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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 14, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 14, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 14, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 14, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 14, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 14, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Cruciferous Vegetables: Dietary Phytochemicals for Cancer Prevention
Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal ; Noor, Noramaliza Mohd ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1565~1570
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1565
Relationships between diet and health have attracted attention for centuries; but links between diet and cancer have been a focus only in recent decades. The consumption of diet-containing carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines is most closely correlated with increasing cancer risk. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that consumption of dietary phytochemicals found in vegetables and fruit can decrease cancer incidence. Among the various vegetables, broccoli and other cruciferous species appear most closely associated with reduced cancer risk in organs such as the colorectum, lung, prostate and breast. The protecting effects against cancer risk have been attributed, at least partly, due to their comparatively high amounts of glucosinolates, which differentiate them from other vegetables. Glucosinolates, a class of sulphur-containing glycosides, present at substantial amounts in cruciferous vegetables, and their breakdown products such as the isothiocyanates, are believed to be responsible for their health benefits. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive effect of these compounds are likely to be manifold, possibly concerning very complex interactions, and thus difficult to fully understand. Therefore, this article provides a brief overview about the mechanism of such compounds involved in modulation of carcinogen metabolising enzyme systems.
Progress on Understanding the Anticancer Mechanisms of Medicinal Mushroom: Inonotus Obliquus
Song, Fu-Qiang ; Liu, Ying ; Kong, Xiang-Shi ; Chang, Wei ; Song, Ge ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1571~1578
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1571
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Recently, the demand for more effective and safer therapeutic agents for the chemoprevention of human cancer has increased. As a white rot fungus, Inonotus obliquus is valued as an edible and medicinal resource. Chemical investigations have shown that I. obliquus produces a diverse range of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Among these are active components for antioxidant, antitumoral, and antiviral activities and for improving human immunity against infection of pathogenic microbes. Importantly, their anticancer activities have become a hot recently, but with relatively little knowledge of their modes of action. Some compounds extracted from I. obliquus arrest cancer cells in the G0/G1 phase and then induce cell apoptosis or differentiation, whereas some examples directly participate in the cell apoptosis pathway. In other cases, polysaccharides from I. obliquus can indirectly be involved in anticancer processes mainly via stimulating the immune system. Furthermore, the antioxidative ability of I. obliquus extracts can prevent generation of cancer cells. In this review, we highlight recent findings regarding mechanisms underlying the anticancer influence of I. obliquus, to provide a comprehensive landscape view of the actions of this mushroom in preventing cancer.
Expression and Role of ICAM-1 in the Occurrence and Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Zhu, Xi-Wen ; Gong, Jian-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1579~1583
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1579
Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, its main function being to participate in recognition and adhesion between cells. ICAM-1 is considered closely related to occurrence, development, metastasis and invasion process of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A variety of inflammatory cytokines and stimulus affect its expression through the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-
) signal transduction pathway. In the initial stage of inflammation, hepatocirrhosis and tumor development, ICAM-1 is expressed differently, and has varied effects on different cells to promote occurrence of malignancy and metastasis. ICAM-1 has diagnostic significance for AFP-negative or suspected HCC, and may be a prognositic significance. It is thus widely used in studies as a biomarker which reflects cancer cells metastasis as well as curative effect of drugs. Many new treatments of HCC may be based on the effects of ICAM-1 on different levels of function.
Strategies of Functional Food for Cancer Prevention in Human Beings
Zeng, Ya-Wen ; Yang, Jia-Zheng ; Pu, Xiao-Ying ; Du, Juan ; Yang, Tao ; Yang, Shu-Ming ; Zhu, Wei-Hua ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1585~1592
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1585
Functional food for prevention of chronic diseases is one of this century's key global challenges. Cancer is not only the first or second leading cause of death in China and other countries across the world, but also has diet as one of the most important modifiable risk factors. Major dietary factors now known to promote cancer development are polished grain foods and low intake of fresh vegetables, with general importance for an unhealthy lifestyle and obesity. The strategies of cancer prevention in human being are increased consumption of functional foods like whole grains (brown rice, barley, and buckwheat) and by-products, as well some vegetables (bitter melon, garlic, onions, broccoli, and cabbage) and mushrooms (boletes and Tricholoma matsutake). In addition some beverages (green tea and coffee) may be protective. Southwest China (especially Yunnan Province) is a geographical area where functional crop production is closely related to the origins of human evolution with implications for anticancer influence.
Palliative Treatment of Advanced Cervical Cancer with Radiotherapy and Thai Herbal Medicine as Supportive Remedy - Analysis of Survival
Pesee, Montien ; Kirdpon, Wichit ; Puapairoj, Anucha ; Kirdpon, Sukachart ; Prathnadi, Pongsiri ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1593~1596
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1593
Background: To evaluate outcomes using a Thai herbal medicine, Vilac Plus (G716/45) with standard radiotherapy in comparison with historic controls from literature reports of the results of treatment in stage IIIB cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Between March 2003 and June 2005, thirty patients with advanced cervical cancer stage IIIB-IV who had a poor performance status were treated by palliative radiotherapy along with an adjuvant daily dose of 15-30 ml of Thai herbal tonic solution (Vilac Plus G716/45) administered orally three times after meals as an additional supportive therapy. The results were analyzed from the aspect of the overall survival rates with curves estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results:.The median follow -up time for stage IIIB was 4.2 years with a range of 7.9 months - 6.1 years. The overall 1, 3, and 5 year survival rates for stage IIIB were 88%, 60% and 52%. Conclusions: The overall 5 year survival rate for stage IIIB with a poor performance status was 52% when compared with 34-54.8% for historic controls. The combined complementary palliative radiotherapy (CCPR) had low rates of radiation morbidity. It was a simple technique and feasible for developing countries. The pilot study was limited by the small number of patients and further research will be necessary to assess interrelated and confounding factors in treatment of cervical cancer patients.
Serum Levels of CA15-3, AFP, CA19-9 and CEA Tumor Markers in Cancer Care and Treatment of Patients with Impaired Renal Function on Hemodialysis
Estakhri, Rasoul ; Ghahramanzade, Ali ; Vahedi, Amir ; Nourazarian, Alireza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1597~1599
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1597
Since renal failure causes decrease in tumor marker excretion, use of these markers in cancer care and treatment in patients with renal insufficiency or hemodialysis is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate differences of serum levels of tumor markers CA15-3, AFP, CA19-9 and CEA in patients with impaired renal function. A total of 100 patients referred to the Tabriz Immam Reza and Amiralmomenin hospital from June 2010 to November 2011 were selected for study. Subjects were divided to 3 groups of healthy, dialysis and renal failure but non hemodialysis cases, the last category being re-grouped based on creatinine clearance. No significant relationship between different groups in serum levels of CEA (P=0.99) and CA19-9 (P=0.29) tumor markers was found. A significant correlation was observed between serum levels of AFP (P<0.001) and CA15-3 (P<0.001) and also a tendency between creatinine clearance and CEA (r=0.05, P=0.625). Creatinine clearance significantly correlated with AFP (P<0.001, r=0.53) and CA15-3 (p=0.00, r=-0.412), but not CA19-9 (P=0.089, r=-0.171). According to results of this study it appears that use of tumor markers in patients with impaired renal function should be performed with special precautions.
Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer Patients: Prognostic Predictive Role
Turker, Ibrahim ; Uyeturk, Ummugul ; Sonmez, Ozlem Uysal ; Oksuzoglu, Berna ; Helvaci, Kaan ; Arslan, Ulku Yalcintas ; Budakoglu, Burcin ; Alkis, Necati ; Aksoy, Sercan ; Zengin, Nurullah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1601~1607
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1601
A determination of circulating tumor cell (CTC) effectiveness for prediction of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was conducted as an adjunct to standard treatment of care in breast cancer management. Between November 2008 and March 2009, 22 metastatic and 12 early stage breast carcinoma patients, admitted to Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, were included in this prospective trial. Patients' characteristics, treatment schedules and survival data were evaluated. CTC was detected twice by CellSearch method before and 9-12 weeks after the initiation of chemotherapy. A cut-off value equal or greater than 5 cells per 7.5 ml blood sample was considered positive. All patients were female. Median ages were 48.0 (range: 29-65) and 52.5 (range: 35-66) in early stage and metastatic subgroups, respectively. CTC was positive in 3 (13.6%) patients before chemotherapy and 6 (27.3%) patients during chemotherapy in the metastatic subgroup whereas positive in only one patient in the early stage subgroup before and during chemotherapy. The median follow-up was 22.0 (range: 21-23) and 19.0 (range: 5-23) months in the early stage and metastatic groups, respectively. In the metastatic group, both median PFS and OS were significantly shorter in any time CTC positive patients compared to CTC negative patients (PFS: 4.0 vs 14.0 months, Log-Rank p=0.013; and OS: 8.0 months vs. 20.5 months, Log-Rank p<0.001). OS was affected from multiple visceral metastatic sites (p=0.055) and higher grade (p=0.044) besides CTC positivity (log rank p<0.001). Radiological response of chemotherapy was also correlated with better survival (p<0.001). As a result, CTC positivity was confirmed as a prospective marker even in a small patient population, in this single center study. Measurement of CTC by CellSearch method in metastatic breast carcinoma cases may allow indications of early risk of relapse or death with even as few as two measurements during a chemotherapy program, but this finding should be confirmed with prospective trials in larger study populations.
Influence of Intravenous Contrast Medium on Dose Calculation Using CT in Treatment Planning for Oesophageal Cancer
Li, Hong-Sheng ; Chen, Jin-Hu ; Zhang, Wei ; Shang, Dong-Ping ; Li, Bao-Sheng ; Sun, Tao ; Lin, Xiu-Tong ; Yin, Yong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1609~1614
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1609
Objective: To evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast on dose calculation in radiation treatment planning for oesophageal cancer. Methods: A total of 22 intravein-contrasted patients with oesophageal cancer were included. The Hounsfield unit (HU) value of the enhanced blood stream in thoracic great vessels and heart was overridden with 45 HU to simulate the non-contrast CT image, and 145 HU, 245 HU, 345 HU, and 445 HU to model the different contrast-enhanced scenarios. 1000 HU and -1000 HU were used to evaluate two non-physiologic extreme scenarios. Variation in dose distribution of the different scenarios was calculated to quantify the effect of contrast enhancement. Results: In the contrast-enhanced scenarios, the mean variation in dose for planning target volume (PTV) was less than 1.0%, and those for the total lung and spinal cord were less than 0.5%. When the HU value of the blood stream exceeded 245 the average variation exceeded 1.0% for the heart V40. In the non-physiologic extreme scenarios, the dose variation of PTV was less than 1.0%, while the dose calculations of the organs at risk were greater than 2.0%. Conclusions: The use of contrast agent does not significantly influence dose calculation of PTV, lung and spinal cord. However, it does have influence on dose accuracy for heart.
Prognostic Value of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Expression in Breast Cancer Patients: A Meta-analysis
Song, Jian ; Su, Hong ; Zhou, Yang-Yang ; Guo, Liang-Liang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1615~1621
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1615
Background: Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is related to tumor invasion and metastasis. However, the role of MMP-9 expression in breast cancer survival remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to accomplish a more accurate estimation of the association between MMP-9 expression and survival results in breast cancer patients through meta-analysis. Methods: A meta-analysis of published studies investigating the effects of positive MMP-9 expression on both relapse free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) was performed. Relevant literature was confirmed by searching electronic databases including PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) before November 1, 2012. Individual hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted and pooled HRs with 95% CIs were used to evaluate the strength of the association between positive MMP-9 expression and survival results of breast cancer patients. Funnel plot and Egger's regression tests were used to evaluate publication bias. Heterogeneity and sensitivity analysis was also conducted. All the work was completed using STATA. Results: A total of 2,344 patients from 15 evaluative studies were finally included. Pooled HRs and 95% CIs suggested that MMP-9 overexpression had an unfavorable impact on both OS (HR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.41-2.04) and RFS (HR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.17-2.01) in breast cancer patients. There was no significant heterogeneity observed in the studies reported for OS (P=0.360,
=8.8%), but not RFS (P=0.002,
=67%). Publication bias was absent among the studies both in OS and RFS cases (t=-0.54, P=0.605 and t=1.71, P=0.131, respectively). Omission of any single study had little effect on the combined risk estimates on sensitivity analysis. Conclusion: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that positive MMP-9 expression confers a higher risk of relapse and a worse survival in patients with breast cancer. Larger prospective studies are now needed to evaluate the clinical utility of MMP-9 expression.
Factors Affecting Survival Time of Cholangiocarcinoma Patients: A Prospective Study in Northeast Thailand
Woradet, Somkiattiyos ; Promthet, Supannee ; Songserm, Nopparat ; Parkin, Donald Maxwell ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1623~1627
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1623
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a major health problem and cause of death among people in Northeastern Thailand. In this prospective study 171 patients newly diagnosed with CCA by physicians in 5 tertiary hospitals in four provinces of northeastern of Thailand between February and July 2011 were followed up to January 2012. The outcome was survival time from diagnosis to death. A total of 758.4 person-months of follow-up were available. The mortality rate was 16.9 per 100 person-months (95%CI: 14.1-20.1). The median survival time among CCA patients was 4.3 months (95%CI: 3.3-5.1). Cox's proportional hazard model was used to study the independent effects of factors affecting survival time among patients. Statistically significant factors included advanced stage at diagnosis (HR: 2.5, 95%CI: 1.7-3.8), presentation with jaundice (HR: 1.7, 95%CI: 1.1-2.4) or ascites (HR: 2.8, 95%CI: 1.8-4.4), and positive serum carcinoembryonic antigen (HR: 2.3, 95%CI: 1.2-4.3). Patients who had received standard treatment had a better prognosis that those who did not (HR: 0.5, 95%CI: 0.3-0.7).
Comparison of Univariate and Multivariate Gene Set Analysis in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Soheila, Khodakarim ; Hamid, AlaviMajd ; Farid, Zayeri ; Mostafa, Rezaei-Tavirani ; Nasrin, Dehghan-Nayeri ; Syyed-Mohammad, Tabatabaee ; Vahide, Tajalli ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1629~1633
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1629
Background: Gene set analysis (GSA) incorporates biological with statistical knowledge to identify gene sets which are differentially expressed that between two or more phenotypes. Materials and Methods: In this paper gene sets differentially expressed between acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) with BCR-ABL and those with no observed cytogenetic abnormalities were determined by GSA methods. The BCR-ABL is an abnormal gene found in some people with ALL. Results: The results of two GSAs showed that the Category test identified 30 gene sets differentially expressed between two phenotypes, while the Hotelling's
could discover just 19 gene sets. On the other hand, assessment of common genes among significant gene sets showed that there were high agreement between the results of GSA and the findings of biologists. In addition, the performance of these methods was compared by simulated and ALL data. Conclusions: The results on simulated data indicated decrease in the type I error rate and increase the power in multivariate (Hotelling's
) test as increasing the correlation between gene pairs in contrast to the univariate (Category) test.
Antigenic Proteins of Helicobacter pylori of Potential Diagnostic Value
Khalilpour, Akbar ; Santhanam, Amutha ; Lee, Chun Wei ; Saadatnia, Geita ; Velusamy, Nagarajan ; Osman, Sabariah ; Mohamad, Ahmad Munir ; Noordin, Rahmah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1635~1642
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1635
Helicobacter pylori antigen was prepared from an isolate from a patient with a duodenal ulcer. Serum samples were obtained from culture-positive H. pylori infected patients with duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers and gastritis (n=30). As controls, three kinds of sera without detectable H. pylori IgG antibodies were used: 30 from healthy individuals without history of gastric disorders, 30 from patients who were seen in the endoscopy clinic but were H. pylori culture negative and 30 from people with other diseases. OFF-GEL electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and Western blots of individual serum samples were used to identify protein bands with good sensitivity and specificity when probed with the above sera and HRP-conjugated anti-human IgG. Four H. pylori protein bands showed good (
70%) sensitivity and high specificity (98-100%) towards anti-Helicobacter IgG antibody in culture-positive patients sera and control sera, respectively. The identities of the antigenic proteins were elucidated by mass spectrometry. The relative molecular weights and the identities of the proteins, based on MALDI TOF/TOF, were as follows: CagI (25 kDa), urease G accessory protein (25 kDa), UreB (63 kDa) and proline/pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (118 KDa). These identified proteins, singly and/or in combinations, may be useful for diagnosis of H. pylori infection in patients.
Scoring System and Management Algorithm Assessing the Role of Survivin Expression in Predicting Progressivity of HPV Infections in Precancerous Cervical Lesions
Indarti, Junita ; Aziz, M. Farid ; Suryawati, Bethy ; Fernando, Darrell ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1643~1647
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1643
Background: To identify the risk factors and assess the role of survivin in predicting progessivity precancerous cervical lesions. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted from October 2009 until May 2010. We obtained 74 samples, classified according to the degree of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN): 19 samples for CIN 1, 18 samples for CIN 2, 18 samples for CIN 3, and 19 samples as controls. Demographic profiles and risk factors assesment, histopathologic examination, HPV DNA tests, immunocytochemistry (ICC) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for survivin expression were performed on all samples. Data was analyzed with bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Multivariate analysis revealed significant risk factors for developing precancerous cervical lesions are age <41 years, women with
sexual partners, course of education
years, use of oral contraceptives, positive high-risk HPV DNA, and high survivin expression by ICC or IHC staining. These factors were fit to a prediction model and we obtained a scoring system to predict the progressivity of CIN lesions. Conclusions: Determination of survivin expression by immunocytochemistry staining, along with other significant risk factors, can be used in a scoring system to predict the progressivity of CIN lesions. Application of this scoring system may be beneficial in determining the action of therapy towards the patient.
Clinical Application of Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization Combined with Synchronous C-arm Cone-Beam CT Guided Radiofrequency Ablation in treatment of Large Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Wang, Zhi-Jun ; Wang, Mao-Qiang ; Duan, Feng ; Song, Peng ; Liu, Feng-Yong ; Wang, Yan ; Yan, Jie-Yu ; Li, Kai ; Yuan, Kai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1649~1654
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1649
Objective: This work aimed to evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with c-arm cone-beam CT guided synchronous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in treatment of large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: 21 patients with large HCC were studied from January 2010 to March 2012. TACE combined with synchronous C-arm cone-beam CT guided RFA were performed on a total of 25 lesions. Conventional imaging examination (CEUS, enhanced CT or MRI) and AFP detection were regularly conducted to evaluate the technical success rate of combined treatment, complications, treatment response, time without disease recurrence and survival rate. Results: The technical success rate of combined treatment was 100%, without any significant complication. After 1 month, there were 19 cases with complete response and 2 cases with partial response, with an complete response rate of 90.4% (19/21) and a clinical effective rate of 100% (21/21). The complete response rates of single nodular lesions (100%, 17/17) was significantly higher than that of multiple nodular lesions (50%, 2/4) (P<0. 05). During 2 to 28 months of follow-up, in 19 cases with complete response, the average time without disease recurrence was
months. The total survival rates of 6, 12 and 18 months in 21 patients were 100%, respectively. Conclusion: TACE combined with synchronous C-arm CT guided RFA is safe and effective for treatment of large HCC. The treatment efficacy for single nodular lesion is better than that for multiple nodular lesions.
Quantification of Her-2/Neu Gene in Breast Cancer Patients using Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Q-PCR) and Correlation with Immunohistochemistry Findings
Abdul Murad, Nor Azian ; Razak, Zuraini Abdul ; Hussain, Rosniza Muhammmad ; Syed Hussain, Sharifah Noor Akmal ; Ching Huat, Clarence Ko ; Siti Aishah, Che Md. Ali ; Abdullah, Norlia ; Muhammad, Rohaizak ; Ibrahim, Naqiyah ; Jamal, Rahman ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1655~1659
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1655
Background: HER-2/neu is a proto-oncogene that encodes a transmembrane tyrosine kinase growth factor which is crucial for stimulating growth and cellular motility. Overexpression of HER-2/neu is observed in 10-35% of human breast cancers and is associated with pathogenesis, prognosis as well as response to therapy. Given the imperative role of HER-2/neu overexpression in breast cancer, it is important to determine the magnitude of amplification which may facilitate a better prognosis as well as personalized therapy in affected patients. In this study, we determined HER-2/neu protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) concurrently with HER-2/neu DNA amplification by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Materials and Methods: A total of 53 paired tissue samples from breast cancer patients were frozen-sectioned to characterize the tumour and normal tissues. Only tissues with 80% tumour cells were used in this study. For confirmation, Q-PCR was used to determine the HER-2/neu DNA amplification. Results: We found 20/53 (37.7%) of the tumour tissues to be positive for HER-2/neu protein overexpression using IHC. Out of these twenty, only 9/53 (17%) cases were in agreement with the Q-PCR results. The concordance rate between IHC and Q-PCR was 79.3%. Approximately 20.7% of positive IHC cases showed no HER-2/neu gene amplification using Q-PCR. Conclusion: In conclusion, IHC can be used as an initial screening method for detection of the HER-2/neu protein overexpression. Techniques such as Q-PCR should be employed to verify the IHC results for uncertain cases as well as determination of HER-2/neu gene amplification.
Personalized Cancer Treatment for Ovarian Cancer
Chumworathayi, Bandit ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1661~1664
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1661
Recently there have been numerous advances in understanding the genetic basis of cancer which have resulted in more appropriate treatments. In this paper we describe the experience of the Burzynski Clinic, involved in treatment of numerous patients based on personalized approach using novel combinations for difficult-to-treat malignancies, with gynecological cancers. This retrospective study was conducted by extracting data from Burzynski Clinic's medical records and comprehensive review. Among the advanced refractory ovarian cancers cases (N=33), an objective response (OR) was found in 42.4%. We anticipate that with improved technology and novel therapeutics this rate will increase and adverse events will be reduced.
Lymph Node Ratio Assessment of Brain Metastasis in Early Breast Cancer Cases
Demircioglu, Fatih ; Demirci, Umut ; Akmansu, Muge ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1665~1667
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1665
Background: Ten to 30% of early breast cancer (EBC) patients develop brain metastasis (BM) during their follow-up. In this study, we aimed to evaluate importance of the lymph node ratio (LNR) in development of BM in EBC cases. Materials and Methods: Ninety patients whom had axillary metastases in lymph nodes at their initial diagnosis and developed BM during 5-year follow-up were detected in 950 EBC patients. LNR values were calculated for all patients and after categorization into 4 molecular sub-types as luminal A, luminal B HER-2 (+), HER-2 overexpressing and basal- like. Comparison was with control group patients who had similar characteristics. Results: In the comparison of all molecular sub-types of LNR, 54.9% and 28.4% values were found in patients with and without BM respectively (p<0.001). In the comparison of the LNR with control groups, a statistically significant differences were found with luminal A with BM (p=0.001), luminal B HER-2 (p=0.001), HER-2 overexpressing (p=0.027) and basal-like groups (p<0.001). In the evaluation of patients with BM, the highest ratio was found in the basal-like group (67.9%) and there was a statistically significant difference between this group and the others (p=0.048). Conclusions: EBC patients developing BM within 5 years follow-up had significantly higher LNRs for all molecular sub-types, especially in the basal-like group. Larger scale studies are now needed for evaluating LNR prognostic importance for EBC regarding BM development.
Correlation of Cancer Incidence with Diet, Smoking and Socio-Economic Position Across 22 Districts of Tehran in 2008
Rohani-Rasaf, Marzieh ; Abdollahi, Morteza ; Jazayeri, Shima ; Kalantari, Naser ; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1669~1676
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1669
Background: Variation in cancer incidence in geographical locations is due to different lifestyles and risk factors. Diet and socio-economic position (SEP) have been identified as important for the etiology of cancer but patterns are changing and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate correlations of the incidence of common cancers with food groups, total energy, smoking, and SEP. Materials and Methods: In an ecological study, disaggregated cancer data through the National Cancer Registry in Iran (2008) and dietary intake, smoking habits and SEP obtained through a population based survey within the Urban Health Equity Assessment (Urban-HEART) project were correlated across 22 districts of Tehran. Results: Consumption of fruit, meat and dairy products adjusted for energy were positively correlated with bladder, colorectal, prostate and breast and total cancers in men and women, while these cancers were adversely correlated with bread and fat intake. Also prostate, breast, colorectal, bladder and ovarian cancers had a positive correlation with SEP; there was no correlation between SEP and skin cancer in both genders and stomach cancer in men. Conclusions: The incidence of cancer was higher in some regions of Tehran which appeared to be mainly determined by SEP rather than dietary intake. Further individual data are required to investigate reasons of cancer clustering.
Survival in Patients Treated with Definitive Chemo-Radiotherapy for Non-Metastatic Esophageal Cancer in North-West Iran
Mirinezhad, Seyed Kazem ; Somi, Mohammad Hossein ; Seyednezhad, Farshad ; Jangjoo, Amir Ghasemi ; Ghojazadeh, Morteza ; Mohammadzadeh, Mohammad ; Naseri, Ali Reza ; Nasiri, Behnam ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1677~1680
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1677
Background: Areas of Iran have among the highest incidences of esophageal cancer in the world. Definitive chemo-radiotherapy (DCRT) is used for locally advanced esophageal cancer and for inoperable tumors asan alternative to surgical treatment. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in North-West Iran 2006-2011, including 267 consecutive patients with non-metastatic esophageal cancer. Eligible inoperable patients were treated with DCRT or definitive radiotherapy (DRT) alone. Radiotherapy (RT) was delivered at 1.8-2 Gy/day for five consecutive days in a given week. Chemotherapy (CT) consisted of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. Results: The median survival was 12.7 months with 1, 3 and 5 year survival rates of 55%, 18% and 11%, respectively. On univariate analysis, relations with age at diagnosis (p=0.015), N-stage (p=0.04), total dose of RT (p=0.001), fraction (p<0.001), Gap status (p=0.025), chemotherapeutic regimens (P=0.027), and 5-Fu
(P=0.004) were apparent. Comparing DCRT to DRT, there was a significant difference in survival. Multivariate analysis was performed for comparison between DCRT and DRT showed significant association with age group
to <65 (P=0.02; OR: 1.46), the total RT dose (Gy)
to <50 (P=0.01; OR: 0.65) and the fraction group
to <25 (P=<0.001; OR: 0.54). Conclusions: The survival rates of esophageal cancer treated with DCRT in North West of Iran is poor; therefore, early detection and improved treatment methods, with clinical trials are a high priority.
Tissue Expression, Serum and Salivary Levels of IL-10 in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Hamzavi, Marzieh ; Tadbir, Azadeh Andisheh ; Rezvani, Gita ; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad ; Fattahi, Mohammad Javad ; Khademi, Bijan ; Sardari, Yasaman ; Jeirudi, Naghmeh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1681~1685
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1681
Background: Head and neck SCC is a common cancer related to various factors. IL-10, a pleiotropic cytokine produced by macrophages, T-helper-2 cells, and B lymphocytes, is thought to play a potential pathogenetic or therapeutic role in a number of human conditions, such as inflammation, autoimmunity and cancer. The present study was designed to evaluate the relation between tissue expression, serum and salivary levels of IL-10 in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) and their correlation with clinicopathologic features. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from 30 patients with HNSCCs and 24 healthy volunteers. IHC analysis was used to examine the tissue expression and ELISA was employed to measure serum and salivary levels. Results: Our study showed tissue expression of IL-10 to be significantily higher in patients (P: 0.001), but there was no relation between tissue expression, serum and salivary levels of the marker (P>0.05). Also except for a positive correlation between tissue expression of IL-10 and stage (P: 0.044), there was no relation between this marker and clinicopathologic features. There was no correlation between serum and salivary levels in either patients or controls. Conclusions: It seems there is no correlation between level of IL-10 in serum and saliva and this marker in saliva and serum does not reflect tissue expression.
Genetic Screening for Mutations in the Chip Gene in Intracranial Aneurysm Patients of Chinese Han Nationality
Su, Li ; Zhang, Yuan ; Zhang, Chun-Yang ; Zhang, An-Long ; Mei, Xiao-Long ; Zhao, Zhi-Jun ; Han, Jian-Guo ; Zhao, Li-Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1687~1689
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1687
We performed a case-control study to investigate whether SNPs of CHIP might affect the development of IA in Chinese Han nationality. We believe we are the first to have screened IA patients for mutations in the CHIP gene to determine the association with these variants. The study group comprised 224 Chinese Han nationality patients with at least one intracranial aneurysm and 238 unrelated healthy Han nationality controls. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood leukocytes. The entire coding regions of CHIP were genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Differences in genotype and allele frequencies between patients and controls were tested by the chi-square method. Genotype and allele frequencies of the SNP rs116166850 was demonstrated to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No significant difference in genotype or allele frequencies between case and control groups was detected at the SNP. Our data do not support the hypothesis of a major role for the CHIP gene in IA development in the Chinese Han population.
No Association Between Tea Consumption and Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-analysis of Epidemiological Studies
Hu, Zheng-Hui ; Lin, Yi-Wei ; Xu, Xin ; Chen, Hong ; Mao, Ye-Qing ; Wu, Jian ; Xu, Xiang-Lai ; Zhu, Yi ; Li, Shi-Qi ; Zheng, Xiang-Yi ; Xie, Li-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1691~1695
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1691
Objective: To evaluate the association between tea consumption and the risk of renal cell carcinoma. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus between 1970 and November 2012. Two evaluators independently reviewed and selected articles based on predetermined selection criteria. Results: Twelve epidemiological studies (ten case-control studies and two cohort studies) were included in the final analysis. In a meta-analysis of all included studies, when compared with the lowest level of tea consumption, the overall relative risk (RR) of renal cell carcinoma for the highest level of tea consumption was 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-1.21). In subgroup meta-analyses by study design, there was no significant association between tea consumption and renal cell carcinoma risk in ten case-control studies using adjusted data (RR=1.08, 95% CI 0.84-1.40). Furthermore, there was no significant association in two cohort studies using adjusted data (RR=0.95, 95% CI 0.81-1.12). Conclusion: Our findings do not support the conclusion that tea consumption is related to decreased risk of renal cell carcinoma. Further prospective cohort studies are required.
Meta-analysis of GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphisms and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Cancer
Murthy, Archana Krishna ; Kumar, Vinod ; Suresh, K.P. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1697~1701
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1697
Background: Studies of associations between genetic polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) with risk of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) have generated conflicting results. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to clarify the effects of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms on the risk of developing NPC. Materials and Methods: A literature search in two electronic databases namely PubMed and EMBASE up to December 2012 was conducted and eligible papers were finally selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and presence of heterogeneity and publication bias in those studies were evaluated. Results: A total of 9 studies concerning nasopharyngeal cancer were evaluated. Analyses of all relevant studies showed increased NPC risk to be significantly associated with the null genotypes of GSTMI (OR=1.43, 95%CI 1.24-1.66) and GSTT1 (OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.09-1.51). In addition, evidence of publication bias was detected among the studies on GSTM1 polymorphism. Conclusions: This meta-analysis demonstrated the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes are associated with an increased risk of NPC.
In vitro and in vivo Evaluation of the Antitumor Efficiency of Resveratrol Against Lung Cancer
Yin, Hai-Tao ; Tian, Qing-Zhong ; Guan, Luan ; Zhou, Yun ; Huang, Xin-En ; Zhang, Hui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1703~1706
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1703
Lung cancer remains a deadly disease with unsatisfactory overall survival. Resveratrol (Res) has the potential to inhibit growth of several types of cancer such as prostate and colorectal examples. In the current study, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo anticancer efficiency of Res in a xenograft model with A549 cells. Cell inhibition effects of Res were measured by MTT assay. Apoptotis of A549 cells was assessed with reference to caspase-3 activity and growth curves of tumor volume and bodyweight of the mice were measured every two days. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation indicated Res to exert dose-dependent cell inhibition effects against A549 cells with activation of caspase-3. In vivo evaluation showed Res to effectively inhibit the growth of lung cancer in a dose-dependent manner in nude mice. Therefore, we believe that Res might be a promising phytomedicine for cancer therapy and further efforts are needed to explore this potential therapeutic strategy.
Education and Counseling of Pregnant Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B: Perspectives from Obstetricians and Perinatal Nurses in Santa Clara County, California
Yang, Elizabeth J. ; Cheung, Chrissy M. ; So, Samuel K.S. ; Chang, Ellen T. ; Chao, Stephanie D. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1707~1713
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1707
Background: This study aimed to better understand the barriers to perinatal hepatitis B prevention and to identify the reasons for poor hepatitis B knowledge and delivery of education to hepatitis B surface-antigen-positive pregnant women among healthcare providers in Santa Clara County, California. Materials and Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 obstetricians and 17 perinatal nurses in Santa Clara County, California, which has one of the largest populations in the United States at high risk for perinatal hepatitis B transmission. Results: Most providers displayed a lack of self-efficacy attributed to insufficient hepatitis B training and education. They felt discouraged from counseling and educating their patients because of a lack of resources and discouraging patient attitudes such as stigma and apathy. Providers called for institutional changes from the government, hospitals, and nonprofit organizations to improve care for patients with chronic hepatitis B. Conclusions: Early and continuing provider training, increased public awareness, and development of comprehensive resources and new programs may contribute to reducing the barriers for health care professionals to provide counseling and education to pregnant patients with chronic hepatitis B infection.
Effects of Differential Distribution of Microvessel Density, Possibly Regulated by miR-374a, on Breast Cancer Prognosis
Li, Jian-Yi ; Zhang, Yang ; Zhang, Wen-Hai ; Jia, Shi ; Kang, Ye ; Tian, Rui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1715~1720
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1715
Background: The discovery that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate proliferation, invasion and metastasis provides a principal molecular basis of tumor heterogeneity. Microvessel distribution is an important characteristic of solid tumors, with significant hypoxia occurring in the center of tumors with low blood flow. The distribution of miR-374a in breast tumors was examined as a factor likely to be important in breast cancer progression. Methods: Breast tissue samples from 40 patients with breast cancer were classified into two groups: a highly invasive and metastatic group (HIMG) and a low-invasive and metastatic Group (LIMG). Samples were collected from the center and edge of each tumor. In each group, six specimens were examined by microRNA array, and the remaining 14 specimens were used for real-time RT-qPCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Correlation analysis was performed for the miRNAs and target proteins. Follow-up was carried out during 28 months to 68 months after surgery, and survival data were analyzed. Results: In the LIMG, the relative content of miR-374a was lower in the center of the tumor than at its edge; in the HIMG, it was lower at the edge of the tumor, and miR-374a levels were lower in breast cancer tissues than in normal tissues. There was no difference between VEGF-A and VCAM-1 mRNA levels at the edge and center of the tumor; however, we observed a significant difference between VEGF-A and VCAM-1 protein expression levels in these two regions. There was a negative correlation between miR-374a and target protein levels. The microvessel density (MVD) was lower in the center of the tumor than at its edge in HIMG, but the LIMG vessels were uniformly distributed. There was a significant positive correlation between MVD and the number of lymph node metastases (Pearson correlation, r=0.912, P<0.01). The median follow-up time was 48.5 months. LIMG had higher rate of disease-free survival (100%, P=0.013) and longer median survival time (66 months) than HIMG, which had a lower rate of 75% and shorter median survival time (54 months). Conclusions: Our data demonstrated miR-374a to be differentially distributed in breast cancer; VEGF-A and VCAM-1 mRNA had coincident distribution, and the distribution of teh respective proteins was uneven and opposite to that for the miR-374a. These data might explain the differences in the distribution of MVD in breast cancer and variation in breast cancer prognosis.
Epirubicin Inhibits Soluble CD25 Secretion by Treg Cells Isolated from Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Patients
Li, Lan-Fang ; Wang, Hua-Qing ; Liu, Xian-Ming ; Ren, Xiu-Bao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1721~1724
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1721
Objective: To investigate the effect of epirubicin on soluble CD25 (sCD25) secretion by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells isolated from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Methods: Treg cells were isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from the newly diagnosed DBLCL patients. The concentration of sCD25 in the supernatant was determined with a commercial sCD25 (IL-2R) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The fluorescence intensity of CD25 was detected by flow cytometry. Results: Cell survival rate was significantly decreased along with the increase of epirubicin concentration after treatment for 24 h. There was also a significant difference in the concentration of sCD25 between the epirubicin group and the control group (P<0.01). A positive correlation between the Treg cells survival rate and the concentration of sCD25 was detected (r=0.993, P<0.01). When equal numbers of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells of the epirubicin group and the control group were cultured for another 24 h without epirubicin the CD25 fluorescence intensity on the surface of Treg cells was obviously higher in the epirubicin group than that in the control group (P<0.01), while the sCD25 concentration in the supernatant in the epirubicin group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Epirubicin may improve the body's immune functions by inhibiting the sCD25 secretion by Treg cells in DLBCL patients.
Prognostic Significance of Circulating Tumor Cells and Serum CA15-3 Levels in Metastatic Breast Cancer, Single Center Experience, Preliminary Results
Tarhan, Mustafa Oktay ; Gonel, Ataman ; Kucukzeybek, Yuksel ; Erten, Cigdem ; Cuhadar, Serap ; Yigit, Seyran Ceri ; Atay, Aysenur ; Somali, Isil ; Dirican, Ahmet ; Demir, Lutfiye ; Koseoglu, Mehmet ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1725~1729
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1725
Background: Breast cancer is the second leading cancer causing death in women. Circulating tumor cells are among the prognostic factors while tumor markers are of diagnostic value and can be used for follow-up. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the prognostic significance of the serum CA15-3 levels, number of circulating tumor cells and histopathological tumor factors. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients recently diagnosed with breast cancer were included in the study. Number of circulating tumor cells and serum CA15-3 level were assessed when metastasis was detected and diagnostic value was assessed. Presence of associations with estrogen and progesterone receptors, c-erbB2, Ki-67 proliferation index and histological grade were also evaluated. Results: Median overall survival of the patients with serum CA15-3 levels of >108 ng/dl was 19 months whereas for those with a low serum level it was 62 months. Median overall survival for CTC
vs CTC<5 patients was 19 months and 40 months respectively. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. Conclusions: Prognostic significance of the CTC count and CA15-3 levels in metastatic breast cancer patients was demonstrated.
Exploration of Molecular Mechanisms of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Development Using a Microarray
Zhang, Zong-Xin ; Shen, Cui-Fen ; Zou, Wei-Hua ; Shou, Li-Hong ; Zhang, Hui-Ying ; Jin, Wen-Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1731~1735
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1731
Objective: We aimed to identify key genes, pathways and function modules in the development of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with microarray data and interaction network analysis. Methods: Microarray data sets for 7 DLBCL samples and 7 normal controls was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified with Student's t-test. KEGG functional enrichment analysis was performed to uncover their biological functions. Three global networks were established for immune system, signaling molecules and interactions and cancer genes. The DEGs were compared with the networks to observe their distributions and determine important key genes, pathways and modules. Results: A total of 945 DEGs were obtained, 272 up-regulated and 673 down-regulated. KEGG analysis revealed that two groups of pathways were significantly enriched: immune function and signaling molecules and interactions. Following interaction network analysis further confirmed the association of DEGs in immune system, signaling molecules and interactions and cancer genes. Conclusions: Our study could systemically characterize gene expression changes in DLBCL with microarray technology. A range of key genes, pathways and function modules were revealed. Utility in diagnosis and treatment may be expected with further focused research.
Compliance with Screening Recommendations According to Breast Cancer Risk Levels in Izmir, Turkey
Acikgoz, Ayla ; Ergor, Gul ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1737~1742
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1737
Early diagnosis has a major role in improving prognosis of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk status of women 35-69 years of age using risk assessment models and the prevalence of mammography in a community setting. The sample of this cross sectional study consisted of 227 women, 35-69 years of age residing in Izmir, a city located in western region of Turkey. A questionnaire was used to collect data and the Gail and Cuzick-Tyrer models were applied to assess the risk of breast cancer. In this study, 52.7% of women had mammography at least once, and 41.3% of the women over the age of 40 had mammography screening in the last two years. The five years risk for breast cancer was high in 15.8% of women according to the Gail model and ten years risk was high in 21.7% with the Cuzick-Tyrer model. In the present study, the breast cancer risk levels were assessed in a population setting for the first time in Turkey using breast cancer risk level assessment models. Being in 60-69 age group, having low education and not being in menopause were significant risk factors for not having mammography according to logistic regression analysis. Mammography utilization rate was low. Women must be educated about breast cancer screening methods and early diagnosis. The women in the high risk group should be informed on their risk status which may increase their attendance at breast cancer screening.
Clinical and Histopathological Analysis of 66 Cases with Cardiac Myxoma
Zheng, Jian-Jie ; Geng, Xi-Gang ; Wang, Hai-Chen ; Yan, Yang ; Wang, Hong-Yan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1743~1746
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1743
Background and Purpose: Cardiac myxoma is a major primary heart tumor which often causes unexpected symptoms or sudden death. This present study was designed to investigate its clinical pathological features and biological behavior. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the clinical pathologic and immunohistochemical features of 66 cases with cardiac myxoma was conducted. Results: In 66 patients with cardiac myxoma, 61 cases had involvement of the left atrium, one case in both the right ventricular and left atria. The female: male ratio was 2.7:1. Patients had symptoms of blood flow obstruction and systemic alterations with performance of arterial embolization. Tumors were spherical, lobulated or irregular in shape, and soft and brittle. Immunohistochemical markers of vimentin and CD34 in tumor cells were positive. Conclusion: Cardiac myxoma always exists in the left atrium and is more common in women, with diverse clinical manifestations and pathomorphism. Although proliferative activity and the recurrence rate are low, in addition to thorough surgical resection, strengthened review is important for young patients.
Determinants of Smoking Initiation and Susceptibility to Future Smoking among School-Going Adolescents in Lagos State, Nigeria
Odukoya, Oluwakemi Ololade ; Odeyemi, Kofoworola Abimbola ; Oyeyemi, Abisoye Sunday ; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1747~1753
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1747
Background: It is projected that low and middle-income countries will bear a major burden of tobacco related morbidity and mortality, yet, only limited information is available on the determinants of smoking initiation among youth in Africa. This study aimed to assess the determinants of smoking initiation and susceptibility to future smoking among a population of high school school students in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Baseline data from an intervention study designed to assess the effect of an anti-smoking awareness program on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of adolescents was analyzed. The survey was carried out in six randomly selected public and private secondary schools in local government areas in Lagos state, Nigeria. A total of 973 students completed self-administered questionnaires on smoking initiation, health related knowledge and attitudes towards smoking, susceptibility to future smoking and other factors associated with smoking. Results: Of the respondents, 9.7% had initiated smoking tobacco products with the predominant form being cigarettes (7.3%). Males (OR: 2.77, 95%CI: 1.65-4.66) and those with more pro-smoking attitudes (OR: 1.44, 95%CI: 1.34-1.54) were more likely to have initiated smoking. Those with parents and friends who are smokers were 3.47 (95%CI: 1.50-8.05) and 2.26 (95%CI: 1.27-4.01) times more likely to have initiated smoking. Non-smoking students, in privately owned schools (OR: 5.08), with friends who smoke (5.09), with lower knowledge (OR: 0.87) and more pro-smoking attitudes (OR 1.13) were more susceptible to future smoking. In addition, respondents who had been sent to purchase cigarettes by an older adult (OR: 3.68) were also more susceptible to future smoking. Conclusions: Being male and having parents who smoke are predictors of smoking initiation among these students. Consistent with findings in other countries, peers not only influence smoking initiation but also influence smoking susceptibility among youth in this African setting. Prevention programs designed to reduce tobacco use among in-school youth should take these factors into consideration. In line with the recommendations of article 16 of the WHO FCTC, efforts to enforce the ban on the sales of cigarettes to minors should be also emphasised.
Low Prevalence of HPV in Male Sexual Partners of HR-HPV Infected Females and Low Concordance of Viral Types in Couples in Eastern Guangdong
Huang, Yue ; Lin, Min ; Luo, Zhao-Yun ; Li, Wen-Yu ; Zhan, Xiao-Fen ; Yang, Li-Ye ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1755~1760
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1755
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of genital high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) in male sexual partners of HR-HPV infected women and the concordance of viral types in couples in China, and comprehend the role of men play in HPV transmission to women. Methods/Materials: 94 asymptomatic women and their husbands from rural Chaozhou participated in epidemiologic screening for HPV infection. Cervical cells from females were collected for high risk HPV screening by real time-PCR, and they were positive for at least 1 of 13 HR-HPV subtypes, then these samples were genotyped. Approximately one mouth later, penile epithelial cells from 94 asymptomatic husbands were collected for HPV genotyping. At the same time, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 366 male patients from sexually transmitted disease (STD) outpatient clinic in China for the prevalence of genital HR-HPV infection in men having frequent sex behavior. Penial epithelial cells were collected for HPV 6/11 and HPV 16/18 detection by fluorescent real-time quantified PCR. Results: Among 94 couples, the prevalence of genital HR-HPV infection in men whose wife was positive for cervical HR-HPV was 5.32% (5/94). Only 2.63% (2/76) had the same high risk viral type presented by their wife. HPV 16 proved to be the most prevalent viral type in men and in couples. Of 366 male patients from STD outpatient clinic, the prevalence of HPV 16/18 infection in men with or without HPV 6/11 was 6.85% and 8.16%, respectively. The incidence of HPV 16/18 was higher in men aged more than 35 years than the young men (18-35 years). Conclusion: The prevalence of genital HR-HPV infection in male sexual partners of HPV-positive women in China was lower than that expected, and the concordance of high risk viral type between couples was extremely low. These data suggested that infected men consitute an important viral reservoir, contributing to transmission of HR-HPV to women and maintenance of infection, but HR-HPV infection may be less likely to persist in men than in women.
Quality of Life and Chemotherapy-related Symptoms of Turkish Cancer Children Undergoing Chemotherapy
Arslan, Fatma Tas ; Basbakkal, Zumrut ; Kantar, Mehmet ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1761~1768
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1761
This cross-sectional and descriptive study was designed to determine symptoms emerging due to chemotherapy treatment and their effects on children's quality of life. The research was carried out between February 2008 and February 2009 at the pediatric oncology clinics in four hospitals, focusing on 93 patients receiving chemotherapy. A survey form, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0) and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS) were used as data collection tools. Chi-square and Student t tests were performed for data analysis. Some 51.6% of the children were aged 13-15 years old, and 51.8% were boys and 50.5% were diagnosed as having solid tumors. There were significant relations between: antimetabolite chemotherapeutics and feeling irritable and worrying (p=0.001, p=0.030); vinkoalkaloid and numbness/tingling in hands/feet (p=0.043); antracyclines and lack of energy and skin changes (p=0.021, p=0.004); and corticosteroids and lack of appetite, nausea and sadness (p=0.008, p=0.009, p=0.009). Several symptoms such as feeling sad, worrying and feeling irritable caused a significant decrease in the total domain of quality of life scores (p=0.034, p=0.012, p=0.010, respectively). Chemotherapeutic drugs can cause symptoms that can seriously affect quality of life in children.
Positive Association Between miR-499A>G and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk in a Chinese Population
Zou, Hong-Zhi ; Zhao, Yan-Qiu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1769~1772
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1769
A case-control study of the association of miR-499A>G rs3746444 with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)was conducted. Patients with HCC and healthy control subjects were recruited for genotyping of miR-499A>G using duplex polymerase-chain-reaction with confronting-two-pair primer(PCR-RFLP) analysis. The MiR-499 GG genotype was associated with a decreased risk of HCC as compared with the miR-499 AA genotype (adjusted OR=0.74, 95%CI=0.24-0.96). Similarly, the GG genotype showed a 0.45-fold decreased HCC risk in a recessive model. The MiR-499 G allele was significantly associated with decreased risk of HCC among patients infected with HBV in a dominant model (OR=0.09, 95%CI= 0.02-0.29). In conclusion, the MiR-499A>G rs3746444 polymorphism is associated with HCC risk in the Chinese population, and may be useful predictive marker for CAD susceptibility.
Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Factors in Korean Cancer Survivors
Lee, Jung-Yun ; Park, Noh Hyun ; Song, Yong-Sang ; Park, Sang Min ; Lee, Hae-Won ; Kim, Kyae Hyung ; Choi, Kyung-Hyun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1773~1780
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1773
Background: This study was designed to evaluate prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among cancer survivors compared to non-cancer controls from a population-based sample and to identify associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: Data from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, as defined by 2009 consensus criteria. Associated factors with were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis among cancer survivors. Results: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors (n = 335) was similar to that in the non-cancer population (n = 10,671). However, gastric cancer survivors showed lower risk of metabolic syndrome than non-cancer controls (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.20-0.86). Age of more than 60 years (aOR 4.83, 95% CI 1.94-12.03), BMI between 23 and 25 (aOR 6.71, 95% CI 2.90-15.6), BMI more than 25 (aOR 12.23, 95% CI 5.20-28.77) were significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors. Conclusions: Cancer survivors are unlikely to have a higher risk of the metabolic syndrome than non-cancer controls in Korea. This finding may be due to a relatively high proportion of gastric cancer survivors in Korea than in Western countries. The risk for metabolic syndrome among cancer survivors would appear to vary according to oncological and non-oncological factors.
Comparative Assessment of Skin and Subcutaneous Toxicity in Patients of Advanced Colorectal Carcinoma Treated with Different Schedules of FOLFOX
Bano, Nusrat ; Najam, Rahila ; Mateen, Ahmed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1781~1786
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1781
Objective: The study was designed to assess the skin and subcutaneous toxicity in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma treated with four different schedules of FOLFOX. Methods: The patients with histologically confirmed advanced colorectal carcinoma (CRC) were included in the study as per specified inclusion criteria. Toxicity was graded according to CTC v2.0. The frequency of grade 3 and 4 adverse effects were comparatively assessed in each treatment arm. Results: Very severe toxicity was attributed to the FOLFOX7 schedule. The difference between the incidence rate of grade 4 toxicity with all other grades for all parameters of skin and subcutaneous toxicity was highly significant (p=0.00<0.001). Grade 4 hand and foot syndrome was reported only in the FOLFOX7 treatment arm. The most frequent adverse symptom of skin and subcutaneous toxicity reported in the patients treated with modified schedule of FOLFOX was pruritus (grade 1). Frequency and onset of skin and subcutaneous toxic symptoms like alopecia (p=0.000), nail discoloration (p=0.021) and pruritis (p=0.000) was significantly different in each FOLFOX treatment arm. A few cases of oncholysis were also reported in the FOLFOX7 treatment arm. Hand and foot syndrome was fast progressing in patients with grade 1 toxicity. Conclusion: Higher frequency and severity of hand and foot syndrome and pruritus wasa found in the FOLFOX7 treatment arm. Skin and subcutaneous toxicity was comparatively low in the FOLFOX6 treatment arm.
ZD1839 and Cisplatin Alone or in Combination for Treatment of a Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cell Line and Xenografts
Gu, Wei-Guang ; Huang, Yan ; Yuan, Zhong-Yu ; Peng, Rou-Jun ; Luo, Hai-Tao ; He, Zhi-Ren ; Wang, Shu-Sen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1787~1790
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1787
This study evaluated the effects of ZD1839, an orally active, selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) both in vitro and in vivo. Influence of ZD1839 alone or combined with cisplatin on the NPC cell line CNE2 was detected by MTT assay with flow cytometry assessment of cell cycle distribution and apoptosis rates. Nude mice NPC xenografts were also used to evaluate the effects of ZD1839 alone or combined with cisplatin. The Student's t test evaluated statistical significance. ZD1839 alone or combined with cisplatin inhibited CNE2 cell line proliferation. ZD1839 induced CNE2 cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, and higher concentrations induced apoptosis. Xenograft tumors were significantly smaller when treated with 200 mg/kg ZD1839, cisplatin, or cisplatin combined with 100 mg/kg ZD1839 than untreated controls. ZD1839 (200 mg/kg) alone showed good tumor inhibition effects, reduction of tumor weights, and smaller tumor volume without loss of body weight. ZD1839 (200 mg/kg) might provide a good and effective therapeutic reagent for NPC.
Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Induction of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells by Apogossypolone
Zhan, Yong-Hua ; Huang, Xiao-Feng ; Hu, Xing-Bin ; An, Qun-Xing ; Liu, Zhi-Xin ; Zhang, Xian-Qing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1791~1795
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1791
Aims and Background: Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in the male reproductive system, which causes the second most cancer deaths of males, and control of angiogenesis in prostate lesions is of obvious importance. This study assessed the effect of apogossypolone (ApoG2) on proliferation and apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Subjects and Methods: HUVECs were treated with different concentrations of ApoG2. The survival rate of HUVECs were determined by MTT assay. Utrastructural changes of HUVECs were assessed with transmission electron microscopy. Apoptosis in HUVECs was analyzed by flow cytometry and cell migration by Boyden chamber assay. Matrigel assays were used to quantify the development of tube-like networks. Results: ApoG2 significantly inhibited HUVEC growth even at 24 h (P<0.05). The inhibitory effect of ApoG2 is more obvious as the concentration and the culture time increased (P<0.05). These results indicate that ApoG2 inhibits the proliferation of HUVECs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner with increase of the apoptosis rate. Besides, ApoG2 reduced the formation of total pseudotubule length and network branches of HUVECs. Conclusions: The results suggest that ApoG2 inhibits angiogenesis of HUVECs by growth inhibition and apoptosis induction.
Clinical Factors Related with Helicobacter Pylori Infection - Is there an Association with Gastric Cancer History in First-Degree Family Members?
Demirel, Busra B. ; Akkas, Burcu Esen ; Vural, Gulin Ucmak ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1797~1802
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1797
Background: The aim of this study was to assess clinical factors associated with Helicobacter pylori positivity and to evaluate the incidence of gastric carcinoma in first-degree family members of infected patients. A total of 580 patients (mean age:
) with gastrointestinal complaints underwent C-14 urea breath test (UBT). Patients were grouped as: Group-1, untreated patients (n:384); and Group-2, patients who previously treated with eradication triple therapy (n:196). C-14 UBT was performed 1-2 months after the completion of eradication therapy. Associations of H pylori positivity with age, gender, ABO and Rhesus groups, smoking, dietary habits, and history of gastric cancer in first-degree family members were evaluated. The frequency of H pylori positivity was significantly higher in group-1 (58%) compared to group-2 (20%), p=0.001. There were no correlations between H pylori positivity and age, gender, ABO groups, Rhesus subgroups, smoking and dietary habits in both patient groups. The frequency of gastric cancer in family members was significantly higher in patients with H pylori infection among group-1, compared to infected patients among group-2 (56% vs. 28.6% respectively, p=0.03). We observed a significant association between H pylori positivity and the presence of gastric cancer in first-degree relatives of group-1 patients. Our results provide some confirmation of the presence of a link between gastric cancer development and H pylori. C-14 UBT is a sensitive, reliable and a widely recommended test for the detection of H pylori infection and recurrence. We suggest that detection and eradication of H pylori may contribute to a reduced risk of gastric cancer in the family members of infected patients.
Prognostic Value of Preoperative Serum CA 242 in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cases
Feng, Ji-Feng ; Huang, Ying ; Chen, Qi-Xun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1803~1806
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1803
Purpose: Carbohydrate antigen (CA) 242 is inversely related to prognosis in many cancers. However, few data regarding CA 242 in esophageal cancer (EC) are available. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of CA 242 and propose an optimum cut-off point in predicting survival difference in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 192 cases. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for survival prediction was plotted to verify the optimum cuf-off point. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate prognostic parameters for survival. Results: The positive rate for CA 242 was 7.3% (14/192). The ROC curve for survival prediction gave an optimum cut-off of 2.15 (U/ml). Patients with CA 242
2.15 U/ml had significantly better 5-year survival than patients with CA 242 >2.15 U/ml (45.4% versus 22.6%; P=0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that differentiation (P=0.033), CA 242 (P=0.017), T grade (P=0.004) and N staging (P<0.001) were independent prognostic factors. Conclusions: Preoperative CA 242 is a predictive factor for long-term survival in ESCC, especially in nodal-negative patients. We conclude that 2.15 U/ml may be the optimum cuf-off point for CA 242 in predicting survival in ESCC.
Incidence Trends of Colorectal Cancer in the West of Iran During 2000-2005
Abdifard, Edris ; Ghaderi, Shahab ; Hosseini, Saman ; Heidari, Mohammad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1807~1811
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1807
Background: Colorectal cancer is a main leading cause of cancer death in western countries. Although many studies have been conducted on incidence trends all over the world in recent years, information regarding changes in incidence of colorectal cancer in Iran is insufficient. The present study of colorectal cancer in the west of Iran during recent years was therefore performed. Materials and Methods: The registered data for colorectal cancer cases in National Cancer Registry System were extracted from the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Center for Disease Control and Management. The codes from 18-21 among cancers were selected for colon and rectum cancers. Incidence rates were standardized directly using WHO population. The significance of incidence rate trends during 2000-2005 was tested through Poisson regression. Results: 762 cases of colorectal cancer were observed during 6 years in this region, with a gender ratio of men to women of 1.2. It increased from 65 cases in 2000 to 213 cases in 2005 or from 1.5 per100,000 per persons per year to 4.8. Significant increasing trends were evident in Kermanshah and Hamadan provinces; however, change did not reach significance in Ilam and Kurdistan provinces. Conclusions: Colorectal cancer has an increasing trend in the west of Iran. Although it seems that the increasing rate of colorectal cancer is due to increasing of cancer risk factors, some proportion may be related to the improvement of surveillance systems in Iran.
Seroreactivity to Helicobacter pylori Antigens as a Risk Indicator of Gastric Cancer
Karami, Najmeh ; Talebkhan, Yeganeh ; Saberi, Samaneh ; Esmaeili, Maryam ; Oghalaie, Akbar ; Abdirad, Afshin ; Mostafavi, Ehsan ; Hosseini, Mahmoud Eshagh ; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali ; Mohammadi, Marjan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1813~1817
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1813
Background: Multiple etiologic factors are suspected to cause gastric cancer, the most important of which is infection with virulent types of Helicobacter pylori. Materials and Methods: We have compared 102 gastric cancer patients with 122 non-ulcer, non-cancer dyspeptic patients. Gastric specimens were evaluated for H. pylori infection by tissue-based detection methods. Patient sera underwent antigen-specific ELISA and western blotting using a Helicoblot 2.1 kit and antibody responses to various H. pylori antigens were assessed. Results: The absolute majority (97-100%) of both groups were H. pylori seropositive. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated serum antibodies to the low molecular weight 35kDa protein to be protective and reduce the risk of gastric cancer by 60% (OR:0.4; 95%CI:0.1-0.9). Conversely, seroreactivity to the 89kDa (VacA) protein was significantly higher in gastric cancer patients (OR:2.7; 95%CI:1.0-7.1). There was a highly significant association (p<0.001) between seroreactivity to the 116kDa (CagA) and 89kDa (VacA) proteins, and double positive subjects were found at nearly five fold (OR:4.9; 95%CI:1.0-24.4) enhanced risk of gastric cancer as compared to double negative subjects. Conclusions: Seroreactivity to H. pylori low (35kDa) and high (116kDa/89kDa) molecular weight antigens were respectively revealed as protective and risk indicators for gastric cancer.
Analysis of Key Genes and Pathways Associated with Colorectal Cancer with Microarray Technology
Liu, Yan-Jun ; Zhang, Shu ; Hou, Kang ; Li, Yun-Tao ; Liu, Zhan ; Ren, Hai-Liang ; Luo, Dan ; Li, Shi-Hong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1819~1823
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1819
Objective: Microarray data were analyzed to explore key genes and their functions in progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Two microarray data sets were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using corresponding packages of R. Functional enrichment analysis was performed with DAVID tools to uncover their biological functions. Results: 631 and 590 DEGs were obtained from the two data sets, respectively. A total of 32 common DEGs were then screened out with the rank product method. The significantly enriched GO terms included inflammatory response, response to wounding and response to drugs. Two interleukin-related domains were revealed in the domain analysis. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the PPAR signaling pathway and the renin-angiotensin system were enriched in the DEGs. Conclusions: Our study to systemically characterize gene expression changes in CRC with microarray technology revealed changes in a range of key genes, pathways and function modules. Their utility in diagnosis and treatment now require exploration.
Increased Migration and Local Invasion Potential of SiHa Cervical Cancer Cells Expressing Aquaporin 8
Shi, Yong-Hua ; Rehemu, Nijiati ; Ma, Hong ; Tuokan, Talafu ; Chen, Rui ; Suzuke, Lalai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1825~1828
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1825
Overexpression of several aquaporins (AQPS) has been reported in different types of human cancer but roles in human carcinogenesis have yet to be clearly defined. Here, we up-regulated expression of the AQP8 gene in SiHa human cervical cancer cells with a lentivirus transfection system and investigated its effects as a potential therapeutic target for cervical cancer. Results showed AQP8 overexpression did not affect their substrate adherence and proliferation, but accelerated migration as assessed by transwell migration and wound healing assays. Moreover, AQP8 overexpression significantly enhanced local invasion of SiHa cells in nude mice. These findings altogether indicate that AQP8 overexpression increases migration of SiHa cells and probably participates in the process of tumor local invasion.
In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Seed Oil of Fenugreek Against Various Cancer Cell Lines
Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad ; Farshori, Nida Nayyar ; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad ; Musarrat, Javed ; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali ; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1829~1832
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1829
In the present study, investigations were carried out to screen the anticancer activities of fenugreek seed oil against cancer cell lines (HEp-2, MCF-7, WISH cells), and a normal cell line (Vero cells). Cytotoxicity was assessed with MTT and NRU assays, and cellular morphological alterations were studied using phase contrast light microscopy. All cells were exposed toi 10-1000
of fenugreek seed oil for 24 h. The results show that fenugreek seed oil significantly reduced the cell viability, and altered the cellular morphology in a dose dependent manner. Among the cell lines, HEp-2 cells showed the highest decrease in cell viability, followed by MCF-7, WISH, and Vero cells by MTT and NRU assays. Cell viability at 1000
was recorded as 55% in HEp-2 cells, 67% in MCF-7 cells, 75% in WISH cells, and 86% in Vero cells. The present study provides preliminary screening data for fenugreek seed oil pointing to potent cytotoxicity against cancer cells.
Inhibition of Metastatic Lung Cancer in C57BL/6 Mice by Marine Mangrove Rhizophora apiculata
Prabhu, V. Vinod ; Guruvayoorappan, C. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1833~1840
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1833
Metastasis is one of the hallmarks of malignant neoplasms and is the leading cause of death in many cancer patients. A major challenge in cancer treatment is to find better ways to specifically target tumor metastasis. In this study, the anti-metastatic potential of the methanolic extract of Rhizophora apiculata (R.apiculata) was evaluated using the B16F-10 melanoma induced lung metastasis model in C57BL/6 mice. Metastasis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by injecting highly metastatic B16F-10 melanoma cells through the lateral tail vein. Simultaneous treatment with R.apiculata extract (10 mg/kg b.wt (intraperitoneal) significantly (p<0.01) inhibited pulmonary tumor nodule formation (41.1 %) and also increased the life span (survival rate) 107.3 % of metastatic tumor bearing animals. The administration of R.apiculata extract significantly (p<0.01) reduced biochemical parameters such as lung collagen hydroxyproline, hexosamine, uronic acid content, serum nitric oxide (NO),
-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and sialic acid levels when compared to metastasis controls. These results correlated with lung histopathology analysis of R.apiculata extract treated mice showing reduction in lung metastasis and tumor masses. Taken together, our findings support that R.apiculata extract could be used as a potential anti-metastasis agent against lung cancer.
Salvage Therapy of Gemcitabine Plus Endostar Significantly Improves Progression-free Survival (PFS) with Platinum-resistant Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
Su, An ; Zhang, Jing ; Pan, Zhan-He ; Zhou, Qi-Ming ; Lv, Xia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1841~1846
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1841
Anti-angiogenic agents have played crucial roles in the treatment of ovarian cancer in recent years, but potential benefits of endostatin have been largely unexplored. The present retrospective study evaluated its efficacy and toxicity with two cohorts of patients with platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. One cohort received gemcitabine plus endostar (rh-endostatin), and the second cohort received gemcitabine regimen alone, with totals of 31 and 27 patients, respectively. The main endpoints were disease control rate (DCR), PFS, overall survival (OS) and safety. There were statistically significant differences in DCR (70.9% vs. 40.7%; P = 0.02) and PFS (6.3 months vs. 3.2 months, P = 0.001) between the two cohorts. Though the endostar cohort also improved median OS by 2.1 months, there was no statistically significant difference compared with gemcitabine alone cohort in this case (12.5 months vs. 10.4 months, P = 0.201). Treatment was well tolerated for most patients, and toxicity of endostar was negligible. Gemcitabine plus endostar significantly improved the prognosis in patients with platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer, especially in those with malignant effusion. The endostar-containing regimen is recommended in this setting.
Effect of Xeroderma Pigmentosum Complementation Group F Polymorphisms on Gastric Cancer Risk and Associations with H.pylori Infection
Zhang, Ji-Shun ; Zhang, Chuan ; Yan, Xue-Yan ; Yuan, Zhi-Fang ; Duan, Zhuo-Yang ; Gao, Hui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1847~1850
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1847
We conducted a hospital case-control study by genotyping four potential functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess the association of Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F (XPF) with gastric cancer susceptibility, and role of XPF polymorphisms in combination with H.pylori infection in risk definition. A total of 331 patients with gastric cancer and 355 controls were collected. Four SNPs of XPF, rs180067, rs1799801, rs2276466 and rs744154, were genotyped by Taqman real-time PCR method with a 7900 HT sequence detector system. The gastric cancer patients were more likely to have smoking habit, a family history of cancer and H.pylori infection. We did not find any significant difference in the genotype distributions of XPF rs180067, rs1799801, rs2276466 and rs744154 between cases and controls. However, multivariate logistic analysis showed a non-significant decreased risk in patients carrying rs180067 G allele, rs1799801 T allele or rs2276466 T allele genotypes. A non-significant increased risk of gastric cancer was found in individuals carrying the rs744154 GG genotype. Stratification by H.pylori infection and smoking was not significantly different in polymorphisms of XPF rs180067, rs1799801, rs2276466 and rs744154. The four XPF SNPs did not show significant interaction with H.pylori infection and smoking status (P for interaction was 0.35 and 0.18, respectively). Our study indicated that polymorphisms in rs180067, rs1799801, rs2276466 and rs744154 may affect the risk of gastric cancer but further large sample size studies are needed to validate any association.
Diurnal Variation, Vertical Distribution and Source Apportionment of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Chiang-Mai, Thailand
Pongpiachan, Siwatt ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1851~1863
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1851
Diurnal variation of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated by collecting PM10 at three different sampling altitudes using high buildings in the city center of Chiang-Mai, Thailand, during the relatively cold period in late February 2008. At site-1 (12 m above ground level), B[a]P concentrations ranged from 30.3-1,673 pg
with an average of
contributing on average,
. Ind and B[b]F concentrations varied from 54.6 to 4,579 pg
and from 80.7 to 2,292 pg
with the highest average of
, contributing on average,
, respectively. Morning maxima were predominantly detected in all observatory sites, which can be described by typical diurnal variations of traffic flow in Chiang-Mai City, showing a morning peak between 6 AM. and 9 AM. Despite the fact that most monitoring sites might be subjected to specific-site impacts, it could be seen that PAH profiles in Site-1 and Site-2 were astonishingly homogeneous. The lack of differences suggests that the source signatures of several PAHs become less distinct possibly due to the impacts of traffic and cooking emissions from ground level.
Vertical Distribution and Potential Risk of Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in High Buildings of Bangkok, Thailand
Pongpiachan, Siwatt ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1865~1877
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1865
Vertical variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in
were investigated in order to assess the factors controlling their behavior in the urban atmosphere of Bangkok City, Thailand. Air samples were collected every three hours for three days at three different levels at Bai-Yok Suit Hotel (site-1 and site-2) and Bai-Yok Sky Hotel (site-3) in February
, 2008. The B[a]P concentration showed a value 0.54 fold, lower than the United Kingdom Expert Panel on Air Quality Standard (UK-EPAQS; i.e. 250 pg
) at the top level. In contrast, the B[a]P concentrations exhibited, at the ground and middle level, values 1.50 and 1.43 times higher than the UK-EPAQS standard respectively. PAHs displayed a diurnal variation with maximums at night time because of the traffic rush hour coupled with lower nocturnal mixing layer, and the decreased wind speed, which consequently stabilized nocturnal boundary layer and thus enhanced the PAH contents around midnight. By applying Nielsen's technique, the estimated traffic contributions at Site-3 were higher than those of Site-1: about 10% and 22% for Method 1 and Method 2 respectively. These results reflect the more complicated emission sources of PAHs at ground level in comparison with those of higher altitudes. The average values of incremental individual lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for all sampling sites fell within the range of
, being close to the acceptable risk level (
) but much lower than the priority risk level (
Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Particulate Carcinogens and Mutagens in Bangkok, Thailand
Pongpiachan, Siwatt ; Choochuay, C. ; Hattayanone, M. ; Kositanont, C. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1879~1887
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1879
To investigate the level of genotoxicity over Bangkok atmosphere,
samples were collected at the Klongchan Housing Authority (KHA), Nonsree High School (NHS), Watsing High School (WHS), Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), Chokchai 4 Police Station (CPS), Dindaeng Housing Authority (DHA) and Badindecha High School (BHS). For all monitoring stations, each sample covered a period of 24 hours taken at a normal weekday every month from January-December 2006 forming a database of 84 individual air samples (i.e.
). Atmospheric concentrations of low molecular weight PAHs (i.e. phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene and fluoranthene) were measured in
at seven observatory sites operated by the pollution control department of Thailand (PCD). The mutagenicity of extracts of the samples was compared in Salmonella according to standard Ames test method. The dependence of the effects on sampling time and on sampling location was investigated with the aid of a calculation of mutagenic index (MI). This MI was used to estimate the increase in mutagenicity above background levels (i.e. negative control) at the seven monitoring sites in urban area of Bangkok due to anthropogenic emissions within that area. Applications of the AMES method showed that the average MI of
collected at all sampling sites were
(TA100; +S9) and
(TA100; -S9) with relatively less variations. Analytical results reconfirm that the particulate PAH concentrations measured at PCD air quality monitoring stations are moderately low in comparison with previous results observed in other countries. In addition, the concept of incremental lifetime particulate matter exposure (ILPE) was employed to investigate the potential risks of exposure to particulate PAHs in Bangkok atmosphere.
Clinical Outcomes of Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus: A Retrospective Analysis of 142 Cases
Zhang, Bai-Hua ; Cheng, Gui-Yu ; Xue, Qi ; Gao, Shu-Geng ; Sun, Ke-Lin ; Wang, Yong-Gang ; Mu, Ju-Wei ; He, Jie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1889~1894
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1889
Background: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (BSCCE) is a rare and distinctive tumor with no standard treatment. This study aimed to explore treatment in relation to prognosis of the disease. Methods: A total of 142 patients with BSCCE that underwent treatment in our hospital from March 1999 to July 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients received surgery, 42 postoperative radiotherapy and 28 patients chemotherapy. Results: There were 26 patients included in stage I, 60 in stage II, 53 in stage III and 3 in stage IV. The clinical symptoms and macroscopic performances of BSCCE did not differ from those of typical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Among 118 patients receiving endoscopic biopsy, only 12 were diagnosed with BSCCE. The median survival time (MST) of the entire group was 32 months, with 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) of 81.4%, 46.8% and 31.0%, respectively. The 5-year OS of stage I and II patients was significantly longer than that of stages III/IV, at 60.3%, 36.1% and 10.9%, respectively (p<0.001, p=0.001). The MST and 5-year OS were 59.0 months and 47.4% in patients with tumors located in the lower thoracic esophagus, and 27.0 months and 18.1% in those with lesions in the upper/middle esophagus (p=0.002). However, the survival was not significantly improved in patients undegoing adjunctive therapy. Multivariate analysis showed TNM stage and tumor location to be independent prognostic factors. Furthermore, distant metastasis was the most frequent failure pattern, with a median recurrence time of 10 months. Conclusion: BSCCE is an aggressive disease with rapid progression and a propensity for distant metastasis. It is difficult to make a definitive diagnosis via preoperative biopsy. Multidisciplinary therapy including radical esophagectomy with extended lymphadenectomy should be recommended, while the effectiveness of radiochemotherapy requires further validation for BSCCE.
Lifestyle Practice among Malaysian University Students
Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed ; Bobryshev, Yuri V. ; Mohd Noor, Nor Aini Binti ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1895~1903
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1895
Background: It is well established that a healthy lifestyle is of benefit in the prevention of diseases such as cancer and promotion of well-being. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine lifestyle practice and associated factors among university students in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted over six months from November 2011 until May 2012 among the students from the Management and Science University. This study was approved by its ethical committee, the students being explained the objective and invited to participate. A consent form was signed by all study participants. Questionnaire was distributed randomly to the students of the five faculties through their lecturers in different faculty. For univariate analysis t-test and ANOVA test were performed. Multiple linear regression used for multivariate analysis using SPSS 13.0. Results: A total number of 1100 students participated with a mean age of
(SD) years. The majority were 22 years or younger (56.3%), female (54%), Malay (61.5%), single (92.3%), with family monthly income
Ringgit Malaysia (41.2%). Regarding lifestyle, about were 31.6% smokers, 75.6% never drank alcohol and 53.7% never exercised. Multivariate analysis showed that age, sex, race, parent marital status, participant marital status, type of faculty, living status, smoking status, exercise, residency, brushing teeth, fiber intake and avoid fatty food significantly influenced the practice of drinking alcohol among university students (p=0.006, p=0.042, p<0.001, p=0.003, p=0.002, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.003, p<0.001; respectively). It similarly showed that sex, race, parent marital status, participant marital status, monthly family income, exercise, residency, brushing teeth and fiber intake significantly influenced the practice of sun protection (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.017, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001; respectively) and that age, sex, parent marital status, participant marital status, type of faculty, living status, exercise, taking non-prescribed medication, brushing the teeth, coffee consumption and fiber intake were significantly influenced the practice of fruits consumption (p=0.008, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.002, p<0.001, P<0.001; respectively). Conclusions: This study showed a poor practice of healthy lifestyle among university students. Therefore universities should emphasize a healthy lifestyle in all faculties as a required subject. Socio-demographic characteristics significantly influenced practice and thus should be considered when planning preventive measures among university students. Frequent campaigns and educational seminars are to be encouraged.
Patient and Clinical Variables Account for Changes in Health-related Quality of Life and Symptom Burden as Treatment Outcomes in Colorectal Cancer: A Longitudinal Study
Hung, Hsiu-Chi ; Chien, Tsui-Wei ; Tsay, Shiow-Luan ; Hang, Hewi-Ming ; Liang, Shu-Yuan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1905~1909
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1905
Objective: The aim of the current study was to evaluate changes in treatment outcomes in terms of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and symptom burden at zero, one, three, and six months after an initial diagnosis of colorectal cancer. The demographic and clinical characteristics that account for outcome changes in patients were investigated using a repeated measures framework. Methods and Materials: A cohort study was performed of 134 colorectal cancer patients followed from diagnosis to 6 months post-treatment in Central Taiwan. HRQoL and symptoms were assessed at diagnosis and one, three, and six months thereafter. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colon (FACT-C) questionnaire, VAS pain, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS) were used for data collection. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) was applied for statistical analysis. Results: The majority of the patients were male (55%) and married (91.5%). The mean age was 60.4 years (SD = 11.71). Most were diagnosed stage III and IV colorectal cancer (54.5%). All underwent surgery; some also received chemotherapy (CT) or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). The results of the GEE showed that overall, the HRQoL, pain, and symptoms of the patients significantly improved over the treatment period. Patients with stage IV disease who had received surgery and CCRT showed the worst HRQoL. Females, patients with comorbidity, and stage IV patients had higher pain scores over time. Female and stage IV patients had more severe physical symptoms, whereas stage II and IV patients had worse psychological symptoms over time. Conclusion: The patients' HRQoL, pain, and symptoms significantly improved over the 6-month treatment period. Certain patient and clinical variables accounted for changes in treatment outcomes regarding HRQoL and symptom burden in colorectal cancer patients.
Carotenoid Intake and Esophageal Cancer Risk: a Meta-analysis
Ge, Xiao-Xiao ; Xing, Mei-Yuan ; Yu, Lan-Fang ; Shen, Peng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1911~1918
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1911
This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between intake of carotenoids and risk of esophageal cancer. A systematic search using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, CNKI, and CBM (updated to 6 May 2012) identified ten articles meeting the inclusion criteria with 1,958 cases of esophageal cancer and 4,529 controls. Higher intake of beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin reduced esophageal cancer risk with pooled ORs of 0.58 (95% CI 0.44, 0.77), 0.81 (95% CI 0.70, 0.94), 0.75 (95% CI 0.64, 0.86), 0.80 (95% CI 0.66, 0.97), and 0.71 (95% CI 0.59, 0.87), respectively. In subgroup analyses, beta-carotene showed protective effects against esophageal adenocarcinoma in studies located in Europe and North America. Alpha-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin showed protection against esophageal squamous cell cancer. This meta-analysis suggested that higher intake of carotenoids (beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin) is associated with lower risk of esophageal cancer. Further research with large-sample studies need to be conducted to better clarify the potentially protective mechanisms of carotenoid associations risk of different types of esophageal cancer.
Smoking and Associated Factors Among the Population Aged 40-64 in Shahroud, Iran
Hamrah, Mohammad Shoaib ; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md. ; Hirosawa, Tomoya ; Sakamoto, Junichi ; Hashemi, Hassan ; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan ; Shariati, Mohammad ; Fotouhi, Akbar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1919~1923
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1919
Background: Smoking is known as a major risk factor for different types of cancer, as well as cardiovascular disease. Its prevalence is increasing in developing countries. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of smoking and its associated factors among the population aged 40-64 years in the city of Shahroud which is a representative urban population in Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional population-based study with stratified random cluster sampling was conducted in 2009 as the first phase of Shahroud Eye Cohort Study. Of 6,311 people, 5,190 participated (82.2%). Information about smoking habit was obtained by face-to-face interview. Results: The overall prevalence of current tobacco smoking was 11.3% (95%CI: 10.5-12.3). It was significantly higher among males than females (25.7% and 0.71%, P<0.001). The prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 10.8% and 1.75% were past smokers. The smoking rate of water-pipe was 0.67%. Unemployed people smoked more than employed (OR=2.66, 95%CI: 1.38-5.14). Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking is low in Shahroud compared with other parts of Iran and other countries. Age, sex, job and marital status were associated with smoking. The low smoking rate among women may be attributed to cultural and social reasons.
Association Between MDM2 SNP309 T>G and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-analysis
Tian, Xin ; Tian, Ye ; Ma, Ping ; Sui, Cheng-Guang ; Meng, Fan-Dong ; Li, Yan ; Fu, Li-Ye ; Jiang, Tao ; Wang, Yang ; Ji, Fu-Jian ; Fang, Xue-Dong ; Jiang, You-Hong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1925~1929
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1925
Background: As a negative regulator of P53, MDM2 plays an important role in carcinogenesis; a polymorphism in its promoter region. SNP309 T>G, is known to increase the expression of MDM2, thus being considered related to higher susceptibility to neoplasia. However, no agreement has been achieved regarding its effects on gastric cancer. Methods: The present systematic meta-analysis was performed based on comprehensive literature search from Pubmed, Web of science and CBM databases. Results: It was suggested from 6 independent studies that the GG genotype is associated with a significantly increased risk of gastric cancer (Recessive: OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.08-1.91, P = 0.013), and subgroup analysis also confirmed the relationship (English publications-recessive model: OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.10-1.91, P = 0.009; Studies in China-recessive model: OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.08-2.30, P = 0.017). No publication bias was detected. Conclusion: The meta-analysis indicated a significant inverse association between GG genotype carriage and elevated risk of gastric cancer. However, more studies and detailed information are needed to fully address the topic.
Determinants of Tobacco Cessation Behaviour among Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users in the States of Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India
Sarkar, Bidyut K. ; Arora, Monika ; Gupta, Vinay K. ; Reddy, K. Srinath ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1931~1935
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1931
Background: This study was undertaken to identify the socio-demographic determinants of quit attempts among smokers and smokeless tobacco users to identify correlates of tobacco cessation behaviour in India Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study for the outcome of quit attempts made by current tobacco users in last 12 months in twelve districts in two states. Simple and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to obtain the odds ratios (ORs) of socio-demographic variables (age, gender, education, occupation, socio-economic status, community, area, type of family) and tobacco user status (smoker/smokeless). Results: In the combined analysis, a smoker had higher predicted probability of attempting quitting (OR-1.41,CI 1.14-1.90), in comparison to a smokeless tobacco user and a tobacco user in the state of Gujarat was less likely to attempt quitting than a user in Andhra Pradesh (OR-0.60, CI 0.47-0.78). The probability of making a quit attempt was higher among tobacco users who were more educated (OR-1.40, CI 1.04-1.94), having a higher socio-economic status (SES) (OR-2.39, CI 1.54-3.69), and belonging to non-agricultural labourer occupational group (OR-1.90, CI 1.29-2.78). The effects were maintained even after adjusting for all other variables. In disaggregated analysis, findings were similar except in smokeless as a separate group, education level was not significantly associated with quit attempts and with lower odds (OR-0.91, CI 0.58-1.42). Conclusions: This is one of the first studies to provide useful insight into potential determinants for quit attempts of tobacco users in India including smokeless tobacco users, exploring the socio-demographic patterning of correlates of quit attempts.
Different Association of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Polymorphisms with Risk of Prostate, Esophageal, and Lung Cancers: Evidence from a Meta-analysis of 20,025 Subjects
Sun, Guo-Gui ; Wang, Ya-Di ; Lu, Yi-Fang ; Hu, Wan-Ning ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1937~1943
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1937
Altered expression or function of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) has been shown to be associated with cancer risk but assessment of gene polymorphisms has resulted in inconclusive data. Here a search of published data was made and 22 studies were recruited, covering 20,025 case and control subjects, for meta-analyses of the association of MnSOD polymorphisms with the risk of prostate, esophageal, and lung cancers. The data on 12 studies of prostate cancer (including 4,182 cases and 6,885 controls) showed a statistically significant association with the risk of development in co-dominant models and dominant models, but not in the recessive model. Subgroup analysis showed there was no statistically significant association of MnSOD polymorphisms with aggressive or nonaggressive prostate cancer in different genetic models. In addition, the data on four studies of esophageal cancer containing 620 cases and 909 controls showed a statistically significant association between MnSOD polymorphisms and risk in all comparison models. In contrast, the data on six studies of lung cancer with 3,375 cases and 4,050 controls showed that MnSOD polymorphisms were significantly associated with the decreased risk of lung cancer in the homozygote and dominant models, but not the heterozygote model. A subgroup analysis of the combination of MnSOD polymorphisms with tobacco smokers did not show any significant association with lung cancer risk, histological type, or clinical stage of lung cancer. The data from the current study indicated that the Ala allele MnSOD polymorphism is associated with increased risk of prostate and esophageal cancers, but with decreased risk of lung cancer. The underlying molecular mechanisms warrant further investigation.
Component Analysis of Esophageal Cancer Incidence in Kazakhstan
Igissinov, S. ; Igissinov, N. ; Moore, M.A. ; Kozhakhmetov, S. ; Igissinova, G. ; Sarsenova, S. ; Aldiyarova, G. ; Bilyalova, Z. ; Zhabagin, K. ; Manambayeva, Z. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1945~1949
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1945
Esophageal cancer (EC) incidence rates in Kazakhstan were assessed by component analysis based on primary registered cases in 2001-2010. It was found that despite an apparent general decrease in the number of EC patients in Kazakhstan, a potential increase should be evaluated, due to changes in aging as well as the increase in population. Some problems of EC patients' registration were broached with an emphasis on the importance of the expected absolute number and reasons for undercounting in the country. Based on these, ways of improving the recording and registration of such patients in the country were suggested.
Genetic Polymorphism of MTHFR A1298C and Esophageal Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-analysis
Tan, Xiang ; Wang, Yong-Yong ; Dai, Lei ; Liao, Xu-Qiang ; Chen, Ming-Wu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1951~1955
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1951
Background: Associations between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) A1298C polymorphism and esophageal cancer risk have been reported in many articles recently, but results were controversial. Therefore the present meta-analysis was conducted to to provide a more precise estimation. Methods: Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the strength of associations. Results: Finally, six case-control studies involving a total of 1,302 cases and 2,391controls for the A1298C polymorphism were included. The meta-analysis showed that significantly increased risk for Asians (CC versus AA, OR=3.799, 95%CI=1.541-9.365, P=0.004; CCversusCA+AA, OR=3.997, 95%CI=1.614-9.900, P=0.003) and Caucasians (CC versus AA, OR=1.797, 95%CI=1.335-2.418, P=0.000; CC+CA versus AA,OR=1.240, 95%CI=1.031-1.492, P=0.022; CCversusCA+AA, OR=1.693, 95%CI=1.280-2.240, P=0.000). In addition, there was an association with risk for both ESCC (CC versus AA, OR=2.529, 95%CI=1.688-3.788, P=0.000; CCversusCA+AA, OR=2.572, 95%CI=1.761-3.758, P=0.000) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) (CC versus AA, OR=1.592, 95%CI=1.139-2.227, P=0.007; CC+CA versus AA,OR=1.247, 95%CI=1.016-1.530, P=0.035; CCversusCA+AA, OR=1.466, 95%CI=1.069-2.011, P=0.018). Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggested associations of the A1298C polymorphism with increased risk of esophageal cancer in both Asians and Caucasians. In addition, we found that the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism might influence risk ofESCC and EAC in the overall studies.
Oral Cancer Awareness and its Determinants among a Selected Malaysian Population
Ghani, Wan Maria Nabillah ; Doss, Jennifer Geraldine ; Jamaluddin, Marhazlinda ; Kamaruzaman, Dinan ; Zain, Rosnah Binti ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1957~1963
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1957
Objective: To assess oral cancer awareness, its associated factors and related sources of information among a selected group of Malaysians. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on all Malaysian ethnic groups aged
years old at eight strategically chosen shopping malls within a two week time period. Data were analysed using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression. Significance level was set at
<0.05. Results: Most (84.2%) respondents had heard of oral cancer. Smoking was the most (92.4%) recognized high risk habit. Similar levels of awareness were seen for unhealed ulcers (57.3%) and red/white patches (58.0%) as signs of oral cancer. Age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, occupation and income were significantly associated with oral cancer awareness (p<0.05). Conclusions: There was a general lack of awareness regarding the risk habits, early signs and symptoms, and the benefits of detecting this disease at an early stage. Mass media and health campaigns were the main sources of information about oral cancer. In our Malaysian population, gender and age were significantly associated with the awareness of early signs and symptoms and prevention of oral cancer, respectively.
Impact of Various Tumor Markers in Prognosis of Gastric Cancer -A Hospital Based Study from Tertiary Care Hospital of Kathmandu Valley
Mittal, Ankush ; Gupta, Satrudhan Pd. ; Jha, Dipendra Kumar ; Sathian, Brijesh ; Poudel, Bibek ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1965~1967
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1965
Background: To obtain the maximum additional information about the prognosis of gastric cancer, we compared CA-50 with other previously defined markers. Materials and Methods: This hospital based study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry of Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences between
July 2012 and
December 2012. The variables collected were age, gender, AFP, CEA, CA19-9, and CA50, assayed with ELISA reader for all cases. The cut off values for serum AFP, CEA, CA19-9, and CA-50 were 10
, 37 U/ml, and 20 U/ml, respectively according to the manufacturer's instructions. Approval for the study was obtained from the institutional research ethical committee. Results: Of the 40 examined patients, 13 patients had tumors located in the upper third of the stomach, 6 patients had tumors in the middle third, 16 patients had tumors in the lower third, and 5 patients had tumors occupying two-thirds of the stomach or more. The distribution of lymph node staging of the patients was as follows: 7 patients belonged to N0, 9 patients to N1 stage, 10 patients to N2 stage, and 14 patients to N3 stage. The statistical method of Cox proportional hazards using multivariate analysis also illustrated that tumor markers including CEA (2.802), CA19-9 (2.690), CA50 (2.101), were independent prognostic factors, as tumor size (1.603), and lymph node stage (1.614). Conclusions: The tumour markers now available, like CEA, CA 19-9 and CA 50, chiefly perceive advanced gastric cancer. The preoperative rise in those tumour marker level have a prognostic significance and may be clinically helpful in choosing patients for adjuvant management.
Knowledge of Colorectal Cancer Screening among Young Malaysians
Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed ; Bobryshev, Yuri V. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1969~1974
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1969
The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and associated factors regarding colorectal cancer screening among university students in Malaysia. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle practice and knowledge of colorectal screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 students (
years old). The majority of the participants were Malay with a monthly family income of less than 5,000 Ringgit Malaysia (equal to 1,700 USD) (67.0% and 76.0%, respectively). Regarding their lifestyle practices, the majority were non-smokers and had never consumed alcohol (83.7%, and 88.0%, respectively). The majority of the participants had no knowledge of digital rectal examination, colonoscopy, barium enema and fecal occult blood screening (63.3%, 60.7%, 74.0% and 62.3%, respectively). Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that their age and the discipline which the students were studying significantly influenced their level of knowledge about colorectal screening. The present study results indicate that education campaigns about colorectal cancer should be promoted.
Expression and Significance of the Wip1 Proto-oncogene in Colorectal Cancer
Li, Zong-Tao ; Zhang, Liu ; Gao, Xiao-Zeng ; Jiang, Xiao-Hua ; Sun, Li-Qian ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1975~1979
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1975
Aim: To investigate the level of expression of proto-oncogene Wip1 and its physiological significance in colorectal cancer. Methods: Immunohistochemistry, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blotting were used to analyze Wip1 mRNA and protein expression in 120 cases of colorectal cancer and normal tissues to study relationships with clinical symptoms and disease prognosis. Results: The level of Wip1 protein expression was found to be significantly higher in colorectal cancer tissues (85% (102/120)) than in normal tissues (30% (36/120)) (P<0.05). The relative amount of Wip1 protein in colorectal cancer tissue was also found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) than in normal tissues (
, respectively). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed average Wip1 mRNA expression levels to be
for colorectal cancer tissue and adjacent normal tissue (P<0.05). The level of Wip1 protein expression was not correlated with age, gender, or tumor site, but appeared linked with lymph node metastasis, Dukes stage, histological grade, and liver metastasis. Individuals with high and low levels of Wip1 expression showed statistically significant differences in the five-year overall survival and recurrence-free survival rates (P<0.05). Conclusion: Wip1 mRNA and protein are highly expressed in colorectal cancers and may be associated with colorectal cancer development and progression.
Adjuvant Trastuzumab for 6 Months is Effective in Patients with HER2-positive Stage II or III Breast Cancer
Tai, Cheng-Jeng ; Pan, Chin-Kwun ; Chen, Ching-Shyang ; Hung, Chin-Sheng ; Wu, Chih-Hsiung ; Chiou, Hung-Yi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1981~1984
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1981
Objective: The optimal duration of adjuvant trastuzumab treatment in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 6 months of adjuvant trastuzumab treatment in patients with stage II or III HER2-positive breast cancer. Methods: The records of patients with HER2-positive stage II or III breast cancer who were admitted to the Breast Center of Taipei Medical University Hospital and Yuan's General Hospital between 2000 and 2008 were reviewed. All patients received adjuvant trastuzumab at an initial dose of 4 mg/kg followed by a maintenance dose of 2 mg/kg/week for 22 weeks in combination with chemotherapy. Results: A total of 51 patients were included with a mean age of 46.9 years. Approximately 55% of the patients had stage III disease. The mean follow-up time from initiation of treatment was 45.2 months (range, 0.9 to 85 months). During follow-up, 46 patients (90.2%) did not experience tumor recurrence. The mean estimated disease free survival was 80.2 months. The estimated 1-, 2-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates were 97.9%, 93.1%, 93.1%, and 93.1%, respectively. The most common adverse effects were gastrointestinal symptoms (21.6%), chills (17.6%), dizziness (9.8%), and bone pain (7.8%). No cardiac or hematologic adverse events occurred. Conclusion: Adjuvant therapy with trastuzumab for 6 months resulted in a clinical benefit in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.
Decreased Expression of LKB1 Correlates with Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Undergoing Hepatectomy
Huang, Yue-Han ; Chen, Zhen-Kun ; Huang, Ka-Te ; Li, Peng ; He, Bin ; Guo, Xu ; Zhong, Jun-Qiao ; Zhang, Qi-Yu ; Shi, Hong-Qi ; Song, Qi-Tong ; Yu, Zheng-Ping ; Shan, Yun-Feng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1985~1988
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1985
Aim: To study any correlation of LKB1 expression with prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases. Methods: A total of 70 HCC patients and 20 primary intrahepatic stone patients in the first affiliated hospital of Wenzhou Medical College were enrolled in this study. LKB1 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. Patients were followed-up and prognostic factors were evaluated. Result: LKB1 expression was decreased in the HCC samples. Loss of LKB1 expression in HCC was significantly related to histologic grade (P=0.010), vascular invasion (P=0.025) and TMN stage (P=0.011). Patients showing negative LKB1 expression had a significantly shorter disease-free and overall survival than those with positive expression (P = 0.001, P=0.000, respectively). Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that LKB1 expression level was an independent factor of survival (P = 0.033). Conclusion: HCC patients with decreased expression LKB1 have a poor prognosis. The loss of LKB1 expression is correlated with a lower survival rate.
Incidence and Clinicopathologic Features of Primary Lung Cancer: A North-Eastern Anatolia Region Study in Turkey (2006-2012)
Demirci, Elif ; Daloglu, Ferah ; Gundogdu, Cemal ; Calik, Muhammet ; Sipal, Sare ; Akgun, Metin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1989~1993
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1989
Background: Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer among men and second highest among women overall, including in Turkey. Cigarette smoking is the most important etiologic factor for the development of cancer in both men and women. Objective: To determine the lung cancer incidence in Northeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey with a focus on clinical properties, cancer subtypes, the relationships of tumors with cigarette smoking and radiological properties of the lesions. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study design, 566 lung cancer cases diagnosed at the Pathology Department of Ataturk University in Erzurum over the last seven years extending from January 2006 to June 2012 were investigated. The results were compared with statistical analyses. Results: The most common histopathological subtype of primary bronchogenic carcinoma in our study was found to be the squamous cell carcinoma, 46.1% (261 out of 566), and the second was small cell lung carcinoma 15.7% (89 out of 566). Based on our data, an overall male predominance was noted with a male/female ratio of 6.1/1. While 296 (52.2%) of the patients were found to be smokers at the time of diagnosis, 125 (22.0%) were nonsmokers and 145 (25.6%) were ex-smokers. Smoking status was found to have a strong correlation with primary lung cancer (p<0.05), and there were significant differences between males and females (p<0.001). Conclusion: Although relative prominence of subtypes of lung cancers differ between Turkish and other populations, lung cancer overall remains as an important health problem in Turkey. Our findings stress the critical need for effective cancer prevention programs such as anti-smoking campaigns.
hMSH2 and nm23 Expression in Sporadic Colorectal Cancer and its Clinical Significance
Wu, Hong-Wei ; Gao, Li-Dong ; Wei, Guang-Hui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1995~1998
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1995
Objective: To study the expression of the mismatch repair proteins hMSH2 and nm23 in sporadic colorectal cancer, determine any inter-relationship, and further investigate any clinical significance. Methods: Expression of hMSH2 and nm23 proteins was assessed in 87 colorectal cancer tissues by SP immunohistochemistry, with analysis of survival using follow-up data. Results: In the sporadic colorectal cancer tissues, nm23 protein expression appeared independent of the histological type (P>0.05), but correlated with the invasion depth and lymphatic metastasis (P<0.05). In contrast, hMSH2 protein expression was not significantly correlated with these clinicopathologic features (P>0.05), although it positively correlated with that of nm23 protein in the sporadic colorectal cancers (rs=0.635, P<0.05). Combined expression of the two was found to be related with invasion depth, lymphatic metastasis and prognosis of sporadic colorectal cancer (P<0.05). Conclusion: nm23 protein level was related with the degree of malignancy, and could be used as an index to predict the invasion and metastasis potential. The expression of hMSH2 protein is positively correlated that of nm23 protein, and the combined expression of the two has certain guiding significance for the prognosis of sporadic colorectal cancer.
Primary Care Physicians' Cancer Screening Recommendation Practices and Perceptions of Cancer Risk of Asian Americans
Kwon, Harry T. ; Ma, Grace X. ; Gold, Robert S. ; Atkinson, Nancy L. ; Wang, Min Qi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1999~2004
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1999
Asian Americans experience disproportionate incidence and mortality rates of certain cancers, compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Primary care physicians are a critical source for cancer screening recommendations and play a significant role in increasing cancer screening of their patients. This study assessed primary care physicians' perceptions of cancer risk in Asians and screening recommendation practices. Primary care physicians practicing in New Jersey and New York City (n=100) completed a 30-question survey on medical practice characteristics, Asian patient communication, cancer screening guidelines, and Asian cancer risk. Liver cancer and stomach cancer were perceived as higher cancer risks among Asian Americans than among the general population, and breast and prostate cancer were perceived as lower risks. Physicians are integral public health liaisons who can be both influential and resourceful toward educating Asian Americans about specific cancer awareness and screening information.
Potential Predictors of Sensitivity to Pemetrexed as First-line Chemotherapy for Patients with Advanced Non-Squamous NSCLCs
Lu, Yan-Yan ; Huang, Xin-En ; Xu, Lin ; Liu, De-Gan ; Cao, Jie ; Wu, Xue-Yan ; Liu, Jin ; Xiang, Jin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2005~2008
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2005
Background: Pemetrexed (PEM) is effective in first-line treatment for patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However there are currently no definitive determinants to certify which patients could benefit from PEM. To improve the efficacy of PEM combined with platinum as first-line therapy for advanced non-squamous NSCLC, we conducted this retrospective study to detect potential determinants of this regimen. Methods: We recruited 109 patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC who received PEM with a platinum as first-line therapy from June 2006 to February 2013 in Jiangsu Cancer Hospital. Multiple variables (age, sex, smoking, degree of cell differentiation, hemoglobin, platinum drugs combined, positions of metastasis) were selected. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyse relationships between these variables and tumor response. Result: In univariate analysis, we found that age and platinum significantly influenced the results of PEM therapy (P<0.05). In multivariable analysis, no factors were independently significant. Conclusion: Our analysis did not suggest that the age, sex, metastasis of liver or other organs, hemoglobin, smoking history and pathological differentiation are associated with the response of PEM. We should conduct further analyses with larger sample size to reconfirm this issue.
Phase II Study on Safety and Efficacy of Yadanzi
(Javanica oil emulsion injection) Combined with Chemotherapy for Patients with Gastric Cancer
Liu, Jin ; Huang, Xin-En ; Tian, Guang-Yu ; Cao, Jie ; Lu, Yan-Yan ; Wu, Xue-Yan ; Xiang, Jin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2009~2012
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2009
Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of Yadanzi
(Javanica oil emulsion injection) combined with chemotherapy for treatment of patients with advanced gastric cancer. Methods: From January 2011 to December 2012, we recruited 75 patients with advanced gastric cancer, who received javanica oil emulsion injection together with chemotherapy. After two cycles of treatment, efficacy and safety of the combined therapies were evaluated. Results: Overall response rate of 75 patients after treatment was 85.3% (CR+PR+SD). Treatment related side effects were recorded. No treatment related death occurred. Conclusions: Javanica oil emulsion injection combined with chemotherapy could be considered as a safe and effective regimen in treating patients with advanced gastric cancer. Further randomized clinical trials should be conducted to confirm whether the addition of Yadanzi
to chemotheraphy could be associated with reduced toxicity, enhanced tolerability and improved quality of life for patients with advanced gastric cancer.
Effects of Two Chemotherapy Regimens, Anthracycline-based and CMF, on Breast Cancer Disease Free Survival in the Eastern Mediterranean Region and Asia: A Meta-Analysis Approach for Survival Curves
Zare, Najaf ; Ghanbari, Saeed ; Salehi, Alireza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2013~2017
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2013
Background: To compare the effects of two adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, anthracycline-based and cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, fluorourical (CMF) on disease free survival for breast cancer patients in the Eastern Mediterranean region and Asia. Methods: In a systematic review with a multivariate mixed model meta-analysis, the reported survival proportion at multiple time points in different studies were combined. Our data sources were studies linking the two chemotherapy regimens on an adjuvant basis with disease free survival published in English and Persian in the Eastern Mediterranean region and Asia. All survival curves were generated with Graphdigitizer software. Results: 14 retrospective cohort studies were located from electronic databases. We analyzed data for 1,086 patients who received anthracycline-based treatment and 1,109 given CMF treatment. For determination of survival proportions and time we usesb the transformation Ln (-Ln(S)) and Ln (time) to make precise estimations and then fit the model. All analyses were carried out with STATA software. Conclusions: Our findings showed a significant efficacy of anthracycline-based adjuvant therapy regarding disease free survival of breast cancer. As a limitation in this meta-analysis we used studies with different types of anthracycline-based regimens.
Phase II Study of Pemetrexed as Second or Third Line Combined Chemotherapy in Patients with Colorectal Cancer
Wu, Xue-Yan ; Huang, Xin-En ; You, Shan-Xi ; Lu, Yan-Yan ; Cao, Jie ; Liu, Jin ; Xiang, Jin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2019~2022
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2019
Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of pemetrexed combined with chemotherapy as second or third line in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients and Methods: This trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of pemetrexed given to patients with recurrent or metastatic colorectal carcinoma who previously received 5-FU-based chemotherapy. All patients were required to have a histological diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma with measurable metastatic disease and prior chemotherapy. Patients received pemetrexed at a dose of 500
by 10 minute infusion on day 1, repeated every 21 days. Doses were modified depending on nadir counts. Combined chemotherapy included Oxaliplatin, Irinotecan and cis-platinum. Results: Thirty patients were enrolled and twenty-nine were evaluable for response. One patient did not have repeat radiological testing to determine response because he went off study after only one cycle of treatment for economic reasons. For 29 evaluable patients, 1 partial response, 6 stable disease and 22 progressive disease were recorded. Response rate was 3.45% (1/29). All responses occurred in patients receiving a starting dose of pemetrexed 500
. Median time to progression for all eligible patients was 2.5 months. The most common toxicities experienced were mild to moderate fever, hepatic damage, myelosuppression, nausea, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rash. Conclusion: Pemetrexed at 500
given every three weeks combined with chemotherapy is associated with moderate response and good tolerability in patients with stage IV CRC.
Orphan Nuclear Receptor Nurr1 as a Potential Novel Marker for Progression in Human Prostate Cancer
Wang, Jian ; Yang, Jing ; Zou, Ying ; Huang, Guo-Liang ; He, Zhi-Wei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2023~2028
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2023
A number of studies have indicated that Nurr1, which belongs to a novel class of orphan nuclear receptors (the NR4A family), is important for carcinogenesis. Here we investigated expression of Nurr1 protein in benign and malignant human prostate tissues and association with clinicopathologic features using immunohistochemical techniques. Moreover, we also investigated the ability of Nurr1 to influence proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells using small interfering RNA silencing. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression of Nurr1 protein was higher in prostate cancer tissues than in benign prostate tissue (P<0.001), levels being positively correlated with tumor T classification (P = 0.003), N classification (P = 0.017), M classification (P = 0.011) and the Gleason score (P = 0.020) of prostate cancer patients. In vitro, silencing of endogenous Nurr1 attenuated cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. These results suggest that Nurr1 may be used as an indicator for prostate cancer progression and be useful for novel potential therapeutic strategies.
Survey of Willingness to Accept Chemotherapy among Elderly Malaysian Patients
Razali, Rizah Mazzuin ; Bee, Ping Chong ; Gan, Gin Gin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2029~2032
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2029
Background: The geriatric population in Malaysia is predicted to increase from 4% of the total population in 1998 to 9.8% by 2020, in parallel with developments in the socioeconomy. Cancer is expected to be a major medical issue among this population. However, the decision for treatment in Malaysia is always decided by the caregivers instead of the elderly patients themselves. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the willingness to accept chemotherapy among elderly Malaysians. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients aged 60 and above from various clinics/wards were recruited. Those giving consent were interviewed using a questionnaire. Results: A total of 75 patients were recruited, 35 patients (47%) with a history of cancer. The median age was 73 years old. There were 29 Chinese (38.7%), 22 Indian (29.3%), 20 Malay (26.7%) and four other ethnicity patients. Some 83% and 73% of patients willing to accept strong and mild chemotherapy, respectively. Patients with cancer were more willing to accept strong and mild chemotherapy compared to the non-cancer group (88.6% vs 62.5%, P=0.005, 94% vs 80%, P=0.068). On sub-analysis, 71.4% and 42.9% of Chinese patients without a history of cancer were not willing to receive strong and mild chemotherapy, respectively. Conclusions: The majority of elderly patients in UMMC were willing to receive chemotherapy if they had cancer. Experience with previous treatment had positive influence on the willingness to undergo chemotherapy.
The XRCC1 Arg280His Gene Polymorphism and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk: A Meta-analysis
Li, Lu-Ping ; Wu, Wei ; Li, Xing-Hai ; Song, Shu-Sen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2033~2036
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2033
Many studies have suggested that the XRCC1 Arg280His gene polymorphism might be involved in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the results have been inconsistent. In this study, the authors performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between XRCC1 Arg280His and HCC susceptibility. Published literature from PubMed, EMBASE and CNKI Data was searched. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models when appropriate. Begg's test was used to measure publication bias. A total of 7 case-control studies covering 1,448 HCC cases and 1,544 controls were included. No significant variation in HCC risk was detected in any of the genetic models overall. In the stratified analysis, four studies with sample sizes over 300 produced similar results. The corresponding pooled ORs were not substantially altered after the exclusion of three studies deviating from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the control group, which indicated reliability for our meta-analysis results.
Importance of Serum SELDI-TOF-MS Analysis in the Diagnosis of Early Lung Cancer
Simsek, Cebrail ; Sonmez, Ozlem ; Yurdakul, Ahmet Selim ; Ozmen, Fusun ; Zengin, Nurullah ; Keyf, Atilla Isan ; Kubilay, Dilek ; GUlbahar, Ozlem ; Karatayli, Senem Ceren ; Bozdayi, Mithat ; Ozturk, Can ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2037~2042
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2037
Background: Different methods of diagnosis have been found to be inefficient in terms of screening and early diagnosis of lung cancer. Cancer cells produce proteins whose serum levels may be elevated during the early stages of cancer development. Therefore, those proteins may be recognized as potential cancer markers. The aim of this study was to differentiate healthy individuals and lung cancer cases by analyzing their serum protein profiles and evaluate the efficacy of this method in the early diagnosis of lung cancer. Materials and Methods: 170 patients with lung cancer, 53 under high risk of lung cancer, and 47 healthy people were included in our study. Proteomic analysis of the samples was performed with the SELDI-TOF-MS approach. Results: The most discriminatory peak of the high risk group was 8141. When tree classification analysis was performed between lung cancer and the healthy control group, 11547 was determined as the most discriminatory peak, with a sensitivity of 85.5%, a specificity of 89.4%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 96.7% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 62.7%. Conclusions: We determined three different protein peaks 11480, 11547 and 11679 were only present in the lung cancer group. The 8141 peak was found in the high-risk group, but not in the lung cancer and control groups. These peaks may prove to be markers of lung cancer which suggests that they may be used in the early diagnosis of lung cancer.
Older Women Breast Cancer Survivors: Decision Making, Sources of Information and Wellness Activities in Malaysia
Mohamed, Nor Aini ; Muhamad, Mazanah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2043~2048
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2043
The purpose of this study mas to profile older breast cancer survivors in Malaysia. In a survey study, a custom made questionnaire was administered to 69 breast cancer patients and survivors between 60 and 84 years of age in Peninsular Malaysia. The main ethnic group recorded was Chinese, followed by Malay and Indian. The majority of women were married (87%) and had children (84.1%). Just over half (53.6%) had primary and secondary education, whereas 24.7% had higher education. Fifty five percent of the study participants made their own decision on treatment, 60.8% exercised at least 3 times in a week, and 56.6% sought information from specialists. Our study suggests that older breast cancer survivors are aware of the importance of exercise in their daily lives and make attempts to be cancer free (e.g. doing exercise, recreational activity and have good relationships with friends and family).
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the NER Pathway and Clinical Outcome of Patients with Bone Malignant Tumor
Sun, Xiao-Hui ; Hou, Wen-Gen ; Zhao, Hong-Xing ; Zhao, Yi-Lei ; Ma, Chao ; Liu, Ying ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2049~2052
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2049
The effects of polymorphisms in ERCC5, ERCC6, XPC, CCNH and MMS19L on osteosarcoma response to chemotherapy and the survival of the affected patients were assessed. Genotyping of ERCC5, ERCC6, XPC, CCNH and MMS19L was performed by PCR-RFLP assay. The median PFS was 12.8 months, and the median OS was 18.6 months. Individuals carrying homozygous genotypes of ERCC5 rs17655 and ERCC5 rs1047768 were more like to have good response to treatment, while those carrying homozygous genotypes of MMS19L rs29001322 showed poor response. Osteosarcoma patients carrying TT genotype of ERCC5 rs1047768 showed a significantly longer PFS (16.8 months) and OS (21.4 months) than CC genotype, with HRs(95% CI) of 0.31 (0.10-0.93) and 0.32 (0.06-0.97), respectively. Conversely, those with the TT genotype of MMS19L rs29001322 demonstrated shorter PFS and OS, the HRs (95% CI) being 2.23 (1.08-4.15) and 4.62 (1.45-16.08), respectively. Our findings showed polymorphisms in ERCC5 rs1047768 and MMS19L rs29001322 to be associated with clinical outcome of osteosarcoma patients undergoing chemotherapy.
Plasma Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors A and C in Patients undergoing Prostatic Biopsy and TURP for Suspected Prostatic Neoplasia
Singh, A.N. ; Gautam, Kirti A. ; Dalela, D. ; Sankhwar, S.N. ; Natu, S.M. ; Sankhwar, P.L. ; Srivastava, A.N. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2053~2058
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2053
Background: Formation of new blood vessels is necessary for the development and spread of neoplasms more than 1 mm3 in volume, angiogenesis being responsible for formation of new from pre-existing blood vessels. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is pivotal and the best studied angiogenic factor in all human cancers. Therefore we designed this study to investigate the role of VEGF-A and VEGF-C in prostate cancer in comparison with BPH controls in a north Indian population. Methods: In this case-control study a total of 100 subjects were included on the basis of confirmed histopathological reports, out of which 50 were prostate cancer patients and the other 50 were BPH patients with PSA levels >2 ng/ml and abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) findings during September 2009 to August 2011 from the Department of Urology, KGMU, Lucknow, India. Plasma levels of VEGF were determined using quantitative immunoassay (ELISA-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay). Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 15.0 version. Results: The mean age of prostate cancer (
) patients was significantly higher (p=0.005) than BPH (
) patients. Expression of VEGF-A was not significantly higher in disease stage C1 than D1 or D2 and A or B (p=0.13) while the level of VEGF-A was significantly higher (p=0.04) in prostate cancer as compared to BPH subjects (PCa=13.0 pg/ml, BPH=6.8 pg/ml). Levels of VEGF-C were similar in both groups (PCa=832.6 pg/ml, BPH=823.7 pg/ml). In ROC curve, the area under curve (AUC) was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.60-0.80) and the cut-off value for which a higher proportion of patients was correctly classified (20%) was 26.0 pg/mL. Conclusion: Although VEGF-A is increased in cancer prostate patients a statistically significant correlation could not be established in this study. VEGF-C was not found to be a useful biomarker.
The National Cancer Screening Program for Breast Cancer in the Republic of Korea: Is it Cost-Effective?
Kang, Moon Hae ; Park, Eun-Cheol ; Choi, Kui Son ; Suh, MiNa ; Jun, Jae Kwan ; Cho, Eun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2059~2065
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2059
This goal of this research was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) for breast cancer in the Republic of Korea from a government expenditure perspective. In 2002-2003 (baseline), a total of 8,724,860 women aged 40 years or over were invited to attend breast cancer screening by the NCSP. Those who attended were identified using the NCSP database, and women were divided into two groups, women who attended screening at baseline (screened group) and those who did not (non-screened group). Breast cancer diagnosis in both groups at baseline, and during 5-year follow-up was identified using the Korean Central Cancer Registry. The effectiveness of the NCSP for breast cancer was estimated by comparing 5-year survival and life years saved (LYS) between the screened and the unscreened groups, measured using mortality data from the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation and the National Health Statistical Office. Direct screening costs, indirect screening costs, and productivity costs were considered in different combinations in the model. When all three of these costs were considered together, the incremental cost to save one life year of a breast cancer patient was 42,305,000 Korean Won (KW) (1 USD=1,088 KW) for the screened group compared to the non-screened group. In sensitivity analyses, reducing the false-positive rate of the screening program by half was the most cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, ICER=30,110,852 KW/LYS) strategy. When the upper age limit for screening was set at 70 years, it became more cost-effective (ICER=39,641,823 KW/LYS) than when no upper age limit was set. The NCSP for breast cancer in Korea seems to be accepted as cost-effective as ICER estimates were around the Gross Domestic Product. However, cost-effectiveness could be further improved by increasing the sensitivity of breast cancer screening and by setting appropriate age limits.
Mortality from Stomach Cancer in Serbia, Excluding the Province of Kosovo, in the 1991-2009 Period
Ilic, Milena ; Prodovic, Tanja ; Milosavljevic, Zoran ; Ljujic, Biljana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2067~2070
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2067
Background/Aim: Stomach cancer is the second most common cause of death from all malignant tumors in the world (third in men, fifth in women), with a strong decreasing trend in most developed countries. The aim of this descriptive epidemiological study was to analyze mortality of stomach cancer in Serbia, excluding the Province of Kosovo, in the 1991-2009 period. Materials and Methods: In data analysis, we used mortality rates which were standardized directly using those of the world population as a standard. In order to analyze the mortality trend from stomach cancer, linear trend and regression analysis were used. Confidence intervals (CIs) for the average age-adjusted and age-specific mortality rates were assessed with 95% level of probability. Mortality data were derived from the data file of the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Results: During the 1991-2009 period, a significant downward trend in mortality of stomach cancer was recorded in Serbia (y=9.78 - 0.13x, p=0.000; average annual percent change was -6.3 (95%CI, -7.8 to - 4.8). During the same period, a significant decrease in mortality trend was found both in male (y=14.13 - 0.20x; p=0.000; % change was -7.7 (95%CI, -10.9 to -4.5) and female populations (y=6.27 - 0.08x; p=0.000; % change was - 4.4 (95%CI, -5.3 to -3.6). Conclusion: Decreasing trends in mortality from stomach cancer in Serbia are similar to those in most developed countries.
Analysis of the Relationships between Esophageal Cancer Cases and Climatic Factors Using a Geographic Information System (GIS): a Case Study of Ardabil province in Iran
Ahari, Saeid Sadeghieh ; Agdam, Fridoon Babaei ; Amani, Firouz ; Yazdanbod, Abbas ; Akhghari, Leyla ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2071~2077
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2071
Esophageal cancer is a mjaor health problems in many parts of the world. A geographical information system (GIS) allows investigation of the geographical distribution of diseases. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between esophageal cancer and effective climatic factors using GIS. The dispersion distribution and the relationship between environmental factors effective on cancer were measured using Arc GIS. The highest degree of spread was in Germi town and the least was in Ardabil city. There was a significant relationship between effective environmental factors and esophageal cancer in Ardabil province. The results indicated that environmental factors probably are influential in determining the incidence of esophageal cancer. Also, these results can be considered as a window to future comprehensive research on esophageal cancer and related risk factors.
Process of Coping with Mastectomy: a Qualitative Study in Iran
Fouladi, Nasrin ; Pourfarzi, Farhad ; Ali-Mohammadi, Hossein ; Masumi, Atefeh ; Agamohammadi, Masumeh ; Mazaheri, Effat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2079~2084
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2079
Background: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among Iranian women and mastectomy comprises 81% of surgeries for treatment of breast cancer. Mastectomy may create feelings such as deformation or impairment in patients, cause body-image disorder, and reduce sexuality and sexual activity which in turn may entail mental disorders. The study aimed to elaborate coping processes. Materials and Methods: A grounded theory method was used in conducting this study. Twenty Iranian participants undergoing mastectomy were recruited with purposive sampling. An open, semi-structured questionnaire were developed. Obtaining consent, conversations were recorded and immediately transcribed after each session. Data analysis was carried out with the constant comparative method using the Strauss Corbin approach. Results: Analyzing the collected data, the study came up with seven main categories which affected the coping process in patients with breast cancer, namely: reactions to mastectomy; loss and death contest; reconstruction of evaluation system; consent for undergoing mastectomy; reactions and troubles after loss; confrontation of loss and health; and reorganization and compatibility with changes. Conclusions: The results of the study indicated: when patients become informed of their breast cancer and the necessity of undergoing mastectomy as the treatment, they probably pass through seven categories to adapt after mastectomy. Having insight about them is likely to contribute medical personnel in leading patients to the highest degree of feeling healthy.
Does Hopelessness of Turkish Women Affect their Behavior Regarding Cervical Cancer Prevention and Early Diagnosis?
Tasci-Duran, Emel ; Unsal-Atan, Senay ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2085~2089
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2085
Background: The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate attitudes women of towards cervical cancer prevention applications and early diagnosis, and whether or not their hopelessness levels had any influence. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in Isparta with a descriptive design. A sample of 251 individuals was recruited from January 2011 through May 2011 in the largest tea garden (restaurant-cafe). The data collection tool consisted of two parts: a "Questionnaire Form" identifying women; and the "Beck Hopelessness Scale". Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 16.0 for Windows for the numerical and percentage distribution, average, standard deviation with the ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Some 70.2 % of the woman indicated that they had not taken the Pap test. There was a significant relationship between the hopelessness level and women believing that they could protect themselves from getting cervical cancer (F=10.11 p=0.00). There was a significant relationship between hopelessness levels and believing whether or not early diagnosis tests are deterministic (F=8.781 p=0.00). Conclusion: Our study concluded that the hopelessness level of women had an effect on their thoughts about cervical cancer prevention and early diagnosis.
Validity and Necessity of Sub-classification of N3 in the 7
UICC TNM Stage of Gastric Cancer
Li, Fang-Xuan ; Zhang, Ru-Peng ; Liang, Han ; Quan, Ji-Chuan ; Liu, Hui ; Zhang, Hui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2091~2095
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2091
TNM staging is the first authoritative standard for evaluation of effectiveness of treatment of gastric cancer worldwide. However, revision of pN classification within TNM needs to be discussed. In particular, the N3 sub-stage is becoming more conspicuous. Methods: Clinical data of 302 pN3M0 stage gastric cancer patients who received radical gastrectomy in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from January 2001 to May 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Location of tumor, depth of invasion, extranodal metastasis, gastric resection, combined organs resection, lymph node metastasis, rate of lymph node metastasis, negative lymph nodes count were important prognostic factors of pN3M0 stage gastric cancers. TNM stage was also associated with prognosis. Patients at T2N3M0 stage had a better prognosis than other sub-classification. T3N3M0 and T4aN3aM0 patients had equal prognosis which followed the T2N3M0. T4aN3bM0 and T4bN3aM0 had lower survival rate than the formers. T4bN3bM0 had worst prognosis. In multivariate analysis, TNM stage group and rate of lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic factors. Conclusions: The sub-stage of N3 may be useful for more accurate prediction of prognosis; it should therefore be applied in the TNM stage system.
Statistical Modelling and Forecasting of Cervix Cancer Cases in Radiation Oncology Treatment: A Hospital Based Study from Western Nepal
Sathian, Brijesh ; Fazil, Abul ; Sreedharan, Jayadevan ; Pant, Sadip ; Kakria, Anjali ; Sharan, Krishna ; Rajesh, E. ; Vishrutha, K.V. ; Shetty, Soumya B. ; Shahnavaz, Shameema ; Rao, Jyothi H. ; Marakala, Vijaya ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2097~2100
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2097
Background: To estimate the numbers and trends in cervix cancer cases visiting the Radiotherapy Department at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal, statistical modelling from retrospective data was applied. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out on data for a total of 159 patients treated for cervix cancer at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal, between
September 2000 and
December 2008. Theoretical statistics were used for statistical modelling and forecasting. Results: Using curve fitting method, Linear, Logarithmic, Inverse, Quadratic, Cubic, Compound, Power and Exponential growth models were validated. Including the constant term, none of the models fit the data well. Excluding the constant term, the cubic model demonstrated the best fit, with
=0.871 (p=0.004). In 2008, the observed and estimated numbers of cases were same (12). According to our model, 273 patients with cervical cancer are expected to visit the hospital in 2015. Conclusions: Our data predict a significant increase in cervical cancer cases in this region in the near future. This observation suggests the need for more focus and resource allocation on cervical cancer screening and treatment.
Prognostic and Predictive Value of Hematologic Parameters in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Second Line Sunitinib Treatment Following IFN-alpha
Dirican, Ahmet ; Kucukzeybek, Yuksel ; Erten, Cigdem ; Somali, Isil ; Demir, Lutfiye ; Can, Alper ; Payzin, Kadriye Bahriye ; Bayoglu, Ibrahim Vedat ; Akyol, Murat ; Yildiz, Yasar ; Koseoglu, Mehmet ; Alacacioglu, Ahmet ; Tarhan, Mustafa Oktay ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2101~2105
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2101
Background: Long-term survival is a problem with locally advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinomas. Sunitinib malate is an oral multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, but data on sunitinib use as a second line treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) are limited. Prognostic and predictive value of peripheral blood markers has been shown for many cancers. Materials and Methods: Efficacy and safety profiles of sunitinib after interferon alpha (IFN-
) were evaluated based on retrospective data for 23 patients with mRCC. Hematological parameters (neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, mean platelet volume, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, platelet/lymphocyte ratio) were recorded at the time of metastasis. It was evaluated whether hematological parameters were prognostic and predictive factors. Results: Median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 16.5 months (95%CI: 0-34.5). Median overall survival (OS) time was 25.7 months (95%CI: 10.8-40.0). Most common side effects were neutropenia (52.2%), stomatitis (26.1%) and hand-food syndrome (26.1%). PFS was found 3.13 vs 17.1 months in patients with neutrophil / lymphocyte ratio (NLR)>3 vs
(p:0.012). Median OS was 6.96 vs 27.1 months in patients with NLR>3 vs
(p:0.001).While 75% of patients who responded to sunitinib had
, in 72% of patients with no response to sunitinib NLR>3 was detected (p:0.036). The association between the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) criteria and NLR was statistically significant (p:0.022). Conclusions: Data on second line sunitinib treatment following cytokine in mRCC are limited. In our study, we observed second line sunitinib treatment following IFN-
to be effective and tolerable. NLRappeared to have prognostic and predictive value.
Agreement of Iranian Breast Cancer Data and Relationships with Measuring Quality of Care in a 5-year Period (2006-2011)
Keshtkaran, Ali ; Sharifian, Roxana ; Barzegari, Saeed ; Talei, Abdolrasoul ; Tahmasebi, Seddigheh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2107~2111
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2107
Objectives: To investigate data agreement of cancer registries and medical records as well as the quality of care and assess their relationship in a 5-year period from 2006 to 2011. Methods: The present cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 443 cases summarized through census and using a checklist. Data agreement of Nemazi hospital-based cancer registry and the breast cancer prevention center was analyzed according to their corresponding medical records through adjusted and unadjusted Kappa. The process of care quality was also computed and the relationship with data agreement was investigated through chi-square test. Results: Agreement of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy data between Nemazi hospital-based cancer registry and medical records was 62.9%, 78.5%, and 81%, respectively, while the figures were 93.2%, 87.9%, and 90.8%, respectively, between breast cancer prevention center and medical records. Moreover, quality of mastectomy, lumpectomy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy services assessed in Nemazi hospital-based cancer registry was 12.6%, 21.2%, 35.2%, and 15.1% different from the corresponding medical records. On the other hand, 7.4%, 1.4%, 22.5%, and 9.6% differences were observed between the quality of the above-mentioned services assessed in the breast cancer prevention center and the corresponding medical records. A significant relationship was found between data agreement and quality assessment. Conclusion: Although the results showed good data agreement, more agreement regarding the cancer stage data elements and the type of the received treatment is required to better assess cancer care quality. Therefore, more structured medical records and stronger cancer registry systems are recommended.
Expression of MiR200a, miR93, Metastasis-related Gene RECK and MMP2/MMP9 in Human Cervical Carcinoma - Relationship with Prognosis
Wang, Ling ; Wang, Qiang ; Li, He-Lian ; Han, Li-Ying ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2113~2118
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2113
Aim and Background: Cervical cancer remains the third most common cancer in women globally after breast and colorectal cancer. Well-characterized biomarkers are necessary for early diagnosis and to predict metastatic progression and effective therapy. MiRNAs can regulate gene expression, cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis by targeting mRNAs for translational repression or degradation in tumor cells. The present study was conducted to assess expression of miR93, miR200a, RECK, MMP2, MMP9 in invasive cervical carcinoma, and analyze their clinical significance. Method: A total of 116 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma and 100 patients undergoing hysterectomy for benign lesions were retrospectively examined. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to determine expression of miR93 and miR200a while RECK, MMP2, MMP9 and MVD were assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Results: Cervical carcinoma patients demonstrated up-regulation of miR-93, miR-200a, MMP2 and MMP9, with down-regulation of RECK as compared to benign lesion tissues. RECK was significantly inversely related to invasion and lymphatic metastasis. The 5-year survival rate for patients with strong RECK expression was significantly higher than that with weakly expressing tumors. Conclusion: MiR-93 and miR-200a are associated with metastasis and invasion of cervical carcinoma. Thus together with RECK they are potential prognostic markers for cervical carcinoma. RECK cooperating with MMP2, MMP9 expression is a significant prognostic factor correlated with long-term survival for patients with invasive cervical carcinoma.
Assessment of Cervical Cancer Risk in Women between 15 and 49 Years of Age: Case of Izmir
Sogukpınar, Neriman ; Saydam, Birsen Karaca ; Can, Hafize Ozturk ; Hadımli, Aytul ; Bozkurt, Ozlem Demirel ; Yucel, Ummahan ; Kocak, Yeliz Cakir ; Akmese, Zehra Baykal ; Demir, Dogan ; Ceber, Esin ; Ozenturk, Gulsun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2119~2125
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2119
Background: The aim of the study was to determine risk factors for cervical cancer for women in Izmir. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive field covered a population of 4319 women of reproductive age (15-49) (household registration in the Mukhtar's office-2007). A total of 1,637 women were included in the sample given a four-part questionnaire through face-to-face interview by visiting the women in their homes in order to determine socio-demographic factors, obstetric history, genital hygiene and the use of family planning methods. In addition, during the data collection process, the women were given group training in order to raise awareness of cervical cancer. The number and percentage distributions of the data were calculated. Results: While the average age of the women was
(Min: 15.00-Max: 49.00), education level of 43.4% of them was elementary school only. It was determined that 70.3% of the women experienced at least one pregnancy, 71.0% had vaginal delivery and 75.9% used a contraceptive method. In the study it was determined that among the cervical cancer related risks vaginal delivery, vaginal lavage and having three or more pregnancies had the highest rates, while having sexual intercourse before 16 years of age and having more than one sexual partner constituted lower rates. The rate of the women who stated not having a smear in the last three years was 82.4%. Conclusions: Considering the case in terms of having Pap smear test, women's awareness on the risk factors and early diagnosis of cervical cancer was found to be low. Due to this reason, awareness of women has to be raised through education.
Inhibition of Proliferation of Cervical and Leukemic Cancer Cells by Penicillin G
Banerjee, Aditya ; Dahiya, Meetu ; Anand, M.T. ; Kumar, Sudhir ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2127~2130
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2127
Cancer, despite all the efforts, still causes one in five deaths worldwide. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy provide inadequate protection and instead affect normal cells along with cancer cells. The search for cancer cures from natural products (plants and animals) has been practice for over a decade and the use of purified chemical to treat cancer still continues. Several studies have been undertaken during last three decades to find the anti-cancerous property of various plant extract and toxins secreted by animals and micro-organism. These lead to the discovery of several promising molecule having anticancer activity, some of which are in clinical trial and may emerged to be a potential future drug in cancer therapy. In this study we have used penicillin to evaluate its anti-cancer activity. It shown significant effects at cellular and molecular levels against growth of HeLa and K562 cell lines.
Salvage Chemotherapy in Recurrent Platinum-Resistant or Refractory Epithelial Ovarian Cancer with Carboplatin and Distearoylphosphatidylcholine Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin (Lipo-Dox
Khemapech, Nipon ; Oranratanaphan, S. ; Termrungruanglert, W. ; Lertkhachonsuk, R. ; Vasurattana, A. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2131~2135
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2131
Background: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of distearoylphosphatidylcholine pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (DPLD) combined with carboplatin for the treatment of platinum resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) or fallopian tube cancer. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of women who received DPLD with carboplatin for recurrent EOC or fallopian tube cancer in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital Thailand from January 2006 to August 2011 was conducted. Patients were identified from the medical records and data on demographic factors, stage, histology, surgical findings, cytoreduction status, and prior chemotherapies were abstracted. The efficacy and toxicity of DPLD/carboplatin were evaluated. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: A total of 65 patients, 64 with platinum resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer and 1 with fallopian tube cancer, were enrolled. DPLD and carboplatin were given for an average of 4.46 cycles per patient with a total of 273 cycles. Among the 65 evaluable patients, 0% achieved CR, 7.69% PR, 15.4% SD and 76.% PD. The overall response rate was 23.1%. With a median follow-up of 27.4 months, the median progression-free and median overall survival in the 36 patients was 4.46 months and 8.76 months respectively. In the aspect of side effects, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE) occurred in 33.3% (Grade I 22.2%, Grade II 11.1%) and mucositis in 41.7% (Grade I 27.8%, Grade II 13.9%) of all treatment cycles, all Grade 1 or 2. Anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia occurred in 58.3% (Grade I 41.7%, Grade II 16.7%), 66.7% (Grade I 47.2%, Grade II 19.4%), and 22.2% (Grade I 16.6%, Grade II 5.56%) of cycle respectively, and were mostly Grade 1 or 2. Conclusions: DPLD, the second-generation PLD drug combined with carboplatin every 4 weeks, is effective and has low toxicity for treatment of patients with recurrent platinum-resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer.
Evidence for U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) Recommendations Against Routine Mammography for Females between 40-49 Years of Age
Karimi, Parisa ; Shahrokni, Armin ; Moradi, Sedighe ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2137~2139
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2137
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females, worldwide, accounting for 22.9% of all cancers (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) in females. Mammography is a sensitive (77-95%) and specific (94-97%) screening method for breast cancer. Previously, females between the 40-50 years old were recommended to have mammograms every one to two years. However, based on current evidence, in 2009, USPSTF recommended that the decision to start regular, biennial screening mammography for females younger than 50 years should be an individual decision and take patient context into account, including the patient's values regarding specific benefits and harms. This decision was based on findings regarding radiation exposure, false-positive and false-negative rates, over-diagnosis, and pain and psychological responses. The goal of this paper is to focus on evidence for updating the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation against routine mammography for females between 40-49 years of age.
Adapting the Australian System: Is an Organised Screening Program Feasible in Malaysia? - An Overview of the Cervical Cancer Screening in Both Countries
Abdul Rashid, Rima Marhayu ; Dahlui, Maznah ; Mohamed, Majdah ; Gertig, Dorota ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2141~2146
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2141
Cervical cancer is the third most common form of cancer that strikes Malaysian women. The National Cancer Registry in 2006 and 2007 reported that the age standardized incidence (ASR) of cervical cancer was 12.2 and 7.8 per 100,000 women, respectively. The cumulative risk of developing cervical cancer for a Malaysian woman is 0.9 for 74 years. Among all ethnic groups, the Chinese experienced the highest incidence rate in 2006, followed by Indians and Malays. The percentage cervical cancer detected at stage I and II was 55% (stage I: 21.0%, stage II: 34.0%, stage III: 26.0% and stage IV: 19.0%). Data from Ministry of Health Malaysia (2006) showed a 58.9% estimated coverage of pap smear screening conducted among those aged 30-49 years. Only a small percentage of women aged 50-59 and 50-65 years old were screened, 14% and 13.8% coverage, respectively. Incidence of cervical cancer was highest (71.6%) among those in the 60-65 age group (MOH, 2003). Currently, there is no organized population-based screening program available for the whole of Malaysia. A pilot project was initiated in 2006, to move from opportunistic cervical screening of women who attend antenatal and postnatal visits to a population based approach to be able to monitor the women through the screening pathway and encourage women at highest risk to be screened. The project was modelled on the screening program in Australia with some modifications to suit the Malaysian setting. Substantial challenges have been identified, particularly in relation to information systems for call and recall of women, as well as laboratory reporting and quality assurance. A cost-effective locally-specific approach to organized screening, that will provide the infrastructure for increasing participation in the cervical cancer screening program, is urgently required.
Gynecological Cancer Services in Arab Countries: Present Scenario, Problems and Suggested Solutions
Ortashi, Osman ; Al Kalbani, Moza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 2147~2150
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2147
Gynecological malignancies account for 9% of all female cancers worldwide. In the Arab countries Breast cancer is the leading cancer in women followed by cervical cancer. Ovarian cancer ranks as fourth leading cancer in women. There are huge differences in the available resources among Arab countries. However the challenges facing the provision of gynecological cancers services shared similarities like the cultural and religious background. Most of the gynecological cancers are diagnosed at a later stage in Arab countries due to the lack of reproductive health awareness especially among older women combined with the cultural stigma of seeking medical advice for gynecological symptoms. This article discusses the current situation of gynecological cancer services in Arab countries and suggests some practical solutions.