Zarina ; Sabki, Zuraida Ahmad ; Guan, Ng Chong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 463~468
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.463
Background: Body image dissatisfaction among breast cancer survivors has been associated with psychological stress resultant from breast cancer and resultant surgery. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Malay Version of the Breast-Impact of Treatment Scale (MVBITS) and to investigate the associations of retained factors with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Materials and Methods: The MVBITS was 'forward-backward' translated from English to Malay and then administered to 70 female breast cancer patients who came to the Oncology Clinic of University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia to undergo chemotherapy. Principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation was performed to explore the factor structure of the MVBITS. Associations of retained factors were estimated with reference to Spearman correlation coefficients. Results: The internal consistency reliability of MVBITS was good (Cronbach's alpha 0.945) and showed temporal stability over a 3-week period. Principal component analysis suggested two factors termed as 'Intrusion' and 'Avoidance' domains. These factors explained 70.3% of the variance. Factor 1 comprised the effects of breast cancer treatment on the emotion and thought, while Factor 2 informed attempts to limit exposure of the body to self or others. The Factor 1 of MVBITS was positively correlated with total, depression and anxiety sub-scores of HADS. Factor 2 was positively correlated with total and anxiety sub-scores of HADS. MVBITS was also positively correlated with the RSES scores. Conclusions: The results showed that the Malay Version of Breast-Impact of Treatment Scale possesses satisfactory psychometric properties suggesting that this instrument is appropriate for assessment of body change stress among female breast cancer patients in Malaysia.
Can Granisetron Injection Used as Primary Prophylaxis Improve the Control of Nausea and Vomiting with Low-Emetogenic Chemotherapy?
Keat, Chan Huan ; Phua, Gillian ; Kassim, Mohd Shainol Abdul ; Poh, Wong Kar ; Sriraman, Malathi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 469~473
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.469
Background: The purpose of this study is to examine the risk of uncontrolled chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) among patients receiving low emetogenic chemotherapy (LEC) with and without granisetron injection as the primary prophylaxis in addition to dexamethasone and metochlopramide. Materials and Methods: This was a single-centre, prospective cohort study. A total of 96 patients receiving LEC (52 with and 42 without granisetron) were randomly selected from the full patient list generated using the e-Hospital Information System (e-His). The rates of complete control (no CINV from days 1 to 5) and complete response (no nausea or vomiting in both acute and delayed phases) were identified through patient diaries which were adapted from the MASCC Antiemesis Tool (MAT). Selected covariates including gender, age, active alcohol consumption, morning sickness and previous chemotherapy history were controlled using the multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: Both groups showed significant difference with LEC regimens (p<0.001). No differences were found in age, gender, ethnic group and other baseline characteristics. The granisetron group indicated a higher complete response rate in acute emesis (adjusted OR: 0.1; 95%CI 0.02-0.85; p=0.034) than did the non-granisetron group. Both groups showed similar complete control and complete response rates for acute nausea, delayed nausea and delayed emesis. Conclusions: Granisetron injection used as the primary prophylaxis in LEC demonstrated limited roles in CINV control. Optimization of the guideline-recommended antiemetic regimens may serve as a less costly alternative to protect patients from uncontrolled acute emesis.
Smoking Habits of Relatives of Patients with Cancer: Cancer Diagnosis in the Family is an Important Teachable Moment for Smoking Cessation
Hayran, Mutlu ; Kilickap, Saadettin ; Elkiran, Tamer ; Akbulut, Hakan ; Abali, Huseyin ; Yuce, Deniz ; Kilic, Diclehan ; Turhal, Serdar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 475~479
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.475
Background: In this study we aimed to determine the rate and habitual patterns of smoking, intentions of cessation, dependence levels and sociodemographic characteristics of relatives of patients with a diagnosis of cancer. Materials and Methods: This study was designed by the Turkish Oncology Group, Epidemiology and Prevention Subgroup. The relatives of cancer patients were asked to fill a questionnaire and Fagerstrom test of nicotine dependence. Results: The median ages of those with lower and higher Fagerstrom scores were 40 years and 42 years, respectively. We found no evidence of variation between the two groups for the remaining sociodemographic variables, including the subject's medical status, gender, living in the same house with the patient, their educational status, their family income, closeness to their cancer patients or spending time with them or getting any help or wanting to get some help. Only 2% of the subjects started smoking after cancer was diagnosed in their loved ones and almost 20% of subjects had quit smoking during the previous year. Conclusions: The Fagerstrom score is helpful in determining who would be the most likely to benefit from a cigarette smoking cessation program. Identification of these people with proper screening methods might help us to pinpoint who would benefit most from these programs.
Impact of Healthy Eating Practices and Physical Activity on Quality of Life among Breast Cancer survivors
Mohammadi, Shooka ; Sulaiman, Suhaina ; Koon, Poh Bee ; Amani, Reza ; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 481~487
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.481
Following breast cancer diagnosis, women often attempt to modify their lifestyles to improve their health and prevent recurrence. These behavioral changes typically involve diet and physical activity modification. The aim of this study was to determine association between healthy eating habits and physical activity with quality of life among Iranian breast cancer survivors. A total of 100 Iranian women, aged between 32 to 61 years were recruited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Eating practices were evaluated by a validated questionnaire modified from the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) study. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). A standardized questionnaire by the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life and its breast cancer module (EORTC QLQ-C30/+BR-23) were applied to determine quality of life. Approximately 29% of the cancer survivors were categorized as having healthy eating practices, 34% had moderate eating practices and 37% had poor eating practices based on nutrition guidelines. The study found positive changes in the decreased intake of fast foods (90%), red meat (70%) and increased intake of fruits (85%) and vegetables (78%). Generally, breast cancer survivors with healthy eating practices had better global quality of life, social, emotional, cognitive and role functions. Results showed that only 12 women (12%) met the criteria for regular vigorous exercise, 22% had regular moderate-intensity exercise while the majority (65%) had low-intensity physical activity. Breast cancer survivors with higher level of physical activity had better emotional and cognitive functions. Healthy eating practices and physical activity can improve quality of life of cancer survivors. Health care professionals should promote good dietary habits and physical activity to improve survivor's health and quality of life.
Clinico-pathological Profile of Lung Cancer at AIIMS: A Changing Paradigm in India
Malik, Prabhat Singh ; Sharma, Mehar Chand ; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan ; Shukla, N.K. ; Deo, S.V.S. ; Mohan, Anant ; Kumar, Guresh ; Raina, Vinod ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 489~494
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.489
Background: Lung cancer is one of the commonest and most lethal cancers throughout the world. The epidemiological and pathological profile varies among different ethnicities and geographical regions. At present adenocarcinoma is the commonest histological subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in most of the Western and Asian countries. However, in India squamous cell carcinoma has been reported as the commonest histological type in most of the series. The aim of the study was to analyze the current clinico-pathological profile and survival of lung cancer at our centre. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 434 pathologically confirmed lung cancer cases registered at our centre over a period of three years. They were evaluated for their clinical and pathological profiles, treatment received and outcome. The available histology slides were reviewed by an independent reviewer. Results: Median age was 55 years with a male:female ratio of 4.6:1. Some 68% of patients were smokers. There were 85.3% NSCLC and 14.7% SCLC cases. Among NSCLCs, adenocarcinoma was the commonest histological subtype after the pathology review. Among NSCLC, 56.8% cases were of stage IV while among SCLC 71.8% cases had extensive stage disease. Some 29% of patients did not receive any anticancer treatment. The median overall and progression free survivals of the patients who received treatment were 12.8 and 7.8 months for NSCLC and 9.1 and 6.8 months for SCLC. Conclusions: This analysis suggests that adenocarcinoma may now be the commonest histological subtype also in India, provided a careful pathological review is done. Most of the patients present at advanced stage and outcome remains poor.
EGFR Antisense Oligonucleotides Encapsulated with Nanoparticles Decrease EGFR, MAPK1 and STAT5 Expression in a Human Colon Cancer Cell Line
Najar, Ahmad Gholamhoseinian ; Pashaei-Asl, Roghiyeh ; Omidi, Yadollah ; Farajnia, Safar ; Nourazarian, Ali Reza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 495~498
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.495
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is over-expressed in several human cancers. This would suggest that inhibition of EGFR is a reasonable approach for cancer treatment. In this study we investigated EGFR blocking and its effects on the mediated signaling such as MAPK and STATb in HT29 cells. For this aim we used FITC-labeled EGFR antisense oligonucleotides encapsulated with PAMAM nanoparticles to inhibit EGFR expression. Cellular uptake of antisense was investigated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. The effect of EGFR antisense on the expression of EGFR in HT29 cells was examined by real time PCR and Western blots, which showed that antisense encapsulated with PAMAM decreased the level of EGFR mRNA and protein. In addition, real time PCR results confirmed that EGFR inhibition had an effective role in the reduction of EGFR dependent downstream genes. In conclusion, EGFR antisense encapsulated with PAMAM nanoparticles down regulated EGFR and EGFR-mediated genes.
Levels of Serum Trace Elements in Renal Cell Carcinoma Cases
Pirincci, Necip ; Gecit, Ilhan ; Gunes, Mustafa ; Kaba, Mehmet ; Tanik, Serhat ; Yuksel, Mehmet Bilgehan ; Arslan, Harun ; Demir, Halit ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 499~502
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.499
Trace elements which are essential components of biological structures may also be toxic when present at levels above the amounts required for biological function. In our study, trace element levels were measured with furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 33 newly diagnosed renal cell carcinoma cases (preoperative) and 32 healthy controls. When compared with the control group, it was found that the levels of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) were higher and the levels of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) were lower in the patient group. These changes may be important in the formation of renal cell carcinoma, a question which should be explored with postoperative comparative studies.
Human Papilloma Virus Frequency and Genotype Distribution in a Turkish Population
Akcali, Sinem ; Goker, Asli ; Ecemis, Talat ; Kandiloglu, Ali Riza ; Sanlidag, Tamer ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 503~506
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.503
Objectives: To determine human papillomavirus (HPV) frequency, genotypes and the relation between cervical smear results, risk factors and types in women living in Manisa, Turkey. Materials and Methods: A total of 410 women were included in the study. Cervical specimens were obtained for linear array HPV genotyping and pathological testing. Conventional Pap test and Bethesda system were used for evaluation of cytology specimens. Results: A total of 410 women with a mean age of 34.9 years were tested. A positive result of any HPV was found in 35 patients (8.5%). Among them, 26 different serotypes of HPV were identified and the most frequent type was HPV 16 (28.5%) followed by type 45 and 53 (11.4%). Patients were infected by 65.7% high risk, 11.4% probable high risk and 22.9% low risk HPV types. Multiple HPV positive results were found in 13 patients (37.1%). Patients with single partner, history of abnormal smear or condyloma had positive HPV results and this was statistically significant (p<0.05). Correlation analysis showed a statistically weak relation between positive HPV and abnormal smear results (r=0.120). Conclusions: Determining HPV types of genital HPV infections is important for epidemiological studies. We have found the rate of positive HPV as 8.5% which implies the need for extended screening programs in order to diagnose oncogenic HPV at an early stage.
Construction and Expression of an Eukaryotic Expression Vector Containing the IER3 Gene
Wang, Zhen ; Yu, Hong-Sheng ; Yao, Ru-Yong ; Qiu, Wen-Sheng ; Yue, Lu ; Sui, Ai-Hua ; Liu, Xiang-Ping ; Liu, Shi-Hai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 507~510
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.507
Background: More and more research indicate that the immediately early response gene 3 (IER3) is involved inmany biological provesses, such as apoptosis and immunoreaction, as well as viral infection, tumorigenesis and tumour progression. Methods: Here we describe the construction of an eukaryotic expression vector containing IER3 gene and its expression in A549 cells as assessed through fluorescence microscopyand Western-blotting. Results: Fluorescence detection displayed that GFP in cytoplasm was high during 48 and 72 hours post-transfection. In addition, Western blotting showed significant increase in IER3 gene expression in the transfected cells compared with controls. Conclusion: The recombinate plasmid expression vector was constructed successfully, which may provide a basis for further exploration of function of IER3 in lung cancer.
Cost and Effectiveness Comparison of Immediate Colposcopy Versus Human Papillomavirus DNA Testing in Management of Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance in Turkish Women
Kececioglu, Mehmet ; Seckin, Berna ; Baser, Eralp ; Togrul, Cihan ; Kececioglu, Tugban Seckin ; Cicek, Mahmut Nedim ; Gungor, Tayfun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 511~514
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.511
Background: A small but significant proportion of cases with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) may harbour CIN 2-3, or even invasive carcinoma. Although immediate colposcopy, HPV-DNA testing or expectant management are three recommended options in ASCUS triage, a consensus does not currently exist on which one of these approaches is the most efficient. In this study, we aimed to compare the performance and cost of immediate colposcopy and colposcopy based on the human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for detecting histologically confirmed high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women with ASCUS. Materials and Methods: Records of 594 women with an index Papanicolaou smear showing ASCUS were retrospectively analyzed. Women in the immediate colposcopy arm were referred directly to colposcopy (immediate colposcopy group, n=255) and those in the HPV triage arm were proceeded to colposcopy if the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) test was positive (HPV triage group, n=339). High grade CIN (CIN2+) detection rate and treatment costs were compared between the groups. Results: The detected rate of CIN2+ was higher in the HPV triage group compared to immediate colposcopy group (8% vs. 1.6%, p=0.011). In the HPV triage group, the total cost, cost per patient, and the cost for detecting one case of high grade CIN were higher than the immediate colposcopy group (p<0.001). Conclusions: In women with ASCUS cytology, HPV DNA testing followed by colposcopy is more costly than immediate colposcopy, but this approach is associated with a higher rate of CIN2+ detection. This findings suggest that HPV DNA testing combined with cervical cytology could reduce the referral rate to colposcopy.
Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Versus Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy with or without Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Locoregionally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Meta-analysis of 1,096 Patients from 11 Randomized Controlled Trials
Liang, Zhong-Guo ; Zhu, Xiao-Dong ; Tan, Ai-Hua ; Jiang, Yan-Ming ; Qu, Song ; Su, Fang ; Xu, Guo-Zeng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 515~521
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.515
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (the treatment group) versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy with or without adjuvant chemotherapy (the control group) for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: The search strategy included Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Internet Web, Chinese Biomedical Database and Wanfang Database. We also searched reference lists of articles and the volumes of abstracts of scientific meetings. All randomized controlled trials were included for a meta-analysis performed with RevMan 5.1.0. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system (GRADE) was used to rate the level of evidence. Results: Eleven studies were included. Risk ratios of 0.99 (95%CI 0.72-1.36), 0.37 (95%CI 0.20-0.69), 1.08 (95%CI 0.84-1.38), 0.98 (95%CI 0.75-1.27) were observed for 3 years overall survival, 3 years progression-free survival, 2 years loco-regional failure-free survival and 2 years distant metastasis failure-free survival. There were no treatment-related deaths in either group in the 11 studies. Risk ratios of 1.90 (95%CI 1.24-2.92), 2.67 (95%CI 0.64-11.1), 1.04 (95%CI 0.79-1.37), 0.98 (95%CI 0.27-3.52) were found for grade 3-4 leukopenia, grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia, grade 3-4 mucous membrane, and grade 3-4 hepatic hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicity, the most significant toxicities for patients. Conclusion: Compared with the control group, induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy was well tolerated but could not significantly improve prognosis in terms of overall survival, loco-regional failure-free survival or distant metastasis failure-free survival.
Electromagnetic Field Exposure and Male Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis of 18 Studies
Sun, Jing-Wen ; Li, Xiao-Rong ; Gao, Hong-Yu ; Yin, Jie-Yun ; Qin, Qin ; Nie, Shao-Fa ; Wei, Sheng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 523~528
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.523
Background: The possibility that electromagnetic fields (EMF) exposure may increase male breast cancer risk has been discussed for a long time. However, arguments have been presented that studies limited by poor quality could have led to statistically significant results by chance or bias. Moreover, data fo the last 10 years have not been systematically summarized. Methods and Results: To confirm any possible association, a meta-analysis was performed by a systematic search strategy. Totals of 7 case-control and 11 cohort studies was identified and pooled ORs with 95% CIs were used as the principal outcome measures. Data from these studies were extracted with a standard meta-analysis procedure and grouped in relation to study design, cut-off point, exposure assessment method, adjustment and exposure model. A statistical significant increased risk of male breast cancer with EMF exposure was defined (pooled ORs = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.14-1.52, P < 0.001), and subgroup analyses also showed similar results. Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that EMF exposure may be associated with the increase risk of male breast cancer despite the arguments raised.
Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Unresectable Cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand: Are there Differences Dependent on Stent Type?
Prachayakul, Varayu ; Chaisayan, Suthasinee ; Aswakul, Pitulak ; Deesomsak, Morakod ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 529~532
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.529
Cholangiocarcinoma, though very rare in Western countries, is one of the commonest liver malignancies in Southeast Asia, especially in Thailand. More than half of the patients present with advanced stage disease. Given the poor treatment outcomes of adjuvant therapeutic options, many patients undergo only biliary drainage for palliative treatment. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes after biliary stenting were here analyzed for a total of 224 uresectable cholangiocarcinoma cases, 58.9% in men. The mean age was 61.5 years. Hilar involvement was the most common location. The patients underwent biliary drainage using plastic and metallic stents equally, early stent occlusion being encountered in 21.4% and 10.7%, respectively. The median survival time was 4.93 months for patients who received plastic and 5.87 months for patients who received metallic stents.
Multicenter Evaluation of Patients with Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma in Turkey: MELAS Study
Uysal-Sonmez, Ozlem ; Tanriverdi, Ozgur ; Esbah, Onur ; Uyeturk, Ummugul ; Helvaci, Kaan ; Bal, Oznur ; Yalcintas-Arslan, Ulku ; Budakoglu, Burcin ; Oksuzoglu, Berna ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 533~537
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.533
Background: Malignant melanoma is a cancer that demonstrates rapid progression and atypical clinically features with a poor prognosis. Aim: This study was performed to determine the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with malignant melanoma in Turkey. Methods: The medical records of 98 patients between 2007-2012 at our centers were retrieved from the patient registry. Overall survival (OS) was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: In our study, with the median follow-up of all patients with cutaneous MM of 46.3 months, the median OS rate of all cases was 43.6 months and 5-year OS was 48.6%. However, five-year OS rates of patients with localized disease (stage I-II) and node involvement (stage III) were 60.3% and 39.6%, respectively. The median OS of stage IV patients was 8.7 months and 1-year OS rate was 26.2%. We showed that advanced stage, male gender, and advanced age in all patients with MM were significant prognostic factors of OS. Conclusions: Compared with the results of current studies from Western countries, we found similar findings concerning demographical features, histological variables and survival analyses for our patients with cutaneous MM in Turkey.
Factors Predictive of Treatment by Australian Breast Surgeons of Invasive Female Breast Cancer by Mastectomy rather than Breast Conserving Surgery
Roder, David ; Zorbas, Helen ; Kollias, James ; Pyke, Chris ; Walters, David ; Campbell, Ian ; Taylor, Corey ; Webster, Fleur ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 539~545
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.539
Background: The National Breast Cancer Audit Database of the Society of Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand is used by surgeons to monitor treatment quality and for research. About 60% of early invasive female breast cancers in Australia are recorded. The objectives of this study are: (1) to investigate associations of socio-demographic, health-system and clinical characteristics with treatment of invasive female breast cancer by mastectomy compared with breast conserving surgery; and (2) to consider service delivery implications. Materials and Methods: Bi-variable and multivariable analyses of associations of characteristics with surgery type for cancers diagnosed in 1998-2010. Results: Of 30,299 invasive cases analysed, 11,729 (39%) were treated by mastectomy as opposed to breast conserving surgery. This proportion did not vary by diagnostic year (p>0.200). With major city residence as the reference category, the relative rate (95% confidence limits) of mastectomy was 1.03 (0.99, 1.07) for women from inner regional areas and 1.05 (1.01, 1.10) for those from more remote areas. Low annual surgeon case load (
) was predictive of mastectomy, with a relative rate of 1.08 (1.03, 1.14) when compared with higher case loads. Tumour size was also predictive, with a relative rate of 1.05 (1.01, 1.10) for large cancers (40+ mm) compared with smaller cancers (<30 mm). These associations were confirmed in multiple logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: Results confirm previous studies showing higher mastectomy rates for residents of more remote areas, those treated by surgeons with low case loads, and those with large cancers. Reasons require further study, including possible effects of surgeon and woman's choice and access to radiotherapy services.
Risk Factors for Poorer Breast Cancer Outcomes in Residents of Remote Areas of Australia
Roder, David ; Zorbas, Helen ; Kollias, James ; Pyke, Chris ; Walters, David ; Campbell, Ian ; Taylor, Corey ; Webster, Fleur ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 547~552
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.547
To investigate patient, cancer and treatment characteristics in females with breast cancer from more remote areas of Australia, to better understand reasons for their poorer outcomes, bi-variable and multivariable analyses were undertaken using the National Breast Cancer Audit database of the Society of Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand. Results indicated that patients from more remote areas were more likely to be of lower socio-economic status and be treated in earlier diagnostic epochs and at inner regional and remote rather than major city centres. They were also more likely to be treated by low case load surgeons, although this finding was only of marginal statistical significance in multivariable analysis (p=0.074). Patients from more remote areas were less likely than those from major cities to be treated by breast conserving surgery, as opposed to mastectomy, and less likely to have adjuvant radiotherapy when having breast conserving surgery. They had a higher rate of adjuvant chemotherapy. Further monitoring will be important to determine whether breast conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy utilization increase in rural patients following the introduction of regional cancer centres recently funded to improve service access in these areas.
Clinicopathological Features and Localization of Gastric Cancers and their Effects on Survival in Turkey
Selcukbiricik, Fatih ; Tural, Deniz ; Bilici, Ahmet ; Uzel, Esengul Kocak ; Ozguroglu, Mustafa ; Demirelli, Fuat ; Buyukunal, Evin ; Serdengecti, Suheyla ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 553~556
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.553
Background: This study was designed to examine changing trends in localization of gastric cancer in Turkey in recent years. Materials and Methods: A total of 796 adult patients with newly diagnosed, histologically proven adenocarcinomas, treated and followed up at our oncology center between 2000-2011, were examined retrospectively. In all cases tumor localization were identified and recorded with clinicopathological features. Results: The median age was 58 with a range between 22-90 for the 552 men and 244 women. Median follow up was 12 months (1-276) and median overall survival was also 12 months (11.5-12.4). There was a trend for a change in tumor localization from distal to proximal. Survival of patients was low with advanced T and N stage tumours. Positive surgical margins, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, cardioesophageal localization were predisposition factors for metastatic disease in gastric cancer. There was no relation between age or sex and histopathological type of gastric cancer. Conclusions: There is a trend in our country for a change in gastric tumour localization from distal to proximal, with clear significance for treatment choices.
Gene Expression Profiling of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma
Subrungruang, Ittisak ; Thawornkuno, Charin ; Chawalitchewinkoon-Petmitr, Porntip ; Pairojkul, Chawalit ; Wongkham, Sopit ; Petmitr, Songsak ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 557~563
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.557
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is ranked as one of the top five causes of cancer-related deaths. ICC in Thai patients is associated with infection with the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, but the molecular basis for development remains unclear. The present study employed a microarray approach to compare gene expression profiles of ICCs and normal liver tissues from the same patients residing in Northeast Thailand, a region with a high prevalence of liver fluke infection. In ICC samples, 2,821 and 1,361 genes were found to be significantly up- and down-regulated respectively (unpaired t-test, p<0.05; fold-change
). For validation of the microarray results, 7 up-regulated genes (FXYD3, GPRC5A, CEACAM5, MUC13, EPCAM, TMC5, and EHF) and 3 down-regulated genes (CPS1, TAT, and ITIH1) were selected for confirmation using quantitative RT-PCR, resulting in 100% agreement. The metallothionine heavy metal pathway contains the highest percentage of genes with statistically significant changes in expression. This study provides exon-level expression profiles in ICC that should be fruitful in identifying novel genetic markers for classifying and possibly early diagnosis of this highly fatal type of cholangiocarcinoma.
Development and Validation of a Cancer Awareness Questionnaire for Malaysian Undergraduate Students of Chinese Ethnicity
Loo, Jo Lin ; Ang, Yee Kwang ; Yim, Hip Seng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 565~570
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.565
Objectives: To describe the development and validation of a cancer awareness questionnaire (CAQ) based on a literature review of previous studies, focusing on cancer awareness and prevention. Materials and Methods: A total of 388 Chinese undergraduate students in a private university in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were recruited to evaluate the developed self-administered questionnaire. The CAQ consisted of four sections: awareness of cancer warning signs and screening tests; knowledge of cancer risk factors; barriers in seeking medical advice; and attitudes towards cancer and cancer prevention. The questionnaire was evaluated for construct validity using principal component analysis and internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha (
) coefficient. Test-retest reliability was assessed with a 10-14 days interval and measured using Pearson product-moment correlation. Results: The initial 77-item CAQ was reduced to 63 items, with satisfactory construct validity, and a high total internal consistency (Cronbach's
=0.77). A total of 143 students completed the questionnaire for the test-retest reliability obtaining a correlation of 0.72 (p<0.001) overall. Conclusions: The CAQ could provide a reliable and valid measure that can be used to assess cancer awareness among local Chinese undergraduate students. However, further studies among students from different backgrounds (e.g. ethnicity) are required in order to facilitate the use of the cancer awareness questionnaire among all university students.
Social Support and Hopelessness in Patients with Breast Cancer
Oztunc, Gursel ; Yesil, Pinar ; Paydas, Semra ; Erdogan, Semra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 571~578
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.571
Background: Patients with breast cancer can experience a feeling of hopelessness very deeply in the adjustment process, and the social support provided during this period can be effective in increasing the level of hope. The present study aimed to identify breast cancer patients' social support and hopelessness level. Materials and Methods: The target population of this analytical study was all breast cancer patients (total of 85) who had treatment in the oncology department of a university hospital located in Adana/Turkey and who met the inclusion criteria. Data were collected through "Personal Information Form", "Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS)" and "Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support" (MSPSS). Analysis was performed using Shapiro Wilk, One Way ANOVA Welch, Student t-test, Mann Whitney U, and Kruskall Wallis tests. Homogeneity of variance was tested with the Levene, Bonferroni and Games Howell tests. Mean scores and standard deviation values are given as descriptive statistics. Results: Average age of the participants with breast cancer is
. Of all the participants, 84.7% are married, 49.4% graduated from primary school, 81.2% are housewives, and 82.4% had children. The participants' multidimensional perceived social support total scores were found to be high (
) and hopelessness scale scores low (
). There was a reverse, linear relationship between hopelessness scale scores and social support total scores (r=-0.259, p=0.017). A statistically significant relationship was found between hopelessness scores and education level and having children, occupation, income status, and education level of spouses (p<0.05). Conclusions: The present study indicates that hopelessness of the patients with breast cancer decreased with the increase in their social support. Therefore, activating patient social support systems is of importance in increasing their level of hope.
Frequency of Cigarette Smoking Among Psychiatric Inpatients Evaluated by the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence
Tanriover, Ozlem ; Karamustafalioglu, Nesrin ; Tezvaran, Zehra ; Kaplan, Asli ; Tomruk, Nesrin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 579~582
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.579
Background: In this study our aim was to determine the rate of smoking in a sample of psychiatric in-patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression and to examine factors related to smoking status and the level of dependence in this population. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 people were included in this descriptive study. 80 were inpatients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression and 80 people without any psychiatric diagnoses were included as a control group. The participants were interviewed face-to face using a semi-structured questionnaire and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence was used to define smoking habits. Results: The mean age of the participants was
years ranging from 18 to 81 years, 54.4% of the participants were (n=87) female, and 45.6% cases (n=73) were male. 70% (n=56) of the patients and 55% of the control group were smoking and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.01). Total score of Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence in the patient group was statistically significantly higher than in the control group (p<0.01). Conclusions: In our sample, the frequency of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence among psychiatric inpatients was high, posing a high risk for smoking related diseases including cancers; therefore there should be counseling on tobacco control and smoking cessation programming targeting this population.
Chalkley Microvessel but not Lymphatic Vessel Density Correlates with Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Primary Breast Cancers
Kanngurn, Samornmas ; Thongsuksai, Paramee ; Chewatanakornkul, Siripong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 583~587
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.583
This study aimed to investigate tumor microvessel density (MVD) and lymphatic vessel density (LVD) using the Chalkley method as predictive markers for the risk of axillary lymph node metastasis and their relationship to other clinicopathological parameters in primary breast cancer cases. Forty two node-positive and eighty node-negative breast cancers were immunostained for CD34 and D2-40. MVD and LVD were counted by the Chalkley method at x400 magnification. There was a positive significant correlation of the MVD with the tumor size, coexisting ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lymph node metastases (P<0.05). In multivariate analysis, the MVD (2.86-4: OR 5.87 95%CI 1.05-32; >4: OR 20.03 95%CI 3.47-115.55), lymphovascular invasion (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.13-10.58), and associated DCIS (OR 3.1, 95%CI 1.04-9.23) independently predicted axillary lymph node metastasis. There was no significant relationship between LVD and axillary lymph node metastasis. However, D2-40 was a good lymphatic vessel marker to enhance the detection of lymphatic invasion compared to H and E staining. In conclusion, MVD by the Chalkley method, lymphovascular invasion and associated DCIS can be additional predictive factors for axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer. No relationship was identified between LVD and clinicopathological variables, including axillary lymph node metastasis.
Effect of Screening on the Risk Estimates of Socio Demographic Factors on Cervical Cancer - A Large Cohort Study from Rural India
Thulaseedharan, Jissa Vinoda ; Malila, Nea ; Hakama, Matti ; Esmy, Pulikottil Okuru ; Cherian, Mary ; Swaminathan, Rajaraman ; Muwonge, Richard ; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswami ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 589~594
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.589
Background: Prospective cohort studies to determine cofactors with oncogenic HPV-infections for cervical cancer are very rare from developing countries and such data are limited to the few screening trials. Large screening trials provide such data as a by product. Some of the cases are prevented by screening and do not surface as invasive cancers at all. Also, pre-invasive lesions are detected almost entirely by screening. Screening causes selection bias if attendance in or effectiveness of screening is correlated with the risk factors. The aim of this study was to quantify the influence of screening on risk factors for cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Our material stems from a rural cohort of 80,000 women subjected to a randomised screening trial. The effect of screening on the incidence of cervix cancer was estimated with reference to socio-demographic and reproductive risk factors of cervical cancer. We compared these risks with the incidence of cancer in the randomised control population by the same determinants of risk. Results: The results in the screening arm compared to the control arm showed that the women of low SES and young age were benefitting more than those of high SES and old age. The relative risk by age (30-39 vs 50-59) was 0.33 in the control arm and 0.24 in the screening arm. The relative risk by education (not educated vs educated) was 2.8 in the control arm and 1.8 in the screening arm. The previously married women did not benefit (incidence 113 and 115 per 100,000 women years in control vs screening arms) whereas the effect was substantial in those married (86 vs 54). Conclusions: The results in controls were consistent with the general evidence, but results in attenders and nonattenders of the screening arm showed that screening itself and self-selection in attendance and effectiveness can influence the effect estimates of risk factors. The effect of cervical cancer screening programmes on the estimates of incidence of cervical cancer causes bias in the studies on etiology and, therefore, they should be interpreted with caution.
Early Detection of Lung Cancer Risk Using Data Mining
Ahmed, Kawsar ; Abdullah-Al-Emran, Abdullah-Al-Emran ; Jesmin, Tasnuba ; Mukti, Roushney Fatima ; Rahman, Md. Zamilur ; Ahmed, Farzana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 595~598
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.595
Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide Therefore, identification of genetic as well as environmental factors is very important in developing novel methods of lung cancer prevention. However, this is a multi-layered problem. Therefore a lung cancer risk prediction system is here proposed which is easy, cost effective and time saving. Materials and Methods: Initially 400 cancer and non-cancer patients' data were collected from different diagnostic centres, pre-processed and clustered using a K-means clustering algorithm for identifying relevant and non-relevant data. Next significant frequent patterns are discovered using AprioriTid and a decision tree algorithm. Results: Finally using the significant pattern prediction tools for a lung cancer prediction system were developed. This lung cancer risk prediction system should prove helpful in detection of a person's predisposition for lung cancer. Conclusions: Most of people of Bangladesh do not even know they have lung cancer and the majority of cases are diagnosed at late stages when cure is impossible. Therefore early prediction of lung cancer should play a pivotal role in the diagnosis process and for an effective preventive strategy.
Cytohistologic Discrepancy of High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in Papanicolaou Smears
Poomtavorn, Yenrudee ; Himakhun, Wanwisa ; Suwannarurk, Komsun ; Thaweekul, Yuthadej ; Maireang, Karicha ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 599~602
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.599
Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of cytohistologic discrepancy of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) in Pap smears and associated factors. Methods: Medical records of 223 women with HSIL Pap smears who were treated at Thammasat University Hospital were reviewed. Data on age, parity, menopausal status, contraceptive use and colposcopic directed biopsy and loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) pathology results were recorded. Results: Mean (SD) age of patients was 38.0 (9.4) years. The majority were premenopausal (86.5%) and multiparous (83.9%). Cytohistologic discrepancy between the Pap test and colposcopic-directed biopsy histology was 45.7% and that between the Pap test and LEEP histology was 29.5%. Fifty-four (24.2%) women had no high-grade CIN on both colposcopic directed biopsy and LEEP. Nulliparity, postmenopausal status and having no oral contraceptive pills use were factors associated with cytohistologic discrepancy. Conclusion: The exact cytohistologic discrepancy rate was relatively high (24.2%). Factors associated with cytohistologic discrepancy were nulliparity and postmenopausal status and having no oral contraceptive pill use.
Role of Ultrasound in Characterization of Ovarian Masses
Hafeez, Saima ; Sufian, Saira ; Beg, Madiha ; Hadi, Quratulain ; Jamil, Yasir ; Masroor, Imrana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 603~606
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.603
Background: Ovarian cancer is the second most common malignancy in Pakistani women, accounting for 4% of all cancers in the female population. The aim of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and 95% confidence intervals for ultrasound in characterization of ovarian masses in patients presenting at public and private tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: We adopted a cross-sectional analytical study design to retrospectively collect data from January 2009-11 from medical records of two tertiary care hospitals. Using a non-probability purposive sampling technique, we recruited a sample of 86 women aged between 15 and 85 years fulfilling inclusion criteria with histopathologically proven ovarian masses presenting for an ultrasound examination in our radiology departments. Results: Our retrospective data depicted sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound to be 90.7%, 95%CI (0.77, 0.97) and 91.4%, 95%CI (0.76, 0.98) respectively. Positive predictive value was 93%, 95%CI (0.79, 0.98) and negative predictive value was 89%, 95%CI (0.73, 0.96). A total of 78 ovarian masses were detected, out of which 42 were malignant and 36 were benign. Conclusions: Results of our study further reinforce the conclusion that ultrasound should be used as an initial modality of choice in the workup of every woman suspected of having an ovarian mass. It not only results in decreasing the mortality but also avoids unnecessary surgical interventions.
Does Zoledronic Acid Have Additive Effect on Suppression of Plasma Estrogen Levels ?
Sendur, Mehmet Ali Nahit ; Aksoy, Sercan ; Ozdemir, Nuriye Yildirim ; Akinci, Muhammed Bulent ; Zengin, Nurullah ; Altundag, Kadri ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 1, 2013, Pages 607~608
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.607