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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 14, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 14, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 14, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 14, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 14, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 14, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Update on the APJCP and the APOCP in 2013 - What is Going to be Achieved in the Future
Moore, Malcolm A. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2151~2153
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2151
The history of the APOCP/APJCP goes back to 1999 when a number of interested scientists joined together to form the organization and to launch a new journal to support cancer prevention research in the Asian-Pacific area. Since the initial Founding Conference, some six General Assemblies (GAs) and ten Regional Conferences (RCs) and Special Study Sessions have been organized. Already the decisions have been made for two further GAs and at least three RCs. As of the April issue of 2013, a total of nearly 3,700 papers have already been published in regular issues of the APJCP or special supplements. With support of the Korean National Cancer Center, housing the Chief Editorial Office, the journal is now including approximately 100 papers a month. Although it experienced a set-back by reduction in the Impact Factor (IF) from 1.29 in 2010 to 0.67 in 2011, there are good grounds to expect an improvement in 2012. However, the future of the APOCP/APJCP will continue to depend on its membership, making continuous efforts to attend our conferences and submit good quality manuscripts. It is particularly important to cite papers in the APJCP wherever possible, if the wish is for an IF commensurate with our long term aims. In that sense it is up to all authors, since the journal will continue to have a very positive ploicy towards accepting papers from all countries within the Asian-Pacific, with continue to varied levels of resources. The editorial team looks forward to your considered support. The APOCP also hopes to see you in person at future meeetings, so that you have a more active voice in deciding the best way forward in our cooperative enterprise.
Global Controversies and Advances in Skin Cancer
Baldwin, Louise ; Dunn, Jeff ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2155~2157
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2155
Advances and controversies of skin cancer prevention in the Asian-Pacific region are to be examined in the world's first Global Controversies and Advances in Skin Cancer Conference to be held in Brisbane, Australia this November. APOCP Members are cordially invited to register early for the opportunity to contribute to the debate on a cancer which continues to be a prominent issue in the Asia Pacific and indeed worldwide. We need answers to the questions of why a cancer that is so preventable and easily detectable is still shrouded in controversy. Primary focuses will be on issues like viral involvement, vaccines and novel clinical approaches.
Roles of Cancer Registries in Enhancing Oncology Drug Access in the Asia-Pacific Region
Soon, Swee-Sung ; Lim, Hwee-Yong ; Lopes, Gilberto ; Ahn, Jeonghoon ; Hu, Min ; Ibrahim, Hishamshah Mohd ; Jha, Anand ; Ko, Bor-Sheng ; Lee, Pak Wai ; MacDonell, Diana ; Sirachainan, Ekaphop ; Wee, Hwee-Lin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2159~2165
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2159
Cancer registries help to establish and maintain cancer incidence reporting system, serve as a resource for investigation of cancer and its causes, and provide information for planning and evaluation of preventive and control programs. However, their wider role in directly enhancing oncology drug access has not been fully explored. We examined the value of cancer registries in oncology drug access in the Asia-Pacific region on three levels: (1) specific registry variable types; (2) macroscopic strategies on the national level; and (3) a regional cancer registry network. Using literature search and proceedings from an expert forum, this paper covers recent cancer registry developments in eight economies in the Asia-Pacific region - Australia, China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand - and the ways they can contribute to oncology drug access. Specific registry variables relating to demographics, tumor characteristics, initial treatment plans, prognostic markers, risk factors, and mortality help to anticipate drug needs, identify high-priority research area and design access programs. On a national level, linking registry data with clinical, drug safety, financial, or drug utilization databases allows analyses of associations between utilization and outcomes. Concurrent efforts should also be channeled into developing and implementing data integrity and stewardship policies, and providing clear avenues to make data available. Less mature registry systems can employ modeling techniques and ad-hoc surveys while increasing coverage. Beyond local settings, a cancer registry network for the Asia-Pacific region would offer cross-learning and research opportunities that can exert leverage through the experiences and capabilities of a highly diverse region.
Lung Cancer Detection by Screening - Presenting Circulating miRNAs as a Promising Next Generation Biomarker Breakthrough
Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi ; Krishnamurthy, Arvind ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2167~2172
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2167
Lung cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, accounting for more deaths than any other cause. All the clinical practice guidelines recommended against routine screening for lung cancer have cited lack of robust evidence, at least until a few years back. However, the potential to screen lung cancers has received renewed interest due to superior performance of low dose CT (LD-CT) in detecting early stage cancers. The incremental costs and risks involved due to the invasive procedures in the screened population due to a high false positivity rate questions the use of LD-CT scan as a reliable community based screening tool. There is therefore an urgent need to find a less invasive and a more reliable biomarker that is crucial to increase the probability of early lung cancer detection. This can truly make a difference in lung cancer survival and at the same time be more cost and resource utilization effective. Sampling blood serum being minimally invasive, low risk and providing an easy to obtain biofluid, needs to be explored for potential biomarkers. This review discusses the use of circulatory miRNAs that have been able to discriminate lung cancer patients from disease free controls. Several studies conducted recently suggest that circulating miRNAs may have promising future applications for screening and early detection of lung cancer.
Power and Promise of Ubiquitin Carboxyl-terminal Hydrolase 37 as a Target of Cancer Therapy
Chen, Yan-Jie ; Ma, Yu-Shui ; Fang, Ying ; Wang, Yi ; Fu, Da ; Shen, Xi-Zhong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2173~2179
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2173
Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 37 (UCH37, also called UCHL5), a member of the deubiquitinating enzymes, can suppress protein degradation through disassembling polyubiquitin from the distal subunit of the chain. It has been proved that UCH37 can be activated by proteasome ubiqutin chain receptor Rpn13 and incorporation into the 19S complex. UCH37, which has been reported to assist in the mental development of mice, may play an important role in oncogenesis, tumor invasion and migration. Further studies will allow a better understanding of roles in cell physiology and pathology, embryonic development and tumor formation, hopefully providing support for the idea that UCH37 may constitute a new interesting target for the development of anticancer drugs.
Review of Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention
Yang, Lei ; Pascal, Mouracade ; Wu, Xiao-Hou ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2181~2184
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2181
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men in the United States. Surgery or radiation are sometimes unsatisfactory treatments because of the complications such as incontinence or erectile dysfunction. Selenium was found to be effective to preven prostate cancer in the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPC), which motivated two other clinical trials: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) and a Phase III trial of selenium to prevent prostate cancer in men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. However, these two trials failed to confirm the results of the NPC trial and indicated that the selenium may not be preventive of prostate cancer. In this article we review the three clinical trials and discuss some different points which might be potential factors underlying variation in results obtained.
Potential Therapeutic Targets for the Primary Gallbladder Carcinoma: Estrogen Receptors
Zhang, Ling-Qiang ; Zhang, Xiu-De ; Xu, Jia ; Wan, Yong ; Qu, Kai ; Zhang, Jing-Yao ; Wang, Zhi-Xin ; Wei, Ji-Chao ; Meng, Fan-Di ; Tai, Ming-Hui ; Zhou, Lei ; Liu, Chang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2185~2190
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2185
Gallbladder carcinoma, the most frequent malignant neoplasm of the biliary tract system, has always been considered to feature late clinical presentation and diagnosis, limited treatment options and an extremely poor prognosis. In recent years, while the incidence of gallbladder cancer has appeared to be on the increase, the available treatment methods have not greatly improved survival of the affected patients. Thus, exploring new therapeutic targets for this devastating disease is an urgent matter at present. Epidemical studies have demonstrated that the incidence of gallbladder carcinoma exhibits a distinct gender bias, affecting females two to three times more than males, pointing to crucial roles of estrogen. It is well known that estrogen acts on target tissues by binding to estrogen receptors (ERs), which are mainly divided into three subtypes,
appear to have overlapping but also unique even opposite biological effects. As important pathogenic mediators, ERs have been considered to relate to several kinds of tumors. In gallbladder carcinoma tissue, ERs have been shown to be positively expressed, and ERs expression levels are associated with differentiation and prognosis of this cancer. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms of estrogen inducing growth of gallbladder carcinoma remain poorly understood. On the base of the current investigations, we deduce that estrogen participates in promotion of gallbladder carcinoma by influencing the formation of gallstones, stimulating angiogenesis, and promoting abnormal proliferation. Since ERs mediate the carcinogenic actions of estrogen in gallbladder, and therapy targeting ERs may provide new directions for gallbladder carcinoma. Therefore, it should be stressed that ERs are potential therapeutic targets for gallbladder carcinoma.
Equol, Adiponectin, Insulin Levels and Risk of Breast Cancer
Minatoya, Machiko ; Kutomi, Goro ; Asakura, Sumiyo ; Otokozawa, Seiko ; Sugiyama, Yukiko ; Nagata, Yoshie ; Mori, Mitsuru ; Hirata, Koichi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2191~2199
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2191
Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers and the leading cause of cancer death among women. Soy isoflavones have been widely studied and among all isoflavones equol has been gaining interest with regard to its relationship with breast cancer risk. Obesity has been revealed as one of the breast cancer risk factors, known to be associated with high levels of circulating insulin and decreased levels of adiponectin. Hence there have been many studies investigating relationships between insulin and adiponectin levels and breast cancer risk. Additionally recent findings have suggested that insulin and adiponectin themselves may have influence on breast cancer development, independent of obesity. In the present review, we discuss the relationships between breast cancer risk and equol, insulin and adiponectin levels, which are three important factors in our ongoing hospital-based case-control study. Herein these factors are reviewed not only from the clinical viewpoint but also from possible chemical and biological points of view which may explain clinical observations.
Potential Targets for Prevention of Colorectal Cancer: a Focus on PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Wnt Pathways
Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2201~2205
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2201
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in many parts of the world. Its development is a multi-step process involving three distinct stages, initiation that alters the molecular message of a normal cell, followed by promotion and progression that ultimately generates a phenotypically altered transformed malignant cell. Reports have suggested an association of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway with colon tumorigenesis. Activation of Akt signaling and impaired expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) (a negative regulator of Akt) has been reported in 60-70% of human colon cancers and inhibitors of PI3K/Akt signaling have been suggested as potential therapeutic agents. Around 80% of human colon tumors possess mutations in the APC gene and half of the remainder feature
-catenin gene mutations which affect downstream signaling of the PI3K/Akt pathway. In recent years, there has been a great focus in targeting these signaling pathways, with natural and synthetic drugs reducing the tumor burden in different experiment models. In this review we survey the role of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Wnt signaling in CRC.
Mechanics behind Breast Cancer Prevention - Focus on Obesity, Exercise and Dietary Fat
Alegre, Melissa Marie ; Knowles, McKay Hovis ; Robison, Richard A. ; O'Neill, Kim Leslie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2207~2212
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2207
Cancer prevention is rapidly emerging as a major strategy to reduce cancer mortality. In the field of breast cancer, significant strides have recently been made in the understanding of underlying preventive mechanisms. Currently, three major strategies have been linked to an increase in breast cancer risk: obesity, lack of physical exercise, and high levels of saturated dietary fat. As a result, prevention strategies for breast cancer are usually centered on these lifestyle factors. Unfortunately, there remains controversy regarding epidemiological studies that seek to determine the benefit of these lifestyle changes. We have identified crucial mechanisms that may help clarify these conflicting studies. For example, recent reports with olive oil have demonstrated that it may influence crucial transcription factors and reduce breast tumor aggressiveness by targeting HER2. Similarly, physical exercise reduces sex hormone levels, which may help protect against breast cancer. Obesity promotes tumor cell growth and cell survival through upregulation of leptin and insulin-like growth factors. This review seeks to discuss these underlying mechanisms, and more behind the three major prevention strategies, as a means of understanding how breast cancer can be prevented.
Anti-Cancer Mechanism and Possibility of Nano-Suspension Formulation for a Marine Algae Product Fucoxanthin
Muthuirulappan, Srinivasan ; Francis, Steffi Pulikodan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2213~2216
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2213
Recently, use of natural products available from marine sources, and especially algae products, are receiving more attention. Scientific evidence for claimed nutraceutical and therapeutical effects of one such marine algae product, fucoxanthin, is discussed in this paper with a summary of the currently available literature regarding its antioxidant, anti-obesity and anticancer activities. It is safe for use in humans, but as it has poor solubility a nano-suspension mode of delivery may be adopted to improve efficacy of supplments. We conclude from ourliterature review that the marine algae product fucoxanthin has significant antioxidant, anti-obesity and anticancer activity with established mechanisms of action.
Evaluation of Levels of Knowledge about Etiology and Symptoms of Oral Cancer in Southern Iran
Tadbir, Azadeh Andisheh ; Ebrahimi, Hooman ; Pourshahidi, Sara ; Zeraatkar, Maryam ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2217~2220
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2217
Background: Knowledge regarding risk factors and primary signs of oral cancer in the general population can help them to avoid risky behaviour and seek timely advice from a physician. The aim of this study was to survey adult knowledge about risk factors and signs of oral cancer in Shiraz Dental University. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study using an investigator-made questionnaire, 783 adults who were referred to Shiraz Dental University participated. Questionnaire data were analyzed by ANOVA and T-test. Results: The results showed that 32.3% of participants were aware of oral cancer and gained their knowledge from the media. The risk factors mentioned by these participants was as follows: sunlight 30.8%, hot and peppery food 40.7%, alcoholic drinks 47.4% and smoking 73.6% (there was significant relationship for drinking alcohol and gender, education and times of using dental service, p<0.05). They also mentioned the primary signs of oral cancer as follows: red patch without pain 27.8%, white patch without pain 13.5% and prolong scarring without pain 56.7% (there was significant relationship between these three signs and education and times of using dental service, p<0.05). The mean knowledge about the risk factors and signs of oral cancer were 1.94 from 5 with 1.14 standard deviation and 0.96 from 3 with 0.93 standard deviation. Conclusions: The observed low level of knowledge of people regarding both risk factors and signs of oral cancer emphasizes the need for more efforts to be made about the above mentioned issues by the media.
Deletion of GSTM1 and T1 Genes as a Risk Factor for Development of Acute Leukemia
Dunna, Nageswara Rao ; Vure, Sugunakar ; Sailaja, K. ; Surekha, D. ; Raghunadharao, D. ; Rajappa, Senthil ; Vishnupriya, S. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2221~2224
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2221
The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of enzymes involved in the detoxification of a wide range of chemicals, including important environmental carcinogens, as well as chemotherapeutic agents. In the present study 294 acute leukemia cases, comprising 152 of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and 142 of acute myeloid leukemia, and 251 control samples were analyzed for GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms through multiplex PCR methods. Significantly increased frequencies of GSTM1 null genotype (M0), GSTT1 null genotype (T0) and GST double null genotype (T0M0) were observed in the both ALL and AML cases as compared to controls. When data were analyzed with respect to clinical variables, increased mean levels of WBC, Blast %, LDH and significant reduction in DFS were observed in both ALL and AML cases with T0 genotype. In conclusion, absence of both GST M & GST T might confer increased risk of developing ALL or AML. The absence of GST enzyme might lead to oxidative stress and subsequent DNA damage resulting in genomic instability, a hallmark of acute leukemia. The GST enzyme deficiency might also exert impact on clinical prognosis leading to poorer DFS. Hence GST genotyping can be made mandatory in management of acute leukemia so that more aggressive therapy such as allogenic stem cell transplantation may be planned in the case of patients with a null genotype.
Effects of Obesity on Presentation of Breast Cancer, Lymph Node Metastasis and Patient Survival: A Retrospective Review
Kaviani, Ahmad ; Neishaboury, MohamadReza ; Mohammadzadeh, Narjes ; Ansari-Damavandi, Maryam ; Jamei, Khatereh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2225~2229
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2225
Background: As data on the relation between obesity and lymph node ratio are missing in the literature, we here aimed to assess the impact of obesity on this parameter and other clinicopathological features of breast cancer cases and patient survival. Materials and Methods: Medical data of 646 patients, all referred to two centers in Tehran, Iran, were reviewed. Factors that showed significant association on univariate analysis were entered in a regression model. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression were employed for survival analysis. Results: Obesity was correlated with the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptor (p=0.004 and p=0.039, respectively), metastasis to axillary lymph nodes (p=0.017), higher lymph node rate (p<0.001) and larger tumor size (p<0.001). The effect of obesity was stronger in premenopausal women. There was no association between obesity and expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor. Three factors showed independent association with BMI on multivariate analysis; tumor size, estrogen receptor and lymph node ratio. Obesity was predictive of shorter disease-free survival with a hazard ratio of 3.324 (95%CI: 1.225-9.017) after controlling for the above-mentioned variables. Conclusions: The findings of this study support the idea that obese women experience more advanced disease with higher axillary lymph node ratio, and therefore higher stage at the time of diagnosis. Furthermore, obesity was associated with poorer survival independent of lymph node rate.
HER-2/neu Status: A Neglected Marker of Prognostication and Management of Breast Cancer Patients in India
Zubeda, Syeda ; Kaipa, Prabhakar Rao ; Shaik, Noor Ahmad ; Mohiuddin, Mohammed Khaliq ; Vaidya, Sireesha ; Pavani, Boddana ; Srinivasulu, Mukta ; Latha, Manolla Madhavi ; Hasan, Qurratulain ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2231~2235
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2231
Background: Categorizing breast tumors based on the ER, PR and HER/Neu 2 receptor status is necessary in order to predict outcome and assist in management of breast cancer. Herfe we assessed this question in South Indian patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 619 formalin fixed paraffin embedded breast tumor tissues were collected from pathology archives after receipt of ethical clearance. With the help of primary and secondary conjugated antibodies, expression status of ER, PR and HER2/neu was determined. All the experimental data were assessed for correlations with histopathological features of tumors and clinical presentation of the subjects. Results: In the present study, the ages ranged from 20-87 years with a mean of
years, and majority of the tumors (84%) were of infiltrating duct cell carcinoma type. Assessment of ER, PR and Her-2/neu expression showed that 46% were triple negative. Interestingly, an inverse relation between ER, PR and HER-2/neu was apparent in 41.2% (p<0.0001) of the tumors, of which 24.5% (p<0.0001) were ER and PR co-negative but HER-2 positive. Conclusions: ER and PR positive tumors are less common (i.e<30%) compared to HER-2/neu positive tumors (i.e>50%) in Indian breast cancer patients, underlining the need for effective diagnostic screening and specific therapeutic managements in order to improve the survival rate of patients in low resource countries such as India.
Impact of Applied Progressive Deep Muscle Relaxation Training on the Level of Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Prostate Cancer Patients: A Quasi-Experimental Study
Isa, Mohamad Rodi ; Moy, Foong Ming ; Razack, Azad Hassan Abdul ; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md. ; Zainal, Nor Zuraida ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2237~2242
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2237
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of applied progressive muscle relaxation training on the levels of depression, anxiety and stress among prostate cancer patients. Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) over six months. Prostate cancer patients from UMMC received the intervention and patients from UKMMC were taken as controls. The level of depression, anxiety and stress were measured using Depression, Anxiety Stress Scales - 21 (DASS-21). Results: A total of 77 patients from the UMMC and 78 patients from the UKMMC participated. At the end of the study, 90.9% and 87.2% of patients from the UMMC and UKMMC groups completed the study respectively. There were significant improvements in anxiety (p<0.001, partial
=0.198) and stress (p<0.001, partial
=0.103) at the end of the study in those receiving muscle training. However, there was no improvement in depression (p=0.956). Conclusions: The improvement in anxiety and stress showed the potential of APMRT in the management of prostate cancer patients. Future studies should be carried out over a longer duration to provide stronger evidence for the introduction of relaxation therapy among prostate cancer patients as a coping strategy to improve their anxiety and stress.
Dose Planning Study of Target Volume Coverage with Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Penang General Hospital Experience
Vincent Phua, Chee Ee ; Tan, Boon Seang ; Tan, Ai Lian ; Eng, Kae Yann ; Ng, Bong Seng ; Ung, Ngie Min ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2243~2248
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2243
Background: To compare the dosimetric coverage of target volumes and organs at risk in the radical treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Materials and Methods: Data from 10 consecutive patients treated with IMRT from June-October 2011 in Penang General Hospital were collected retrospectively for analysis. For each patient, dose volume histograms were generated for both the IMRT and 3DCRT plans using a total dose of 70Gy. Comparison of the plans was accomplished by comparing the target volume coverage (5 measures) and sparing of organs at risk (17 organs) for each patient using both IMRT and 3DCRT. The means of each comparison target volume coverage measures and organs at risk measures were obtained and tested for statistical significance using the paired Student t-test. Results: All 5 measures for target volume coverage showed marked dosimetric superiority of IMRT over 3DCRT. V70 and V66.5 for PTV70 showed an absolute improvement of 39.3% and 24.1% respectively. V59.4 and V56.4 for PTV59.4 showed advantages of 18.4% and 16.4%. Moreover, the mean PTV70 dose revealed a 5.1 Gy higher dose with IMRT. Only 4 out of 17 organs at risk showed statistically significant difference in their means which were clinically meaningful between the IMRT and 3DCRT techniques. IMRT was superior in sparing the spinal cord (less 5.8Gy), V30 of right parotid (less 14.3%) and V30 of the left parotid (less 13.1%). The V55 of the left cochlea was lower with 3DCRT (less 44.3%). Conclusions: IMRT is superior to 3DCRT due to its dosimetric advantage in target volume coverage while delivering acceptable doses to organs at risk. A total dose of 70Gy with IMRT should be considered as a standard of care for radical treatment of NPC.
Inhibitory Effects of Tualang Honey on Experimental Breast Cancer in Rats: A Preliminary Study
Kadir, Erazuliana Abd ; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah ; Yahya, Nurul Khaiza ; Othman, Nor Hayati ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2249~2254
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2249
The study was conducted to determine the effect of Malaysian jungle Tualang Honey (TH) on development of breast cancer induced by the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(
)anthracene (DMBA) in rats. Forty nulliparous female Sprague-Dawley rats were given 80 mg/kg DMBA then randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 served as a Control while Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 0.2, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg bodyweight/day of TH, respectively, for 150 days. Results showed that breast cancers in the TH-treated groups had slower size increment and smaller mean tumor size (
) compared to Controls (
). The number of cancers developing in TH-treated groups was also significantly fewer (P<0.05). Histological grading showed majority of TH-treated group cancers to be of grade 1 and 2 compared to grade 3 in controls. There was an increasing trend of apoptotic index (AI) seen in TH-treated groups with increasing dosage of Tualang Honey, however, the mean AI values of all TH-treated groups were not significantly different from the Control value (p>0.05). In conclusion, Tualang Honey exerted positive modulation effects on DMBA-induced breast cancers in rats in this preliminary study.
Acetylation of Retinoblastoma Like Protein2 (Rb2/p130) in Tumor Tissues
Khan, Z.N. ; Sabir, M. ; Kayani, M.A. ; Saeed, M. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2255~2258
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2255
The activity of Rb proteins is controlled by post-translational modifications, especially through phosphorylation. Acetylation of Rb2/p130 was reported recently in NIH3T3 cells but its physiological relevance in cell cycle control and tumorigenesis is still unknown. Efforts are underway to investigate possible interplay between Rb2/p130 phosphorylation and acetylation. Here we hypothesized that Rb2/p130 acetylation, like p53 acetylation, may play a role in development of the tumor phenotype. The proposed hypothesis regarding acetylation of Rb2/p130 in tumor VS normal cells was found to be true in our case study of 36 tumor samples. Statistical analysis of results suggest strong correlation among Rb2/p130 acetylation and cancer phenotype.
Lack of Health Insurance Increases All Cause and All Cancer Mortality in Adults: An Analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) Data
Cheung, Min Rex ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2259~2263
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2259
Background: Public use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and NHANES III linked mortality data were here applied to investigate the association between health insurance coverage and all cause and all cancer mortality in adults. Patients and Methods: NHANES III household adult, laboratory and mortality data were merged. Only patients examined in the mobile examination center (MEC) were included in this study. The sampling weight employed was WTPFEX6, SDPPSU6 being used for the probability sampling unit and SDPSTRA6 to designate the strata for the survey analysis. All cause and all cancer mortalities were used as binary outcomes. The effect of health insurance coverage status on all cause and all cancer mortalities were analyzed with potential socioeconomic, behavioral and health status confounders. Results: There were 2398 sample persons included in this study. The mean age was 40 years and the mean (S.E.) follow up was 171.85 (3.12) person months from the MEC examination. For all cause mortality, the odds ratios (significant p-values) of the covariates were: age, 1.0095 (0.000); no health insurance coverage (using subjects with health insurance), 1.71 (0.092); black race (using non-Hispanic white subjects as the reference group) 1.43, (0.083); Mexican-Americans, 0.60 (0.089); DMPPIR, 0.82, (0.000); and drinking hard liquor, 1.014 (0.007). For all cancer mortality, the odds ratio (significant p-values) of the covariates were: age, 1.0072 (0.00); no health insurance coverage, using with health coverage as the reference group, 2.91 (0.002); black race, using non-Hispanic whites as the reference group, 1.64 (0.047); Mexican Americans, 0.33 (0.008) and smoking, 1.017 (0.118). Conclusion: There was a 70% increase in risk of all cause death and almost 300% of all cancer death for people without any health insurance coverage.
Complex Regulatory Network of MicroRNAs, Transcription Factors, Gene Alterations in Adrenocortical Cancer
Zhang, Bo ; Xu, Zhi-Wen ; Wang, Kun-Hao ; Lu, Tian-Cheng ; Du, Ye ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2265~2268
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2265
Several lines of evidence indicate that cancer is a multistep process. To survey the mechanisms involving gene alteration and miRNAs in adrenocortical cancer, we focused on transcriptional factors as a point of penetration to build a regulatory network. We derived three level networks: differentially expressed; related; and global. A topology network ws then set up for development of adrenocortical cancer. In this network, we found that some pathways with differentially expressed elements (genetic and miRNA) showed some self-adaption relations, such as EGFR. The differentially expressed elements partially uncovered mechanistic changes for adrenocortical cancer which should guide medical researchers to further achieve pertinent research.
Current Evidence on Associations Between the MMP-7 (-181A>G) Polymorphism and Digestive System Cancer Risk
Ke, Pan ; Wu, Zhong-De ; Wen, Hua-Song ; Ying, Miao-Xiong ; Long, Huo-Cheng ; Qing, Liu-Guo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2269~2272
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2269
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade various components of the extracellular matrix and functional polymorphisms in encoding genes may contribute to genetic susceptibility to many cancers. Up to now, associations between MMP-7 (-181A>G) and digestive system cancer risk have remained inconclusive. To better understand the role of the MMP-7 (-181A>G) genotype in digestive cancer development, we conducted this comprehensive meta-analysis encompassing 3,518 cases and 4,596 controls. Overall, the MMP-7 (-181A>G) polymorphism was associated with higher digestive system cancer risk on homozygote comparison (GG vs. AA, OR=1.21, 95% CI = 1.12-1.60) and in a dominant model (GG/GA vs. AA, OR=1.16, 95% CI =1.03-1.46). On subgroup analysis, this polymorphism was significantly linked to higher risks for gastric cancer (GG vs. AA, OR=1.22, 95% CI = 1.02-1.46; GA vs. AA, OR=1.82, 95% CI =1.16-2.87; GG/GA vs. AA, OR=1.13, 95% CI =1.01-1.27; GG vs. GA/AA, OR= 1.25, 95% CI = 1.06-2.39. We also observed increased susceptibility to colorectal cancer and esophageal SCC in both homozygote (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.06-1.26) and heterozygote comparisons (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.11-1.91). In the stratified analysis by controls, significant effects were only observed in population-based studies (GA vs. AA, OR=1.16, 95% CI=1.08-1.50; GA/AA vs. GG, OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.01-1.72). According to the source of ethnicity, a significantly increased risk was found among Asian populations in the homozygote model (GG vs. AA, OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.12-1.69), heterozygote model (GA vs. AA, OR=1.26, 95% CI=1.02-1.51), and dominant model (GG/GA vs. AA, OR=1.18, 95% CI=1.08-1.55). Our findings suggest that the MMP-7 (-181A>G) polymorphism may be a risk factor for digestive system cancer, especially among Asian populations.
Proteomic Profiling of Serum from Stage I Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients
Li, Xin-Ju ; Wu, Qi-Fei ; He, Da-Lin ; Fu, Jun-Ke ; Jin, Xin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2273~2276
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2273
Objectives: This study employed proteomic profiling to identify specific tumor markers that might improve early diagnosis of lung squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: Serum samples were isolated from 30 patients with stage I lung squamous cell carcinoma and 30 age-and gender-matched healthy controls, and proteomic profiles were obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Results: Three highly expressed potential tumor markers were identified in the sera of stage I lung squamous cell carcinoma patients, with molecular weights of 3261.69, 3192.07, and 2556.92 Da. One protein peak with molecular weight 3261.69 Da was chosen as the candidate biomarker and identified as a fibrinogen alpha chain through a search of the IPI, NCBI or SWISS-PROT protein databases. Conclusion: As a potential tumor biomarker, fibrinogen alpha chain may be applicable for the early diagnosis and prognosis of lung squamous cell carcinoma patients.
Effects of Age, Breast Density and Volume on Breast Cancer Diagnosis: A Retrospective Comparison of Sensitivity of Mammography and Ultrasonography in China's Rural Areas
Wang, Feng-Liang ; Chen, Fei ; Yin, Hong ; Xu, Nan ; Wu, Xiao-Xiang ; Ma, Jing-Jing ; Gao, Shen ; Tang, Jin-Hai ; Lu, Cheng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2277~2282
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2277
Purpose: Mammography has been confirmed as the only effective mode to improve the prognosis of patients with breast cancer in Western developed countries, but might not be a good choice in other areas of the world. One of the major challenges in China is to determine an optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. This study was designed to clarify the sensitivity of ultrasonography compared with that of mammography in rural China. Methods: We retrospectively studied the sensitivity of mammography and ultrasonography based on 306 breast cancer patients detected by the program of "screening for cervical cancer and breast cancer" performed in Chinese rural areas between January 2009 and December 2011, and analyzed the effects of age, breast density and volume on the sensitivity. Results: Stratified analysis showed that the sensitivity of breast ultrasonography was significantly higher than that of mammography in premenopausal patients (81.4% vs. 61.1%, p=0.02), in women
55 years of age (82.2% vs. 63.4%, p<0.01), in the high breast density group (American College of Radiology [ACR] levels 3-4) (85.9% vs. 60.6%, p<0.01) and in the small breast volume group (
400 ml) (87.1% vs. 66.7%, p<0.01). Age had a significant effect on sensitivity of mammography (breast density and volume-adjusted odds ratio, 6.39; 95% confidence interval, 2.8-14.4 in age group > 55 compared to age group
45), but not that of ultrasonography. Neither breast density nor volume had significant effect on sensitivity of mammography or ultrasonography. Conclusions: Ultrasonography is more sensitive than mammography in detecting breast cancer in women under 55 year-old Chinese, especially in those with high-density and relatively small breasts.
Xeliri Plus Bevacizumab Compared with Folfiri Plus Bevacizumab as First-Line Setting in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Experiences at Two-Institutions
Uygun, Kazim ; Bilici, Ahmet ; Kaya, Serap ; Ustaalioglu, Bala Basak Oven ; Yildiz, Ramazan ; Temiz, Suleyman ; Seker, Mesut ; Aksu, Gorkem ; Cabuk, Devrim ; Gumus, Mahmut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2283~2288
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2283
Background: Efficacy of chemotherapy plus bevacizumab has been shown in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) compared with chemotherapy alone. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FOLFIRI or XELIRI regimens in combination with bevacizumab for mCRC patients in a first-line setting. Materials and Methods: A total of 132 patients with previously untreated and histologically confirmed mCRC were included. They were treated with either FOLFIRI-Bevacizumab (Bev) or XELIRI-Bev according to physician preference. The efficacy and safety of the two regimens were compared. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 68 patients were treated with the XELIRI-Bev regimen, while the remaining 64 patients received the FOLFIRI-Bev regimen. The median age was 58.5 years (53.6 years in the FOLFIRI-Bev and 59.7 years in the XELIRI-Bev arm, p=0.01). Objective response rate was 51.6% for FOLFIRI-Bev versus 41.2% for XELIRI-Bev (p=0.38). At the median follow-up of 24.5 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was not different between two groups (14.2 months in FOLFIRI-Bev vs. not reached in the XELIRI-Bev, p=0.30). However, median overall survival time for the FOLFIRI-Bev arm was better than that for patients treated with XELIRIBev, but these differences was not statistically significant (37.8 months vs. 28.7 months, respectively, p=0.58). Most commonly reported grade 3-4 toxicities (FOLFIRI-Bev vs XELIRI-Bev) were nausea/vomiting (7.8% vs. 14.7%, p=0.27), diarrhea (10.9% vs 22.1%, p=0.10), hand-foot syndrome (0% vs 8.8%, p=0.02) and neutropenia (18.7% vs 27.9%, p=0.22). Conclusion: Our results showed that FOLFIRI-Bev and XELIRI-Bev regimens were similarly effective treatments in a first-line setting for patients with untreated mCRC, with manageable adverse event profiles.
Aberrant Expression of miR-20a and miR-203 in Cervical Cancer
Zhao, Shan ; Yao, De-Sheng ; Chen, Jun-Ying ; Ding, Nan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2289~2293
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2289
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that are critical regulators of various diseases. MicroRNA-20a (miR-20a) and microRNA-203 (miR-203) have previously shown significant alteration in a range of cancers. In this study, the expression levels of miR-20a and miR-203 in 100 cervical cancer tissues were detected by qRT-PCR and compared to patient matched-nontumor cervical tissues. Correlations between expression level and clinicopathologic characteristics of cervical cancer were also analyzed. Finally, we studied the effect of miR-20a and miR-203 on cell proliferation in cervical cancer cell lines by MTT. We found that the expression level of miR-20a (P<0.001) was significantly higher in cervical cancer patients than in healthy controls, while that of miR-203 (P<0.001) was lower. Aberrant expression of miR-20a was correlated with lymph node metastasis (LNM), histological grade and tumor diameter, but down-regulated miR-203 was correlated with LNM only. Furthermore, we found that over-expression of miR-203 decreased cell proliferation, while reduction of miR-20a also prevented tumor progression. Our results support the involvement of miR-20a and miR-203 in cervical tumorigenesis. We propose that miRNAs might be used as therapeutic agents for cervical cancer.
Caveolin-1, Through its Ability to Negatively Regulate TLR4, is a Crucial Determinant of MAPK Activation in LPS-challenged Mammary Epithelial Cells
Wang, Xiao-Xi ; Wu, Zheng ; Huang, Hui-Fang ; Han, Chao ; Zou, Wei ; Liu, Jing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2295~2299
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2295
Background: To explore the role of caveolin-1(CAV-1) gene silencing on MAPK activation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged human mammary epithelial cells. Methods: We established a MCF-10ACE of CAV-1 gene silencing from human mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A by RNAi technology. DNA Microarray were used to detect the expression of inflammation-associated genes in MCF10ACE. Western blotting was used to examine the activation of MAPK in lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-challenged MCF-10A and MCF-10ACE. Moreover, immunofluorescence and Western bloting were performed to detect the co-localization of CAV-1 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in human mammary epithelial cells. Results: MCF-10ACE exhibited significant increases in inflammation-associated gene expression, especially IL-6 (~7-fold) and IL6R (~17-fold). In addition, LPS-induced p38 MAPK and JNK MAPK activation was significantly increased in MCF-10ACE. Furthermore, CAV-1 co-localized with TLR4 and appeared a negative correlation trend. Conclusion: CAV-1 gene silencing promotes MAPK activation via TLR4 signaling in human mammary epithelial cells response to LPS.
Isolation of a Quinone-rich Fraction from Ardisia crispa Roots and its Attenuating Effects on Murine Skin Tumorigenesis
Yeong, Looi Ting ; Hamid, Roslida Abdul ; Yazan, Latifah Saiful ; Khaza'ai, Huzwah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2301~2305
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2301
Ardisia crispa (Family: Myrsinaceae) is an evergreen, fruiting shrub that has been traditionally used as folklore medicine. Despite a scarcity of research publications, we have succeeded in showing suppressive effects on murine skin papillomagenesis. In extension, the present research was aimed at determining the effect of a quinone-rich fraction (QRF) isolated from the same root hexane extract on both initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis, at the selected dose of 30 mg/kg. Mice (groups I-IV) were initiated with a single dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz(
) followed by repeated promotion of croton oil (1%) twice weekly for 20 weeks. In addition, group I (anti-initiation) received QRF 7 days before and after DMBA; group II (anti-promotion) received QRF 30 minutes before each croton oil application; group III (anti-initiation/promotion) was treated with QRF as a combination of group I and II. A further two groups served as vehicle control (group V) and treated control (group VI). As carcinogen control, group IV showed the highest tumor volume (
) and tumor burden (
). Comparatively, group III revealed only 20% of tumor incidence, tumor burden (
) and tumor volume (
), which were significantly different from group IV. Group II also showed significant reduction of tumor volume (3.11), tumor burden (3.00) and tumor incidence (11.11%), along with prominent increase of latency period of tumor formation (week 12). Group I, nonetheless, demonstrated marked increment of tumor incidence by 40% with prompted latency period of tumor formation (week 7). No tumor formation was observed in groups V and VI. This study provided clear evidence of inhibitory effects of QRF during promotion period which was in agreement with our previous findings. The mechanism(s) underlying such effects have yet to be elucidated.
Enhanced Antitumor Effect of Curcumin Liposomes with Local Hyperthermia in the LL/2 Model
Tang, Jian-Cai ; Shi, Hua-Shan ; Wan, Li-Qiang ; Wang, Yong-Sheng ; Wei, Yu-Quan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2307~2310
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2307
Curcumin previously was proven to inhibit angiogenesis and display potent antitumor activity in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we investigated whether a combination curcumin with hyperthermia would have a synergistic antitumor effect in the LL/2 model. The results indicated that combination therapy significantly inhibited cell proliferation of MS-1 and LL/2 in vitro. LL/2 experiment model also demonstrated that the combination therapy inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the life span in vivo. Furthermore, combination therapy reduced angiogenesis and increased tumor apoptosis. Our findings suggest that the combination therapy exerted synergistic antitumor effects, providing a new perspective fpr clinical tumor therapy.
Down-regulation of Long Non-coding RNA TUG1 Inhibits Osteosarcoma Cell Proliferation and Promotes Apoptosis
Zhang, Qiang ; Geng, Pei-Liang ; Yin, Pei ; Wang, Xiao-Lin ; Jia, Jin-Peng ; Yao, Jie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2311~2315
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2311
Objective: To investigate the expression level of TUG1 and one of its transcript variants (n377360) in osteosarcoma cells and assess the role of TUG1 in proliferation and apoptosis in the U2OS cell line. Methods: TUG1 and n377360 expression levels in patients with osteosarcomas and the U2OS human osteosarcoma cell line were evaluated using real-time quantitative PCR. U2OS cells were transected with TUG1 and n377360 siRNA or non-targeting siRNA. MTS was performed to assess the cell proliferation and flow cytometry was applied to analyze apoptosis. Results: We found significantly higher TUG1 and n377360 expression levels in osteosarcoma tissues compared with matched non-tumorous tissues. In line with this, suppression of TUG1 and n377360 expression by siRNA significantly impaired the cell proliferation potential of osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, inhibition of TUG1 expression significantly promoted osteosarcoma cell apoptosis. Conclusions: The overexpression of TUG1 and n377360 in osteosarcoma specimens and the functional role of TUG1 and n377360 regarding cell proliferation and apoptosis in an osteosarcoma cell line provided evidence that the use of TUG1 or n377360 may be a viable but an as yet unexplored therapeutic strategy in tumors that over express these factors.
Testing the Transtheoretical Model in Predicting Smoking Relapse among Malaysian Adult Smokers Receiving Assistance in Quitting
Yasin, Siti Munira ; Retneswari, Masilamani ; Moy, Foong Ming ; Taib, Khairul Mizan ; Isahak, Marzuki ; Koh, David ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2317~2323
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2317
The role of The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) in predicting relapse is limited. We aimed to assess whether this model can be utilised to predict relapse during the action stage. The participants included 120 smokers who had abstained from smoking for at least 24 hours following two Malaysian universities' smoking cessation programme. The smokers who relapsed perceived significantly greater advantages related to smoking and increasing doubt in their ability to quit. In contrast, former smokers with greater self-liberation and determination to abstain were less likely to relapse. The findings suggest that TTM can be used to predict relapse among quitting smokers.
Plumbagin from Plumbago Zeylanica L Induces Apoptosis in Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines through NF-κB Inactivation
Xu, Tong-Peng ; Shen, Hua ; Liu, Ling-Xiang ; Shu, Yong-Qian ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2325~2331
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2325
Objective: To detect effects of plumbagin on proliferation and apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines A549, H292 and H460 were treated with various concentrations of plumbagin. Cell proliferation rates was determined using both cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and clonogenic assays. Apoptosis was detected by annexin V/propidium iodide double-labeled flow cytometry and TUNEL assay. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by flow cytometry. Activity of NF-
was examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and luciferase reporter assay. Western blotting was used to assess the expression of both NF-
regulated apoptotic-related gene and activation of p65 and
. Results: Plumbagin dose-dependently inhibited proliferation of the lung cancer cells. The IC50 values of plumbagin in A549, H292, and H460 cells were 10.3
, and 6.1
for 12 hours, respectively. The compound concentration-dependently induced apoptosis of the three cell lines. Treatment with plumbagin increased the intracellular level of ROS, and inhibited the activation of NK-
. In addition to inhibition of NF-
/p65 nuclear translocation, the compound also suppressed the degradation of
. ROS scavenger NAC highly reversed the effect of plumbagin on apoptosis and inactivation of NK-
in H460 cell line. Treatment with plumbagin also increased the activity of caspase-9 and caspase-3, downregulated the expression of Bcl-2, upregulated the expression of Bax, Bak, and CytC. Conclusions: Plumbagin inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human lung cancer cells through an NF-
-regulated mitochondrial-mediated pathway, involving activation of ROS.
Epidemiology of Leukemia and Multiple Myeloma in Golestan, Iran
Rajabli, Niloofar ; Naeimi-Tabeie, Mohammad ; Jahangirrad, Ataollah ; Sedaghat, Seyed-Mehdi ; Semnani, Shahryar ; Roshandel, Gholamreza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2333~2336
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2333
Background: The aim of this paper was to present the incidence rates of leukemia and multiple myeloma (MM) in Golestan province located in northeastern Iran during 2004-2009. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Data on newly diagnosed (incident) leukemia and MM cases were obtained from collected from Golestan population-based cancer registry. Data was entered into CanReg-4 software. Age standardized incidence rates (ASR) (per 100000 person-years) for leukemia and MM were calculated. Data on Golestan population was obtained from the data of Iranian national census in 2006. Results: Totally, 11036 new cancer cases were registered in GPRC from 2004-2009. Leukemia and MM accounted for 693 and 124 of cases, respectively. The mean age in patients with leukemia and MM was 43.8 and 62.4 years, respectively. The ASRs for leukemia among men and women were 10.4 and 7.8, respectively (p<0.001). The ASRs for MM were 2.1 and 2 in men and women, respectively (p=0.93). The rate of leukemia was significantly higher in rural areas (p=0.02) whereas the incidence of MM was higher in urban areas (p<0.001). Conclusions: Our results showed a high incidence rate of leukemia in Golestan province of Iran. The incidence of leukemia was significantly higher in males and residents of rural areas. High exposure to pesticides and other agricultural related products may be a possible explanation for epidemiological pattern of leukemia in this area. Determining and controlling important risk factors, especially environmental factors, of leukemia may lead to decrease in its burden in Golestan province of Iran.
Association of mir-499 and mir-149 Polymorphisms with Cancer Risk in the Chinese Population: Evidence from Published Studies
Zhang, You-Gai ; Shi, Jian-Xiang ; Song, Chun-Hua ; Wang, Peng ; Dai, Li-Ping ; Zhang, Jian-Ying ; Shi, Jia-Chen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2337~2342
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2337
Meta-analyses have shown that microRNA polymorphisms have variable effects in different population. Yet, no meta-analysis investigated the association of two common polymorphisms of miRNA, mir-499 rs3746444 polymorphism and mir-149 rs2292832 polymorphism, with cancer risk in the Chinese population. We searched the PubMed, Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, CNKI databases, as well as Cochrane library, updated on December 31, 2012 for assays regarding cancer risk association with these two common polymorphisms in the present meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to explore the strength of associations. The results showed that rs3746444 polymorphism was associated with increased cancer risk (dominant model: GG/AG vs. AA: OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.14-1.80; recessive model: GG vs. AG/AA: OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.04-2.30; homozygote model: GG vs. AA: OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.10-2.60; heterozygote model: AG vs. AA: OR = 1. 35, 95% CI: 1.09-1.67), and rs3746444 was associated with liver cancer in the subgroup of cancer types. For the rs2292832 polymorphism, the results showed no significant risk association in both overall pooled analysis and subgroup of cancer types, smoking status, gender and tea drinking status in the Chinese population. This meta-analysis suggested that the rs3746444 GG genotype is associated with increased cancer risk, especially liver cancer, while the rs2292832 polymorphism showed no association with cancer risk in Chinese.
Effects of Celecoxib on Cycle Kinetics of Gastric Cancer Cells and Protein Expression of Cytochrome C and Caspase-9
Wang, Yu-Jie ; Niu, Xiao-Ping ; Yang, Li ; Han, Zhen ; Ma, Ying-Jie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2343~2347
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2343
Objective: This investigation aimed to determine effects of celecoxib on the cell cycle kinetics of the gastric cancer cell line MGC803 and the mechanisms involved by assessing expression of cytochrome C and caspase-9 at the protein level. Methods: Cell proliferation of MGC803 was determined by MTT assay after treatment with celecoxib. Apoptosis was assessed using fluorescence staining and cell cycle kinetics by flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of caspase-9 protein and of cytochrome C protein in cell cytosol and mitochondria. Results: Celecoxib was able to restrain proliferation and induce apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner, inducing G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, release of cytochrome C into the cytosol, and cleavage of pro-caspase-9 into its active form. Conclusion: Celecoxib can induce apoptosis in MGC803 cells through a mechanism involving cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial cytochrome C release and caspase activation.
NAD(P)H: Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) C609T Gene Polymorphism Association with Digestive Tract Cancer: A Meta-analysis
Zhu, Cheng-Lin ; Huang, Qiang ; Liu, Chen-Hai ; Lin, Xian-Sheng ; Xie, Fang ; Shao, Feng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2349~2354
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2349
NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) C609T gene polymorphisms have been reported to influence the risk for digestive tract cancer (DTC) in many studies; however, the results remain controversial and ambiguous. We therefore carried out a meta-analysis of published case-control studies to derive a more precise estimation of any associations. Electronic searches were conducted on links between this variant and DTC in several databases through April 2012. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of associations in fixed or random effect models. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also assessed. A total of 21 case-control studies were identified, including 6,198 cases and 7,583 controls. Overall, there was a statistically significant association between the NQO1 C609T polymorphism and DTC risk (TT vs. CC: OR=1.224, 95%CI=1.055-1.421; TT/CT vs. CC: OR=1.195, 95%CI=1.073-1.330; TT vs. CT/CC: OR=1.183, 95%CI=1.029-1.359; T vs. C: OR=1.180, 95%CI=1.080-1.290). When stratified for tumor location, the results based on all studies showed the variant allele 609T might have a significantly increased risk of upper digest tract cancer (UGIC), but not colorectal cancer. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, we observed a significantly risk for DTC in Caucasians. For esophageal and gastric cancer, a significantly risk was found in both populations, and for colorectal, a weak risk was observed in Caucasians, but not Asians. This meta-analysis suggested that the NQO1 C609T polymorphism may increase the risk of DTC, especially in the upper gastric tract.
Preliminary Study on Human Papillomavirus Frequency and Specific Type-distribution in Vulva Cancer from Thai Women
Ngamkham, Jarunya ; Homcha-aim, Patcharin ; Boonmark, Krittika ; Phansri, Thainsang ; Swangvaree, Sukumarn Snersak ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2355~2359
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2355
Vulva cancer is rare among all gynecological cancer worldwide, including Thailand, and mainly affects older women. Persistent high risk type infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the one important factor for developing cancer. In this study, we focused on HPV DNA investigation and type-specific distribution of HPV in 25 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples collected from Thai women with vulva cancer histologically confirmed by the National Cancer Institute, Thailand, during 2003-2011. HPV DNA detection and genotyping were undertaken with polymerase-chain reaction and enzyme-immunoassay using GP5+/bio6+ consensus specific primers and digoxigenin-labeled specific oligoprobes, respectively. Human
-globin genes was used as the internal control. Our results showed that 44% (11/25) of all vulva cancer samples were HPV-positive. All of them are high risk HPV type infection, detected as single (63.64%, 7/11) and/or double infections (4/11, 36.36%). HPV 16 was the most common type identified in vulva cancer, followed by HPV 35, 33, 18 and 58. In conclusion, this study presented that HPV-16 is observed at the highest frequency in this cancer, similar to cervical cancer, with HPV 18 being less frequent. Although the sample size was small and could not represent overall incidence and prevalence in Thai women, these preliminary data for vulva cancer are of interest since they reinforce the necessity for HPV screening or vaccination in Thailand.
Effects of miR-155 Antisense Oligonucleotide on Breast Carcinoma Cell Line MDA-MB-157 and Implanted Tumors
Zheng, Shu-Rong ; Guo, Gui-Long ; Zhai, Qi ; Zou, Zhang-Yong ; Zhang, Wei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2361~2366
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2361
Diverse studies have shown that miR-155 is overexpressed in different tumor types. However, the precise molecular mechanism of the ectopic expression of miR-155 in breast cancer is still poorly understood. To further explore the role of miR-155 in breast tumorigenesis, we here assessed the influence of miR-155 antisense oligonucleotide (miR-155 ASO) on MDA-MB-157 cell viability and apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, the effects of inhibitory effects of miR-155 on the growth of xenograft tumors in vivo were determined with performance of immunohistochemistry to detect expression of caspase-3, a pivotal apoptosis regulatory factor, in xenografts. Transfection efficiency detected by laser confocal microscope was higher than 80%. The level of miR-155 expression was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the cells transfected with miR-155 ASO, compared with that in cells transfected with a negative control. After being transfected with miR-155 ASO, the viability of MDA-MB-157 cells was reduced greatly (P<0.05) and the number of apoptotic cells was increased significantly. Additionally, miR-155 ASO inhibited the growth of transplanted tumor in vivo and significantly increased the expression of caspase-3. Taken together, our study revealed that miR-155 ASO can induce cell apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation in vitro. Moreover, miR-155 ASO could significantly repress tumor growth in vivo, presumably by inducing apoptosis via caspase-3 up-regulation. These findings provide experimental evidence for using miR-155 as a therapeutic target of breast carcinoma.
Preventive Effects of Resveratrol against Azoxymethane Induced Damage in Rat Liver
Gurocak, Simay ; Karabulut, Ercan ; Karadag, Nese ; Ozgor, Dincer ; Ozkeles, Neslihan ; Karabulut, Aysun Bay ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2367~2370
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2367
Background: In recent years, due to modern lifestyles and exposure to chemical carcinogens, cancer cases are steadily increasing. From this standpoint, azoxymethane (AOM), a chemical carcinogen which causes de novo liver damage, and resveratrol, which is an antioxidant found in foods and protects against oxidative stress damage, are of interest. We here aimed to evaluate whether resveratrol could protect the liver tissues from the effects of AOM. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 4 groups, each consisting of seven rats, the first receiving only AOM (2 times per week, 5 mg/kg), group 2 AOM and resveratrol (2 times a week, 20 mg/kg), group 3 assessed only as a control and group 4 administered only resveratrol. At the end of the seventh week, the rats were sacrificed. Rat liver MDA, NO, GSH levels were analyzed biochemically, as well as the tissues being evaluated histopathologically. Results: MDA and NO increased in AOM group as signs of increased oxidative stress. The group concomitantly administered resveratrol was been found to be significantly decreased in MDA and NO levels and increased in GSH activity. However, there were no significant findings on histopathological evaluation. Conclusions: In the light of these results, resveratrol appears to exert protective effect on oxidative s tress in the liver tissue due to deleterious effects of chemical carcinogens.
Prediction and Analysis of Ligands against Estrogen Related Receptor Alpha
Chitrala, Kumaraswamy Naidu ; Yeguvapalli, Suneetha ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2371~2375
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2371
Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women around the world. Among the various hormonal types of breast cancer, those that are estrogen receptor (ER) positive account for the majority. Among the estrogen related receptors, estrogen related receptor
is known to have a potential role in breast cancer and is one of the therapeutic target. Hence, prediction of novel ligands interact with estrogen related receptor alpha is therapeutically important. The present study, aims at prediction and analysis of ligands from the KEGG COMPOUND database (containing 10,739 entries) able to interact against estrogen receptor alpha using a similarity search and molecular docking approach.
Comparison of Clinical Efficacy of Three Different Neoadjuvant Approaches (Chemotherapy Combined Vaginal Intracavitary Irradiation, Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Alone or Radiotherapy) Combined with Surgery for Patients with Stage Ib2 and IIa2 Cervical Cancer
Fu, Jian-Hong ; Gao, Zhan ; Ren, Chen-Chen ; Shi, Yong-Gang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2377~2381
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2377
A total of 285 patients with stage Ib2 and IIa2 cervical cancer were categorized into three groups, and received preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with vaginal intracavitary irradiation, neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone or radiotherapy, respectively. The effective rate of 70.6 % in group 1 was much higher than 41.4% in group 2 (P=0.000) and 46.9 % in group 3 (P=0.000); The percentage of patients receiving postoperative adjuvant therapy was 44.1% in group 1, much lower than 67.8% in group 2 (P=0.001) and 64.6% in group 3 (P=0.004); The percentage of patients with no postoperative risk factor in group 1 was 52.0%, much higher than 32.2% in group 2 (P=0.006) and 35.4% in group 3 (P=0.019); The occurrence rate of surgery-related complications in groups 1, 2 and 3 were 29.4%, 28.7%, and 33.3%, respectively, with no statistical differences among the groups (P=0.981). Regarding preoperative neoadjuvant complications, none were obvious in group 3, while occurrence rates of myelosuppression in groups 1 and 2 were 89.1% and 86.6%, of nausea and vomitting were 78.4% and 78.2%, but without significant differences (all P>0.05). Among 166 patients who received postoperative adjuvant therapy in the three groups, the occurrence rates were: 65.4%, 64.3% and 61.1% respectively for myelosuppression; 42.3%, 38.1%, and 38.9% for nausea and vomiting; 9.6%, 9.5% and 9.7% for urocystitis; and 63.5%, 69.0% and 65.3% enteritis and rectitis. There were no statistically significant differences among them (all P>0.05). The five-year disease-free survival rates (DFS) in groups 1, 2, 3 were 78.3%, 75.1%, 80.9%, respectively; the five-year overall survival rates (OS) were 81.4%, 78.2%, and 81.1%, respectively. The five-year OS of 166 patients receiving postoperative in the three groups were 72.4%, 69.5%, and 71.8%, respectively, with no significant variation (all P>0.05). Although there were no differences among three groups in DFS and OS, preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with intracavitary radiotherapy may increase the effective rate and the percentage of patients with no postoperative risk factors and decrease the percentage of patients receiving postoperative adjuvant therapy, thereby decreasing complications indirectly and increasing quality of life.
Soluble Expression of Recombinant Human Smp30 for Detecting Serum Smp30 Antibody Levels in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients
Zhang, Sheng-Chang ; Huang, Peng ; Zhao, Yong-Xiang ; Liu, Shu-Yan ; He, Shu-Jia ; Xie, Xiao-Xun ; Luo, Gou-Rong ; Zhou, Su-Fang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2383~2386
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2383
Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30), a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated antigen, was earlier shown by our research group to be highly expressed in HCC paracancerous tissues, but have low levels in HCC tissues. In order to detect anti-SMP30 antibody in serum of HCC patients, we established pET30a-SMP30 and pColdIII-SMP30 expression systems in Escherichia coli. However, the expression product was mainly in the form of inclusion bodies. In this research, we used several combinations of chaperones, four molecular chaperone plasmids with pET30a-SMP30 and five molecular chaperone plasmids with pColdIII-SMP30 to increase the amount of soluble protein. Results showed that co-expression of HIS-SMP30 with pTf16, combined with the addition of osmosis-regulator, and a two-step expression resulted in the highest enhancement of solubility. A total of 175 cases of HCC serum were studied by ELISA to detect anti-SMP30 antibody with recombinant SMP30 protein. Some 22 were positive and x2 two-sided tests all showed P>0.05, although it remained unclear whether there was a relationship between positive cases and clinical diagnostic data.
Effect of Bcl-2 on Apoptosis and Transcription Factor NF-κB Activation Induced by Adriamycin in Bladder Carcinoma BIU87 Cells
Zhang, Guo-Jun ; Zhang, Zhe ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2387~2391
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2387
Resistance to apoptosis is a major obstacle preventing effective therapy for malignancies. Bcl-2 plays a significant role in inhibiting apoptosis. We reconstructed a stable human Bcl-2 transfected cell line, BIU87-Bcl-2, that was derived from the transfection of human bladder carcinoma cell line BIU87 with a plasmid vector containing recombinant Bcl-2 [pcDNA3.1(+)-Bcl-2]. A cell line transfected with the plasmid alone [pcDNA3.1(+)-neo] was also established as a control. BIU87 and BIU87-neo proved sensitive to adriamycin induced apoptosis, while BIU87-Bcl-2 was more resistant. In view of the growing evidence that NF-
may play an important role in regulating apoptosis, we determined whether Bcl-2 could modulate the activity of NF-
in bladder carcinoma cells. Stimulation of BIU87, BIU87-neo and BIU87-Bcl-2 with ADR resulted in an increase expression of NF-
(p<0.001). The expression of NF-
in BIU87-Bcl-2 was higher than in the other two cases, with a concomitant reduction in the
protein level. These results suggest that the overexpression of Bcl-2 renders human bladder carcinoma cells resistant to adriamycin-induced cytotoxicity and there is a link between Bcl-2 and the NF-
signaling pathway in the suppression of apoptosis.
Mitochondrial Genome Microsatellite Instability and Copy Number Alteration in Lung Carcinomas
Dai, Ji-Gang ; Zhang, Zai-Yong ; Liu, Quan-Xing ; Min, Jia-Xin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2393~2399
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2393
Objective: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is considered a hotspot of mutations in various tumors. However, the relationship between microsatellite instability (MSI) and mtDNA copy number alterations in lung cancer has yet to be fully clarifieds. In the current study, we investigated the copy number and MSI of mitochondrial genome in lung carcinomas, as well as their significance for cancer development. Methods: The copy number and MSI of mtDNA in 37 matched lung carcinoma/adjacent histological normal lung tissue samples were examined by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) assays for sequence variation, followed by sequence analysis and fluorogenic 5'-nuclease real-time PCR. Student's t test and linear regression analyses were employed to analyze the association between mtDNA copy number alterations and mitochondrial MSI (mtMSI). Results: The mean copy number of mtDNA in lung carcinoma tissue samples was significantly lower than that of the adjacent histologically normal lung tissue samples (p<0.001). mtMSI was detected in 32.4% (12/37) of lung carcinoma samples. The average copy number of mtDNA in lung carcinoma samples containing mtMSI was significantly lower than that in the other lung carcinoma samples (P<0.05). Conclusions: Results suggest that mtMSI may be an early and important event in the progression of lung carcinogenesis, particularly in association with variation in mtDNA copy number.
Predictive Factors Determining Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Outcomes in Breast Cancer - a Single Center Experience
Yu, Yang ; Xiang, Hua ; He, Xiang-Ming ; Yang, Hong-Jian ; Zong, Xiang-Yun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2401~2406
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2401
From January 1, 2008 to March 31, 2010, 101 patients with stage II-III breast cancer were enrolled in this study and subjected to an anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen with or without docetaxel. Surgery was performed after 2-6 cycles of chemotherapy, and the clinical response was determined by pathological and histochemical assessments. The clinical response rate, as indicated by complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), and progressive disease (PD), were 6.9, 52.5, 36.6, and 4.0%, respectively. A multivariable correlation analysis indicated that the overall clinical response rate correlated with the number of metastatic lymph nodes, number of chemotherapy cycles, and vessel invasion status. Importantly, the CR rate was only associated with the number of chemotherapy cycles. Nonparametric tests failed to detect a correlation between HER2 or Topo
status and clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in these patients. When they were stratified by HER2 or HR status, for HER2-positive patients the CR rate was associated with vessel invasion and Topo
status. Based on our findings, we propose that HR, HER-2 and Topo
are not putative predictive biomarkers of chemotherapy outcome for breast cancer patients. Topo
expression level was only inversely correlated with CR rate among HR-positive patients. Importantly, the achievement of CR was largely related to the number of chemotherapy cycles.
Post-diagnosis Soy Food Intake and Breast Cancer Survival: A Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies
Chi, Feng ; Wu, Rong ; Zeng, Yue-Can ; Xing, Rui ; Liu, Yang ; Xu, Zhao-Guo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2407~2412
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2407
Background and Objectives: Data on associations between soy food intake after cancer diagnosis with breast cancer survival are conflicting, so we conducted this meta-analysis for more accurate evaluation. Methods: Comprehensive searches were conducted to find cohort studies of the relationship between soy food intake after cancer diagnosis and breast cancer survival. Data were analyzed with comprehensive meta-analysis software. Results: Five cohort studies (11,206 patients) were included. Pooling all comparisons, soy food intake after diagnosis was associated with reduced mortality (HR 0.85, 95%CI 0.77 0.93) and recurrence (HR 0.79, 95%CI 0.72 0.87). Pooling the comparisons of highest vs. lowest dose, soy food intake after diagnosis was again associated with reduced mortality (HR 0.84, 95%CI 0.71 0.99) and recurrence (HR 0.74, 95%CI 0.64 0.85). Subgroup analysis of ER status showed that soy food intake was associated with reduced mortality in both ER negative (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.75, 95%CI 0.64 0.88) and ER positive patients (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.72, 95%CI 0.61 0.84), and both premenopausal (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.78, 95%CI 0.69 0.88) and postmenopausal patients (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.81, 95%CI 0.73 0.91). In additioin, soy food intake was associated with reduced recurrence in ER negative (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.64, 95%CI 0.44 0.94) and ER+/PR+ (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.65, 95%CI 0.49 0.86), and postmenopausal patients (highest vs. lowest: HR 0.67, 95%CI 0.56 0.80). Conclusion: Our meta-analysis showed that soy food intake might be associated with better survival, especially for ER negative, ER+/PR+, and postmenopausal patients.
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Versus Placebo as Maintenance Therapy for Advanced Non-small-cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Alimujiang, S. ; Zhang, Tao ; Han, Zhi-Gang ; Yuan, Shuai-Fei ; Wang, Qiang ; Yu, Ting-Ting ; Shan, Li ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2413~2419
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2413
Background: Use of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs ) is now standard for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the effects of EGFR-TKIs in maintenance therapy for advanced NSCLC patients are still unclear. The preent meta-analysis was performed to examine pooled data of randomized control trials (RCT) where EGFR-TKIs were compared against placebo in maintenance regimens for patients with advanced NCSLC to quantify potential benefits and determine safety. Methods: Several data bases were searched, including PubMed, EMBASE and CENTRAL, and we performed an internet search of conference literature. The endpoints were objective response rates (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). We performed a meta-analysis of the published data, using Comprehensive Meta Analysis software (Version 2.0). with a fixed effects model and an additional random effects model, when applicable. The results of the meta-analysis are expressed as hazard ratios (HRs) or risk ratios (RRs), with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs). Results: The final analysis included six trials, covering 3,758 patients. Compared with placebo, EGFR-TKIs maintenance therapy improved ORR and PFS for patients with advanced NSCLC, the difference being statistically significant (P<0.05), but proved unable to prolong patients' OS. The main adverse reactions were diarrhea and rashes. Conclusion: EGFR-TKIs demonstrated encouraging efficacy, safety and survival when delivered as maintenance therapy for patients with advanced NSCLC after first-line chemotherapy, especially for the patients who had adenocarcinomas, were female, non-smokers and patients with EGFR gene mutations.
Treatment Outcomes of Paclitaxel for Refractory or Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patients in Thailand
Pitakkarnkul, Supakorn ; Tangjitgamol, Siriwan ; Srijaipracharoen, Sunamchok ; Manusirivithaya, Sumonmal ; Pataradool, Kamol ; Prutthiphongsit, Watchara ; Khunnarong, Jakkapan ; Thavaramara, Thaovalai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2421~2427
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2421
Background: To study the response rate, toxicity profiles, and survival of refractory or recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients treated with paclitaxel. Materials and Methods: Patients with refractory or recurrent EOC who were treated with paclitaxel between January 2002 and December 2011 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Vajira Hospital were identified. Clinicopathological features of the patients including detailed data of paclitaxel treatment were collected. Results: During the study period, a total of 44 patients were identified, with a mean age of
years. Some 13.6% (six patients) had refractory cancer to first-line chemotherapy while 86.4% (38 patients) had recurrent cancer. Among these, 35 (79.6%) and 9 (20.4%) patients were considered as platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant, respectively. Three patients (6.8%) received fewer than 2 cycles of paclitaxel due to loss to follow-up, leaving 41 patients evaluable for response. The overall response rate observed in all 41 patients was 41.5% (17 patients; 12 complete and five partial responses): 12.5% or 1/8 patients with refractory or platinum-resistant cancer and 48.5% or 16/33 patients with platinum-sensitive disease. Stable disease was demonstrated in 17.0% (seven patients) while progressive disease was apparent in 41.5% (17 patients). Median time to progress was 4.5 months (range, 0.67-58.6 months). Median progression-free survival was not reached while median overall survival was 16.3 months (95% confidence interval, 11.0 months -21.6 months). Common toxicities were neutropenia, neuropathy, and alopecia. Conclusions: Paclitaxel is an active agent for refractory or recurrent EOC. Neutropenia, neuropathy and alopecia are common side effects.
Epidemiology of Esophageal Cancer in Yanting - Regional Report of a National Screening Programme in China
Wang, Xiao ; Fan, Jin-Chuan ; Wang, An-Rong ; Leng, Yue ; Li, Jun ; Bao, Yu ; Wang, Ying ; Yang, Qing-Feng ; Ren, Yu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2429~2432
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2429
Background and Objectives: Yanting in Sichuan Province is one of the highest risk areas of esophageal cancer (EC) in the world. We here summarize the epidemiology of EC in Yanting using data from the national screening programme during 2006-2011. Methods: Random cluster sampling was used to select a proportion of natural villages from six towns in Yanting, and residents aged 40-69 years old were invited for screening. Participants were screened using endoscopy with iodine staining and then confirmed by histological examinations. Results: The overall detection rates of low-grade hyperplasia (LH), moderate hyperplasia (MH), high-grade hyperplasia (HH), carcinoma in situ (CIS), intramucosal carcinoma (IC) and invasive carcinoma (INC) were 5.33%, 1.28%, 0.68%, 0.15%, 0.06% and 0.29%, respectively. The detection rates of LH, MH, HH and INC increased with age, reaching the peak among those aged 60-65 years, and the prevalences of LH and MH were higher among men than among women. In addition, the detection rates of hyperplasia were much higher in mountainous than in hilly areas. Conclusions: Among the high risk population, there are a great number of people with early-stage EC or precancerous conditions who do not have presenting symptoms. In particular, the elderly, men, or those living in mountainous areas are the most vulnerable population. It is therefore important to reinforce health education and screening services among such high risk populations.
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Gene Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk in a Chinese Population
Luo, Ting ; Chen, Long ; He, Ping ; Hu, Qian-Cheng ; Zhong, Xiao-Rong ; Sun, Yu ; Yang, Yuan-Fu ; Tian, Ting-Lun ; Zheng, Hong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2433~2437
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2433
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent regulator of angiogenesis and thereby involved in the development and progression of solid tumours. Associations between three VEGF gene polymorphisms (-634 G/C, +936 C/T, and +1612 G/A) and breast cancer risk have been extensively studied, but the currently available results are inconclusive. Our aim was to investigate associations between three VEGF gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in Chinese Han patients. We performed a hospital-based case-control study including 680 female incident breast cancer patients and 680 female age-matched healthy control subjects. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis was performed to detect the three VEGF gene polymorphisms. We observed that women carriers of +936 TT genotypes [odds ratio (OR) =0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.28, 0.76; P=0.002] or 936 T-allele (OR=0.81, 95% CI= 0.68, 0.98; P=0.03) had a protective effect concerning the disease. Our study suggested that the +1612G/A polymorphism was unlikely to be associated with breast cancer risk. The -634CC genotype was significantly associated with high tumor aggressiveness [large tumor size (OR=2.63, 95% CI=1.15, 6.02; P=0.02) and high histologic grade (OR=1.47, 95% CI= 1.06, 2.03; P=0.02)]. The genotypes were not related with other tumor characteristics such as regional or distant metastasis, stage at diagnosis, or estrogen or progesterone receptor status. Our study revealed that the VEGF -634 G/C and +936 C/T gene polymorphisms may be associated with breast cancer in Chinese Han patients.
Associations of IL-10 Gene Polymorphisms with Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Hunan, China
Yao, Chen-Jiao ; Du, Wei ; Chen, Hai-Bing ; Xiao, Sheng ; Wang, Cheng-Hong ; Fan, Zi-Li ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2439~2442
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2439
We investigated the possible association of interleukin-10 (IL-10) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and susceptibility to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 115 patients and 137 healthy controls. Genetic analysis of IL-10 SNPs at -819 and -592 was carried out with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) approach. The IL-10 mRNA expression of AML patients and controls with different genotype was detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Genetic analysis of IL-10 revealed that the -819AA genotype frequencies and the -819A allele frequencies in the AML group were higher than in the controls (59.1% vs 40.9%; 75.6% vs 63.9%, respectively); there were remarkable differences in -819T/C and -592A/C gene distribution (P<0.05) and the TA haploid frequencies were higher in the AML group (75.6% vs 63.9%, P<0.05). IL-10 mRNA expression in incipient AML patients was obvious higher than the non-tumor group and the remission group (
, P<0.05).The study suggested that the haploid TA and genotype TA/TA may be associated with AML in Han people in Hunan province.The IL-10 SNPs at -819 and -592 sites were associated with AML and may affect IL-10 mRNA expression in AML patients.
Utility of VEGF and sVEGFR-1 in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid for Differential Diagnosis of Primary Lung Cancer
Cao, Chao ; Sun, Shi-Fang ; Lv, Dan ; Chen, Zhong-Bo ; Ding, Qun-Li ; Deng, Zai-Chun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2443~2446
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2443
Published data have shown that the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) in plasma and pleural effusion might be usefulness for lung cancer diagnosis. Here, we performed a prospective study to investigate the utility of VEGF and sVEGFR-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for differential diagnosis of primary lung cancer. A total of 56 patients with solitary pulmonary massed by chest radiograph or CT screening were enrolled in this study. BALF and plasma samples were obtained from all patients and analyzed for VEGF and sVEGFR-1 using a commercially available sandwich ELISA kit. The results showed that the levels of VEGF in BALF were significantly higher in patients with a malignant pulmonary mass compared with patients with a benign mass (P < 0.001). However, no significant difference of sVEGFR-1 in BALF was found between malignant and non-malignant groups (P = 0.43). With a cut-off value of 214 pg/ml, VEGF showed a sensitivity and specificity of 81.8% and 84.2%, respectively, in predicting the malignant nature of a solitary pulmonary mass. Our study suggests that VEGF is significantly increased in BALF among patients with lung cancer than in benign diseases. Measurement of VEGF in BALF might be helpful for differential diagnosis of primary lung cancer.
Inhibition by Imatinib of Expression of O-glycan-related Glycosyltransferases and Tumor-associated Carbohydrate Antigens in the K562 Human Leukemia Cell Line
Sun, Qi-Chang ; Liu, Mi-Bo ; Shen, Hong-Jie ; Jiang, Zhi ; Xu, Lan ; Gao, Li-Ping ; Ni, Jian-Long ; Wu, Shi-Liang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2447~2451
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2447
Objective: To study changes of tumor associated carbohydrate antigen (TACAs) expression and mRNA levels for tumor associated glycosyltransferases, and assess subcellular localizations of N-acetyl galactosyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) in the K562 leukemia cell line after imatinib treatment. Methods: RT-PCR was performed to analyze the expression of glycosyltransferases which synthesize O-glycan in tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TCTAs). The expression of Tn antigen, T antigen and sialyl T antigen on K562 cell membranes was measured by flow cytometry after treatment with different concentrations of imatinib. Co-localization of GalNAc-Ts and ER (endoplasmic reticulum) was determined by confocal laser scanning microcopy. Results: Transcript expression levels of several glycosyltransferases related to TCTAs were decreased after imatinib (
) treatment. Expression of Tn antigen and T antigen was increased while that of sialyl T antigen was decreased. Co-localization of GalNAc-Ts and ER was reduced by
of imatinib. Conclusion: Imatinib inhibited the expression of O-glycan related TACAs and several related glycosyltransferases, while decreasing the co-localization of GalNAc-Ts and ER and normalizing O-glycosylation in the K562 human leukemia cell.
Risk of Serious Neutropenic Events in Cancer Patients Treated with Bevacizumab: A Meta-analysis
Zhou, Fan ; Shao, Jiang-Hua ; Wu, Lin-Quan ; Yin, Xiang-Bao ; Yu, Xin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2453~2459
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2453
Bevacizumab has been approved for use in combination with chemotherapy to treat many types of cancer but associated neutropenic events, including febrile neutropenia, have been reported. To estimate the incidence and relative risk of neutropenic events in cancer patients treated with bevacizumab combination therapy, we searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science literature databases, as well as abstracts presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology conferences, to identify relevant studies published from January 1966 to December 2011. Studies that compared bevacizumab plus chemotherapy or biological therapy with chemotherapy or biological therapy alone, and that had adequate safety data profiles, were selected for analysis. Statistical analyses were conducted to calculate the summary incidence rates, relative risks (RRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using fixed- or random-effects models. A total of 22 clinical trials involving 15,056 patients were included in the analysis. The summary incidences of high-grade neutropenia (HGN) and high-grade febrile neutropenia (HGFN) in patients receiving bevacizumab was 27.3% (95% CI: 26.4%-28.3%) and 3.91% (95% CI: 3.51%-4.37%), respectively. The risks of HGN (RR=1.10; 95% CI: 1.02-1.19; P=0.02) and HGFN (RR=1.31; 95% CI: 1.08-1.59; P=0.005) were significantly increased in bevacizumab-treated patients, compared to those who did not receive bevacizumab. The RR of bevacizumab-associated HGN, but not HGFN, varied significantly with tumor types (P=0.005). The increased risk of bevacizumab-associated neutropenic events was dose-dependent, as the RR was greater at a dose of 5 mg/kg/week than at 2.5 mg/kg/week. Our findings suggest that bevacizumab addition to cancer therapy significantly increases the risk of serious neutropenic events, and this risk may be dose-dependent.
Estimation of Gas-particle partitioning Coefficients (K
) of Carcinogenic polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons in Carbonaceous Aerosols Collected at Chiang - Mai, Bangkok and hat-Yai, Thailand
Pongpiachan, Siwatt ; Ho, Kin Fai ; Cao, Junji ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2461~2476
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2461
To assess environmental contamination with carcinogens, carbonaceous compounds, water-soluble ionic species and trace gaseous species were identified and quantified every three hours for three days st three different atmospheric layer at the heart of chiang-Mai, bangkok and hat-Yai from December 2006 to February 2007. A DRI model 2001 Themal/Optical Carbon Analyzer with the IMPROVE thermal/optical reflectance (TOR) protocol was used to quantify the organic carbon(OC) and elemental carbon content in
. Diurnal and vertical variability was also carefully investigated. In general, OC and EC contenttration shoeed the highest values at the monitoring period o 21.00-00.00 as consequences of human activities at night bazaar coupled with reduction of mixing layer, decreased wind speed and termination of photolysis nighttime. Morning peaks of carboaceous compounds were observed during the sampling period of 06:00 -09:00, emphasizing the main contribution of traffic emission in the three cities. The estimation of incremental lifetime partculate matter exposure (ILPE) raises concern of high risk of carbonaceous accumulation over workers and residents living close to the observatory sites. The average values of incremental lifrtime particulate matter exposure (ILPE) of total carbon at Baiyoke Suit Hotel and Baiyoke Sky Hotel are approsimately ten time shigher then those air sample collected at prince of songkla University Hat-Yai campus corpse incinerator and fish-can maufacturing factory but only slightly higher than those of rice straw burnig in Songkla province. This indicates a high risk of developing lung cancer and other respiratory diseases across workers and residents living in high buildings located in Pratunam area. Using knowledge of carbonaceous fractions in
, one can estimate the gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Dachs-Eisenreich model highlights the crucial role of adsorption in gas-particle partitioning of low molecular weight PAHs, whereas both absorption and adsorption tend to account for gas-particle partitioning of high molecular weight PAHs in urban residential zones of Thailand. Interestingly, the absorption mode alone plays a minor role in gas-partcle partitiining of PAHs in Chiang-Mai, Bangkok and hat-Yai.
Prognostic Significance of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (PET)-based Parameters in Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Treatment of Esophageal Carcinoma
Ma, Jin-Bo ; Chen, Er-Cheng ; Song, Yi-Peng ; Liu, Peng ; Jiang, Wei ; Li, Ming-Huan ; Yu, Jin-Ming ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2477~2481
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2477
Aims and Background: The purpose of the research was to study the prognostic value of tumor 18F-FDG PET-based parameters in neoadjuvant chemoradiation for patients with squamous esophageal carcinoma. Methods: Sixty patients received chemoradiation therapy followed by esophagectomy and two 18FDG-PET examinations at pre- and post-radiation therapy. PET-based metabolic-response parameters were calculated based on histopathologic response. Linear regression correlation and Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine prognostic value of all PET-based parameters with reference to overall survival. Results: Sensitivity (88.2%) and specificity (86.5%) of a percentage decrease of SUVmax were better than other PET-based parameters for prediction of histopathologic response. Only percentage decrease of SUVmax and tumor length correlated with overall survival time (linear regression coefficient
: 0.704 and 0.684, P<0.05). The Cox proportional hazards model indicated higher hazard ratio (HR=0.897, P=0.002) with decrease of SUVmax compared with decrease of tumor size (HR=0.813, P=0.009). Conclusion: Decrease of SUVmax and tumor size are significant prognostic factors in chemoradiation of esophageal carcinoma.
Survey on Knowledge and Attitudes Related to the Relation between Tobacco, Alcohol Abuse and Cancer in the Northern State of Sudan
Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2483~2486
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2483
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of tobacco smoking, toombak dipping and alcohol consumption as risk factors for cancer in the adult population of the northern state of Sudan. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey from March to April 2010, covering 963 adults, was performed. Result: Only 207 had responded, and the male female prevalence was 20.8% and 0.73%. Out of 207 respondents, 29.5% had smoked tobacco in their lifetime, 38% were toombak dippers, while 14% were consumers of alcoholic beverages. Conclusions: The prevalence of toombak dipping was higher than tobacco smoking among the adult population in the northern state of Sudan. Female participation in tobacco and alcohol related studies was found to suffer from major obstacles since these habits are considered as social stigma. Appreciation of the full impact of smoking on population health will definitely make a major contribution to improvement of the poor public health situation in Sudan.
Genotoxicity and Interference with Cell Cycle Activities by an Ethanolic Extract from Thai Plumbago indica Roots in Human Lymphocytes in vitro
Thitiorul, Sumon ; Ratanavalachai, Treetip ; Tanuchit, Sermkiat ; Itharat, Arunporn ; Sakpakdeejaroen, Intouch ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2487~2490
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2487
In Thai traditional medicine, Plumbago indica or Jetamul-Pleung-Dang in Thai is known to have health benefit especially for anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antitumor activities. However, the mechanisms of its action are still uncertain. One of which might be genotoxic effects. In the present study, we investigated the genotoxicity of an ethanolic extract of Plumbago indica root (EEPIR) by sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay in human lymphocytes. Results have shown that all treatments with EEPIR (
) could induce cell cycle delay as shown by significant increase in the number of metaphase cells in the first cell cycle but neither in the second nor the third cell cycle. Only at concentrations of 25, 50, and
were SCE levels significantly increased above that of the control (p<0.05). EEPIR at a concentration of
induced cell death as few mitotic cells were shown. Accordingly, EEPIR (
) is genotoxic in human lymphocytes and cytotoxic at concentrations of
in vitro. Therefore, these activities of the EEPIR could serve its potential therapeutic effects, especially as an anticancer agent. Further study of EEPIR in vivo is now needed to support this in vitro evidence.
Three Treatment Methods via the Hepatic Artery for Hepatocellular Carcinoma - A Retrospective Study
Ma, Teng-Chuang ; Shao, Hai-Bo ; Xu, Yang ; Xu, Ke ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2491~2494
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2491
Background: To evaluate the relative effectiveness of different treatments of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) via the hepatic artery. Materials and Methods: The study sample group consisted of 418 patients who were randomly selected from 2008 to 2012 with a first diagnosis of HCC and treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) or without (TAE) chemotherapy or transcatheter arterial infusion (TAI). We collected data including tumor size preoperative and one month thereafter to compare change in areas across the three groups, along with various laboratory indexes for comparison. Results: The overall average change of areas was
. In the three groups it was
. In groups TACE and TAE values were larger than in group TAI (p<0.01), but the difference between the two was not statistically significant (p= 0.191). Additionally, U/L change of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in groups TACE and TAE was greater than in the TAI cases (
) on the preoperative day and two days thereafter (p<0.01). Between the two groups there was no significant cariation (p= 0.320 and p= 0.609). However, the AST and ALT recovered to normal levels one month later on therapy with liver protecting drugs. Conclusion: The groups TACE and TAE demonstrated more effective reduction of tumor size than group TAI. While lipiodol caused acute liver function damage, this proved reversible.
Dietary Fat and Physical Activity in Relation to Breast Cancer among Polish Women
Kruk, Joanna ; Marchlewicz, Mariola ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2495~2502
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2495
Background: Dietary fat has been inconsistently associated with the risk of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between meat and animal and plant fat intake and breast cancer risk in subgroups by total lifetime physical activity, using data from a case-control study conducted in the Region of Western Pomerania, Poland. Materials and Methods: The study included 858 women with histological confirmed breast cancer and 1,085 controls, free of any cancer diagnosis. The study was based on a self-administered questionnaire including questions about socio-demographic characteristics, current weight and height, reproductive factors, family history of breast cancer and lifestyle habits. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: High animal fat intake significantly increased OR from 1.7 times (OR=1.66, 95%CI=1.07-3.59) to 2.9 times (OR=2.9, 95%CI=1.37-6.14) independent of physical activity level, comparing the third versus the lowest quartile. Women with a high intake of red meat or processed meat and low physical activity showed increased risk of breast cancer: OR=2.70, 95%CI=1.21-6.03 and 1.78, 95%CI=1.04-3.59, respectively. The plant fat dietary pattern was negatively associated with breast cancer in sedentary women (OR=0.57, 95%CI=0.32-0.99). Conclusions: These results indicated that a diet characterized by a high consumption of animal fat is associated with a higher breast cancer risk in sedentary women, while consumption of plant fat products may reduce risk in the same group.
Histone Deacetylases and their Inhibitors as Potential Therapeutic Drugs for cholangiocarcinoma - Cell Line findings
Sriraksa, Ruethairat ; Limpaiboon, Temduang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2503~2508
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2503
Histone deacetylation mediated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) has been reported as one of the epigenetic mechanisms associated with tumorigenesis. The poor responsiveness of anticancer drugs found with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) leads to short survival rate. We aimed to investigate mRNA expression of HDACs class I and II, and the effect of HDAC inhibitors, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and valproic acid (VPA), in CCA in vitro. Expression of HDACs was studied in CCA cell lines (M213, M214 and KKU-100) and an immortal cholangiocyte (MMNK1) by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. SAHA and VPA, as well as a classical chemotherapeutic drug 5 -fluorouacil (5-FU) were used in this study. Cell proliferation was determined by sulforhodamine assay.
were then analyzed for each agent and cell line. Moreover, synergistic potentional of VPA or SAHA in combination with 5-FU at sub toxic does (
) of each agent was also evaluated. Statistic difference of HDACs expression or cell proliferation in each experimental condition was analyzed by Student's t-test. The result demonstrated that HDACs were expressed in all studied cell types. Both SAHA and VPA inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, KKU-100 which was less senstitive to classical chemotheraoeutic 5-FU was highly was sensitive to HDAC inhibitors. Simultaneous combination of subtoxic doses of HDAC inhibitors and 5-FU signiicantly inhibited cell proliferation in CCA cell lines compared to single sgent treatment(
), while sequentially combined treatments were less effective. The present study showed inhibitory effects of HDACIs on cell proliferation in CCA cell lines, with synergistic antitumor potential demonstrated by simultaneous combination of VPA or SAHA with 5-FU, suggesting a novel alternative therapeutic strategy in effective treatment of CCA.
Predictive Factors for Supraclavicular Lymph Node Recurrence in N1 Breast Cancer Patients
Kong, Moonkyoo ; Hong, Seong Eon ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2509~2514
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2509
Background: The purpose of this study was to identify predictive factors for supraclavicular lymph node recurrence (SCLR) in N1 breast cancer patients and define a high-risk subgroup who might benefit from supraclavicular nodal radiotherapy (RT). Materials and Methods: From January 1995 to December 2009, 113 breast cancer patients with 1 to 3 positive axillary lymph nodes were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS) or modified radical mastectomy (MRM). RT was given to all patients who received BCS. Among the patients given MRM, those with breast tumors >5 cm in size received RT. Regional nodal irradiation was not applied. Systemic chemotherapy was given to 105 patients (92.9%). Patient data were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed to identify predictive factors for SCLR. Results: The median follow-up duration was 6.5 years, with 5- and 10-year actuarial SCLR rates of 9.3% and 11.2%, respectively. Factors associated with SCLR on univariate analysis included histologic grade, number of dissected axillary lymph nodes, lymphovascular invasion, extracapsular extension (ECE), and adjuvant chemotherapy. On multivariate analysis, histologic grade and ECE remained significant. The patient group with grade 3 and ECE had a significantly higher rate of SCLR compared with the remainder (5-year SCLR rate; 71.4% vs. 4.0%, p<0.001). Conclusions: Histologic grade and ECE status are significant predictive factors for SCLR. Supraclavicular nodal RT is necessary in N1 breast cancer patients featuring histologic grade 3 and ECE.
Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy Versus Total Abdominal Hysterectomy for Endometrial Cancer: A Meta-analysis
Wang, Hui-Ling ; Ren, Yan-Fang ; Yang, Jun ; Qin, Rui-Ying ; Zhai, Kai-Hua ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2515~2519
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2515
The standard surgery for early-stage endometrial cancer is total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH), while total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) is less invasive and assumed to be associated with lower morbidity. This meta-analysis was performed to investigate the effects of TLH versus TAH in women with early-stage endometrial cancer. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, CBM and Cochrane Review databases for randomized trials assessing the effects of TLH versus TAH in women with early-stage endometrial cancer. The relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from each study were pooled using meta-analysis. In our study, 9 randomized trials with a total of 1,263 patients were included. Meta-analyses showed that TLH was associated with lower risks of major complications (RR = 0.53, 95%CI 0.29-0.98, P = 0.042), total complications (RR = 0.59, 95%CI 0.42-0.82, P = 0.002) and postoperative complications (RR = 0.57, 95%CI 0.40-0.83, P = 0.003). However, there were no obvious differences in risks of intra-operative complications (RR = 0.98, 95%CI 0.62-1.55, P = 0.919) and mortality (RR = 0.96, 95%CI 0.66-1.40, P = 0.835). In conclusion, our results provide new evidence of a benefit for TLH over TAH in terms of major complications, total complications and postoperative complications in endometrial cancer patients.
BRAF Mutations in Iranian Patients with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Ranjbari, Nastran ; Almasi, Sara ; Mohammadi-asl, Javad ; Rahim, Fakher ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2521~2523
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2521
Background: Papillary thyroid cancer or papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid cancer. The fact that it occasionally occurs in women aged 30-40 years old suggests that genetic alterations are involved its genesis. Recently, activator mutations in BRAF gene have been relatively frequently discovered. Materials and Methods: In this study, we tested 63 DNA samples from PTC patients to identify the V600E mutation frequency in the Ahvaz population. DNA was isolated from formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) PTC tumor tissues. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP and confirmed by direct DNA sequencing of a subset of PCR products. PCR-RFLP data were reported as genotype frequencies and percentages. Results: Forty nine out of 63 patients (77.8%) had a mutated heterozygote form while 14 (22.2%) showed normal genotype but none demonstrated a mutant homozygote genotype. The frequency of V600E mutation was significantly high in PTC patients. Conclusions: These findings support involvement of V600E mutations in PTC occurrence in Iran. Assessment of correlations between BRAF V600E mutations and papillary thyroid cancer progression needs to be performed.
Growth and Differentiation Effects of Homer3 on a Leukemia Cell Line
Li, Zheng ; Qiu, Hui-Ying ; Jiao, Yang ; Cen, Jian-Nong ; Fu, Chun-Mei ; Hu, Shao-Yan ; Zhu, Ming-Qing ; Wu, De-Pei ; Qi, Xiao-Fei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2525~2528
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2525
The Homer protein family, also known as the family of cytoplasmic scaffolding proteins, which include three subtypes (Homer1, Homer2, Homer3). Homer3 can regulate transcription and play a very important role in the differentiation and development for some tissues (e.g. muscle and nervous systems). The current studies showed that Homer3 abnormal expression changes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Forced expression of Homer3 in transfected K562 cells inhibited proliferation, influenced the cell cycle profile, affected apoptosis induced by
through inhibition of Bcl2 expression, and also promoted cell differentiation induced by 12-O-tetra decanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA). These results showed that Homer3 is a novel gene which plays a certain role in the occurrence and development of AML.
Characteristics of Gynecologic Oncology Patients in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital - Complications and Outcome of Pelvic Exenteration
Oranratanaphan, Shina ; Termrungruanglert, Wichai ; Sirisabya, Nakarin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2529~2532
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2529
Background: Pelvic exenteration is a procedure which includes enbloc resection of pelvic organs followed by surgical reconstruction. Aims include both cure and palliation but data for pelvic exenteration in Thailand are very limited. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate characteristics of patients, operative procedure outcomes and complications. Materials and Methods: This retrospective review covered all of the charts of exenteration patients during January 2002 to December 2011. Baseline characteristic of the patients were collected as well as details of clinical results. Results: A total of 13 cases of pelvic exenteration were included. Most underwent total pelvic exenteration (9 cases) and the remainder posterior and anterior exenteration. Their primary cancers were ovarian, cervical and vulva. Mean operative time was 532 minutes (SD 160.2, range 270-750) and estimated blood loss was 2830 ml (1850, 1000-8000). Mean tumor size was 7.33 cm (3.75, 4-15). Mean hospital stay was 35.2 days (29.8, 13-109). The most common post operative complication was urinary tract infection. Overall disease free survival with a negative surgical margin was significantly better than in positive surgical margin patients (p=0.014). Conclusions: Surgical margin was the most significant prognostic factor for disease free survival, in line with earlier studies.
Cost-effectiveness Outcomes of the National Gastric Cancer Screening Program in South Korea
Cho, Eun ; Kang, Moon Hae ; Choi, Kui Son ; Suh, MiNa ; Jun, Jae Kwan ; Park, Eun-Cheol ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2533~2540
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2533
Background: Although screening is necessary where gastric cancer is particularly common in Asia, the performance outcomes of mass screening programs have remained unclear. This study was conducted to evaluate cost-effectiveness outcomes of the national cancer screening program (NCSP) for gastric cancer in South Korea. Materials and Methods: People aged 40 years or over during 2002-2003 (baseline) were the target population. Screening recipients and patients diagnosed with gastric cancers were identified using the NCSP and Korea Central Cancer Registry databases. Clinical outcomes were measured in terms of mortality and life-years saved (LYS) of gastric cancer patients during 7 years based on merged data from the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation and National Statistical Office. We considered direct, indirect, and productivity-loss costs associated with screening attendance. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) estimates were produced according to screening method, sex, and age group compared to non-screening. Results: The age-adjusted ICER for survival was 260,201,000-371,011,000 Korean Won (KW; 1USD=1,088 KW) for the upper-gastrointestinal (UGI) tract over non-screening. Endoscopy ICERs were lower (119,099,000-178,700,000 KW/survival) than UGI. To increase 1 life-year, additional costs of approximately 14,466,000-15,014,000 KW and 8,817,000-9,755,000 KW were required for UGI and endoscopy, respectively. Endoscopy was the most cost-effective strategy for males and females. With regard to sensitivity analyses varying based on the upper age limit, endoscopy NCSP was dominant for both males and females. For males, an upper limit of age 75 or 80 years could be considered. ICER estimates for LYS indicate that the gastric cancer screening program in Korea is cost-effective. Conclusion: Endoscopy should be recommended as a first-line method in Korea because it is beneficial among the Korean population.
For Which Cancer Types can Neuron-Specific Enolase be Clinically Helpful in Turkish Patients?
Bilgin, Elif ; Dizdar, Yavuz ; Serilmez, Murat ; Soydinc, Hilal Oguz ; Yasasever, Ceren Tilgen ; Duranyildiz, Derya ; Yasasever, Vildan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2541~2544
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2541
Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels in patients with prostate cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, lung cancer and peripheral nerve tumors. Materials and Methods: NSE levels were determined by ELISA in the sera of 100 prostate cancer, 47 Hodgkin lymphoma, 35 lung cancer and 35 peripheral nerve tumor patients and also in 132 healthy controls. Results: The median levels of serum NSE were elevated in patients with lung cancer (p=0.018) and peripheral nerve tumors (p=0.008). NSE levels in prostate cancer and Hodgkin lymphoma patients were higher than the controls but there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). Conclusions: We conclude that NSE may be applied in routine to gain insight about the clinical statuses of various cancer patients, but more studies are needed to determine the organ specificity.
Knowledge and Views of Secondary School Students in Kuala Lumpur on Cervical Cancer and its Prevention
Rashwan, Hesham ; Ishak, Ismarulyusda ; Sawalludin, Nurhidayah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2545~2549
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2545
Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in women worldwide. Persistent infection with a human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause for cervical cancer. Vaccination and Pap smear screening are the best methods for prevention of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and views of upper secondary school female students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, toward prevention of cervical cancer. This study was conducted from April 2009 to September 2009 in 8 schools in Kuala Lumpur area using pre-tested and validated questionnaires. Results indicated that the respondents had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention although the majority of students (80.4%) had heard about the disease. The level of knowledge of cervical cancr and its prevention was significantly higher among students from the science stream (p<0.001) compared to students from the art stream. Most students (69.3%) agreed to take the vaccination if the service was available in schools. A high percentage of students (82.2%) agreed that the vaccination should be compulsory to the students. In conclusion, most students had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention but they had positive attitude toward vaccination and agreed that vaccination should be compulsory. Therefore, suitable educational programmes should be developed to improve the knowledge of secondary school students on the prevention of cervical cancer.
Physical Activity and Quality of Life of Cancer Survivors: A Lack of Focus for Lifestyle Redesign
Lee, Jia Ern ; Loh, Siew Yim ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2551~2555
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2551
Background: Physical activity is a component of lifestyle activity and one that has been increasingly seen as 'the medicine' to cure chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer. Physical activity has potent impact on mortality but only if it is well incorporated as lifestyle activity may it allow a better outcome of the quality of life of cancer survivors. This paper presents a review on the evidence of physical activity being actively promoted as lifestyle activity amongst cancer survivors, for the last five years. Materials and Methods: Electronic databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials incorporated as lifestyle activity through MEDLINE with the associated terms "physical activity or exercise", "quality of life" and "cancer survivor or people with cancer", 'lifestyle' and 'randomised controlled trial'. The period of search was confined to publication within January 2008 till December 2012 and further limits were to full text, peer reviewed, abstract available and English language. Results: Based on inclusion criteria, 45 articles were retrieved. Of these, 41 were excluded after examining the full paper. Four final articles on randomized controlled trials were studied to determine the effectiveness of PA to improve the quality of life in post treatment cancer survivors and positive associations were found. Conclusions: Physical activity is related to better quality of life of cancer survivors. Only one paper had characteristics of lifestyle incorporation for a lifestyle redesign, but none overtly or actively promoting exercise interventions as an essential lifestyle activity. With increasing survivorship, the benefits of physical activity must be aggressively and overtly promoted to optimize its positive impact.
Efficacy and Safety of Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy with Cisplatin and Docetaxel in Patients with Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancers
Baykara, Meltem ; Buyukberber, Suleyman ; Ozturk, Banu ; Coskun, Ugur ; Unsal, Diclehan Kilic ; Demirci, Umut ; Dane, Faysal ; Kaplan, Muhammet Ali ; Bora, Huseyin ; Benekli, Mustafa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2557~2561
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2557
Background: Chemoradiation (CRT) using cisplatin-based regimens has become the standard of care in the treatment of squamous cell head and neck cancers (SCHNC). The impact of taxanes as radiosensitizing agents with concurrent CRT regimens is unknown. We therefore retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of a weekly cisplatin+docetaxel combination with CRT in locally advanced SCHNC. Methods: Sixty-six patients with locally advanced SCHNC (39.4% stage IV, 53% stage III, and 7.6% stage II) were assessed retrospectively. Total radiation dose to the PTV of gross disease (primary and/or node) was 70 Gy/35 fractions, 5 fractions per week. Minimum doses of 60 Gy and 50 Gy were administered to PTVs of elective high risk and low risk disease, respectively. Chemotherapy (CT) consisted of weekly cisplatin (20
) concurrently with RT. Results: The median age of the patients was 58 years (range, 32-77). Objective response rate was 83.3%. The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 75.7% and 78.3%, respectively. The most common grade 3 and 4 toxicities were mucositis (36.4%), nausea and vomiting (12.1%), neutropenia (4.5%). Conclusion: Weekly cisplatin and docetaxel concurrent with RT for locally advanced SCHNC was found tolerable with high efficacy.
Serum IL-33 as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Marker in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
Hu, Liang-An ; Fu, Yu ; Zhang, Dan-Ni ; Zhang, Jie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2563~2566
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2563
Background: Interleukin-33 (IL-33) has recently been implicated in tumor immunity. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical role of serum IL-33 in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Sera collected from 250 healthy volunteers (HV), 256 patients with benign lung diseases (BLD) and 262 NSCLC cases were subjected to IL-33 ELISA and relationships between serum IL-33 and clinical characteristics were evaluated. Results: Circulating IL-33 levels were higher in the NSCLC group in comparison with the HV and BLD groups (p<0.001). Using a cut-off level 68 pg/ml (95% specificity in the HV group), IL-33 showed a good diagnostic performance for NSCLC. Multivariate survival analysis indicated that serum IL-33 was an independent prognostic factor in the entire NSCLC group [hazards ratio (HR) = 0.64 for low versus high IL-33 levels, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.82; p<0.001] and in 165 selected patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease receiving chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.52-0.94; p=0.013). Conclusions: IL-33 is a promising potential diagnostic and prognostic marker in NSCLC, independent of the therapeutic intervention.
African American Race and Low Income Neighborhoods Decrease Cause Specific Survival of Endometrial Cancer: A SEER Analysis
Cheung, Min Rex ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2567~2570
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2567
Background: This study analyzed Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data to assess if socio-economic factors (SEFs) impact on endometrial cancer survival. Materials and Methods: Endometrial cancer patients treated from 2004-2007 were included in this study. SEER cause specific survival (CSS) data were used as end points. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were computed for predictors. Time to event data were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify independent risk factors. Results: This study included 64,710 patients. The mean follow up time (S.D.) was 28.2 (20.8) months. SEER staging (ROC area of 0.81) was the best pretreatment predictor of CSS. Histology, grade, race/ethnicity and county level family income were also significant pretreatment predictors. African American race and low income neighborhoods decreased the CSS by 20% and 3% respectively at 5 years. Conclusions: This study has found significant endometrial survival disparities due to SEFs. Future studies should focus on eliminating socio-economic barriers to good outcomes.
AKT1 Inhibitory DNAzymes Inhibit Cell Proliferation and Migration of Thyroid Cancer Cells
Yang, Le ; He, Jin-Ting ; Guan, Hong ; Sun, Ya-Dong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2571~2575
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2571
AKT1 is a member of the serine/threoine AGC protein kinase family involved in thyroid cancer metabolism, growth, proliferation and survival. It is overexpressed in thyroid tumors. In this study, we designed two AKT1 specific DNAzymes (DRz1 and DRz2) that target AKT1 mRNA. The results showed that DRz1 could decrease the expression of AKT1 by 58%. Furthermore, DRz1 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and inhibited invasion in SW597 cells. In addition, down-regulation of survivin expression was associated with decreased caspase-3, VEGF and MMP2 in SW597 cells after 24 h. In our study, the efficacy of DRz1 in decreasing AKT1 protein levels were better than DRz2. AKT1-DRz1 might have anti-tumorigenic activity and may provide the basis for a novel therapeutic intervention in thyroid cancer treatment.
Interleukin-10 Gene Promoter Polymorphisms and Risk of Gastric Cancer in a Chinese Population: Single Nucleotide and Haplotype Analyses
Pan, Xiong-Fei ; Yang, Shu-Juan ; Loh, Marie ; Xie, Yao ; Wen, Yuan-Yuan ; Tian, Zhi ; Huang, He ; Lan, Hui ; Chen, Feng ; Soong, Richie ; Yang, Chun-Xia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2577~2582
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2577
Objectives: Interleukin (IL) -10 is a potent cytokine with a dual ability to immunosuppress or immunostimulate. We aimed to explore the association of IL10 promoter polymorphisms with risk of gastric cancer (GC) in a Han population in Southwestern China. Methods: We enrolled 308 pairs of GC and control subjects from four hospitals and a community between October 2010 and August 2011 in a 1:1 matched case-control design. Demographic information was collected using a designed questionnaire. IL10-592 A>C and IL10-1082 A>G polymorphisms were determined by Sequenom MassARRAY analysis. Results: Patients with GC reported statistically higher proportions of family history of cancer (29.9% versus 10.7%, P<0.01) and alcohol drinking (54.6% versus 43.2%, P<0.01) than did controls. Similar results were observed in comparison between non-cardia GC patients and controls (P<0.01 and P=0.03). Variant genotypes of IL10-592 A>C and IL10-1082 A>G were not associated with overall GC risk (adjusted OR, 0.94, 95% CI, 0.66-1.33; adjusted OR, 1.00, 95% CI, 0.62-1.60). Sub-analysis showed that the IL10-592 AC/CC variant genotype was associated with decreased non-cardia GC risk (adjusted OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.36-0.95). No association was found between any of the IL10 haplotypes established from two polymorphisms and risk of non-cardia GC. Conclusions: In conclusion, our data do not link the two SNPs of IL10-592 and IL10-1082 with overall GC risk. We demonstrate that IL10-592 polymorphism is associated with protective effect against non-cardia GC. Our findings may offer insight into risk associated with the development of GC in this region.
Diabetes Mellitus Increases the Risk of Bladder Cancer: An Updated Meta-analysis
Yang, Xiao-Qing ; Xu, Chen ; Sun, Yan ; Han, Rui-Fa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2583~2589
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2583
Purpose: Studies have indicated that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for bladder cancer; however, not all evidence supports this conclusion. The aim of this meta-analysis was to collate and evaluate all primary observational studies investigating the risk of bladder cancer associated with DM. Methods: The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies that estimated the association of DM and bladder cancer. Summary effect estimates were derived using a random-effects meta-analysis model. Results: A total of 23 studies (8 case-control studies, 15 cohort studies) including 643,683 DM and 4,819,656 non-DM cases were identified. Analysis of all studies showed that DM was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer compared with non-DM overall (OR=1.68, 95% CI 1.32-2.13). Analysis of subgroups demonstrated this to be the case in both case-control studies (OR=1.59, 95% CI 1.28-1.97,
=58%) and cohort studies (RR=1.70, 95% CI 1.23-2.33,
=96%). There was no gender difference in DM-associated bladder cancer risk. Bladder cancer risk was increased in Asia and the North America region, but not in Europe. Furthermore, DM-associated bladder cancer risk was obviously higher in Asia than North America and Europe or in those with Caucasian ethnicity. With extension of follow-up time, the bladder cancer risk was not increased for the patients with DM. Conclusions: This meta-analysis provided further evidence supporting theDM association with a significantly higher risk of bladder cancer obtained from observational studies.
Clinical Comparison between Paclitaxel Liposome (Lipusu
) and Paclitaxel for Treatment of Patients with Metastatic Gastric Cancer
Xu, Xu ; Wang, Lin ; Xu, Huan-Qin ; Huang, Xin-En ; Qian, Ya-Dong ; Xiang, Jin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2591~2594
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2591
Aim: To compare the efficacy and safety of paclitaxel liposome (Lipusu
) with paclitaxel in combination with tegafur and oxaliplatin in treating patients with advanced gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: Patients with advanced gastric cancer receiving chemotherapy were retrospectively collected, and divided into two groups. Patients in group A received paclitaxel liposomes at a dose of 135
on day 1 of each cycle, and patients in group B were given paclitaxel at the same dose with the same timing. All patients received tegafur at a dose of 500
on days 1-5, and oxaliplatin at a dose of 80-100
on day 1 for 2 cycles (each cycle was 21 d in total). Results: Fifty-eight patients could be evaluated for efficacy. The overall response rate was 47% in group A (14/30), and 46% in group B (13/28). Disease control rate was 73% in group A (22/30), and 71% in group B (20/28) (P>0.05). No significant differences were detected in hematologic and neurologic toxicities between the two groups (P>0.05). However, nausea, vomiting and hypersensitive reactions were significantly lower in group A than in group B (P<0.05). Conclusion: Paclitaxel liposomes are as effective as paclitaxel when combined with tegafur and oxaliplation in treating patients with advanced gastric cancer, but adverse reactions with paclitaxel liposomes are less common.
Prostate Cancer: A Hospital-Based Survival Study from Mumbai, India
Balasubramaniam, Ganesh ; Talole, Sanjay ; Mahantshetty, Umesh ; Saoba, Sushama ; Shrivastava, Shyam ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2595~2598
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2595
Background: Prostate cancer is common in elderly men, especially in western countries, and incidences are rising in low-risk populations as well. In India, the age-standardized rates vary between registries. Under these circumstances we have estimated the survival of prostate cancer patients based on age, family history, diabetes, hypertension, tobacco habit, clinical extent of disease (risk group) and treatment received. Materials and Methods: The present retrospective study was carried out at the Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH), Mumbai, India. During years 1999-2002, some 850 prostate cancer cases, including 371 new cases, treated in TMH were considered as eligible entrants for the study. Five-year survival rates using actuarial and loss-adjusted (LAR) method were estimated. Results: The patient population was distributed uniformly over the three age groups. A larger proportion of the patients were diagnosed at 'metastatic stage' and hormone treatment was most common. 20% patients had history of diabetes and 40% with hypertension. The 5-year overall survival rate was 64%. Survival was 55%, 74% and 52% for '<59 years','60-69 years' and '>70 years' respectively. Non-diabetic (70%), hypertensive (74%), with family history (80%) of cancer, with localized-disease (91%) and treated with surgery, either alone or in combination, (91%) had better survival. Conclusions: The present study showed that prostate cancer patients with localized disease at diagnosis experience a better outcome. Local treatment with either surgery or radiation achieves a reasonable outcome in prostate cancer patients. A detailed study will help in understanding the prognostic indicators for survival especially with the newer treatment technologies available now.
Immunostimulating Effect of a Well-known Thai Folkloric Remedy in Breast Cancer Patients
Thisoda, Piengpen ; Ketsa-ard, Kanchana ; Thongprasert, Sommai ; Vongsakul, Molvibha ; Picha, Pornthipa ; Karbwang, Juntra ; Na-Bangchang, Kesara ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2599~2605
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2599
The study aimed to evaluate immune-stimulating effects of a well-known Thai folkloric remedy when used for adjuvant therapy with conventional chemotherapeutics for treatment of breast cancer. Immunostimulating influence of the remedy (215 mg/kg body weight per day) on NK cell activity and TNF-
release from the monocytes/macrophages were investigated in a total of 15 healthy women and 13 female patients with breast cancer (Group 1). The effect of breast tumor surgery on NK cell activity was further investigated in 18 female patients with breast cancer (Group 2). NK cell cytotoxic activity was determined by chromium release cytotoxic assay using K562, an erythroleukemic cell line. TNF-
release from monocytes/macrophages separated from blood samples was determined through a biological assay using actinomycin D-treated L929 mouse fibroblast cells in the presence and absence of LPS. Baseline NK cell activity of the monocytes/macrophages separated from Group 2 patients expressed as %cytotoxicity was significantly lower than in the healthy subjects at E:T ratios of 100:1 and 25:1. In healthy subjects, there was no change in NK cell cytotoxic activity (%cytotoxicity or LU) following 1 and 2 weeks of treatment with the remedy compared with the baseline at various E:T ratios but the binding activity (%binding) was significantly increased after 2 weeks of treatment. The addition of one or two conventional chemotherapeutic regimens did not significantly reduce the NK cytotoxic activity but did affect release of TNF-
in both unstimulated and LPS-stimulated samples. Surgery produced a significant suppressive effect on NK cell activity. The use of the remedy as an adjunct therapy may improve therapeutic efficacy and safety profiles of conventional chemotherapeutic regimens through stimulation of the immune system in cancer patients.
Inhibitory Effect of Benzyl Isothiocyanate on Proliferation in vitro of Human Glioma Cells
Zhu, Yu ; Zhuang, Jun-Xue ; Wang, Qin ; Zhang, Hai-Yan ; Yang, Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2607~2610
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2607
Malignant glioma, also known as brain cancer, is the most common intracranial tumor, having an extremely high mortality and recurrence rate. The survival rate of the affected patients is very low and treatment is difficult. Hence, growth inhibition of glioma has become a hot topic in the study of brain cancer treatment. Among the various isothiocyanate compounds, it has been confirmed that benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) can inhibit the growth of a variety of tumors, including leukemia, glioma and lung cancer, both inside and outside the body. This study explored inhibitory effects of BITC on human glioma U87MG cells, as well as potential mechanisms. It was found that BITC could inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis and arrest cell cycling of U87MG cells. In addition, it inhibited the expression of SOD and GSH, and caused oxidative stress to tumor cells. Therefore, it is believed that BITC can inhibit the growth of U87MG cells outside the body. Its mechanism may be related to the fact that BITC can cause oxidative stress to tumor cells.
Intrapleural or Intraperitoneal Lobaplatin for Treatment of Patients with Malignant Pleural Effusion or Ascites
Huang, Xin-En ; Wei, Guo-Li ; Huo, Jie-Ge ; Wang, Xiao-Ning ; Lu, Yan-Yan ; Wu, Xue-Yan ; Liu, Jin ; Xiang, Jin ; Feng, Ji-Feng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2611~2614
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2611
Aims: To explore efficacy and side effects of intrapleural or intraperitoneal lobaplatin for treating patients with malignant pleural or peritoneal effusions. Methods: Patients in Jiangsu Cancer Hospital and Research Institute with cytologically confirmed solid tumors complicated with malignant pleural effusion or ascites were enrolled into this study. Lobaplatin (20-30
) was intrapleurally or intraperitoneally infused for patients with malignant pleural effusion or ascites. Results: From 2012 to 2013, intrapleural or intraperitonea lobaplatin was administered for patients with colorectal or uterus cancer who were previous treated for malignant pleural effusion or ascites. Partial response was achieved for them. Main side effects were nausea/vomiting, and bone marrow suppression. No treatment related deaths occurred. Conclusion: Intrapleural or intraperitoneal infusion of lobaplatin is a safe treatment for patients with malignant pleural effusion or ascites, and the treatment efficacy is encouraging.
Effects of Perceived Parental Attitudes on Children's Views of Smoking
Ozturk, Candan ; Kahraman, Seniha ; Bektas, Murat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2615~2619
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2615
Background: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of perceived parental attitudes on children's discernment of cigarettes. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 250 children attending grades 6, 7 and 8. Data were collected via a socio-demographic survey questionnaire, the Parental Attitude Scale (PAS) and the Decisional Balance Scale (DBS). Data analysis covered percentages, medians, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc tests using a statistical package. Results: There were 250 participants; 117 were male, 133 were female. The mean age was
for the females and
for the males. A statistically significant difference was found in the children's mean scores for 'pros' subscale on the Decisional Balance Scale (DBS) according to perceived parental attitudes (F=3.172, p=0.025). There were no statistically significant differences in the DBS 'cons' subscale scores by perceived parental attitudes. Conclusions: It was determined that while perceived parental attitudes affect children's views on advantages of smoking, they have no effect on children's views on its disadvantages.
Systematic Review of Research into the Psychological Aspects of Prostate Cancer in Asia: What do we Know?
Chambers, Suzanne Kathleen ; Hyde, Melissa Karen ; Ip, David Fu-Keung ; Dunn, Jeffrey Charles ; Gardiner, Robert Alexander ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2621~2626
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2621
Background: To review the peer reviewed literature on the psychological aspects of the prostate cancer experience of men in Asia. Materials and Methods: Medline and PsycINFO, CINAHL, ProQuest, and Web of Science (1999 - November Week 4, 2012) were searched. Inclusion criteria were: included men with prostate cancer and/or their partners or caregivers who identify as Asian recruited in an Asian country; and assessed health-related quality of life, psychological and social adjustment relating to prostate cancer and published in English after
January 1999 and prior to
November, 2012. Study aims; design; quality; level of evidence, and key results were assessed. Results: 43 articles met all inclusion criteria and were retained for initial review. Of these most focussed on health-related QOL with only five evidence Level IV studies from Japan and Taiwan including a specific psychological focus. Of these, one was a cross-sectional case control study; three were cross-sectional descriptive quantitative designs; one was a cross-sectional descriptive qualitative study. From the data available, a substantive sub group of men with prostate cancer (approximately one third) in these countries experience clinically high psychological distress and decision regret. Conclusions: Research on the psychological needs of men with the increasingly prevalent condition of prostate cancer in Asian countries is scant with only a small number of low level evidence descriptive studies identified. Future research to underpin the development and evaluation of effective and culturally relevant psychological and supportive care interventions for such men is urgently needed.
Ovarian Masses: Is Multi-detector Computed Tomography a Reliable Imaging Modality?
Khattak, Yasir Jamil ; Hafeez, Saima ; Alam, Tariq ; Beg, Madiha ; Awais, Mohammad ; Masroor, Imrana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2627~2630
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2627
Background: Ovarian cancer continues to pose a major challenge to physicians and radiologists. It is the third most common gynecologic malignancy and estimated to be fifth leading cancer cause of death in women, constituting 23% of all gynecological malignancies. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) appears to offer an excellent modality in diagnosing ovarian cancer based on combination of its availability, meticulous technique, efficacy and familiarity of radiologists and physicians. The aim of this study was to compute sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice MDCT in classifying ovarian masses; 95% confidence intervals were reported. Materials and Methods: We prospectively designed a cross-sectional analytical study to collect data from July 2010 to August 2011 from a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. A sample of 105 women aged between 15-80 years referred for 64-MDCT of abdomen and pelvis with clinical suspicion of malignant ovarian cancer, irrespective of stage of disease, were enrolled by non-probability purposive sampling. All patients who were already known cases of histologically proven ovarian carcinoma and having some contraindication to radiation or iodinated contrast media were excluded. Results: Our prospective study reports sensitivity, specificity; positive and negative predictive values with 95%CI and accuracy were computed. Kappa was calculated to report agreement among the two radiologists. For reader A, MDCT was found to have 92% (0.83, 0.97) sensitivity and 86.7% (0.68, 0.96) specificity, while PPV and NPV were 94.5% (0.86, 0.98) and 86.7% (0.63, 0.92), respectively. Accuracy reported by reader A was 90.5%. For reader B, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 94.6% (0.86, 0.98) 90% (0.72, 0.97) 96% (0.88, 0.99) and 87.1% (0.69, 0.95) respectively. Accuracy computed by reader B was 93.3%. Excellent agreement was found between the two radiologists with a significant kappa value of 0.887. Conclusion: Based on our study results, we conclude MDCT is a reliable imaging modality in diagnosis of ovarian masses accurately with insignificant interobserver variability.
Incidence and Trends of Malignant and Benign Pancreatic Lesions in Yazd, Iran between 2001 and 2011
Zahir, Shokouh Taghipour ; Arjmand, Azita ; Kargar, Saeed ; Neishaboury, Mohamadreza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2631~2635
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2631
Background: Despite recent valuable steps in initiating a cancer registry in Iran, data depicting prevalence, incidence, and clinical picture of pancreatic tumors in the country are exceedinglyly sparse. With the aim of filling this knowledge gap, we reviewed cases in the pathology archive of Shahid Sadoughi hospital (Yazd, Iran), between 2001 and 2011. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 177 patients are reported in the present study. In cases for which paraffin-embedded blocks were available, the specimens were evaluated by two independent pathologists blinded to the primary diagnosis. We extrapolated the frequency of malignant lesions in our study to the population of Yazd province, derived from national census data, to generate cancer incidence rates. Results: Final diagnosis of malignancy was made in 117 cases (66.1%), and the remainder (60 lesions, 33.9%) were classified as benign. Adenecarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors were the two most common histological types of malignancy identified in 88 (75.2%) and 11 (9.4%) specimens, respectively. Crude annual incidence of pancreatic cancer was 0.55 per 100,000 person in 2001 and increased to 1.68 in 2011. Age standardized incidence rates in 2001 and 2011 were 0.75 and 2.68, respectively. A significant increasing trend in cancer incidence was observed during the 11 years of the study period (r=+0.856, p=0.009). Sex-stratified analysis, confirmed the observed trend in men (r=+0.728, p=0.034), but not women (r=+0.635, p=0.083). Conclusions: Over the past decade, incidence of pancreas malignancies has risen steadily in Yazd, Iran. Nevertheless, these figures are still substantially lower than those prevalent in developed nations.
6,8-Dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1-methyl-azafluorenone Induces Caspase-8- and -9-mediated Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells
Banjerdpongchai, Ratana ; Khaw-on, Patompong ; Ristee, Chantrarat ; Pompimon, Wilart ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2637~2641
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2637
6,8-Dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1-methyl-azafluorenone (DMMA), a purified compound from Polyalthia cerasoides roots, is cytotoxic to various cancer cell lines. The aims of this study were to demonstrate the type of cancer cell death and the mechanism(s) involved. DMMA inhibited cell growth and induced apoptotic death in human leukemic cells (HL-60, U937, MOLT-4), human breast cancer MDA-MB231 cells and human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells in a dose dependent manner, with
values ranging between 20-55
. DMMA also decreased cell viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The morphology of cancer cells induced by the compound after staining with propidium iodide and examined under a fluorescence microscope was condensed nuclei and apoptotic bodies. Mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) was decreased after 24h exposure in all five types of cancer cells. DMMA-induced caspase-3, -8, and -9 activity was strongly induced in human leukemic HL-60 and MOLT-4 cells, while in U937-, MDA-MB231- and HepG2-treated cells there was partial induction of caspase. In conclusion, DMMA-induced activation of caspase-8 and -9 resulted in execution of apoptotic cell death in human leukemic HL-60 and MOLT-4 cell lines via extrinsic and intrinsic pathways.
Association between Smoking and Mortality: Khon Kaen Cohort Study, Thailand
Kamsa-ard, Siriporn ; Promthet, Supannee ; Lewington, Sarah ; Burrett, Julie Ann ; Sherliker, Paul ; Kamsa-ard, Supot ; Wiangnon, Surapon ; Parkin, Donald Maxwell ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2643~2647
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2643
Background: Despite anti-smoking campaigns, smoking prevalence among Thai males aged 30 or older is high, at around 50%. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between smoking and mortality in a rural Thai community. Materials and Methods: Subjects enrolled into the Khon Kaen cohort study between 1990 and 2001 were followed up for their vital status until
March 2012. The death resource was from the Bureau of Policy and Strategy, Ministry of Interior, Thailand. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyse the association between smoking and death, controlling for age, education level and alcohol drinking, and confidence intervals were calculated using the floating risk method. Results: The study recruited 5,962 male subjects, of whom 1,396 died during a median 13.5 years of follow-up. Current smokers were more likely to die than never smokers after controlling for age, education level and alcohol drinking (HR, 95%CI: 1.41, 1.32-1.51), and the excess mortality was greatest for lung cancer (HR, 95%CI: 3.51, 2.65-4.66). However, there was no increased risk with increasing dose of tobacco, and no difference in risk between smokers of yamuan (hand-rolled cigarettes) and manufactured tobacco. Conclusion: Mortality from cancer, particularly lung cancer, and from all causes combined is dependent on smoking status among men in rural Thailand, but the relative risks are lower than have been reported from studies in high income countries, where the tobacco epidemic is more established.
Prevalence of Depression in Breast Cancer Survivors: a Systematic Review of Observational Studies
Zainal, Nor Zuraida ; Nik-Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei ; Baharudin, Azlin ; Sabki, Zuraida Ahmad ; Ng, Chong Guan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2649~2656
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2649
Background: Depression is common in breast cancer patients. The aim of this paper was to make a systematic review of its prevalence and associated factors oin breast cancer survivors. Materials and Methods: An extensive systematic electronic review (PUBMED, CINAHL, PsyINFO and Ovid) and handsearch were carried out to retrieve published articles up to November 2012, using Depression OR Dysthymia AND (Cancer OR Tumor OR Neoplasms as the keywords. Information about the design of the studies, measuring scale, characteristics of the participants, prevalence of depression and its associated factors from the included studies were extracted and summarized. Results: We identified 32 eligible studies that recruited 10,826 breast cancer survivors. Most were cross-sectional or prospective designed. The most frequent instrument used to screen depression was the Center for Epidemiological Studies for Depression (CES-D, n=11 studies) followed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, n=6 studies) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, n=6 studies). CES-D returned about similar prevalence of depression (median=22%, range=13-56%) with BDI (median=22%, range=17-48%) but higher than HADS (median=10%, range=1-22%). Depression was associated with several socio-demographic variables, cancer-related factors, treatment-related factors, subject psychological factors, lifestyle factors, social support and quality of life. Conclusions: Breast cancer survivors are at risk for depression so that detection of associated factors is important in clinical practice.
Accuracy of Frozen Section Analysis of Sentinel Lymph Nodes for the Detection of Asian Breast Cancer Micrometastasis - Experience from Pakistan
Hashmi, Atif Ali ; Faridi, Naveen ; Khurshid, Amna ; Naqvi, Hanna ; Malik, Babar ; Malik, Faisal Riaz ; Fida, Zubaida ; Mujtuba, Shafaq ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2657~2662
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2657
Background: Intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy has now become the standard of care for patients with clinically node negative breast cancer for diagnosis and also in order to determine the need for immediate axillary clearance. Several large scale studies confirmed the diagnostic reliability of this method. However, micrometastases are frequently missed on frozen sections. Recent studies showed that both disease free interval and overall survival are significantly affected by the presence of micrometastatic disease. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of intraoperative frozen section analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) for the detection of breast cancer micrometastasis and to evaluate the status of non-sentinel lymph nodes (non-SLNs) in those patients subjected to further axillary sampling. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective study on 154 patients who underwent SLN biopsy from January 2008 till October 2011. The SLNs were sectioned at 2 mm intervals and submitted entirely for frozen sections. Three levels of each section submitted are examined and the results were compared with further levels on paraffin sections. Results: Overall 40% of patients (62/154) were found to be SLN positive on final (paraffin section) histology, out of which 44 demonstrated macrometastases (>2mm) and 18 micrometastases (<2mm). The overall sensitivity and specificity of frozen section analysis of SLN for the detection of macrometastasis was found to be 100% while those for micrometastasis were 33.3% and 100%, respectively. Moreover 20% of patients who had micrometastases in SLN had positive non-SLNs on final histology. Conclusions: Frozen section analysis of SLNs lacks sufficient accuracy to rule out micrometastasis by current protocols. Therefore these need to be revised in order to pick up micrometastasis which appears to have clinical significance. We suggest that this can be achieved by examining more step sections of blocks.
Chemotherapy and Late Course Three Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy for Treatment of Patients with Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
Liu, Yang-Chen ; Zhou, Shao-Bing ; Gao, Fei ; Ye, Hong-Xun ; Zhao, Ying ; Yi, Xiao-Xiang ; Huang, Xin-En ; Xiang, Jin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2663~2665
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2663
Objective: To compare the efficacy and complications of chemotherapy and late course three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) in treating patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: All patients were divided into two groups: to receive chemotherapy and late course 3DCRT (3DCRT group), or chemotherapy and conventional fraction radiation (control group). In the 3DCRT-group, patients were given 6~15 MV X-rays with a total dose of 40 Gy, followed by 3DCRT, 2.5 Gy~3.0 Gy per fraction, 1 fraction/every day, total 68 Gy~70 Gy; in the control group, with conventional fraction radiation the total dose was 64~66 Gy. The chemotherapy regimen in both cases was EP (VP-16 and DDP). Results: Sixty four patients with stage III NSCLC were divided into two groups: 32 patients into 3DCRT, 32 into the control group. One and 2-year survival rates in 3DCRT and control group were 87.5%, 56.3%mad 65.6%, 34.4%, respectively (P<0.05); local control rates were 90.6%, 81.3% and 65.6%, 53.1%, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: Chemotherapy and late course 3DCRT is associated with improved survival rate in patients with stage III NSCLC with good tolerability.
Histopathology Analysis of Benign Colorectal Diseases and Colorectal Cancer in Hatyai Hospital, Songkhla, Thailand
Kotepui, Manas ; Piwkham, Duangjai ; Songsri, Apiram ; Charoenkijkajorn, Lek ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2667~2671
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2667
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and also ranks as the fifth-leading malignancy and death in Thailand. This study aimed to provide a present outlook of colorectal diseases among Thai patients with special emphasis on CRC in Hatyai, Songkhla, southern Thailand. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study covered ten year data of CRC, benign colorectal tumors and non-colorectal tumors from the Department of Pathology in Hatyai Hospital, Songkhla, Thailand, between years 2003-2012. Incidence rates based on age, gender, ten year incidence trends, and distribution of histopathological characteristics of patients were calculated and demonstrated. Results: Out of 730 biopsies, 100 cases were benign colorectal tumors, 336 were CRC and 294 were non-colorectal tumors. Colorectal tumors (both benign and CRC) (60.1%) were more common than non-colorectal tumors (39.9%). CRC (77.1%) were more common than benign colorectal tumors (32.9%). Colorectal tumors were mainly found in patients aged over sixty whereas non-colorectal and benign colorectal tumors were found in those under sixty (P=0.01). sAmong CRC, adenocarcinoma contributed about 97.3% of all cases with well differentiated tumors being the most frequent (56.9%). Both benign colorectal tumors and CRC were more commonly found in males (63%) than females (37%). The incidence trend of CRC demonstrated increase from 2003-2012. Conclusions: The incidence of CRC increased in Hatyai from 2003-2012. CRC tends to be more common in people older than sixty, thus, screening programs, cost-effective analysis of treatment modalities, and treatment protocols for the elderly should be examined. Proper implementation of preventive measures such as changing lifestyle factors might enhance control of colorectal disease.
Role of Dental Institutions in Tobacco Cessation in India: Current Status and Future Prospects
Mohanty, Vikrant Ranjan ; Rajesh, Guru Raghavendran ; Aruna, D.S. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2673~2680
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2673
Tobacco abuse is a major preventable cause of premature death and disease, including various cancers. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey India (GATS) 2009-10 revealed that more than one-third of adults use tobacco in one form or the other. Nearly two in five smokers and smokeless tobacco users made attempts to quit the habit in the past 12 months. Tobacco dependence is a chronic condition characterized by susceptibility of relapse over years. It can be well handled by sustained professional support from health care providers mainly through behavioral counseling and pharmacotherapy. Dental professionals can play a pivotal role in diagnosing and effectively managing tobacco dependence. Dental Institutions have rapidly grown in last two decades across the country and so has the curriculum been adapted to improve student competencies to accommodate changing disease patterns and technological advances, but not in regard to tobacco cessation. Untapped dental manpower like undergraduates, dental hygienists and other paramedical staff need effective training to be more penetrative. The present review paper explores the potential role of dental training institutions and recommends various approaches to counter public health jeopardy of tobacco related diseases.
Cervical Cancer : Is Vaccination Necessary in India?
Farhath, Seema ; Vijaya, P.P. ; Mumtaj, P. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2681~2684
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2681
In India, cervical cancer is the most common woman-related cancer, followed by breast cancer. The rate of cervical cancer in India is fourth worldwide. Two vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix, both targeting HPV-16 and 18 which account for 70% of invasive cervical carcinomas, are licensed in the United States and numerous countries worldwide. Both vaccine formulations have shown excellent efficacy with minimal toxicity in active female population but numerous questions arise in vaccinating like cost effectiveness, lack of proven efficacy against other HPV strains, social acceptance of HPV vaccination and other ethical issues. The main objective of this study is to emphasis the advantages and disadvantages of the vaccination in India.
Comparison of Apples with their Parts: Rethinking a Meta-analysis on the Association between Cooking and Uveal Melanoma Risk
Schmidt-Pokrzywniak, Andrea ; Stang, Andreas ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2685~2686
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2685
Note of Clarification of Data in the Meta-analysis of XPC 939A>C and 499C>T Polymorphisms in Skin Cancer
Wang, Shu-Qi ; Li, Jing ; Tang, Wen-Ru ; Luo, Ying ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 4, 2013, Pages 2687~2688
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2687