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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 14, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 14, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 14, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 14, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 14, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 14, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition and Its Role in the Pathogenesis of Colorectal Cancer
Zhu, Qing-Chao ; Gao, Ren-Yuan ; Wu, Wen ; Qin, Huan-Long ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2689~2698
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2689
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a collection of events that allows the conversion of adherent epithelial cells, tightly bound to each other within an organized tissue, into independent fibroblastic cells possessing migratory properties and the ability to invade the extracellular matrix. EMT contributes to the complex architecture of the embryo by permitting the progression of embryogenesis from a simple single-cell layer epithelium to a complex three-dimensional organism composed of both epithelial and mesenchymal cells. However, in most tissues EMT is a developmentally restricted process and fully differentiated epithelia typically maintain their epithelial phenotype. Recently, elements of EMT, specially the loss of epithelial markers and the gain of mesenchymal markers, have been observed in pathological states, including epithelial cancers. Increasing evidence has confirmed its presence in human colon during colorectal carcinogenesis. In general, chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the causes of many human cancers including colorectal cancer(CRC). Accordingly, epidemiologic and clinical studies indicate that patients affected by ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease, have an increased risk of developing CRC. A large body of evidence supports roles for the SMAD/STAT3 signaling pathway, the NF-kB pathway, the Ras-mitogenactivated protein kinase/Snail/Slug and microRNAs in the development of colorectal cancers via epithelial-tomesenchymal transition. Thus, EMT appears to be closely involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, and analysis refered to it can yield novel targets for therapy.
Oncogenesis and the Clinical Significance of K-ras in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
Huang, Chun ; Wang, Wei-Min ; Gong, Jian-Ping ; Yang, Kang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2699~2701
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2699
The RAS family genes encode small GTP-binding cytoplasmic proteins. Activated KRAS engages multiple effector pathways, notably the RAF-mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and RalGDS pathways. In the clinical field, K-ras oncogene activation is frequently found in human cancers and thus may serve as a potential diagnostic marker for cancer cells in circulation. This mini-review aims to summarise information on Ras-induced oncogenesis and the clinical significance of K-ras.
Phase II Study on Pemetrexed-based Chemotherapy in Treating Patients with Metastatic Gastric Cancer not Responding to Prior Palliative Chemotherapy
Wei, Guo-Li ; Huang, Xin-En ; Huo, Jie-Ge ; Wang, Xiao-Ning ; Tang, Jin-Hai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2703~2706
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2703
Purpose: This study was to determine the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed based chemotherapy in treating patients with metastatic gastric cancer who failed to respond to first and (or) second line chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Metastatic gastric cancer patients who failed first and (or) second line chemotherapy, were enrolled. All patients were recruited from Jiangsu Cancer Hospital & Research Institute, and were treated with pemetrexed
(intravenous; on day 1), and a platinum (or irinotecan) every 3 weeks until disease progression, or intolerable toxicity. Evaluation on efficacy was conducted after two cycles of chemotherapy using the Response Evaluation Criteria for Solid Tumors. Toxicity was recorded according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results: From Jun 2011 to May 2013, 23 patients were enrolled. All eligible 23 patients completed at least 2 cycles of chemotherapy with pemetrexed based chemotherapy, and were evaluable. Their median age was 55 years (range 40 to 78 years). Seventeen patients were male and 6 female. Three patients (13%) achieved partial response, five patients (22%) stable, 15 patients (65%) with disease progression, and none with complete response. Grade 2 neutrophil suppression occurred in 4.3%, grade 3 in 13% of patients, and no grade 4 was reported. Thrombocytopenia was encountered as follows: 4.3% grade 2, 4.3% grade 3 and 4.3% grade 4. Incidence of anemia was 34.8% in grade 2, 8.7% grade 3 and 0% grade 4. Only 4.3% of patients required packed red blood cell infusion. Elevated transaminase were 4.3% in grade 2 and 0% in grade 3 or 4. Other toxicity included oral mucositis. Conclusions: Pemetrexed based chemotherapy is mildly effective in treating patients with metastatic gastric cancer with tolerable toxicity.
Serum Hepatitis a Antibody Positivity Correlates with Higher Pancreas Cancer Mortality in Adults: Implications for Hepatitis Vaccination in High Risk Areas
Cheung, Min Rex ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2707~2710
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2707
Background: This study used pre-hepatitis A vaccination era data in U.S. to study the relationship between serum hepatitis A antibody positivity with pancreas cancer mortality in adults. Patients and Methods: Public use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) data were employed. NHANES III uses complex probabilistic methods to sample nationally representative samples. Household adult laboratory and mortality data were merged. Sample persons who were available to be examined in the Mobile Examination Center (MEC) were included in this study. All results were obtained by using specialized survey software taking into account the primary sampling unit and stratification variables and the weights assigned to the sample persons examined in the MEC. Thus they are representative of the U.S. population. Results: The mean risk (95%CI) of death in the study population for pancreas cancer was 0.0014 (-0.000069 -.0029); their mean age (95%CI) at the mobile examination center (MXPAXTMR) was 473.43 (463.85-482.10); the follow up in months from their medical examination (permth_exm) was 170.12 (164.17-176.07). The odds ratios (S.E.) of the statistically significant univariables were: age, 1.007 (1.005-1.009); serum anti-hepatitis antibody status, 0.038 (0.004-0.376); and drinking hard liquor, 1.014 (1.004-1.023). The coefficients (S.E.) of the statistically significant variables after multivariate analysis were 0.006 (0.002-0.010) for age and -2.528 (-4.945--0.111) for serum anti-hepatitis A antibody negativity (using serum anti-hepatitis A antibody positivity as a reference). Conclusion: Serum hepatitis A antibody positivity correlates with higher pancreas cancer mortality in adults.
Cyclin D1, Retinoblastoma and p16 Protein Expression in Carcinoma of the Gallbladder
Srivastava, Vineeta ; Patel, Brijesh ; Kumar, Mohan ; Shukla, Mridula ; Pandey, Manoj ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2711~2715
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2711
Background: Cancer of the gallbladder is a relatively rare neoplasm with a poor prognosis. The exact mechanisms of its genesis are not known and very little information is available on molecular events leading to labeling this as an orphan cancer. Materials and Methods: In this prospective case control study we evaluated the expression of p16, pRb and cyclin D1 by immunohistochemistry to study the G1-S cell-cycle check point and its possible role in gallbladder carcinogenesis. A total of 25 patients with gallbladder carcinoma (group I), 25 with cholelithiasis (group II) and 10 normal controls. were enrolled Results: Cyclin D1 expression was seen in 10 (40%) patients each with carcinoma and cholelithiasis while only in 2 (20%) of the normal gallbladders but differences were not statistically significant (p value=0.488). p16 was expressed in 12% patients of carcinoma of the gallbladder and 28% of cholelithiasis, however this difference was not statistically significant (p value=0.095). Retinoblastoma protein was found to be expressed in 50% of normal gallbladders and 6 (24%) of carcinoma and 8 (32%) of gallstones. The present study failed to demonstrate any conclusive role of cyclin D1/RB/ p16 pathway in carcinoma of the gallbladder. Conclusions: The positive relation observed between tumor metastasis and cyclinD1 expression and p16 with nodal metastasis suggested that higher cyclin D1/p16 expression may act as a predictive biomarker for aggressive behavior of gallbladder malignancies.
Suggestion for a New Grading Scale for Radiation Induced Pneumonitis Based on Radiological Findings of Computerized Tomography: Correlation with Clinical and Radiotherapeutic Parameters in Lung Cancer Patients
Kouloulias, Vassilios ; Zygogianni, Anna ; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios ; Victoria, Oikonomopoulou ; Christos, Antypas ; Pantelis, Karaiskos ; Koutoulidis, Vassilios ; Kouvaris, John ; Sandilos, Panagiotis ; Varela, Maria ; Aytas, Ilknur ; Gouliamos, Athanasios ; Kelekis, Nikolaos ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2717~2722
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2717
Background: The objective of this research is the computed axial tomography (CT) imaging grading of radiation induced pneumonitis (RP) and its correlation with clinical and radiotherapeutic parameters. Materials and Methods: The chest CT films of 20 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who have undergone threedimensional conformal radiation therapy were reviewed. The proposed CT grading of RP is supported on solely radiological diagnosis criteria and distinguishes five grades. The manifestation of RP was also correlated with any positive pre-existing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) history, smoking history, the FEV1 value, and the dosimetric variable V20. Results: The CT grading of RP was as follows: 3 patients (15%) presented with ground glass opacity (grade 1), 9 patients (45%) were classified as grade 2, 7 patients (35%) presented with focal consolidation, with or without elements of fibrosis (grade 3), and only one patient (5%) presented with opacity with accompanying atelectasis and loss of pulmonary volume (grade 4). Both univariate and multivariate analysis revealed as prognostic factors for the radiological grading of RP the reduction of FEV1 and the V20 (P=0.026 and P=0.003, respectively). There was also a significant (P<0.001) correlation of radiological grading of RP with FEV1 and V20 (spearman rho 0.92 and 0.93, respectively). Conclusions: The high correlation of the proposed radiological grading with the FEV1 and the V20 is giving a satisfactory clinical validity. Although the proposed grading scale seems relevant to clinical practice, further studies are needed for the confirmation of its validity and reliability.
Hospital Outpatients are Satisfactory for Case-control Studies on Cancer and Diet in China: A Comparison of Population Versus Hospital Controls
Li, Lin ; Zhang, Min ; Holman, C. D'Arcy J. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2723~2729
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2723
Background: To investigate the internal validity of a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed for use in Chinese women and to compare habitual dietary intakes between population and hospital controls measured by the FFQ. Materials and Methods: A quantitative FFQ and a short food habit questionnaire (SFHQ) were developed and adapted for cancer and nutritional studies. Habitual dietary intakes were assessed in 814 Chinese women aged 18-81 years (407 outpatients and 407 population controls) by face-to-face interview using the FFQ in Shenyang, Northeast China in 2009-2010. The Goldberg formula (ratio of energy intake to basal metabolic rate, EI/BMR) was used to assess the validity of the FFQ. Correlation analyses compared the SFHQ variables with those of the quantitative FFQ. Differences in dietary intakes between hospital and population controls were investigated. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. Results: The partial correlation coefficients were moderate to high (0.42 to 0.80; all p<0.05) for preserved food intake, fat consumption and tea drinking variables between the SFHQ and the FFQ. The average EI/BMR was 1.93 with 88.5% of subjects exceeding the Goldberg cut-off value of 1.35. Hospital controls were comparable to population controls in consumption of 17 measured food groups and mean daily intakes of energy and selected nutrients. Conclusions: The FFQ had reasonable validity to measure habitual dietary intakes of Chinese women. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group for food consumption and intakes of energy and nutrients measured by the FFQ in a Chinese hospital setting.
Translation and Validation of the Activities of Daily Living Scale with Iranian Elderly Cancer Patients Treated in an Oncology Unit
Khoei, Mahtab Alizadeh ; Akbari, Mohammad Esmail ; Sharifi, Farshad ; Fakhrzadeh, Hossein ; Larijani, Bagher ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2731~2737
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2731
Background: This study evaluated the validity and reliability of applying the Katz's Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale in an Iranian sample of elderly oncologic patients following initial cancer treatment. Materials and Methods: The scale was translated with the forward-backward procedure to give an Iranian version. The ADL scale was then applied in a random sample of 400 oncologic patients aged 60 and older following initial cancer treatment. Assessment of the scale stability was twice, with a 14-days (two weeks) interval, to 30 (of the 400) eligible elderly cancer patients in March 2012. To measure treatment effects, the index was run with 150 patients in a three month recall, following oncology processing. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was performed for assessment of construct validity of the Katz's ADL. Reliability was measured with internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha co-efficient), and test/retest (Spearman's r value) of the instrument. Criterion validity was evaluated by comparing the Katz with Physical Function (PF) subscale of SF 36. Known-group validity was approved by comparing of Katz' ADL between quartile groups of PF subscale of SF 36. Results: In our study the ADL demonstrated a high degree of internal homogeneity (Cronbach's alpha 0.923). There was a high correlation between scores of two time measurement of Katz's ADL (p value of two- related- samples test was 0.3). Construct validity showed a correlation coefficient of 0.572 between the ADL and PF scores. In factor analysis, 2 factors were extracted. Evidence for the reliability of the questionnaire was good and known group validity was approved by significant differences of ADL score between quartiles of the PF subscale of SF36. Conclusions: The results suggest that the Iranian version of ADL applied for oncologic older adult patients following initial cancer treatment is a reliable and a valid clinical instrument and comparable to those reported in other studies.
Neuroblastoma in Iran: An Experience of 32 Years at a Referral Childrens Hospital
Mehdiabadi, Gholamreza Bahoush ; Arab, Elaheh ; Rafsanjani, Khadijeh Arjmandi ; Ansari, Shahla ; Moinzadeh, Amir Majid ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2739~2742
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2739
Background: This survey aim was to evaluate the epidemiology and outcomes of neuroblastoma patients in one the most important children referral hospitals in Iran as a model from developing countries. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, non-randomized analytic study was conducted on 219 newly diagnosed neuroblastoma cases. Results: The age of patients ranged from 1-156 months with the average of
, with a male/female ratio of 1.9/1. Of the total, 172 (78.5%) were children and 47 (21.5%) were infants The adrenals were the most common primary site (60%). Stage 4 at diagnosis accounted for about 54% of all enrolled patients. Infants had significantly better cumulative survival (
) than children (
) during the follow up period and the survival rate improved from
in 1974-1994 to
in 1995-2005. Conclusions: This study indicates that our patient population with neuroblastomas tends to have more advanced disease, perhaps with poor biologic markers, but our analysis shows that the outcomes have improved over 32 years although the overall survival of Iranian neuroblastoma patients is still lower than developed countries. Late diagnosis, inability to determine risk group during the years of study and using single protocol for all enrolled patients can be the reasons of lower survival rate.
Comprehensive Mutation Analysis of PIK3CA, p14ARF, p16INK4a and p21
Genes is Suggestive of a Non- Neoplastic Nature of Phenytoin Induced Gingival Overgrowth
Swamikannu, Bhuminathan ; Kumar, Kishore S. ; Jayesh, Raghavendra S. ; Rajendran, Senthilnathan ; Muthupalani, Rajendran Shanmugam ; Ramanathan, Arvind ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2743~2746
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2743
Background: Dilantin sodium (phenytoin) is an antiepileptic drug, which is routinely used to control generalized tonic clonic seizure and partial seizure episodes. A few case reports of oral squamous cell carcinomas arising from regions of phenytoin induced gingival overgrowth (GO), and overexpression of mitogenic factors and p53 have presented this condition as a pathology with potential to transform into malignancy. We recently investigated the genetic status of p53 and H-ras, which are known to be frequently mutated in Indian oral carcinomas in GO tissues and found them to only contain wild type sequences, which suggested a non-neoplastic nature of phenytoin induced GO. However, besides p53 and H-ras, other oncogenes and tumor suppressors such as PIK3CA, p14ARF, p16INK4a and
, are frequently altered in oral squamous cell carcinoma, and hence are required to be analyzed in phenytoin induced GO tissues to be affirmative of its non-neoplastic nature. Methods: 100ng of chromosomal DNA isolated from twenty gingival overgrowth tissues were amplified with primers for exons 9 and 20 of PIK3CA, exons
and 2 of p16INK4a and p14ARF, and exon 2 of
, in independent reactions. PCR amplicons were subsequently gel purified and eluted products were sequenced. Results: Sequencing analysis of the twenty samples of phenytoin induced gingival growth showed no mutations in the analyzed exons of PIK3CA, p14ARF, p16INK4a and
. Conclusion: The present data indicate that the mutational alterations of genes, PIK3CA, p14ARF, p16INK4a and
that are frequently mutated in oral squamous cell carcinomas are rare in phenytoin induced gingival growth. Thus the findings provide further evidence that phenytoin induced gingival overgrowth as a non-neoplastic lesion, which may be considered as clinically significant given the fact that the epileptic patients are routinely administered with phenytoin for the rest of their lives to control seizure episodes.
Dietary Phytochemical Index and the Risk of Breast Cancer: A Case Control Study in a Population of Iranian Women
Bahadoran, Zahra ; Karimi, Zeinab ; Houshiar-Rad, Anahita ; Mirzayi, Hamid-Reza ; Rashidkhani, Bahram ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2747~2751
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2747
In this study we assessed the dietary phytochemical index in relation to the risk of breast cancer in women. This case-control study was conducted on 100 incident breast cancer cases and 175 healthy controls. Data regarding socio-demographic factors, medical history, medications, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Dietary data were obtained using a validated food frequency questionnaire and a energy-adjusted dietary phytochemical index (PI) was calculated. The odds ratios of breast cancer were assessed across energyadjusted PI quartile categories. The mean age of participants was
years in cases and controls, respectively. The mean PI across quartile categories was
in the first, second, third and fourth quartiles, respectively. After adjustment for all potential confounders, the risk of breast cancer in the forth quartile of dietary PI was significantly decreased (OR=0.08, 95%CI=0.01-0.84). Higher intake of phytochemical-rich foods is associated with lower risk of breast cancer.
Meta-analysis of Associations of the Ezrin Gene with Human Osteosarcoma Response to Chemotherapy and Prognosis
Wang, Zhe ; He, Mao-Lin ; Zhao, Jin-Min ; Qing, Hai-Hui ; Wu, Yang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2753~2758
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2753
Various studies examining the relationship between Ezrin overexpression and response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome in patients with osteosarcoma have yielded inconclusive results. We accordingly conducted a meta-analysis of 7 studies (n = 318 patients) that evaluated the correlation between Ezrin and histologic response to chemotherapy and clinical prognosis (death). Data were synthesized in receiver operating characteristic curves and with fixed-effects and random-effects likelihood ratios and risk ratios. Quantitative synthesis showed that Ezrin is not a prognostic factor for the response to chemotherapy. The positive likelihood ratio was 0.538 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.296- 0.979; random-effects calculation), and the negative likelihood ratio was 2.151 (95% CI, 0.905- 5.114; random-effects calculations). There was some between-study heterogeneity, but no study showed strong discriminating ability. Conversely, Ezrin positive status tended to be associated with a lower 2-year survival (risk ratio, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.26-4.76; random-effects calculation) with some between-study heterogeneity that disappeared when only studies that employed immunohistochemistry were considered (risk ratio, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.01- 4.40; fixed-effects calculation). To conclude, Ezrin is not associated with the histologic response to chemotherapy in patients with osteosarcoma, whereas Ezrin positivity was associated with a lower 2-year survival rate regarding risk of death at 2 years. Expression change of Ezrin is an independent prognostic factor in patients with osteosarcoma.
Ischemia Modified Albumin Levels and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Bladder Cancer
Ellidag, Hamit Yasar ; Eren, Esin ; Aydin, Ozgur ; Akgol, Evren ; Yalcinkaya, Soner ; Sezer, Cem ; Yilmaz, Necat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2759~2763
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2759
Background: Impaired oxidative/antioxidative status plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases like cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of the novel marker ischemia modified albumin (IMA) and albumin adjusted-IMA (Adj-IMA) in patients with bladder cancer (BC) as well as its association with total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI). Materials and Methods: Forty male patients with BC (mean age,
years) and forty age-sex matched healthy persons (mean age
years) were included in this study. Serum levels of IMA, TAS, TOS were analyzed and Adj- IMA and OSI was calculated. Results: Serum IMA, TOS and OSI values were significantly higher in patients with BC compared to controls (p<0.0001, p=0.01 and p=0.01, respectively), whereas TAS was significantly lower in BC patients (p=0.04). There was no significant difference for serum albumin-adjusted IMA levels between groups (p=0.4). Conclusions: In this study, it was found that there was an impaired oxidative/antioxidant status in favor of oxidative stress in BC patients. This observation was not confirmed by Adj-IMA calculation. There is no published report about serum concentrations of IMA in patients with BC. Further studies are needed to establish the relationship of IMA and oxidative stress parameters in BC and the significance of IMA to other cancers.
Correlation between Magnifying Narrow-band Imaging Endoscopy Results and Organoid Differentiation Indicated by Cancer Cell Differentiation and its Distribution in Depressed-Type Early Gastric Carcinoma
Tatematsu, Hidezumi ; Miyahara, Ryoji ; Shimoyama, Yoshie ; Funasaka, Kohei ; Ohno, Eizaburou ; Nakamura, Masanao ; Kawashima, Hiroki ; Itoh, Akihiro ; Ohmiya, Naoki ; Hirooka, Yoshiki ; Watanabe, Osamu ; Maeda, Osamu ; Ando, Takafumi ; Goto, Hidemi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2765~2769
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2765
Background: A close association between patterns identified by magnifying narrow-band imaging (M-NBI) and histological type has been described. M-NBI patterns were also recently reported to be related to the mucin phenotype; however, detials remain unclear. Materials and Methods: We investigated the cellular differentiation of gastric cancer lesions, along with their mucosal distribution observed by M-NBI. Ninety-seven depressed-type early gastric cancer lesions (74 differentiated and 23 undifferentiated adenocarcinomas) were visualized by M-NBI. Findings were divided into 4 patterns based on abnormal microvascular architecture: a chain loop pattern (CLP), a fine network pattern (FNP), a corkscrew pattern (CSP), and an unclassified pattern. Mucin phenotypes were judged as gastric (G-type), intestinal (I-type), mixed gastric and intestinal (M-type), and null (N-type) based on 4 markers (MAC5AC, MUC6, MUC2, and CD10). The relationship of each pattern of microvascular architecture with organoid differentiation indicated by cancer cell differentiation and its distribution in each histological type of early gastric cancer was investigated. Results: All CLP and FNP lesions were differentiated. The cancer cell distribution showed organoid differentiation in 84.2% (16/19) and 61.1% (22/36) of the two types of lesions, respectively, and there was a significant difference from the unclassified pattern with organoid differentiation (p<0.001). Almost all (94.7%; 18/19) CSP lesions were undifferentiated, and organoid differentiation was observed in 72.2% (13/18). There was a significant difference from the unclassified pattern with organoid differentiation (p<0.05). Conclusions: Cellular differentiation and distribution are associated with microvascular architecture observed by M-NBI.
Evaluation of Quality of Life of Breast Cancer Patient Next-of-kin in Turkey
Ogce, Filiz ; Ozkan, Sevgi ; Okcin, Figen ; Yaren, Arzu ; Demiray, Gokcen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2771~2776
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2771
Introduction: Quality of life (QoL) issues are of importance in relatives of women with breast cancer (BC)as caregivers in neglecting their own needs due to care of a patient and also as women regarding the potential risk of themselves developing BC. The objectives in the present study were to compare the QoL of female relatives of women in treatment for breast cancer. To date, no study had examined multi-dimensional QoL in accompanying people as compared them into two groups of female relatives whose first degree and second degree. Methods: QoL of female relatives was assessed using the Quality of Life-Family Version (QOL-FV) scale. Relationships between socio-demographic characteristics and QoL scores were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal Wallis and Crosstabs tests. Results: The mean age of the female relatives was 37.6 years, and nearly 48% had a university education. It was found that first degree relatives had worse QoL in all domains except physical wellbeing than second degree relatives. Conclusion: This study showed that being female relatives of BC, especially first-degree, affect QoL negatively. Health care providers are of an important role in the stage of information related to genetic influence of BC.
Assessment of a Questionnaire for Breast Cancer Case-Control Studies
Strumylaite, Loreta ; Kregzdyte, Rima ; Rugyte, Danguole Ceslava ; Bogusevicius, Algirdas ; Mechonosina, Kristina ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2777~2782
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2777
The aim of the present study was to assess criterion validity and external reliability of a questionnaire on risk factors for breast cancer. Materials and Methods. Women with breast cancer diagnosis (the cases) (N=40) and matched individuals without cancer (the controls) (N=40) were asked to fill in a questionnaire twice: on a day of admission to hospital (Q1) and on a day before discharge (Q2), with a time interval of 4-6 days. The questionnaire included questions (N=150) on demographic and socioeconomic factors, diseases in the past, family history of cancer, woman's health, smoking, alcohol use, diet, physical activity, and work environment. Criterion validity of the questionnaire Q2 relative to reference questionnaire Q1 was assessed with the Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC); external reliability of the questionnaire was measured in terms of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 16. Results. The responses to most of the questions on socioeconomic factors, family history on cancer, female health, lifestyle risk factors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity) correlated substantially in both the cases and the controls with SCC and ICC>0.7 (p<0.01). Statistically non significant relationships defined only between the responses on amount of beer the cases drank at the ages up to 25 years and 26-35 years as well as time of use of estrogen and estrogens-progestin during menopause by the cases. Moderate and substantial SCC and ICC were determined for different food items. Only the response of the cases on veal consumption did not correlate significantly. Conclusions. The questionnaire on breast cancer risk factors is valid and reliable for most of the questions included.
Cancer Risk from Medical Radiation Procedures for Coronary Artery Disease: A Nationwide Population-based Cohort Study
Hung, Mao-Chin ; Hwang, Jeng-Jong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2783~2787
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2783
To assess the risk of cancer incidence after medical radiation exposure for coronary artery disease (CAD), a retrospective cohort study was conducted based on Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Patients with CAD were identified according to the International Classification of Diseases code, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), and their records of medical radiation procedures were collected from 1997 to 2010. A total of 18,697 subjects with radiation exposure from cardiac imaging or therapeutic procedures for CAD were enrolled, and 19,109 subjects receiving cardiac diagnostic procedures without radiation were adopted as the control group. The distributions of age and gender were similar between the two populations. Cancer risks were evaluated by age-adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) and association with cumulative exposure were further evaluated with relative risks by Poisson regression analysis. A total of 954 and 885 subjects with various types of cancers in both cohorts after following up for over 10 years were found, with incidences of 409.8 and 388.0 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. The risk of breast cancer (aIRR=1.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.14-3.00) was significantly elevated in the exposed female subjects, but no significant cancer risk was found in the exposed males. In addition, cancer risks of the breast and lung were increased with the exposure level. The study suggests that radiation exposure from cardiac imaging or therapeutic procedures for CAD may be associated with the increased risk of breast and lung cancers in CAD patients.
Application of Stem Cells in Targeted Therapy of Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review
Madjd, Zahra ; Gheytanchi, Elmira ; Erfani, Elham ; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2789~2800
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2789
Background: The aim of this systematic review was to investigate whether stem cells could be effectively applied in targeted therapy of breast cancer. Material and Method: A systematic literature search was performed for original articles published from January 2007 until May 2012. Results: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria for phase I or II clinical trials, of which three used stem cells as vehicles, two trials used autologous hematopoetic stem cells and in four trials cancer stem cells were targeted. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were applied as cellular vehicles to transfer therapeutic agents. Cell therapy with MSC can successfully target resistant cancers. Cancer stem cells were selectively targeted via a proteasome-dependent suicide gene leading to tumor regression.
-catenin signaling pathway has been also evidenced to be an attractive CSC-target. Conclusions: This systematic review focused on two different concepts of stem cells and breast cancer marking a turning point in the trials that applied stem cells as cellular vehicles for targeted delivery therapy as well as CSC-targeted therapies. Applying stem cells as targeted therapy could be an effective therapeutic approach for treatment of breast cancer in the clinic and in therapeutic marketing; however this needs to be confirmed with further clinical investigations.
Association of ABO Blood Group and Risk of Lung Cancer in a Multicenter Study in Turkey
Urun, Yuksel ; Utkan, Gungor ; Cangir, Ayten Kayi ; Oksuzoglu, Omur Berna ; Ozdemir, Nuriye ; Oztuna, Derya Gokmen ; Kocaman, Gokhan ; Coskun, Hasan Senol ; Kaplan, Muhammet Ali ; Yuksel, Cabir ; Demirkazik, Ahmet ; Icli, Fikri ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2801~2803
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2801
Background: The ABO blood groups and Rh factor may affect the risk of lung cancer. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 2,044 lung cancer patients with serologically confirmed ABO/Rh blood group. A group of 3,022,883 healthy blood donors of Turkish Red Crescent was identified as a control group. We compared the distributions of ABO/Rh blood group between them. Results: The median age was 62 years (range: 17-90). There was a clear male predominance (84% vs. 16%). Overall distributions of ABO blood groups were significantly different between patients and controls (p=0.01). There were also significant differences between patients and controls with respect to Rh positive vs. Rh negative (p=0.04) and O vs. non-O (p=0.002). There were no statistically significant differences of blood groups with respect to sex, age, or histology. Conclusions: In the study population, ABO blood types were associated with the lung cancer. Having non-O blood type and Rh-negative feature increased the risk of lung cancer. However, further prospective studies are necessary to define the mechanisms by which ABO blood type may influence the lung cancer risk.
High Cytoplasmic Expression of the Orphan Nuclear Receptor NR4A2 Predicts Poor Survival in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Wang, Jian ; Yang, Jing ; Li, Bin-Bin ; He, Zhi-Wei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2805~2809
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2805
Objective: This study aimed at investigating whether the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A2 is significantly associated with clinicopathologic features and overall survival of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine NR4A2 protein expression in 84 NPC tissues and 20 non-cancerous nasopharyngeal (NP) tissues. The prognostic significance of NR4A2 protein expression was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression models and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results: We did not find a significant association between total NR4A2 expression and clinicopathological variables in 84 patients with NPC. However, we observed that high cytoplasmic expression of NR4A2 was significantly associated with tumor size (T classification) (P = 0.006), lymph node metastasis (N classification) (P = 0.002) and clinical stage (P = 0.017). Patients with higher cytoplasmic NR4A2 expression had a significantly lower survival rate than those with lower cytoplasmic NR4A2 expression (P = 0.004). Multivariate Cox regression analysis analysis suggested that the level of cytoplasmic NR4A2 expression was an independent prognostic indicator for overall survival of patients with NPC (P = 0.033). Conclusions: High cytoplasmic expression of NR4A2 is a potential unfavorable prognostic factor for patients with NPC.
Insights into Smoking and its Cessation among Current Smokers in India
Binnal, Almas ; Rajesh, GuruRaghavendran ; Ahmed, Junaid ; Denny, Ceena ; Nayak, Sangeetha U. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2811~2818
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2811
Background: Initiation, perpetuation and cessation of smoking are all multifactorial. It is essential to explore interactions among various parameters influencing smoking and its cessation for effective smoking cessation interventions. Objectives: To obtain insights into smoking and its cessation among current smokers in India. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted among current smokers visiting the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences (MCODS), Manipal University, Mangalore. Knowledge, attitudes, behavior, worksite practices towards smoking and its cessation, barriers to smoking cessation and socio-demographic variables were explored using a structured, pretested, self-administered questionnaire. Results: A total of 175 current smokers participated in the study. Mean knowledge, attitude, worksite practice and barrier scores were
(63.7%) respectively. Correlation analysis revealed: association of knowledge with education, occupation and religion; attitude with education and occupation; worksite practices with occupation; knowledge with attitude; and barriers negatively with worksite practices. The majority (85.7%) of respondents intended to quit smoking and this was associated with higher attitude scores, whereas actual quit attempts were associated with high knowledge, attitudes, worksite practices and low barrier scores. Conclusions: Various socio-demographic factors associated with smoking and its cessation were identified. The present study highlights the importance of identifying and targeting these interactions while framing guidelines and interventions for effective tobacco cessation in a developing country like India.
Effects of Femara and Tamoxifen on Proliferation of FM3A Cells in Culture
Topcul, Mehmet ; Topcul, Funda ; Cetin, Idil ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2819~2822
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2819
In this study, antiproliferative effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator Tamoxifen and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (Femara) were evaluated and compared using the FM3A cell line, originating from a C3H mouse mammary carcinoma and positive in terms of estrogen receptor (ER) expression. Cell kinetic parameters including labelling index, mitotic index and labelling index were assessed after exposure of the. FM3A cell line to
of Tamoxifen and
of Femara for 4, 8, 16 and 32 h for all parameters. The results showed that cell growth was inhibited by both agents. There was a significant decrease in labelling index and mitotic index and significant increase in apoptotic index for all experimental groups. The differences between control and all experimental groups were statistically significant (p<0.001) for all applications.
Hopelessness, Depression and Social Support with End of Life Turkish Cancer Patients
Sahin, Zumrut Akgun ; Tan, Mehtap ; Polat, Hatice ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2823~2828
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2823
Background: This study was performed to evaluate relationships between different demographic variables and hopelessness and depression in end of life Turkish cancer patients. This study was a descriptive survey with repeated measures conducted a university hospital in the city of Erzurum, in the eastern part of Turkey. The study enrolled 216 patients undergoing palliative treatment at the hospital. Materials and Methods: Data were collected using questionnaires (demographic questionnaire, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Beck Depression Scale (BDS) and analyzed for demographic and disease-related variable effects on hopelessness and depression. Results: Th hopelessness score was significantly high in female, illiterate, married, and living in rural areas cancer patients. Both hopelessness and depression scores were significantly higher with longer disease duration, receiving radiotherapy treatment, and having metastatic disease. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the coexistence of the physical, psychological, and cognitive problems faced by patients with cancer. Nurses can conduct brief screening assessments to identify patients with probable distress and and psychosocial support, as well as referrals to support services.
Clinical Audit in Radiation Oncology: Results from One Academic Centre in Delhi, India
Kaur, Jaspreet ; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan ; Muzumder, Sandeep ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2829~2834
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2829
The objective was to analyze the radiotherapy (RT) practice at the cancer centre of a tertiary academic medical institution in Delhi. This audit from an Indian public institution covered patient care processes related to cancer diagnosis, integration of RT with other anti-cancer modalities, waiting time, overall treatment time, and compliance with RT. Over a period of one year, all consecutively registered patients in radiotherapy were analyzed for the audit cycle. Analysis of 1,030 patients showed median age of 49.6 years, with presentation as stage I and II in 14.2%, stage III and IV in 71.2% and unknown stage in 14.6%. A total of 974 (95%) were advised for RT appointment; 669 (68.6%) for curative intent and 31.4% for palliation. Mean times for diagnostic workup and from registration at cancer centre to radiotherapy referral were 33 and 31 days respectively. Median waiting time to start of RT course was 41 days. Overall RT compliance was 75% and overall duration for a curative RT course ranged from 50 days to 61 days. Non-completion and interruption of RT course were observed in 12% and 13% respectively. Radiotherapy machine burden in a public cancer hospital in India increases the waiting time and 25% of advised patients do not comply with the prescribed treatment. Infrastructure, machine and manpower constraints lead to more patients being treated on cobalt (74%) and by two-dimensional (78%) techniques.
Prostate Cancer Screening in a Healthy Population Cohort in Eastern Nepal: an Explanatory Trial Study
Belbase, Narayan Prasad ; Agrawal, Chandra Shekhar ; Pokharel, Paras Kumar ; Agrawal, Sudha ; Lamsal, Madhab ; Shakya, Vikal Chandra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2835~2838
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2835
Background: Prostate cancer features a substantial incidence and mortality burden, similarly to breast cancer, and it ranks among the top ten specific causes of death in males. Objective: To explore the situation of prostate cancer in a healthy population cohort in Eastern Nepal. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of General Surgery at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal from July 2010 to June 2011. Males above 50 years visiting the Surgical Outpatient Department in BPKIHS were enrolled in the study and screening camps were organized in four Teaching District Hospitals of BPKIHS, all in Eastern Nepal. Digital rectal examination (DRE) was conducted by trained professionals after collecting blood for assessment of serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA). Trucut biopsies were performed for all individuals with abnormal PSA/DRE findings. Results: A total of 1,521 males more than 50 years of age were assessed and screened after meeting the inclusion criteria. The vast majority of individuals, 1,452 (96.2%), had PSA
ng/ml. Abnormal PSA (>4 ng/ml) was found in 58 (3.8%). Abnormal DRE was found in 26 (1.72%). DRE and PSA were both abnormal in 26 (1.72%) individuals. On the basis of raised PSA or abnormal DRE 58 (3.84%) individuals were subjected to digitally guided trucut biopsy. Biopsy report revealed benign prostatic hyperplasia in 47 (3.11%) and adenocarcinoma prostate in 11 (0.73%). The specificity of DRE was 66.0%with a sensitivity of 90.9% and a positive predictive value of 38.5%. The sensitivity of PSA more than 4ng/ml in detecting carcinoma prostate was 100% and the positive predictive value for serum PSA was 19.0% Conclusions: The overall cancer detection rate in this study was 0.73% and those detected were locally advanced. Larger community-based studies are highly warranted specially among high-risk groups.
Effects of MicroRNA-106 on Proliferation of Gastric Cancer Cell through Regulating p21 and E2F5
Yao, Yong-Liang ; Wu, Xiao-Yang ; Wu, Jian-Hong ; Gu, Tao ; Chen, Ling ; Gu, Jin-Hua ; Liu, Yun ; Zhang, Qing-Hui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2839~2843
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2839
Objective: To investigate the effects of miR-106b on malignant characteristics of gastric cancer cells, and explore possible mechanisms. Methods: Expression of miR-106b, p21 and E2F was determined by real-time PCR. Transfection with miR-106b mimics was conducted, and gastric cancer cells with miR-106b overexpression were obtained. Cells transfected with mimic mutants and those without transfection served as negative and blank controls, respectively. Flow cytometry and transwell assays were adopted to detect the effects of miR-106b overexpression on cell cycle, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells. Results:. The expression of miR- 106b in gastric cancer cells was significantly higher than that in normal gastric mucosa cells. Furthermore, the expression level of miR-106b rose according to the degree of malignacy among the three GC cell strains (MKN- 45 > SGC-7901 > MKN-28). Overexpression of miR-106b shortened the G0/G1 phase and accelerated cell cycle progression, while reducing p21 and E2F5, without any significant effects on the capacity for migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells. Conclusions: miR-106b may promote cell cycling of gastric cancer cells through regulation of p21 and E2F5 target gene expression.
Change in Adiponectin and Oxidative Stress after Modifiable Lifestyle Interventions in Breast Cancer Cases
Karimi, Niloofar ; Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2845~2850
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2845
Background: Breast cancer is one of the most frequent diseases in women today. Little information exists on modifiable lifestyle factors including effects of ginger supplements (as an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory herbal) and water-based exercise on biomarkers related to oxidative stress such as malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and adiponectin in obese women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the single and concomitant effect of 6-wks water-based exercise and oral ginger supplement on the aforesaid markers in obese women with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Forty women diagnosed with breast cancer (
kg, fat mass
), volunteered to participate in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned into four groups; placebo, water-based exercise, ginger supplement and water-based exercise+ginger supplement groups. Subjects in the ginger supplement group and the water-based exercise+ginger supplement group orally received 4 capsules (each capsule contained 750 mg), 7 days a week for 6 weeks. The water-based exercise program featured progressive increase in intensity and time, ranging from 50% to 75% of heart rate reserve, in a pool with 15 meters width, 4 times a week for 6 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected at pre-test and post-test time points. Results: The ginger supplementation and or the water-base exercise resulted in an increase of adiponectin, NO and GPx and reduction MDA, as compared to pre-test values. However, the combined intervention (water-base exercise and ginger supplement) group showed significantly a far better effect on the biomarkers related to oxidative stress and adiponectin levels, as compared to the waterbase exercise or ginger supplement alone groups and the age-matched placebo group. Conclusions: Our results revealed that water-base exercise is a non-drug therapeutic strategy to reduce systemic stress in obese women suffering from breast cancer. Further, ginger supplementation alone or in combination with training, also play an important role in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress in obese women diagnosed with breast cancer.
Expression and Clinical Significance of REPS2 in Human Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Zhang, Hang ; Duan, Chao-Jun ; Zhang, Heng ; Cheng, Yuan-Da ; Zhang, Chun-Fang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2851~2857
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2851
Objective: REPS2 plays important roles in inhibiting cell proliferation, migration and in inducing apoptosis of cancer cells, now being identified as a useful biomarker for favorable prognosis in prostate and breast cancers. The purpose of this study was to assess REPS2 expression and to explore its role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods: Protein expression of REPS2 in ESCCs and adjacent non-cancerous tissues from 120 patients was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathological parameters and patient outcome. Additionally, thirty paired ESCC tissues and four ESCC cell lines and one normal human esophageal epithelial cell line were evaluated for REPS2 mRNA and protein expression levels by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results: REPS2 mRNA and protein expression levels were down-regulated in ESCC tissues and cell lines. Low protein levels were significantly associated with primary tumour, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis and recurrence (all, P < 0.05). Survival analysis demonstrated that decreased REPS2 expression was significantly associated with shorter overall survival and disease-free survival (both, P < 0.001), especially in early stage ESCC patients. When REPS2 expression and lymph node metastasis status were combined, patients with low REPS2 expression/lymph node (+) had both poorer overall and disease-free survival than others (both, P < 0.001). Cox multivariate regression analysis further revealed REPS2 to be an independent prognostic factor for ESCC patients. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that downregulation of REPS2 may contribute to malignant progression of ESCC and represent a novel prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target for ESCC patients.
Ellagic Acid Inhibits Migration and Invasion by Prostate Cancer Cell Lines
Pitchakarn, Pornsiri ; Chewonarin, Teera ; Ogawa, Kumiko ; Suzuki, Shugo ; Asamoto, Makoto ; Takahashi, Satoru ; Shirai, Tomoyuki ; Limtrakul, Pornngarm ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2859~2863
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2859
Polyphenolic compounds from pomegranate fruit extracts (PFEs) have been reported to possess antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-invasion effects in prostate and other cancers. However, the mechanisms responsible for the inhibition of cancer invasion remain to be clarified. In the present study, we investigated anti-invasive effects of ellagic acid (EA) in androgen-independent human (PC-3) and rat (PLS10) prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. The results indicated that non-toxic concentrations of EA significantly inhibited the motility and invasion of cells examined in migration and invasion assays. The EA treatment slightly decreased secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 but not MMP-9 from both cell lines. We further found that EA significantly reduced proteolytic activity of collagenase/gelatinase secreted from the PLS-10 cell line. Collagenase IV activity was also concentration-dependently inhibited by EA. These results demonstrated that EA has an ability to inhibit invasive potential of prostate cancer cells through action on protease activity.
The KIF1B (rs17401966) Single Nucleotide Polymorphism is not Associated with the Development of HBV-related Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Thai Patients
Sopipong, Watanyoo ; Tangkijvanich, Pisit ; Payungporn, Sunchai ; Posuwan, Nawarat ; Poovorawan, Yong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2865~2869
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2865
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can become chronic and if left untreated can progress to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Thailand is endemic for HBV and HCC is one of the top five cancers, causing deaths among Thai HBV-infected males. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the KIF1B gene locus, rs17401966, has been shown to be strongly associated with the development of HBV-related HCC. However, there are no Thai data on genotypic distribution and allele frequencies of rs17401966. Thai HBV patients seropositive for HBsAg (n=398) were therefore divided into two groups: a case group (chronic HBV with HCC; n=202) and a control group (HBV carriers without HCC; n=196). rs17401966 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analyzed by direct nucleotide sequencing. The genotypic distribution of rs174019660 for homozygous major genotype (AA), heterozygous minor genotype (AG) and homozygous minor genotype (GG) in the case group was 49.5% (n=100), 40.1% (n=81) and 10.4% (n=21), respectively, and in controls was 49.5% (n=97), 42.3% (n=83) and 8.2% (n=16). Binary logistic regression showed that rs17401966 was not statistically associated with the risk of HCC development in Thai chronic HBV patients (p-value=0.998, OR=1.00 and 95% CI=0.68-1.48). In conclusion, the KIF1B gene SNP (rs174019660) investigated in this study showed no significant association with HBV-related HCC in Thai patients infected with HBV, indicating that there must be other mechanisms or pathways involved in the development of HCC.
Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery for Treatment of Earlystage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
Fan, Xing-Long ; Liu, Yu-Xia ; Tian, Hui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2871~2877
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2871
Objectives: To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and invasiveness of lobectomy by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in the treatment of stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A total of 148 patients presenting with Stage I or II NSCLC were enrolled into our study, comprising 71 who underwent VATS and 77 patients undergoing conventional thoracotomic lobectomy, in combination with systematic lymph node resection. Results: It was found that VATS was superior to conventional thoracotomy in terms of the duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss, frequency of the need to administer postoperative analgesia, thoracic intubation indwelling time, post-operative hospital stay, and survival rate (P<0.05). We saw no obvious difference in the number of resected lymph nodes with either approach. Conclusions: VATS lobectomy is a safe and reliable surgical approach for the treatment of Stage I/II NSCLC, characterized by significantly minimal invasiveness, rapid post-operative recovery, and markedly lower loss of blood.
Differences in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Mutations and Relationship with Clinicopathological Features in NSCLC Between Uygur and Han Ethnic Groups
Zhang, Yan ; Wang, Qiang ; Han, Zhi-Gang ; Shan, Li ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2879~2883
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2879
Objective: To investigate differences in mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene and relationships with clinicopathological features in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) between Uygur and Han ethnic groups. Methods: The Scorpions amplification refractory mutation system (Scorpions ARMS) was used to measure mutations in exons 18, 19, 20 and 21 of the EGFR gene in paraffin-embedded tumor tissue from NSCLC cases, and statistical analysis was performed to investigate links with clinicopathological features in different histological types of NSCLC. Results: Results from ARMS testing showed EGFR mutations in tumor tissues from six (6) of 50 NSCLC patients of Uygur ethnic group, with a positive rate of 12.0%; four of them (4) had exon 19 deletion in EGFR, and two (2) had L858R point mutation in exon 21 of EGFR. Statistically significant difference was noted in EGFR genetic mutation between adenocarcinoma and non-adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05), but no differences with gender, age group, smoking status, or stage (P > 0.05). EGFR mutations were detected in tumor tissues from 27 of 49 NSCLC patients of Han ethnic group, with a positive rate of 55.1%; 19 of them had exon 19 deletions, seven (7) had L858R point mutations in exon 21 of EGFR and one (1) had mutations in both exon 18 G719X and exon 20 T790M of EGFR. Statistically significant differences were noted in EGFR genetic mutations between genders and between adenocarcinoma and non-adenocarcinoma (P<0.05), but not with age group, smoking status, or stage (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Statistically significant differences were noted in the positive rates of EGFR genetic mutations in NSCLC patients between Uygur and Han ethnic groups, with lower positive rates for the Uygur cases.
Apoptosis Induction in Human Leukemic Promyelocytic HL-60 and Monocytic U937 Cell Lines by Goniothalamin
Petsophonsakul, Ploingarm ; Pompimon, Wilart ; Banjerdpongchai, Ratana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2885~2889
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2885
Goniothalamin is an active compound extracted from Goniothalamus griffithii, a local plant found in northern Thailand. Goniothalamin inhibits cancer cell growth but is also toxic to normal cells. The aims of this study were to identify the cytotoxic effect of goniothalamin and the mechanism of cell death in human HL-60 and U937 cells. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay and cell cycle profiles were demonstrated by staining with propidium iodide (PI) and flow cytometry. Apoptosis was confirmed by staining with annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) and flow cytometry. Reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential was determined by staining with dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide and flow cytometry and expression of Smac, caspase-8 and -9 was demonstrated by Western blotting. Goniothalamin inhibited growth of HL-60 and U937 cell lines. An increase of SubG1 phase was found in their cell cycle profiles, indicating apoptosis as the mode of cell death. Apoptosis was confirmed by the flip-flop of phosphatidylserine using annexin V-FITC/PI assay in HL60 and U937 cells in a dose response manner. Furthermore, reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential was found in both cell types while expression of caspase-8, -9 and Smac/Diablo was increased in HL-60 cells. Taken together, our results indicate that goniothalamin-treated human leukemic cells undergo apoptosis via intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.
Multiple Approaches and Participation Rate for a Community Based Smoking Cessation Intervention Trial in Rural Kerala, India
Jayakrishnan, Radhakrishnan ; Mathew, Aleyamma ; Uutela, Antti ; Auvinen, Anssi ; Sebastian, Paul ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2891~2896
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2891
Background: To illustrate multiple approaches and to assess participation rates adopted for a community based smoking cessation intervention programme in rural Kerala. Materials and Methods: Resident males in the age group 18-60 years who were 'current daily smokers' from 4 randomly allocated community development blocks of rural Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala (2 intervention and 2 control groups) were selected. Smoking status was assessed through house-to-house survey using trained volunteers. Multiple approaches included awareness on tobacco hazards during baseline survey and distribution of multicolour anti-tobacco leaflets for intervention and control groups. Further, the intervention group received a tobacco cessation booklet and four sessions of counselling which included a one-time group counselling cum medical camp, followed by proactive counselling through face-to-face (FTF) interview and mobile phone. In the second and fourth session, motivational counselling was conducted. Results: Among 928 smokers identified, smokers in intervention and control groups numbered 474 (mean age: 44.6 years, SD: 9.66 years) and 454 respectively (44.5 years, SD: 10.30 years). Among the 474 subjects, 75 (16%) had attended the group counselling cum medical camp after completion of baseline survey in the intervention group, Among the remaining subjects (n=399), 88% were contacted through FTF and mobile phone (8.5%). In the second session (4-6 weeks time period), the response rate for individual counselling was 94% (78% through FTF and 16% through mobile phone). At 3 months, 70.4% were contacted by their mobile phone and further, 19.6% through FTF (total 90%) while at 6 months (fourth session), the response rate was 74% and 16.4% for FTF and mobile phone respectively, covering 90.4% of the total subjects. Overall, in the intervention group, 97.4% of subjects were being contacted at least once and individual counselling given. Conclusion: Proactive community centred intervention programmes using multiple approaches were found to be successful to increase the participation rate for intervention.
A Population-based Case-control Study on Risk Factors for Gastric Cardia Cancer in Rural Areas of Linzhou
Sun, Chang-Qing ; Chang, Yu-Bo ; Cui, Ling-Ling ; Chen, Jia-Jun ; Sun, Nan ; Zhang, Wei-Jie ; Jia, Xiao-Can ; Tian, Yuan ; Dai, Li-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2897~2901
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2897
Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Although certain dietary factors and lifestyles have been suggested to be associated with gastric carcinogenesis, there have been few investigations focusing on rural areas. A case-control study was therefore carried out to investigate the risk factors of gastric cardia cancer (GCC) in rural areas of Linzhou. A total of 470 newly diagnosed cases of GCC and 470 healthy controls were included. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, using a uniform questionnaire containing questions on demographics, per capita income, living habits, dietary habits and family history of tumors. The relationship between putative risk factors and GCC was assessed by odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) derived from conditional logistic regression model by the COXREG command using SPSS 12.00. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate simultaneously the effects of multiple factors and other potential confounding factors. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that smoking (OR=1.939, 95%CI:1.097-3.426), alcohol drinking (OR=2.360, 95%CI: 1.292-4.311), hot food consumption (OR=2.034, 95%CI: 1.507-2.745), fast eating (OR=1.616, 95%CI: 1.171-2.230), mouldy food (OR=4.564, 95%CI: 2.682-7.767), leftover food (OR=1.881. 95%CI: 1.324-2.671), and family history of tumor (OR=2.831, 95%CI: 1.588-5.050) were risk factors for GCC. High per capita income (OR=0.709, 95%CI: 0.533-0.942), high education level (OR=0.354, 95%CI: 0.163-0.765), consumption of fresh fruits (OR=0.186, 95%CI: 0.111-0.311) and vegetables (OR=0.243, 95%CI: 0.142-0.415), and high BMI (OR=0.367, 95%CI: 0.242-0.557) were protective factors for GCC. Our data indicate that unhealthy lifestyle and dietary habits might be important contributors to GCC in this population.
Germ-line MTHFR C677T, FV H1299R and PAI-1 5G/4G Variations in Breast Carcinoma
Ozen, Filiz ; Erdis, Eda ; Sik, Ebru ; Silan, Fatma ; Uludag, Ahmet ; Ozdemir, Ozturk ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2903~2908
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2903
Background: Various oncogenes related to cancer have been extensively studied and several polymorphisms have been found to be associated with breast cancer. The current report outlines analysis of germ-line polymorphisms for C677T, A1298C (MTHFR), Leiden, R2 (FV) and 5G/4G (PAI-1) in Turkish breast cancer patients. We studied 51 cases diagnosed with invasive ductal and operable with lymph node-positive breast cancer and 106 women as a control group. Materials and Methods: Peripheric blood-DNA samples were used for genotyping by StripAssay technique which is based on the reverse-hybridization principle and real-time PCR methods and results were compared statistically. Results: The frequency of the MTHFR gene 677T and 1298A alleles were significantly higher in cancer patients than in the healthy subjects. The T allele frequency in codon 677 was 2.3-fold and C allele frequency was 3.1-fold increased in BC when compared to the control group for the MTHFR gene. Both differences were statistically significant (OR: 2.295, CI: 1.283-4.106), p<0.006 and (OR: 3.131, CI:1.826-5.369), p<0.0001 respectively. The R2 allele frequency of FV gene was 5.1-fold increased in the current BC when compared to the control group and that difference was also statistically significant (OR: 5.133, CI: 1.299-20.28), p<0.02. Conclusions: The present data suggest that germ-line polymorphisms of C677T, C1298A for MTHFR and R2 for FV are associated in breast cancer and may be additional prognostic markers related to breast cancer survival. The results now need to be confirmed in a larger group of patients.
Sleep Quality in Lung Cancer Patients
Akyuz, Ruveyda Gelisken ; Ugur, Ozlem ; Elcigil, Ayfer ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2909~2913
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2909
Background: The aim of this study was to determine factors affecting sleep quality of 100 patients with advanced stage lung cancer. Methods and Results: it was a descriptive study. A variety of assessment tools were used to provide sleep scores to examine the relation between adverse effects caused by the treatment (nausea, vomiting, fatigue) and sleep quality. As a result, no statistically significant relation between coughing and respiratory problems of patients, or existing depression, and average sleep quality score was found (KW:0.872, p=0.646, KW: 3.174, p=0.205, u: 441.000 p=0.916). It was revealed that nausea and loss of appetite experienced also did not affect the sleep quality score (p>0.05), whereas problems such as vomiting and fatigue did exert effects (p<0.01). Conclusions: Patients with advanced stage lung cancer suffer from sleep problems and cancer related symptoms also affect their sleep quality negatively. Nurses should plan interventions that can control symptoms such as pain, vomiting and fatigue, which affect the sleep of patients.
3-Deazaneplanocin A is a Promising Therapeutic Agent for Ovarian Cancer Cells
Shen, Liang ; Cui, Jing ; Pang, Ying-Xin ; Ma, Yan-Hui ; Liu, Pei-Shu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2915~2918
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2915
Background: Recent studies have shown that 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), a well-known histone methyltransferase inhibitor, disrupts polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2), and induces apoptosis, while inhibiting proliferation and metastasis, in cancer cells, including acute myeloid leukemia, breast cancer and glioblastoma. However, little is known about effects of DZNep on ovarian cancer cells. Materials and Methods: We here therefore studied DZNep-treated A2780 ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Proliferation of ovarian cancer cells under treatment of DZNep was assessed by MTT and apoptosis by flow cytometry. Cell wound healing was applied to detect the migration. Finally, we used q-PCR to assess the migration-related gene, E-cadherin. Results: DZNep could inhibit the proliferation of A2780 and induce apoptosis Furthermore, it inhibited migration and increased the expression of E-cadherin (P<0.05). Conclusion: DZNep is a promising therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer cells, with potential to inhibite proliferation, induce apoptosis and decrease migration.
Utility of Serum Peptidome Patterns of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients for Comprehensive Treatment
Wan, Qing-Lian ; Hou, Xiang-Sheng ; Zhao, Guang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2919~2923
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2919
Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most common malignant tumors, and the incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is highest in China. Early diagnosis and effective monitoring are keys to comprehensive treatment and discovering tumor metastases and recurrence in time. The aim of this study was to confirm serum peptidome pattern utility for diagnosis of ESCC, and assessment of operation success, postoperative chemotherapy results, tumor metastasis and recurrence. Serum samples were collected from 61 patients treated with surgery and chemotherapy and 20 healthy individuals. Spectral data generated with weak cationic-exchanger magnetic beads (WCX-MB) and MALDI-TOF MS by a support vector machine (SVM), were used to construct diagnostic models and system training as potential biomarkers. A pattern consisting of 11 protein peaks, separated ESCC (m/z 650.75), operated (m/z 676.61, 786.1, 786.58), postoperative chemotherapy (m/z 622.77, 650.66, 676.46) and tumor metastasis and recurrence (m/z 622.63, 650.56, 690.77, 676.12) from the healthy individuals with a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 100.0%. These results suggested that MALDITOF MS combined with MB separation yields significantly higher sensitivity and specificity for the detection of serum protein in patients with EC patients treated with surgery and chemotherapy.
FDG PET-CT in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: Relationship between Primary Tumor FDG Uptake and Extensional or Metastatic Potential
Zhu, Shou-Hui ; Zhang, Yong ; Yu, Yong-Hua ; Fu, Zheng ; Kong, Lei ; Han, Da-Li ; Fu, Lei ; Yu, Jin-Ming ; Li, Jia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2925~2929
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2925
Objective: To explore the relationships between primary tumor
-FDG uptake measured as the SUVmax and local extension, and nodal or distant organ metastasis in patients with NSCLC on pretreatment PET-CT. Methods: 93 patients with NSCLC who underwent
-FDG PET-CT scans before the treatment were included in the study. Primary tumor SUVmax was calculated; clinical stages, presence of local extension, nodal and distant organ metastases were recorded. The patients with SUVmax
were divided into low and high SUVmax groups by using the median SUVmax. The low SUVmax group consisted of 45 patients with SUVmax<10.5, the high SUVmax group consisted of 46 patients with SUVmax
. Their data were compared statistically. Results: 91 cases with SUVmax
were included for analysis. The mean SUVmax in patients without any metastasis was
and this was significantly lower than that (
) in patients with nodal and/or distant organ metastasis (P=0.000). In the low SUV group, 19 patients had local extension, 22 had nodal metastasis, and 9 had distant organ metastasis. In the high SUV group, 31 patients had local extension, 37 had nodal metastasis, and 18 had distant organ metastases. There was a significant difference in local extension (P =0.016), distant organ metastasis (P =0.046), and most significant difference in nodal metastasis rate (P =0.002) between the two groups. In addition, there was a moderate correlation between SUVmax and tumor size (r = 0.642, P<0.001), tumor stage (r = 0.546, P<0.001), node stage (r = 0.388, P<0.001), and overall stage (r = 0.445, P= 0.000). Conclusion: Higher primary tumor SUVmax predicts higher extensional or metastatic potential in patients with NSCLC. Patients with higher SUVmax may need a close follow-up and more reasonable individual treatment because of their higher extensional and metastatic potential.
Pretreatment Hepatoprotective Effect of Regular Aerobic Training Against Hepatic Toxicity Induced by Doxorubicin In Rats
Zolfagharzadeh, Fatemeh ; Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2931~2936
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2931
Background: Doxorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic commonly used to treat a variety of cancers as a most effective antitumor. However, its clinical use is associated with the toxic effects in numerous healthy tissues. Here we investigated the pretreatment effect of regular aerobic exercise on oxidative stress in rats acutely exposed to DOX-induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: control and training. The training protocol included treadmill running between 25 to 54 min/day and 15 to 20m/min, 5 days/week for 6 weeks. At the end of the exercise training protocol, rats from the control and trained groups were again randomly separated into 3 subgroups: DOX10mg/kg, DOX20mg/kg and saline. All treatments were carried 24 h after the last exercise bout and animals were sacrificed 24 h after DOX and saline injections. Results: Administration of DOX (10 and 20
) resulted in imbalance in biomarkers related to oxidants and antioxidants in liver tissue, as compared to control groups. Six weeks of pretreatment training led to a significant increase in nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) as compared to the control+DOX 10 mg/kg group. Training before DOX 20 mg/kg administration also led to a significant increase in NO and SOD, and a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, there was a significant difference between DOX 10 mg/kg and DOX 20 mg/kg treatments in MDA levels, only. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that pretreatment with aerobic exercise induces positive adaptations and has a potential protective effect against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced hepatotoxicity with doses of 10 and 20 mg.kg.
Gene Polymorphisms of OPRM1 A118G and ABCB1 C3435T May Influence Opioid Requirements in Chinese Patients with Cancer Pain
Gong, Xiao-Di ; Wang, Jiong-Yi ; Liu, Feng ; Yuan, Hai-Hua ; Zhang, Wen-Ying ; Guo, Yue-Hui ; Jiang, Bin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2937~2943
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2937
Backgrounds: Polymorphisms of OPRM1 A118G and ABCB1 C3435T have been suggested to contribute to inter-individual variability regarding pain sensitivity, opioid usage, tolerance and dependence and incidence of adverse effects in patients with chronic pain. This study aimed to investigate the association of both two polymorphisms with opioid requirements in Chinese patients with cancer pain. Methods: The genotypes of rs1799971 (OPRM1) and rs1045642 (ABCB1) were determined by PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing methods respectively in 112 patients with cancer-related pain. Comparisons between the different genotype or allele groups were performed with t-tests or one-way ANOVA tests, as appropriate. The potential relationship of allele number with opioid response was performed with a trend Jonckheere-Terpstra test. Results: In the 112 subjects, the frequencies of variant 118 G and 3435T allele were 38.4% and 37.9%, respectively. Significant higher 24h-opioid doses were observed in patients with GG (P=0.0004) and AG + GG (P=0.005) genotypes than the AA carriers. The dominant mutant 118G allele tended to be associated with progressively increasing 24h-opioiddoses (P=0.001). Compared with CC/CT, patients with ABCB1 TT genotype received higher 24h- and weight-surface area-adjusted-24h- opioids doses (P=0.057 and 0.028, respectively). Conclusions: The OPRM1 A118G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a key contributor for the inter-individual variability in opioidrequirements in Chinese cancer pain patients. This may possibly extend to the ABCB1 C3435T SNP.
Lack of Detection of the Mouse Mammary Tumor-like Virus (MMTV) Env Gene in Iranian Women Breast Cancer using Real Time PCR
Tabriz, Hedieh Moradi ; Zendehdel, Kazem ; Shahsiah, Reza ; Fereidooni, Forouzandeh ; Mehdipour, Baharak ; Hosseini, Zahra Mostakhdemin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2945~2948
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2945
Background: Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is the major cause of mammary tumors in mice. There is limited controversial evidence about the probable etiologic role of MMTV- like virus in human breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 Formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples with diagnosis of breast cancer were collected in a period of 3 years from cancer institute of Iran. We selected both pre-menopausal and post-menopausal patients with different histologic grades and different ethnic groups. We evaluated presence of MMTV-like virus env gene through real time PCR method. Results: Forty patients (20 pre and 20 postmenopausal women) were evaluated with the mean age of 49.67. The average tumor size was 39 mm. None of the studied samples were positive for MMTV-like virus env gene target sequences. Conclusions: We found no evidence on the potential role of MMTV-like virus in the carcinogenicity of breast cancer among Iranian women.
Adherence to Health-Related Lifestyle Behavior Recommendations and Association with Quality of Life among Cancer Survivors and Age-Matched Controls in Koreaaa
Moon, Sae Hoon ; Lee, Dae Taek ; Son, Younsun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2949~2954
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2949
Background: This study was conducted to determine the relationship between lifestyle behavior and quality of life (QoL) among cancer survivors in Korea. Materials and Methods: Data for a total of 471 (173 men, 298 women) cancer survivors (CS) over 40 years old were obtained from the database of the
Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). An identical number of subjects of the same age, sex, and education who had no restrictions in physical activity were randomly selected from the database and represented the control group (CG). Drinking, smoking, and exercise behavior were assessed. Results: The number of heavy drinkers was lower in CS (9.4%) than in CG (15.8%) (p<0.01); similarly, there were fewer smokers in CS (9.1%) than in CG (14.0%) (p<0.05). The percentage of individuals engaging in vigorous, moderate, and low-intensity exercise did not differ between CS (13.6%, 14.7%, and 50.0%) and CG (14.3%, 13.4%, and 49.7%, respectively). No differences in Euro QoL Questionnaire 5-Dimensional Classification (EQ-5D) scores on both drinking and smoking behaviors were noted. Compared to the non-exercisers, the low-intensity exercisers in CG (
), vigorous-intensity exercisers in CS (
), and low-intensity exercisers in CS (
) scored higher on the EQ-5D. Conclusions: Although cancer survivors practiced more conscious health behavior in drinking and smoking, their engagement in exercise did not differ from that of non-cancer survivors. Since exercise engagement increases QoL in general, implementation of an educational program that promotes exercise engagement in cancer survivors may be required.
Serum Level of Mast Cell Tryptase in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Lack of Correlation with Clinicopathologic Factors
Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh ; Khademi, Bijan ; Akbari, Somayeh ; Malekzadeh, Mahyar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2955~2958
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2955
Background: Mast cells can influence tumor progression via different pathways and increased mast cell density has been demonstrated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). It has been shown that the serum tryptase level is elevated with some malignant tumours and may thus be a useful parameter. However, there are no data available about OSCC. The main aim of this study was the evaluation of mast cell tryptase (MCT) level in OSCC patient serum. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional, analytic study, the circulating levels of MCT were assessed in sera of 55 OSCC patients and 34 healthy individuals with ELISA technique. Results: The serum MCT level in OSCC patients was 12-14 ng/ml, which was not significantly higher than the healthy control group. While the serum level of MCT was higher with larger tumours, there was no apparent correlation with clinico-pathological features such as patient age, gender, tumor location, stage, nodal status, distant metastasis, histological grade and smoking. Conclusions: Our findings showed that despite the results obtained from studies of other malignant tumors, serum level of MCT in OSCC patients could not be a credited as a reliable indicator of the presence or progression of tumours.
Impact of Treatment Strategies on Local Control and Survival in Uterine Carcinosarcomas in Turkey
Kucukoztas, Nadire ; Dizdar, Omer ; Rahatli, Samed ; Dursun, Polat ; Yalcin, Selim ; Altundag, Ozden ; Ozen, Ozlem ; Reyhan, Nihan Haberal ; Tarhan, Cagla ; Yildiz, Ferah ; Ayhan, Ali ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2959~2962
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2959
Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics, patterns of recurrence and survival outcomes in patients with uterine carcinosarcomas treated in our institution. Materials and Methods: Records of 26 patients diagnosed between 2007 and 2011 with uterine carcinosarcoma were retrospectively evaluated for demographic features, tumor characteristics, treatment regimens and patient outcomes in terms of DFS and OS Results: Median age was 61 (range 43-78). 10 patients (38%) had stage I disease at diagnosis, 3 (12%) had stage II, 4 (15%) had stage III and 9 (35%) had stage IV. Sixteen patients (62%) received chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin for 6 cycles. One patient underwent radiotherapy. Median follow up was 17 months. Sixteen patients relapsed and 13 died during follow up. Considering recurrence, 5 out of 16 patients had lung metastases, one had brain metastases and 9 had only intraabdominal recurrence. The 3 year DFS was 37% and the 3 year OS was 30%. Conclusions: Our data show that uterine carcinosarcomas tend to be at advanced stage at diagnosis and despite the use of chemotherapy, overall prognosis is poor. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. More effective adjuvant strategies are needed to reduce relapse and death rates.
Infection with Opisthorchis viverrini and Use of Praziquantel among a Working-age Population in Northeast Thailand
Saengsawang, Phubet ; Promthet, Supannee ; Bradshaw, Peter ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2963~2966
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2963
Infection with Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) due to eating certain traditional freshwater fish dishes is the principal risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma in Northeast Thailand where the infection is endemic and the incidence of this form of primary liver cancer has been the highest in the world. This paper is the second report of a prospective research project to monitor the impacts of a national liver fluke control programme in a rural community of Northeast Thailand. A sample of 684 villagers aged 20-65 years completed an interview questionnaire and were tested for infection using the Kato thick smear technique. The questionnaire was designed for the exploration of associations between OV infection, previous treatment with praziquantel, and knowledge and beliefs about the drug. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression. The overall prevalence of OV infection was 37.2% and was highest in the 20-35 year age group, in those with a university degree and in those employed in the government sector. As many as 91.8% reported eating fish dishes known to place them at risk of infection. In the multiple regression analysis, previous use of praziquantel and lack of knowledge about whether or not the drug has a protective effect against re-infection were the only factors related to OV infection (
= 2.31, 95%CI =1.40-3.79 and
= 1.95, 95%CI= 1.24-3.05). The findings were discussed in terms of the possibly unwise dependency on praziquantel as a primary element in a control programme.
Extraskeletal Ewing Sarcomas in Late Adolescence and Adults: A Study of 37 Patients
Tao, Hai-Tao ; Hu, Yi ; Wang, Jin-Liang ; Cheng, Yao ; Zhang, Xin ; Wang, Huan ; Zhang, Su-Jie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2967~2971
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2967
Background: Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (EES)/primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET) are rare soft tissue sarcomas. Prognostic factors and optimal therapy are still unconfirmed. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis on patients to explore the clinic characteristics and prognostic factors of this rare disease. A total of 37 patients older than 15 years referred to our institute from Jan., 2002 to Jan., 2012 were reviewed. The characteristics, treatment and outcome were collected and analyzed. Results: The median age was 28 years (range 15-65); the median size of primary tumours was 8.2 cm (range 2-19). Sixteen patients (43%) had metastatic disease at the initial presentation. Wide surgical margins were achieved in 14 cases (38%). Anthracycline or platinum-based chemotherapy was performed on 29 patients (74%). Radiotherapy was delivered in 13 (35%). At a median follow-up visit of 24 months (range 2-81), the media event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 15.8 and 30.2 months, respectively. The 3-year EFS and OS rates were 24% and 43%, respectively. Metastases at presentation and wide surgical margins were significantly associated with OS and EFS. Tumour size was significantly associated with OS but not EFS. There were no significant differences between anthracycline and platinum based chemotherapy regarding EFS and OS. Conclusions: EES/PNET is a malignant tumour with high recurrence and frequent distant metastasis. Multimodality therapy featuring wide surgical margins, aggressive chemotherapy and adjuvant local radiotherapy is necessary for this rare disease. Platinum-based chemotherapy can be used as an adjuvant therapy.
Fermented Prunus mume with Probiotics Inhibits 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-O-Tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate Induced Skin Carcinogenesis through Alleviation of Oxidative Stress
Lee, Jin-A ; Ko, Jae-Hyung ; Jung, Bock-Gie ; Kim, Tae-Hoon ; Hong, Ji-In ; Park, Young-Seok ; Lee, Bong-Joo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2973~2978
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2973
Maesil (Prunus mume Siebold & Zucc.), a member of the genus Rosaceae, has been reported to have antioxidative effects, as well as anticancer influence in many cancer lines. Thus, this present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of fermented Maesil with probiotics against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis via its antioxidative potential. Mice were fed a diet containing fermented Maesil, containing either 1% (1% FM fed group) or 2% (2% FM fed group) along with probiotics following DMBA and TPA exposure. Continuous ingestion of the experimental feed markedly inhibited skin carcinogenesis, as evidenced by a marked decrease in papilloma numbers and epidermal hyperplasia as well as cellular proliferation and the percentage of proliferating-cell nuclear antigen positive cells. Also, the FM fed group showed an increase of total antioxidant capacity as well as an increased level of phase II detoxifying enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, concurrent with a decreased lipid peroxidation activity level. Taken together, these results suggest that fermented Maesil has the ability to suppress the development of DMBA-TPA induced skin carcinogenesis, via the reduction of lipid peroxidation, enhancing total antioxidant capacity and phase II detoxifying enzyme.
Application of Human Papillomavirus in Screening for Cervical Cancer and Precancerous Lesions
Wang, Jin-Liang ; Yang, Yi-Zhuo ; Dong, Wei-Wei ; Sun, Jing ; Tao, Hai-Tao ; Li, Rui-Xin ; Hu, Yi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2979~2982
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2979
Cervical cancer is a commonly-encountered malignant tumor in women. Cervical screening is particularly important due to early symptoms being deficient in specificity. The main purpose of the study is to assess the application value of cervical thinprep cytologic test (TCT) and human papillomavirus (HPV) detection in screening for cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. In the study, cervical TCT and HPV detection were simultaneously performed on 12,500 patients selected in a gynecological clinic. Three hundred patients with positive results demonstrated by cervical TCT and/or HPV detection underwent cervical tissue biopsy under colposcopy, and pathological results were considered as the gold standard. The results revealed that 200 out of 12,500 patients were abnormal by TCT, in which 30 cases pertained to equivocal atypical squamous cells (ASCUS), 80 cases to low squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 70 cases to high squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 20 cases to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). With increasing pathological grade of cervical biopsy, however, TCT positive rates did not rise. Two hundred and eighty out of 12,500 patients were detected as positive for HPV infection, in which 50 cases were chronic cervicitis and squamous metaplasia, 70 cases cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I, 60 cases CIN II, 70 cases CIN III and 30 cases invasive cervical carcinoma. Two hundred and thirty patients with high-risk HPV infection were detected. With increase in pathological grade, the positive rate of high-risk HPV also rose. The detection rates of HPV detection to CIN III and invasive cervical carcinoma as well as the total detection rate of lesions were significantly higher than that of TCT. Hence, HPV detection is a better method for screening of cervical cancer at present.
miR-153 Silencing Induces Apoptosis in the MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cell Line
Anaya-Ruiz, Maricruz ; Cebada, Jorge ; Delgado-Lopez, Guadalupe ; Sanchez-Vazquez, Maria Luisa ; Perez-Santos, Jose Luis Martin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2983~2986
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2983
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs (18-25 nucleotides) that post-transcriptionally modulate gene expression by negatively regulating the stability or translational efficiency of their target mRNAs. In this context, the present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of miR-153 inhibition in the breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231. Forty-eight hours after MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected with the miR-153 inhibitor, an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was utilized to determine the effects of miR-153 on cell viability. Flow cytometry analysis and assessment of caspase 3/7 activity were adopted to determine whether miR-153 affects the proliferation rates and apoptosis levels of MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results showed that silencing of miR-153 significantly inhibited growth when compared to controls at 48 hours, reducing proliferation by 37.6%, and inducing apoptosis. Further studies are necessary to corroborate our findings and examine the potential use of this microRNA in future diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.
mRNA Expression and Clinical Significance of ERCC1, BRCA1, RRM1, TYMS and TUBB3 in Postoperative Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Han, Yi ; Wang, Xiao-Bin ; Xiao, Ning ; Liu, Zhi-Dong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2987~2990
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2987
Background: To explore mRNA expression and clinical significance of ERCC1, BRCA1, RRM1, TYMS and TUBB3 genes in tumor tissue of postoperative patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods: Sixty NSCLC patients undergoing radical operation in our hospital from Nov., 2011 to Jun., 2012 were selected. Plasmid standards of ERCC1, BRCA1, RRM1, TYMS and TUBB3 were established and standard curves were prepared by SYBR fluorescent real-time quantitative PCR analysis. Samples from tumor centers were taken to detect mRNA expression of ERCC1, BRCA1, RRM1, TYMS and TUBB3 genes in cancerous tissue during operation. The total mRNA expression quantities were compared according to different clinical characteristics. Results: The total expression quantities of 5 genotypes from high to low were ERCC1>RRM1>TUBB3>TYMS>BRCA1 in turn. By pairwise comparisons, other differences showed statistical significance (p<0.05 or p<0.01) except for TYMS and TUBB3 (p>0.05); the low expression rates from high to low were ERCC1>TYMS>TUBB3>TUBB3>RRM1>BRCA1 in turn. The expression quantities of BRCA1, RRM1 and TYMS in males, smokers and patients without adenocarcinoma were all significantly higher than that in females, non-smokers and patients with adenocarcinoma, and significant differences were present (p<0.05 or p<0.01). In terms of pathological staging, the expression quantities of BRCA1, RRM1 and TYMS in phases IIa~IIb and IIIa~IIIb had a tendency to be greater than in phases I and IV. Conclusions: Resistance to chemotherapy and sensitivity to targeted therapy differ among patients with NSCLC. Differences in gene expression in different individuals were also revealed. Only according to personalized detection results can individualized therapeutic regimens be worked out, which is a new direction for oncotherapy.
National HPV Immunisation Programme: Knowledge and Acceptance of Mothers Attending an Obstetrics Clinic at a Teaching Hospital, Kuala Lumpur
Ezat, Sharifa Wan Puteh ; Hod, Rozita ; Mustafa, Jamsiah ; Mohd Dali, Ahmad Zailani Hatta ; Sulaiman, Aqmar Suraya ; Azman, Azlin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2991~2999
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2991
Background: Introduction of the HPV vaccine is a forefront primary prevention method in reducing the incidence of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. The Malaysia government has implemented the National HPV immunisation programme since 2010, supplying HPV vaccine free to targeted 13 year olds. This study aimed to explore the level of knowledge among mothers on cervical cancer, HPV, HPV vaccine and National HPV (NHPV) immunisation programme since its' implementation. It also assessed acceptance of mothers towards HPV vaccine being administered to their daughter, son or themselves. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 155 respondents using self-administered questionnaires; conducted in December 2012 at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic in a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Respondents were selected using a multistage sampling technique. Results: A response rate of 100% was obtained. Overall, 51.0% of mothers had good knowledge, with 55% having good knowledge of cervical cancer, 54.2% for both HPV and the National HPV immunisation programme and 51.0% for the HPV vaccine. Regression analyses showed that ethnicity was associated with knowledge on cervical cancer (p=0.003) while education was associated with knowledge on HPV (p=0.049). Three factors are associated with knowledge of the National HPV immunisation programme; ethnicity (p=0.017), mothers' education (p=0.0005) and number of children (p=0.020). The acceptance of HPV vaccine to be administered among daughter was the highest at 87.1%, followed by for mothers themselves at 73.5%, and the least is for sons 62.6%. Conclusions: This study found that the overall level of knowledge was moderate. Adequate information on cervical cancer, HPV, HPV vaccination and the National HPV immunisation programme should be provided to mothers in order to increase acceptance of the HPV vaccine which can reduce the disease burden in the future.
Inhibitory Effects of Syk Transfection on Lung Cancer Cell Invasion
Peng, Chuan-Liang ; Zhang, Ying ; Sun, Qi-Feng ; Zhao, Yun-Peng ; Hao, Ying-Tao ; Zhao, Xiao-Gang ; Cong, Bo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3001~3003
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3001
Objective: Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is closely related to tumor invasion and metastasis, and has been shown to have potential inhibitory effects in tumors. In this study, we constructed a eukaryotic expression vector for Syk and analyzed its effects on invasive ability of the A549 non-small cell lung cancer cell line in vitro. Methods: A fragment of Syk was obtained by RT-PCR from human lung cancer cells and cloned into the expression vector pLNCXSyk. After restriction endonuclease digestion, PCR and DNA sequencing confirmation, the recombinant Syk expression plasmid was transfected into A549 human lung cancer cells using lipofectamine protocols. After selection, the cells stably expressed Syk. Detection of Syk expression of the cells by RT-PCR, and invasive ability were examined. Results: The eukaryotic expression plamid pLNCXSyk was constructed and expressed stably in the A549 human lung cancer cells. The RT-PCR results showed that Syk mRNA expression was upregulated significantly (P<0.05). Lower invasion through a basal membrane were apparent after transfection (P<0.05). Conclusions: A eukaryotic expression plasmid to cause Syk expression in lung cancer cells can obviously inhibit their invasive ability in vitro.
Overview of Benign and Malignant Prostatic Disease in Pakistani Patients: A Clinical and Histopathological Perspective
Arshad, Huma ; Ahmad, Zubair ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3005~3010
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3005
Background: To present the overall clinical and histological perspective of benign and malignant prostatic disease as seen in our practice in the Section of Histopathology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: All consecutive prostate specimens (transurethral resection or TUR, enucleation, needle biopsies) received between July 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012 were included in the study. Results: Of the total of 785 cases, 621 (79.1%) were TUR specimens, 80 (10.2%) enucleation specimens, and 84 (10.7%) needle biopsies. Some 595 (75.8%) were benign, while 190 (24.2%) were malignant. Mean weight of BPH specimens was 19 grams and 43 grams for TUR and enucleation specimens respectively. Almost 67% of adenocarcinomas were detected on TUR or enucleation specimens. Of the above cases, 41.7% were clinically benign while 58.3% were clinically malignant. The average volume of carcinoma in all cases ranged between 60 to 65%. The average number of cores involved in needle biopsies was 5. In general, higher Gleason scores were seen in TUR/enucleation specimens than in needle biopsies. Overall, in all types of specimens, commonest Gleason score was 7, seen in 74 (38.9%) cases, followed by Gleason score 9 seen in 47 (24.7%) cases. Out of the 63 needle biopsies with carcinoma, radical prostatectomy was performed in 16 cases (25.4%). Conclusions: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is extremely common and constitutes the bulk of prostate specimens. TMajority of prostatic carcinomas are still diagnosed on TUR or enucleation specimens. These included both clinically benign and clinically malignant cases. The volume of carcinoma in these specimens was quite high indicating extensive disease. Gleason scores were also generally high compared with scores from needle biopsies. Commonest Gleason score in all type of specimens was 7. Pathologic staging was possible in very few cases since radical prostatectomies are rarely performed.
B7-H4 Expression is Associated with Cancer Progression and Predicts Patient Survival in Human Thyroid Cancer
Zhu, Jian ; Chu, Bing-Feng ; Yang, Yi-Peng ; Zhang, Sheng-Lai ; Zhuang, Ming ; Lu, Wen-Jie ; Liu, Ying-Bin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3011~3015
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3011
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the expression of B7-H4 in human thyroid cancer and determine any association with patient clinicopathological parameters and survival. Methods: B7-H4 expression in 64 clinical thyroid cancer specimens was assessed with immunohistochemistry. Moreover, B7-H4 mRNA expression in 10 fresh resected specimens were evaluated by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemical staining of CD3 was performed to assess the number of tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes (TILs) in thyroid cancers. Results: Positive B7-H4 immunohistochemical staining was observed in 61 out of 64 (95.3%) specimens of thyroid cancer tissues. Significantly more B7-H4 mRNA copies were found in thyroid cancer tissue than that adjacent normal tissue. Moreover, B7-H4 expression in human thyroid cancer tissues was significantly correlated with patient TNM stages and extrathyroidal extension (P<0.05), being inversely correlated with the number of TILs (P<0.05). The overall survival rate of the patients with higher B7-H4 expression was significantly worse than that of the patients with lower B7-H4 expression. Conclusions: This present study suggests that high B7-H4 expression is associated with cancer progression, reduced tumor immunosurveillance and worse patient outcomes in human thyroid cancer.
Cross Sectional Assessment of Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among Patients with Cancer in Malaysia
Farooqui, Maryam ; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi ; Knight, Aishah ; Shafie, Asrul Akmal ; Farooqui, Muhammad Aslam ; Saleem, Fahad ; ul Haq, Noman ; Othman, Che Noriah ; Aljadhey, Hisham ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3017~3021
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3017
Background: Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is an important aspect in identifying cancer patients' perceptions of being diagnosed with cancer and the assessment of treatment outcomes. The present study aimedto assess the profile and predicators of HRQoL of Malaysian oncology patients. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study adopting the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) was conducted. All cancer patients attending Penang General Hospital between August-November 2011 were approached. Descriptive statistics were used to assess demographic and disease related characteristics of the patients. All analyses were performed using SPSS v 16.0. Results: Three hundred and ninety three cancer patients met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 53.9 (
) years. The cohort was dominated by females (n=260, 66.2%). Nearly half (n=190, 48.3%) of the participants were of Malay ethnicity, practicing Islam as their religion (n=194, 494%). Two hundred and ninety six (n=296, 75.3%) had beene diagnosed with cancer within six months to 3 years previously. The most common primary cancer site was breast (n=143, 36.4%). The mean Global Health Status (GHS) score was 60.7 (SD=21.3). Females (mean GHS score of 62.3, p=0.035) with Malay ethnicity (mean GHS score of 63.8, p=0.047), practicing Islam as their religion (mean GHS score of 63.0, p=0.011) had better GHS scores. Patients having medical insurance had good scores (mean 65.6, p-0.021). Marital status was significantly associated with GHS scores (p=0.022). Bone cancer patientshad the lowest mean GHS score of 49.2 (p=0.044). Patients at very advanced stages of cancer featured a low GHS mean score of 52.2 (p<0.001). Conclusions: The present study identified many demographic and disease related factors which may contribute to the HRQoL of cancer patients, pointing to the necessity for improved management of disease symptoms and provision of psychological and financial support.
Synergistic Anticancer Activity of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy in Combination with Low-dose Cisplatin on Hela Cells
Wei, Xiao-Qiang ; Ma, Hui-Qing ; Liu, Ai-Hong ; Zhang, You-Zhong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3023~3028
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3023
Objective: Photodynamic therapy (PDT ) is a promising modality for the treatment of various tumors. In order to assist in optimizing treatment, we applied 5-ALA/PDT in combination with low-dose cisplatin to evaluate cytotoxicity in Hela cells. Methods: Antiproliferative effects of 5-ALA/PDT and cisplatin, alone and in combination, were assessed using MTT assay. To examine levels of apoptosis, Hela cells treated with 5-ALA/PDT, and combination treatment were assessed with Annexin-V/PI by flow cytometry. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying alterations in cell proliferation and apoptosis, Western blot analysis was conducted to determine the expression of p53, p21, Bax and Bcl-2 proteins. Results: MTT assays indicated that combination treatment obviously decreased the viability of Hela cells compared to individual drug treatment. In addition, it was confirmed that exposure of Hela cells to 5-ALA/PDT in combination with low-dose cisplatin resulted in more apoptosis in vitro. Synergistic anticancer activity was related to upregulation p53 expression and alteration in expression of p21, Bcl-2 and Bax. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that administration of 5-ALA/PDT in combination with the low-dose cisplatin may be an effective and feasible therapy for cervical cancer.
Primary Study on Providing a Basic System for Uterine Cervical Screening in a Developing Country: Analysis of Acceptability of Self-sampling in Lao PDR
Yoshida, Tomomi ; Nishijima, Yoshimi ; Hando, Kiyomi ; Vilayvong, Soulideth ; Arounlangsy, Petsamone ; Fukuda, Toshio ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3029~3035
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3029
Background: Most developing countries have been unable to implement well-organized health care systems, especially comprehensive Pap smear screening-based programs. One of the reasons for this is regional differences in medical services, and a low-cost portable cervical screening system is necessary. To improve regional discrepancies in cervical screening systems, we investigated the usefulness and acceptability of cervical selfsampling by liquid-based cytology (LBC) for 290 volunteers in the Lao PDR. Materials and Methods: Following health education with comprehensive documents, cervical self-sampling kits by LBC were distributed in three provincial, district, and village areas to a total of 290 volunteers, who were asked to take cytology samples by themselves. Subsequently, the acceptability of self-sampling was evaluated using a questionnaire. Results: The documents were well understood in all three regions. Regarding the acceptability of self-sampling, the selections for subsequent screening were 62% self-sampling, 36% gynecologist-sampling, 1% either method, and 1% other methods. The acceptability rates were higher in the district and the village than in the province. For the relationship between acceptability and pregnancy, the self-sampling selection rate was higher in the pregnancy-experienced group (75%) than in the pregnancy-inexperienced group (60%). For the relationship between selection of self-sampling and experience of screening, the self-sampling selection rate was higher in the screening-inexperienced group (62%) than in the screening-experienced group (52%). Conclusions: Our data show that this new way forward, involving a combination of self-sampling and LBC, is highly acceptable regardless of age, educational background, and residence in rural areas in a developing country.
Role of Breast Tomosynthesis in Diagnosis of Breast Cancer for Japanese Women
Takamoto, Yayoi ; Tsunoda, Hiroko ; Kikuchi, Mari ; Hayashi, Naoki ; Honda, Satoshi ; Koyama, Tomomi ; Ohde, Sachiko ; Yagata, Hiroshi ; Yoshida, Atsushi ; Yamauchi, Hideko ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3037~3040
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3037
Introduction: Mammography is the most basic modality in breast cancer imaging. However, the overlap of breast tissue depicted on conventional two-dimensional mammography (2DMMG) may create significant obstacles to detecting abnormalities, especially in dense or heterogeneously dense breasts. In three-dimensional digital breast tomosynthesis (3DBT), tomographic images of the breast are reconstructed from multiple projections acquired at different angles. It has reported that this technology allows the generation of 3D data, therefore overcoming the limitations of conventional 2DMMG for Western women. We assessed the detectability of lesions by conventional 2DMMG and 3DBT in diagnosis of breast cancer for Japanese women. Methods: The subjects were 195 breasts of 99 patients (median age of 48 years, range 34~82 years) that had been pathologically diagnosed with breast cancer from December 20, 2010 through March 31, 2011. Both conventional 2DMMG and 3DBT imaging were performed for all patients. Detectability of lesions was assessed based on differences in category class. Results: Of the affected breasts, 77 (75.5%) had lesions assigned to the same categories by 2DMMG and 3DBT. For 24 (23.5%) lesions, the category increased in 3DBT indicating improvement in diagnostic performance compared to 2DMMG. 3DBT improved diagnostic sensitivity for patients with mass, focal asymmetric density (FAD), and architectural distortion. However, 3DBT was not statistically superior in diagnosis of the presence or absence of calcification. Conclusions: In this study, 3DBT was superior in diagnosing lesions in form of mass, FAD, and/or architectural distortion. 3DBT is a novel technique that may provide a breakthrough in solving the difficulties of diagnosis caused by parenchyma overlap for Japanese women.
Enhanced Anti-tumor Efficacy of Aspirin Combined with Triptolide in Cervical Cancer Cells
Chen, Rong-Hui ; Tian, Yong-Jie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3041~3044
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3041
Background: The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase enzymes. Recent studies have shown that aspirin could be used as an anti-tumor drug. Triptolide, the major compound extracted from the Chinese herb Tripteryglum wilfordii Hook.f, has now been shown that it can inhibit tumor growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the anti-tumor efficiency of aspirin and triptolide in cervical cancer cells. Methods: Viability of cervical cancer cell lines was assessed by the MTT method at various concentrations of aspirin and triptolide. Siha and HeLa cell apoptotic analysis was performed by flow cytometry. Real time-PCR and Western Blotting were used to analyze the expression of Bcl-2/Bax, Cyclin D1 and p16. Results: Viability in the combination group was significantly decreased as compared with either drug used alone. Expression change of Bcl-2/Bax, CyclinD1 and p16 appeared to play an important role in the synergistic killing effect on cervical cancer cell apoptosis. Conclusion: Aspirin and triptolide combination treatment may have synergistic anti-tumor effects on cervical cancer cells.
Evaluation of Computer-Assisted Quantitative Volumetric Analysis for Pre-Operative Resectability Assessment of Huge Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Tang, Jian-Hua ; Yan, Fu-Hua ; Zhou, Mei-Ling ; Xu, Peng-Ju ; Zhou, Jian ; Fan, Jia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3045~3050
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3045
Purpose: Hepatic resection is arguably the preferred treatment for huge hepatocellular carcinoma (H-HCC). Estimating the remnant liver volume is therefore essential. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using computer-assisted volumetric analysis for this purpose. Methods: The study involved 40 patients with H-HCC. Laboratory examinations were conducted, and a contrast CT-scan revealed that 30 cases out of the participating 40 had single-lesion tumors. The remaining 10 had less than three satellite tumors. With the consensus of the team, two physicians conducted computer-assisted 3D segmentation of the liver, tumor, and vessels in each case. Volume was automatically computed from each segmented/labeled anatomical field. To estimate the resection volume, virtual lobectomy was applied to the main tumor. A margin greater than 1 cm was applied to the satellite tumors. Resectability was predicted by computing a ratio of functional liver resection (R) as (Vresected-Vtumor)/(Vtotal-Vtumor) x 100%, applying a threshold of 50% and 60% for cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic cases, respectively. This estimation was then compared with surgical findings. Results: Out of the 22 patients who had undergone hepatectomies, only one had an R that exceeded the threshold. Among the remaining 18 patients with non-resectable H-HCC, 12 had Rs that exceeded the specified ratio and the remaining 6 had Rs that were < 50%. Four of the patients who had Rs less than 50% underwent incomplete surgery due to operative findings of more extensive satellite tumors, vascular invasion, or metastasis. The other two cases did not undergo surgery because of the high risk involved in removing the tumor. Overall, the ratio of functional liver resection for estimating resectability correlated well with the other surgical findings. Conclusion: Efficient pre-operative resectability assessment of H-HCC using computer-assisted volumetric analysis is feasible.
The C Allele of a Synonymous SNP (rs1805414, Ala284Ala) in PARP1 is a Risk Factor for Susceptibility to Breast Cancer in Saudi Patients
Alanazi, Mohammed ; Pathan, Akbar Ali Khan ; Shaik, Jilani P. ; Al Amri, Abdullah ; Parine, Narasimha Reddy ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3051~3056
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3051
Background: Genetic aberrations of DNA repair enzymes are known to be common events associated with different cancer entities. The aim of the present study was to analyze genetic associations of rs1805404 (Asp81Asp) and rs1805414 (Ala284Ala) in the PARP1 gene with the risk of breast cancer in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: These two SNP's were analyzed in a primary study group of breast cancer patients and healthy control subjects. Genotypes were determined by TaqMan SNP testing and analyzed using Chi-square or t test and logistic regression analysis with SPSS16.0 software. Results and Conclusions: Results showed that rs1805414 was associated with a significantly increased susceptibility to breast cancer, significant risk being observed for the TC, CC and TC+CC genotypes. In conclusion PARP1 rs1805414 SNP polymorphisms may be involved in the etiology of breast cancer in the Saudi population. In contrast, PARP1 rs1805404 did not show any significant association in overall in breast cancer samples when compared to healthy controls. Confirmation of our findings in larger populations of different ethnicities may provide evidence for a role of the PARP1 gene in breast carcinoma developnment.
Prediction of Chemotherapeutic Response in Unresectable Non-small-cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) Assay
Chen, Juan ; Cheng, Guo-Hua ; Chen, Li-Pai ; Pang, Ting-Yuan ; Wang, Xiao-Le ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3057~3062
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3057
Background: Selecting chemotherapy regimens guided by chemosensitivity tests can provide individualized therapies for cancer patients. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2Htetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay is one in vitro assay which has become widely used to evaluate the sensitivity to anticancer agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical applicability and accuracy of MTS assay for predicting chemotherapeutic response in unresectable NSCLC patients. Methods: Cancer cells were isolated from malignant pleural effusions of patients by density gradient centrifugation, and their sensitivity to eight chemotherapeutic agents was examined by MTS assay and compared with clinical response. Results: A total of 37 patients participated in this study, and MTS assay produced results successfully in 34 patients (91.9%). The sensitivity rates ranged from 8.8% to 88.2%. Twenty-four of 34 patients who received chemotherapy were evaluated for in vitro-in vivo response analysis. The correlation between in vitro chemosensitivity result and in vivo response was highly significant (P=0.003), and the total predictive accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for MTS assay were 87.5%, 94.1%, 71.4%, 88.9%, and 83.3%, respectively. The in vitro sensitivity for CDDP also showed a significant correlation with in vivo response (P=0.018, r=0.522). Conclusion: MTS assay is a preferable in vitro chemosensitivity assay that could be use to predict the response to chemotherapy and select the appropriate chemotherapy regimens for unresectable NSCLC patients, which could greatly improve therapeutic efficacy and reduce unnecessary adverse effects.
Upregulation of MicroRNA 181c Expression in Gastric Cancer Tissues and Plasma
Cui, Mei-Hua ; Hou, Xiao-Lin ; Lei, Xiao-Yan ; Mu, Fang-Hong ; Yang, Gui-Bin ; Yue, Lin ; Fu, Yi ; Yi, Guo-Xing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3063~3066
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3063
Objective: To test the microRNA-181c (miR-181c) expression in tissues and plasma of gastric cancer (GC) cases, analyze any correlations, and explore the possibility of miR-181c as a potential molecular marker for GC diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Relative miR-181c expression levels in cancers and plasma from 30 GC patients was tested using reverse transcription-real-time fluorescent quantitation PCR and compared to that in samples from 30 gastric ulcer and 30 chronic gastritis patients. Results: The miR-181c expression level in the GC tissues was significantly higher than that in the gastric ulcer and chronic gastritis tissues (P = 0.000), as was the miR-181c expression level in the GC plasma (P = 0.000). We determined that miR-181c expression in GC plasma was positively correlated to its expression in the GC tissues (P = 0.000). Conclusions: The expression of miR-181c is upregulated in GC tissues and plasma, and the miR-181c expression level in GC plasma is positively correlated to that in the corresponding cancer tissues. Plasma miR-181c is possibly a new serological marker for GC diagnosis.
Acupuncture and Moxibustion for Cancer-related Fatigue: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
He, Xi-Ran ; Wang, Quan ; Li, Ping-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3067~3074
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3067
Background: Faced with highly prevalent and recalcitrant cancer-related fatigue (CRF), together with the absence of any official guidelines on management, numerous groups have been striving to seek and test alternative therapies including acupuncture and moxibustion. However, different patients have various feedbacks, and the many clinical trials have given rise to varied conclusions. In terms of the therapeutic effect of acupuncture and moxibustion, there exist vast inconsistencies. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the auxiliary effectiveness of acupuncture and moxibustion in the treatment of CRF, and to provide more reliable evidence to guide clinical practice. Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before December 2012 were all aggregated, focusing on evaluation of acupuncture or moxibustion for CRF. The quality of the included studies was assessed basing on Cochrane handbook 5.1.0, and the available data were analyzed with RevMan software (version 5.2.0). Descriptive techniques were performed when no available data could be used. Results: A total of 7 studies involving 804 participants were eligible. With real acupuncture versus sham acupuncture, subjects receiving true acupuncture benefited more in the reduction of fatigue. With real acupuncture versus acupressure or sham acupressure, fatigue level appeared 36% improved in the acupuncture group, but 19% in the acupressure group and only 0.6% with sham acupressure. When real acupuncture plus enhanced routine care was compared with enhanced routine care, the combination group improved mean scores for general fatigue, together with physical and mental fatigue. With real acupuncture versus sham acupuncture or wait list controls, the real acupuncture group displayed significant advantages over the wait list controls at 2 weeks for fatigue improvement and better well-being effects at 6 weeks. When moxibustion plus routine care was compared with routine care alone, the meta-analyses demonstrated the combination had a relatively significant benefit in improving severe fatigue and QLQ-C30. Conclusion: Up to the search date, there exist few high quality RCTs to evaluate the effect of acupuncture and moxibustion, especially moxibustion in English. Yet acupuncture and moxibustion still appeared to be efficacious auxiliary therapeutic methods for CRF, in spite of several inherent defects of the included studies. Much more high-quality studies are urgently needed.
Susceptibility Loci Associations with Prostate Cancer Risk in Northern Chinese Men
Wang, Na-Na ; Xu, Yong ; Yang, Kuo ; Wei, Dong ; Zhang, Yao-Guang ; Liu, Ming ; Shi, Xiao-Hong ; Liang, Si-Ying ; Sun, Liang ; Zhu, Xiao-Quan ; Yang, Yi-Ge ; Tang, Lei ; Zhao, Cheng-Xiao ; Wang, Xin ; Chen, Xin ; Hui, Juan ; Zhang, Yu-Hong ; Zhu, Ling ; Yang, Fan ; Zhang, Yu-Rong ; Yang, Ze ; Wang, Jian-Ye ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3075~3078
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3075
Background: KLK3 gene products, like human prostate-specific antigen (PSA), are important biomarkers in the clinical diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). G protein-coupled receptor RFX6, C2orf43 and FOXP4 signaling plays important roles in the development of PCa. However, associations of these genes with PCa in northern Chinese men remain to be detailed. This study aimed to investigate their impact on occurrence and level of malignancy. Methods: All subjects were from Beijing and Tianjin, including 266 cases with prostate cancer and 288 normal individuals as controls. We evaluated associations between clinical covariates (age at diagnosis, prostate specific antigen, Gleason score, tumor stage and aggressive) and 6 candidate PCa risk loci, genotyped by PCR- high resolution melting curve and sequencing methods. Results: Case-control analysis of allelic frequency of PCa associated with PCa showed that one of the 6 candidate risk loci, rs339331 in the RFX6 gene, was associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.57-0.94, P = 0.013) in northern Chinese men. In addition, subjects with CX (CC+TC) genotypes had a decreased risk for prostrate cancer compared to those carrying the TT homozygote (OR =0.64, 95% CI = 0.45- 0.90, P = 0.008). The TT genotype of 13q22 (rs9600079, T) was associated with tumor stage (P=0.044, OR=2.34, 95% CI=0.94-5.87). Other SNPs were not significantly associated with clinical covariates in prostate cancer (P > 0.05). Conclusions. rs339331 in the RFX6 gene may be associated with prostate cancer as a susceptibility locus in northern Chinese men.
Endostar Combined with Cisplatin Inhibits Tumor Growth and Lymphatic Metastasis of Lewis Lung Carcinoma Xenografts in Mice
Dong, Xiao-Peng ; Xiao, Tian-Hui ; Dong, Hong ; Jiang, Ning ; Zhao, Xiao-Gang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3079~3083
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3079
Objective: To investigate the effects of endostar, a recombined humanized endostatin, plus cisplatin on the growth, lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis of the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in mice. Methods: A tumor model were established in C57BL/6 mice by intravenious transplantation of LLC cells. Then the mice were randomized to receive administration with NS, endostar, cisplatin, or endostar plus cisplatin. After the mice were sacrificed, tumor multiplicity, tumor size and lymph node metastasis were assessed. Then the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-c (VEGF-C) and podoplanin were determined by immunohistochemical staining. Results: Endostar plus cisplatin significantly suppressed tumor growth. lymphatic metastasis and prolonged survival time of the mice without obvious toxicity. The inhibition of lymphatic metastasis was associated with decreased microlymphatic vessel density (MLVD) and expression of VEGF-C. Conclusions: Endostar combined with cisplatin was more effective to suppress tumor growth and lymphatic metastasis than either agent alone. Thus this may provide a rational alternative for lung carcinoma treatment.
Associations of ABCB1 and XPC Genetic Polymorphisms with Susceptibility to Colorectal Cancer and Therapeutic Prognosis in a Chinese Population
Yue, Ai-Min ; Xie, Zhen-Bin ; Zhao, Hong-Feng ; Guo, Shu-Ping ; Shen, Yu-Hou ; Wang, Hai-Pu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3085~3091
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3085
Associations between ABCB1 and XPC genetic polymorphisms and risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as clinical outcomes in CRCs with chemotherapy were investigated. A case-control study was performed on the ABCB1 C3435T, G2677T/A and XPC Lys939Gln polymorphisms in 428 CRC cases and 450 hospitalbased, age and sex frequency-matched controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays. We observed that the ABCB1 3435CT or CC+CT variants were significantly linked with increasing risk of developing CRC (adjusted OR (95% CI): 1.814 (1.237-2.660), P=0.0022; adjusted OR (95% CI): 1.605 (1.117-2.306), P=0.0102, respectively). Moreover, the distribution frequency of XPC AC genotype or AC+CC genotypes also showed a tendency towards increasing the suscepbility for CRC (P=0.0759 and P=0.0903, respectively). Kaplan-Meier curves showed that the ABCB1 C3435T variant was associated with a tendency toward longer progression-free survival (PFS) (n=343, Log-rank test: P=0.063), and the G2677T/A variant genotypes (GT+TT+GA+AA) with a tendency for longer OS in postoperative oxaliplatin-based patients (n=343, Log-rank test: P=0.082). However, no correlation of the XPC Lys939Gln polymorphism was found with PFS and OS in patients with postoperative oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy (n=343). Our study indicated that ABCB1 polymorphisms might be candidate pharmacogenomic factors for the prediction of CRC susceptibility, but not for prognosis with oxaliplatin chemosensitivity in CRC patients.
Suppression of β-catenin and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression and Cell Proliferation in Azoxymethane-Induced Colonic Cancer in Rats by Rice Bran Phytic Acid (PA)
Saad, Norazalina ; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd ; Ithnin, Hairuszah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3093~3099
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3093
Background: Phytic acid (PA) is a polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that can be found in high amounts in most cereals, legumes, nut oil, seeds and soy beans. It has been suggested to play a significant role in inhibition of colorectal cancer. This study was conducted to investigate expression changes of
-catenin and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cell proliferation in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence after treatment with rice bran PA by immunocytochemistry. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 equal groups with 12 rats in each group. For cancer induction two intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) were given at 15 mg/kg bodyweight over a 2-weeks period. During the post initiation phase, two different concentrations of PA, 0.2% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v) were administered in the diet. Results: Results of
-catenin, COX-2 expressions and cell proliferation of Ki-67 showed a significant contribution in colonic cancer progression. For
-catenin and COX-2 expression, there was a significant difference between groups at p<0.05. With Ki-67, there was a statistically significant lowering the proliferating index as compared to AOM alone (p<0.05). A significant positive correlation (p=0.01) was noted between COX-2 expression and proliferation. Total
-catenin also demonstrated a significant positive linear relationship with total COX-2 (p=0.044). Conclusions: This study indicated potential value of PA extracted from rice bran in reducing colonic cancer risk in rats.
Cancer Prevalence in Easter Island Population - 2006-2010
Rius, Eduardo Bravo ; Armaroli, Pabla Yaikin ; Contreras, Gustavo Saint-Pierre ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3101~3103
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3101
In Easter Island, population is composed by original habitants, the Rapa Nui culture and introduced people, mainly from continental Chile, who have a different ethnic origin. The aim of this research was to describe cancer frequency in resident population in Easter Island, and secondarily compare the findings with other islands of Polynesia and continental Chile. We reviewed the statistics of patients treated in Hanga Roa Hospital during the period 2006-2010, finding a total of 49 patients with cancer during the study. The most frequent cancers in Easter Island's people were breast cancer (8 cases), skin (8 cases), cervical (8 cases), lung (5 cases) and gastric (4 cases). According to gender, in females the most frequent cancer was breast, followed by skin and cervical, while in men, lung, prostate and hematopoietic cancers were the most frequent. Most cases of cervical cancer occurred in women of Rapa Nui ethnicity, while most skin cancers were found in non-Rapa Nui people. In case of the most common cancer in Easter Island, education (e.g. Papanicolaou and mammography screening) and prevention in the community (e.g. use sun block, avoid cigarettes) should be useful tools to reduce incidence.
Blood Lead Concentration Correlates with All Cause, All Cancer and Lung Cancer Mortality in Adults: A Population Based Study
Cheung, Min Rex ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3105~3108
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3105
Background: This study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III to study the relationship between blood lead concentration and all cause, all cancer and lung cancer mortality in adults. Patients and Methods: Public use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) data were used. NHANES III uses stratified, multistage probabilistic methods to sample nationally representative samples. Household adult, laboratory and mortality data were merged. Sample persons who were available to be examined in aMobile Examination Center (MEC) were included in this study. Specialized survey analysis software was used. Results: A total of 3,482 sample participants with complete information for all variables were included in this analysis. For all cause death, the odds ratios (S.E.) for statistically significant variables were body mass index, 1.03 (1.01-1.06); 1.01 (1.01-1.01); blood lead concentration, 1.05 (1.01-1.08); poverty income ratio, 0.823 (0.76-0.89); and drinking hard liquor, 1.01 (1.00-1.02). For all cancer mortality, the odds ratios (S.E.) of the statistically signigicant variables were: age, 1.01 (1.01-1.01); blood lead concentration, 1.07 (1.04-1.12), black race, using non-Hispanic white as reference, 1.69 (1.12-2.56); and smoking, 1.02 (1.01-1.04). For lung cancer mortality, the odds ratios (S.E.) of the statistically significant variables were: age, 1.01(1.01-1.01); blood lead concentration, 1.09 (1.05-1.13); Mexican Americans, using non-Hispanic white as refrence, 0.33 (0.129-0.850); other races, 1.80 (0.53-6.18); and smoking, 1.03 (1.02-1.05). Conclusion: Blood lead concentration correlated with all cause, all cancer, and lung cancer mortality in adults.
Anti-tumor Efficacy of a Hepatocellular Carcinoma Vaccine Based on Dendritic Cells Combined with Tumor-derived Autophagosomes in Murine Models
Su, Shu ; Zhou, Hao ; Xue, Meng ; Liu, Jing-Yu ; Ding, Lei ; Cao, Meng ; Zhou, Zhen-Xian ; Hu, Hong-Min ; Wang, Li-Xin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3109~3116
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3109
The majority of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients have a poor prognosis with current therapies, and new approaches are urgently needed. We have developed a novel therapeutic cancer vaccine platform based on tumor cell derived autophagosomes (DRibbles) for cancer immunotherapy. We here evaluated the effectiveness of DRibbles-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) immunization to induce anti-tumor immunity in BALB/c mouse HCC and humanized HCC mouse models generated by transplantation of human HCC cells (HepG2) into BALB/c-nu mice. DRibbles were enriched from H22 or BNL cells, BALB/c-derived HCC cell lines, by inducing autophagy and blocking protein degradation. DRibbles-pulsed DC immunization induced a specific T cell response against HCC and resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to mice treated with DCs alone. Antitumor efficacy of the DCs-DRibbles vaccine was also demonstrated in a humanized HCC mouse model. The results indicated that HCC/DRibbles-pulsed DCs immunotherapy might be useful for suppressing the growth of residual tumors after primary therapy of human HCC.
Obesity and Risk of Bladder Cancer: A Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies
Qin, Qi ; Xu, Xin ; Wang, Xiao ; Zheng, Xiang-Yi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3117~3121
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3117
Objective: Previous epidemiologic studies demonstrated that obesity might associated with the risk of bladder cancer. However, many of the actual association findings remained conflicting. To better clarify and provide a comprehensive summary of the correlation between obesity and bladder cancer risk, we conducted a meta-analysis to summarize results of studies on the issue. Stratified analyses were also performed on potential variables and characteristics. Methods: Studies were identified by searching in PubMed and Wanfang databases, covering all the papers published from their inception to March 10, 2013. Summary relative risks (SRRs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by either random-effect or fixed-effect models. Results: A total of 11 cohort studies were included in our meta-analysis, which showed that obesity was associated with an increased risk for bladder cancer in all subjects (RR=1.10, 95% CI=1.06-1.16; p=0.215 for heterogeneity;
=24.0%). Among the 9 studies that controlled for cigarette smoking, the pooled RR was 1.09 (95% CI 1.01-1.17; p=0.131 for heterogeneity;
=35.9%). No significant publication bias was detected (p = 0.244 for Egger's regression asymmetry test). Conclusions: Our results support the conclusion that obesity is associated with the increased risk of bladder cancer. Further research is needed to generate a better understanding of the correlation and to provide more convincing evidence for clinical intervention in the prevention of bladder cancer.
Protective Effects of -Paradol on Histological Lesions and Immunohistochemical Gene Expression in DMBA Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis
Mariadoss, Arokia Vijayaanand ; Kathiresan, Suresh ; Muthusamy, Rajasekar ; Kathiresan, Sivakumar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3123~3129
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3123
Background: The search for naturally occurring agents in routinely consumed foods that may inhibit cancer development is of high priority. -Paradol is a pungent phenolic bioactive component from ginger with welldocumented health promoting antioxidant, antimutagenic, antigenotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, anticarcinogenic effects have yet to be fully explored. The objectives of the present study were therefore to assess protective effects against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis in male golden Syrian hamsters. Methods: Oral squamous cell carcinomas developed in the left buccal pouch of hamsters on painting with 0.5% of DMBA, three times in a week. To assess the apoptotic associated gene expressing potential of -paradol, it was orally administered to DMBA treated hamsters on alternate days from DMBA painting for 14 weeks. Results: We observed 100% tumor formation with marked levels of neoplastic changes and altered the expression of apoptotic associated gene (p53, bcl-2, caspase-3 and TNF-
) was observed in the DMBA alone painted hamsters as compared to control hamsters. Oral administration of -paradol at a dose of 30 mg/kg b.wt to DMBA treated animals on alternative days for 14 weeks significantly reduced the neoplastic changes and improved the status of apoptosis associated gene expression. Conclusion: These observations confirmed that -paradol acts as a tumor suppressing agent against DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis. We also conclude that -paradol also effectively enhances apoptosis- associated gene expression in DMBA treated animals.
Role of Print and Audiovisual Media in Cervical Cancer Prevention in Bangladesh
Nessa, Ashrafun ; Hussain, Muhammad Anwar ; Ur Rashid, Mohammad Harun ; Akhter, Nargis ; Roy, Joya Shree ; Afroz, Romena ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3131~3137
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3131
Background: Visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid (VIA) is offered at 252 centers in 64 districts of Bangladesh. VIA+ve women are managed at colposcopy clinics of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) and 14 Medical College Hospitals (MCHs). This research work has been supported by 'UICC Cancer Prevention Campaign' programme. Objectives: This study explored the role of print materials and electronic media to improve cervical cancer screening in the present socio-cultural context of Bangladesh. Methods: This study was performed from January to August 2011 at two upazilas of Bangladesh (Singair with screening facility and Sonargaon without screening facility). Data were collected by focus group discussion (FGD) with women, husbands and community people before and after intervention. Information on cervical cancer screening and VIA camps was disseminated using advertisement through local cable line of the television, microphone announcement, service providers and leaflet throughout the week prior to a VIA camp. Three-day VIA camps were organized at the upazila health complex (UHC) of both upazilas. Quantitative data was gathered from women at the camps on source of information on VIA and the best method of awareness creation. Results: The population was aware of "cancer" and a notable number knew about cervical cancer. Baseline awareness on prevention and VIA was low and it was negligible where screening services were unavailable. Awareness was increased fourfold in both upazilas after interventions and half of the women and the majority of the community people became aware of screening and available facilities. Cable line advertisement (25.5%), microphone announcement (21.4%), and discussion sessions (20.4%) were effective for awareness creation on VIA. Television was mentioned as the best method (37.4%) of awareness creation. Conclusion: Television should be used for nation-wide awareness creation. For local awareness creation, cable line advertisement, microphone announcements and health education at Uthan Baithaks/ EPI sessions can easily be adopted by the government.
Aberrant DNA Methylation of P16, MGMT, hMLH1 and hMSH2 Genes in Combination with the MTHFR C677T Genetic Polymorphism in Gastric Cancer
Xiong, Hai-Lin ; Liu, Xun-Qi ; Sun, Ai-Hua ; He, Ying ; Li, Jun ; Xia, Yuan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3139~3142
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3139
Associations of P16, MGMT, hMLH1 and hMLH2 with gastric cancer and their relation with MTHFR status in gastric patients who were confirmed with pathological diagnosis were assessed. Aberrant DNA methylation of P16, MGMT, hMLH1 and hMLH2 and polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T were assayed. The proportional DNA hypermethylation in P16, MGMT, hMLH1 and hMLH2 in cancer tissues was significantly higher than in remote normal-appearing tissues. DNA hypermethylation of P16 and MGMT was correlated with the T and N stages. Individuals with homozygotes (TT) of MTHFR C677T had significant risk of hypermethylation of MGMT in cancer tissues [OR (95% CI)= 3.47(1.41-7.93)]. However, we did not find association between polymorphism in MTHFR C677T and risk of hypermethylation in P16, MGMT, hMLH1 and hMLH2 genes either in cancer or remote normal-appearing tissues. Aberrant hypermethylation of P16, MGMT, hMLH1 and hMLH2 could be predictive of gastric cancer.
Experiences of Turkish Women with Breast Cancer During the Treatment Process and Facilitating Coping Factors
Gunusen, Neslihan Partlak ; Inan, Figen Sengun ; Ustun, Besti ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3143~3149
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3143
Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women in Turkey and around the world. Treatment adversely affects women's physical, psychological, and social conditions. The purpose of this study was to identify the experiences of Turkish women with breast cancer and the facilitating coping factors when they receive chemotherapy. Methods: A phenomenological approach was used to explain the experiences and facilitating factors of breast cancer patients during the treatment period. Data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews. The sample comprised 11 women with breast cancer receiving treatment. Results: At the end of the interviews conducted with women with breast cancer, two main themes were identified: adjustment and facilitating coping factors. The adjustment main theme had two sub-themes: strains and coping. Women with breast cancer suffer physical and psychological strains as well as stress related to social and health systems. While coping with these situations, they receive social support, turn to spirituality and make new senses of their lives. The facilitating coping factors main theme had four sub-themes: social support, disease-related factors, treatment-related factors and relationships with nurses. It has been determined that women receiving good social support, having undergone preventive breast surgery and/or getting attention and affection from nurses can cope with breast cancer more easily. Conclusions: Women with breast cancer have difficulty in all areas of their lives in the course of the disease and during the treatment process. Therefore, nurses should provide holistic care, teaching patients how to cope with the new situation and supporting them spiritually. Since family support is very important in Turkish culture, patients' relatives should be informed and supported at every stage of the treatment.
Lack of Relationships between FGF19 Staining Pattern, Lymph Node Metastasis and Locally Invasive Characteristics of the Tumor in Colorectal Cancers
Unal, Hakan Umit ; Demiralay, Ebru ; Tepeoglu, Merih ; Fidan, Cihan ; Kilickap, Saadettin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3151~3154
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3151
Introduction: Colorectal cancers are in the top of the cancer-related causes of death in the world and lymph node metastasis is accepted as the primary prognostic factor. In this study, correlations of FGF19 staining pattern with local invasion and lymph node metastasis in a series of colorectal cancers were investigated. Methods: This studyincluded 81 colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgery in our hospital with no evidence of preoperative radiological distant metastasis. Routine pathological examination of the resection material was performed in order to identify vascular, perineural and serosal infiltration, regional lymph node metastasis and the degree of differentiation. Tumor tissue samples were stained with an immunohistochemistry method for FGF 19 evaluation and the staining pattern was statistically compared with the above mentioned characteristics of the tumors. Results: The patient population consisted of 47 females and 34 males with a median age of 70 years. In 40 patients regional lymph nodes were positive and 51%, 32% and 38% had serosal, perineural and vascular invasion. While 64 cases were moderately-differentiated, 11 cases were well-differentiated and 6 poorlydifferentiated, there was no association with FGF 19 staining, including intensity. Conclusion: No evidence of significant statistically correlation was found between FGF 19 staining pattern and serosal, perineural, vascular invasion, lymph node involvement and degree of differentiation.
Meta-analysis of the CYP1A2 -163C＞A Polymorphism and Lung Cancer Risk
Deng, Sheng-Qiong ; Zeng, Xian-Tao ; Wang, Yun ; Ke, Qing ; Xu, Qiong-Li ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3155~3158
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3155
Many published studies have concerned associations between the CYP1A2 -163 C>A polymorphism and risk of lung cancer, but the results have been inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to obtain a more precise estimate. We searched the PubMed database up to March 1, 2013 for relevant cohort and case-control studies. Supplementary search was conducted manually by searching the references of the included studies and relevant meta-analyses. A meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2 software for calculation of pooled odds ratios (ORs) and relevant 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after data extraction. Finally, seven case-control studies and one nested case-control study involving 1,675 lung cancer patients and 2,393 controls were included. The meta-analysis showed that there was no association of CYP1A2 -163 C>A polymorphism with risk of lung cancer overall [(OR=0.89, 95%CI= 0.74-1.07) for C vs. A; (OR=0.73, 95%CI= 0.50-1.07) for AA vs. CC ; (OR=0.82, 95%CI= 0.62-1.09) for AC vs. CC; (OR=0.79, 95%CI= 0.58-1.07) for (AC+AA) vs. CC; and (OR=0.87, 95%CI= 0.67-1.13) for AA vs. (CC+AC)]. Subgroup analysis indicated that there was an associationbetween CYP1A2 -163C>A polymorphism and lung cancer risk for population-based controls, a trend risk for SCCL (squamous cell carcinoma of lung) and Caucasians. These results suggested that -163 C>A polymorphism is likely to be associated with risk of lung cancer compared with population-based controls.
Relationship between Colonic Polyp Type and the Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio as a Biomarker
Karaman, Hatice ; Karaman, Ahmet ; Erden, Abdulsamet ; Poyrazoglu, Orhan Kursat ; Karakukcu, Cigdem ; Tasdemir, Arzu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3159~3161
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3159
Aim: We designed this study to investigate the neutrophil lymphocyte ratio as a biomarker in distinguishing colonic polyps which are neoplastic or non-neoplastic. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-five patients with colonic polyps were enrolled into the study. The following data were obtained from a computerized patient registry database: mean platelet volume (MPV), uric acid (UA), platelet count (PC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR). Exclusion criteria were active infectious disease, hematological disorders, and malignancies. Colonic polyps divided into two groups as neoplastic polyps (tubular adenoma, villous adenoma, tubulovillous adenoma) and non-neoplastic polyps (hyperplastic polyps, inflammatory pseudopolyps etc). The relationship between colonic polyp type and NLR was evaluated with statistical analysis. Results: There were 67 patients (53.6%) with neoplastic and 58 (46.4%) patients with non-neoplastic polyps. Mean NLRs of neoplastic and non-neoplastic groups were respectively
(P<0.05). Conclusion: Although sensitivity and specificity are not high, NLR may be used as a biomarker of neoplastic condition of colonic polyps.
The Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism Influences Risk of Esophageal Cancer in Chinese
Qu, Hong-Hong ; Cui, Li-Hong ; Wang, Ke ; Wang, Peng ; Song, Chun-Hua ; Wang, Kai-Juan ; Zhang, Jian-Ying ; Dai, Li-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3163~3168
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3163
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a central role in folate metabolism. This study with 381 esophageal cancer patients and 432 healthy controls was conducted to examine the association of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with susceptibility to esophageal cancer (EC) in a Chinese population. Compared with the CC genotype of MTHFR C677T, subjects carrying homozygote TT and variant genotypes (CT+TT) demonstrated reduced risk of EC with adjusted ORs (95% CI) of 0.44 (0.28-0.71) and 0.57 (0.37-0.88), respectively. However, no association was found between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and the risk of EC. Comparing to haplotype CA, haplotypes TA and TC could reduce the susceptibility to EC with adjusted ORs (95% CI) of 0.61(0.47-0.79) and 0.06 (0.01-0.43), respectively. In conclusion, the present study suggested that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism can markedly influence the risk of EC in Chinese.
The XRCC3 Thr241Met Polymorphism Influences Glioma Risk - A Meta-analysis
Jiang, Jun ; Quan, Xun-Feng ; Zhang, Li ; Wang, Yi-Chun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3169~3173
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3169
Background: Findings from previous published studies regarding the association of the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism with glioma susceptibility have often been conflicting. Therefore, a meta-analysis including all available publications was carried out to make a more precise estimation of the potential relationship. Methods: By searching the electronic databases of Pubmed and Embase (up to April 1st, 2013), a total of nine case-control studies with 3,752 cases and 4,849 controls could be identified for inclusion in the current meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of the association. Results: This meta-analysis showed the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism to be significantly associated with decreased glioma risk in the allelic model (Met allele vs. Thr allele: OR= 0.708, 95%CI= 0.631-0.795). Moreover, we also observed a statistically significant association between the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and reduced glioma risk in analyses stratified by ethnicity (Asian) and source of controls (hospital based) in the allelic model. Conclusions: Current evidence suggests that the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism may be a risk factor for glioma development, especially in Asians.
Viral Hepatitis and Liver Cancer on the Island of Guam
Haddock, R.L. ; Paulino, Y.C. ; Bordallo, R. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3175~3176
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3175
Patient records from the Guam Cancer Registry were compared with patients listed in a health department viral hepatitis case registry and the numbers of liver cancer and viral hepatitis cases were compared by ethnicity. Hepatitis C was the form of viral hepatitis most common among liver cancer cases on Guam (63.3% of viral hepatitis-associated liver cancer cases). Since viral hepatitis is an important cause of liver cancer, studies such as the present one may provide the information necessary to establish programs (screening of populations at risk and infant vaccination in the case of hepatitis B, for example) that may lessen the impact of liver cancer in the future.
Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Women from Saudi Arabia
Turki, Rola ; Sait, Khalid ; Anfinan, Nisreen ; Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj ; Abuzenadah, Adel Mohammed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3177~3181
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3177
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main causes of cervical cancer in women worldwide. The goal of the present study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes in women from Saudi Arabia. Recently, several HPV detection methods have been developed, each with different sensitivities and specificities. Methods: In this study, total forty cervical samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction and hybridization to BioFilmChip microarray assessment. Results: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections were found in 43% of the specimens. The most prevalent genotypes were HPV 16 (30%) HPV 18 (8.0%) followed by type HPV 45, occurring at 5.0%. Conclusion: Our finding showed the HPV infection and prevalence is increasing at alarming rate in women of Saudi Arabia. There was no low risk infection detected in the tested samples. The BioFilmChip microarray detection system is highly accurate and suitable for detection of single and multiple infections, allowing rapid detection with less time-consumption and easier performance as compared with other methods.
Prognostic Value of Subcarinal Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Feng, Ji-Feng ; Zhao, Qiang ; Chen, Qi-Xun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3183~3186
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3183
Purpose: The 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual for esophageal cancer (EC) categorizes N stage according to the number of metastatic lymph nodes (LNs), irrespective of the site. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of subcarinal LN metastasis in patients undergoing esophagectomy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods: A retrospective analysis of 507 consecutive patients with ESCC was conducted. Potential clinicopathological factors that could influence subcarinal LN metastasis were statistically analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were also performed to evaluate the prognostic parameters for survival. Results: The frequency of subcarinal LN metastasis was 22.9% (116/507). Logistic regression analysis showed that tumor length (>3cm vs
; P=0.027), tumor location (lower vs upper/middle; P=0.009), vessel involvement (Yes vs No; P=0.001) and depth of invasion (T3-4a vs T1-2; P=0.012) were associated with 2.085-, 1.810-, 2.535- and 2.201- fold increases, respectively, for risk of subcarinal LN metastasis. Multivariate analyses showed that differentiation (poor vs well/moderate; P=0.001), subcarinal LN metastasis (yes vs no; P=0.033), depth of invasion (T3-4a vs T1-2; P=0.014) and N staging (N1-3 vs N0; P=0.001) were independent prognostic factors. In addition, patients with subcarinal LN metastasis had a significantly lower 5-year cumulative survival rate than those without (26.7% vs 60.9%; P<0.001). Conclusions: Subcarinal LN metastasis is a predictive factor for long-term survival in patients with ESCC.
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Gastric Cancer in Iran
Abediankenari, Saeid ; Jeivad, Fereshteh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3187~3190
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3187
Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor which contributes to many processes involved in cell survival, proliferation and inhibits apoptosis, that may lead to cancer development. Gastric cancer is one of the most common diseases of digestive system that has low 5-year-survival. The aim of this research was to determine the significance of EGFR tyrosine kinase domain gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer in Iran. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 83 patients with gastric cancer and 40 normal subjects were investigated for EGFR gene polymorphisms in exons 18-21 by PCR-SSCP. Then, DNA sequencing was conducted for different mobility shift bands. Finally the data were statistically analyzed using the chi-2 test and the SPSSver.16 program. Results: Exon 18 of EGFR gene showed three different bands in SSCP pattern and DNA sequencing displayed one mutation. SSCP pattern of Exons 19 and 21 did not show different migration bands. Exon 20 of EGFR gene revealed multiple migrate bands in SSCP pattern. DNA sequencing displayed 2 mutations in this exon: one mutation was caused amino acid change and another mutation was silent. Conclusion: It may be that EGFR tyrosine kinase gene polymorphisms differ between populations and screening could be useful in gastric cancer patients who might benefit from tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.
In Vitro Antitumor Properties of an Isolate from Leaves of Cassia alata L
Olarte, Elizabeth Iglesias ; Herrera, Annabelle Aliga ; Villasenor, Irene Manese ; Jacinto, Sonia Donaldo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3191~3196
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3191
Leaf extracts of Cassia alata L (akapulko), traditionally used for treatment of a variety of diseases, were evaluated for their potential antitumor properties in vitro. MTT assays were used to examine the cytotoxic effects of crude extracts on five human cancer cell lines, namely MCF-7, derived from a breast carcinoma, SK-BR-3, another breast carcinoma, T24 a bladder carcinoma, Col 2, a colorectal carcinoma, and A549, a nonsmall cell lung adenocarcinoma. Hexane extracts showed remarkable cytotoxicity against MCF-7, T24, and Col 2 in a dose-dependent manner. This observation was confirmed by morphological investigation using light microscopy. Further bioassay-directed fractionation of the cytotoxic extract led to the isolation of a TLC-pure isolate labeled as f6l. Isolate f6l was further evaluated using MTT assay and morphological and biochemical investigations, which likewise showed selectivity to MCF-7, T24, and Col 2 cells with
values of 16, 17, and 17
, respectively. Isolate f6l, however, showed no cytotoxicity towards the non-cancer Chinese hamster ovarian cell line (CHO-AA8). Cytochemical investigation using DAPI staining and biochemical investigation using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-a method used to detect DNA fragmentation-together with caspase assay, demonstrated apoptotic cell death. Spectral characterization of isolate f6l revealed that it contained polyunsaturated fatty acid esters. Considering the cytotoxicity profile and its mode of action, f6l might represent a new promising compound with potential for development as an anticancer drug with low or no toxicity to non-cancer cells used in this study.
Differential Distribution of microRNAs in Breast Cancer Grouped by Clinicopathological Subtypes
Li, Jian-Yi ; Jia, Shi ; Zhang, Wen-Hai ; Zhang, Yang ; Kang, Ye ; Li, Pi-Song ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3197~3203
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3197
Background: microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate proliferation, invasion and metastasis are considered to be the principal molecular basis of tumor heterogeneity. Breast cancer is not a homogeneous tissue. Thus, it is very important to perform microarray-based miRNA screening of tumors at different sites. Methods: Breast tissue samples from the centers and edges of tumors of 30 patients were classified into 5 clinicopathological subtypes. In each group, 6 specimens were examined by microRNA array. All differential miRNAs were analyzed between the edges and centers of the tumors. Results: Seventeen kinds of miRNAs were heterogeneously distributed in the tumors from different clinicopathological subtypes that included 1 kind of miRNA in Luminal A and Luminal B Her2+ subtypes, 4 kinds in Luminal A and Her2 overexpression subtypes, 6 kinds in Luminal B Ki67+ and Luminal B Her2+ subtypes, 2 kinds between Luminal B Ki67+ and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes, 2 kinds between Luminal B Her2+ and TNBC subtypes, and 2 kinds between Luminal B Ki67+, Luminal B Her2+, and TNBC subtypes. Twenty kinds of miRNAs were homogenously distributed in the tumors from different clinicopathological subtypes that included 6 kinds of miRNAs in Luminal B Ki67+ and Luminal B Her2+ subtypes, 1 kind in Luminal B Ki67+ and Her2 overexpression subtypes, 10 kinds between Luminal B Ki67+ and TNBC subtypes, 2 kinds in Luminal B Her2+ and TNBC subtypes, and 1 kind between Luminal B Ki67+, Luminal B Her2+, and TNBC subtypes. Conclusions: A total of 37 miRNAs were significantly distributed in tumors from the centers to edges, and in all clinicopathological subtypes.
Urinary Bladder Cancer Risk Factors: A Lebanese Case-Control Study
Kobeissi, Loulou Hassan ; Yassine, Ibrahim Adnan ; Jabbour, Michel Elias ; Moussa, Mohamad Ahmad ; Dhaini, Hassan Rida ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3205~3211
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3205
Background: Bladder cancer is the second most incident malignancy among Lebanese men. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential risk factors associated with this observed high incidence. Methods: A case-control study (54 cases and 105 hospital-based controls) was conducted in two major hospitals in Beirut. Cases were randomly selected from patients diagnosed in the period of 2002-2008. Controls were conveniently selected from the same settings. Data were collected using interview questionnaire and blood analysis. Exposure data were collected using a structured face-to-face interview questionnaire. Blood samples were collected to determine N-acetyltransferase1 (NAT1) genotype by PCR-RFLP. Analyses revolved around univariate, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression, along with checks for effect modification. Results: The odds of having bladder cancer among smokers was 1.02 times significantly higher in cases vs. controls. The odds of exposure to occupational diesel or fuel combustion fumes were 4.1 times significantly higher in cases vs controls. The odds of prostate-related morbidity were 5.6 times significantly higher in cases vs controls. Cases and controls showed different clustering patterns of NAT1 alleles. No significant differences between cases and controls were found for consumption of alcohol, coffee, tea, or artificial sweeteners. Conclusions: This is the first case-control study investigating bladder cancer risk factors in the Lebanese context. Results confirmed established risk factors in the literature, particularly smoking and occupational exposure to diesel. The herein observed associations should be used to develop appropriate prevention policies and intervention strategies, in order to control this alarming disease in Lebanon.
Possible Roles of the Xenobiotic Transporter P-glycoproteins Encoded by the MDR1 3435 C＞T Gene Polymorphism in Differentiated Thyroid Cancers
Ozdemir, Semra ; Uludag, Ahmet ; Silan, Fatma ; Atik, Sinem Yalcintepe ; Turgut, Bulent ; Ozdemir, Ozturk ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3213~3217
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3213
Background: P-glycoprotein (Pgp), encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene, is an efflux transporter which plays an important role in pharmacokinetics. The current preliminary study was designed to determine associations between a germ-line polymorphism in the MDR1 gene with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Materials and Methods: In the current case-control study, 60 differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC)- 45 papillary TC (PTC), 9 follicular TC(FTC) and 6 well-differentiated tumors of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP) were examined. Results were compared to a healthy control group (n=58) from the same population. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood with EDTA and the target gene was genotyped by real-time PCR. Results: Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 exon 26 polymorphism were at 2.8-fold higher risk of DTC than the control group (odds ratio [OR]: 0.3805, 95% confidence interval [Cl]: 0.1597-0.9065 (p> 0.046). Conclusions: Presented results suggest that the MDR1 3435TT genotype might influence risk of development of DTC and that the CC genotype might be linked to a poor prognosis. Large-scale studies are now needed to validate this association.
Using SEER Data to Quantify Effects of Low Income Neighborhoods on Cause Specific Survival of Skin Melanoma
Cheung, Min Rex ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3219~3221
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3219
Background: This study used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to screen Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) skin melanoma data to identify and quantify the effects of socioeconomic factors on cause specific survival. Methods: 'SEER cause-specific death classification' used as the outcome variable. The area under the ROC curve was to select best pretreatment predictors for further multivariate analysis with socioeconomic factors. Race and other socioeconomic factors including rural-urban residence, county level % college graduate and county level family income were used as predictors. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify and quantify the independent socioeconomic predictors. Results: This study included 49,999 parients. The mean follow up time (SD) was 59.4 (17.1) months. SEER staging (ROC area of 0.08) was the most predictive foctor. Race, lower county family income, rural residence, and lower county education attainment were significant univariates, but rural residence was not significant under multivariate analysis. Living in poor neighborhoods was associated with a 2-4% disadvantage in actuarial cause specific survival. Conclusions: Racial and socioeconomic factors have a significant impact on the survival of melanoma patients. This generates the hypothesis that ensuring access to cancer care may eliminate these outcome disparities.
Association of Immunohistochemically Defined Molecular Subtypes with Clinical Response to Presurgical Chemotherapy in Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer
Khokher, Samina ; Qureshi, Muhammad Usman ; Mahmood, Saqib ; Nagi, Abdul Hannan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3223~3228
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3223
Gene expression profiling (GEP) has identified several molecular subtypes of breast cancer, with different clinico-pathologic features and exhibiting different responses to chemotherapy. However, GEP is expensive and not available in the developing countries where the majority of patients present at advanced stage. The St Gallen Consensus in 2011 proposed use of a simplified, four immunohistochemical (IHC) biomarker panel (ER, PR, HER2, Ki67/Tumor Grade) for molecular classification. The present study was conducted in 75 newly diagnosed patients of breast cancer with large (>5cm) tumors to evaluate the association of IHC surrogate molecular subtype with the clinical response to presurgical chemotherapy, evaluated by the WHO criteria, 3 weeks after the third cycle of 5 flourouracil, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide (FAC regimen). The subtypes of luminal, basal-like and HER2 enriched were found to account for 36.0 % (27/75), 34.7 % (26/75) and 29.3% (22/75) of patients respectively. Ten were luminal A and 14 luminal B (8 HER2 negative and 6HER2 positive). The triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) was most sensitive to chemotherapy with 19% achieving clinical-complete-response (cCR) followed by HER2 enriched (2/22 (9%) cCR), luminal B (1/6 (7%) cCR) and luminal A (0/10 (0%) cCR). Heterogeneity was observed within each subgroup, being most marked in the TNBC although the most responding tumors, 8% developing clinical-progressive-disease. The study supports association of molecular subtypes with response to chemotherapy in patients with advanced breast cancer and the existence of further heterogeneity within subtypes.
Identification of a Novel BRCA2 and CHEK2 A-C-G-C Haplotype in Turkish Patients Affected with Breast Cancer
Haytural, Hazal ; Yalcinkaya, Nazli ; Akan, Gokce ; Arikan, Soykan ; Ozkok, Elif ; Cakmakoglu, Bedia ; Yaylim, Ilhan ; Aydin, Makbule ; Atalar, Fatmahan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3229~3235
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3229
Background: Many breast cancers are caused by certain rare and familial mutations in the high or moderate penetrance genes BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2. The aim of this study was to examine the allele and genotype frequencies of seven mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2 genes in breast cancer patients and to investigate their isolated and combined associations with breast cancer risk. Methods: We genotyped seven mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2 genes and then analyzed single variations and haplotype associations in 106 breast cancer patients and 80 healthy controls. Results: We found significant associations in the analyses of CHEK2- 1100delC (p=0.001) and BRCA1-5382insC (p=0.021) mutations in breast cancer patients compared to controls. The highest risk was observed among breast cancer patients carrying both CHEK2-1100delC and BRCA2- Met784Val mutations (OR=0.093; 95%CI 0.021-0.423; p=0.001). We identified one previously undescribed BRCA2 and a CHEK2 four-marker haplotype of A-C-G-C which was overrepresented (
=7.655; p=0.0057) in the patient group compared to controls. Conclusion: In this study, we identified a previously undescribed BRCA2 and CHEK2 A-C-G-C haplotype in association with the breast cancer in our population. Our results further suggest that the CHEK2-1100delC mutation in combination with BRCA2-Met784Val may lead to an unexpected high risk which needs to be confirmed in larger cohorts in order to better understand their role in the development and prognosis of breast cancer.
Estimation of Cancer Cases Using Capture-Recapture Method in Northwest Iran
Ghojazadeh, Morteza ; Mohammadi, Marziye ; Azami-Aghdash, Saber ; Sadighi, Alireza ; Piri, Reza ; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3237~3241
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3237
Background: Under-ascertainment and over-ascertainment are common phenomena in surveillance and registry systems of health-related events. Capture-recapture is one of the methods which is applied to determine the sensitivity of surveillance or registry systems to recognize cancer cases. This study aimed to estimate the number of cancers using data available both in the Cancer Registry Center of Northwestern Iran and in the Population-based Cancer Registry Center of Iran. Material and Methods: The studied population consisted of all cancerous cases in the northwest of Iran from 2008 to 2010. All data were extracted from two resources and entered into Microsoft Excel software. After removing common and repeat cases the data were statistically analyzed using a capture-recapture studies' specific software "CARE 1.4". Estimations were calculated by Chapman and Petersen methods with the approximate confidence interval of 95%. Results: From 2008 to 2010, the number of all cancer cases was estimated to be 21,652 (CI 95%: 19,863-22,101). Sensitivity rate of all cancer cases was 83.9% and that of Population-based Cancer Registry Center of Iran was 52%. It was 93.1% considering both resources. Conclusion: Using two resources and the capture-recapture method rather than a single resource may be a more reliable method to estimate the number of cancer cases.
Fingerprint of Carcinogenic Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs) during Bonfire Night
Pongpiachan, Siwatt ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3243~3254
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3243
It is well known that increased incidences of lung, skin, and bladder cancers are associated with occupational exposure to PAHs. Animal studies show that certain PAHs also can affect the hematopoietic and immune systems and can produce reproductive, neurologic, and developmental effects. As a consequence, several studies have been attempted to investigate the fate of PAHs in atmospheric environment during the past decades. However, there is still a lack of information in regard to the atmospheric concentration of PAHs during the "Bon Fire Night". In this study, twenty-three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and twenty-eight aliphatics were identified and quantified in the
and vapour range in Birmingham (
January 2004). The measured concentrations of total particulate and vapour (P+V) PAHs were consistently higher at the BROS in both winter and summer. Arithmetic mean total (P+V) PAH concentrations were
at the Bristol Road Observatory Site (BROS) and Elms Road Observatory Site (EROS) respectively. In addition arithmetic mean total (P+V) B[a]P concentrations at the BROS were
which exceeded the EPAQS air quality standard of 0.25 ng
. On the other hand, the arithmetic mean total (P+V) aliphatics were
at the BROS and EROS in that order. The lowest average of CPI and
measured at the BROS supports the idea of traffic emissions being a principle source of SVOCs in an urban atmosphere. The annual trend of PAHs was investigated by using an independent t-test and oneway independent ANOVA analysis. Generally, there is no evidence of a significant decline of heavier MW PAHs from the two data sets, with only Ac, Fl, Ph, An, 2-MePh, 1+9-MePh, Fluo and B[b+j+k]F showing a statistically significant decline (p<0.05). A further attempt for statistical analysis had been conducted by dividing the data set into three groups (i.e. 2000, 2001-2002 and 2003-2004). For lighter MW compounds a significant level of decline was observed by using one-way independent ANOVA analysis. Since the annual mean of
measured in Birmingham City Centre from 2001 to 2004 increased significantly (p<0.05), it may be possible to attribute the annul reduction of more volatile PAHs to the enhanced level of annual average
. By contrast, the heavier MW PAHs measured at the BROS did not show any significant annual reduction, implying the difficulties of 5- and 6-ring PAHs to be subject to photochemical decomposition. The deviation of SVOCs profile measured at the EROS was visually confirmed during the "Bonfire Night" festival closest to the
November 2003. In this study, the atmospheric PAH concentrations were generally elevated on this day with concentrations of Fl, Ac, B[a]A, B[b+j+k]F, Ind and B[g,h,i]P being particularly high.
Clinical Outcomes and Prognostic Factors Associated with the Response to Erlotinib in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients with Unknown EGFR Mutational Status
Aydiner, Adnan ; Yildiz, Ibrahim ; Seyidova, Avesta ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3255~3261
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3255
Background: The efficacy of erlotinib is controversial in patients with unknown EGFR mutational status. The aim of this study was to identify the clinicopathological factors that are predictive of erlotinob treatment outcomes for NSCLC patients with unknown EGFR mutational status. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 109 patients with advanced NSCLC who had previously failed at least one line of chemotherapy and received subsequent treatment with erlotinib (150 mg/day orally) was performed. A Cox proportional hazard model for univariate and multivariate analyses was used to identify the baseline clinical parameters correlating with treatment outcome, expressed in terms of hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals. Results: The median treatment duration was 15 weeks (range, 4-184). The disease control rate was 55%, including disease stability for
months for 40% of the patients. Median progression-free survival and median overall survival (OS) were 4.2 and 8.5 months, respectively. The Cox model indicated that an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS)
(HR 3.82; p<0.001), presence of intra-abdominal metastasis (HR 3.42; p=0.002), 2 or more prior chemotherapy regimens (HR 2.29; p=0.021), and weight loss >5% (HR 2.05; p=0.034) were independent adverse prognostic factors for OS in NSCLC patients treated with erlotinib. Conclusions: This study suggests that NSCLC patients should be enrolled in erlotinib treatment after a first round of unsuccessful chemotherapy to improve treatment success, during which they should be monitored for intra-abdominal metastasis and weight loss.
Review of Strategies in Promoting Attendance for Cervical Screening
Demirtas, Basak ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3263~3267
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3263
Background: The importance of cervical screening has been addressed in numerous studies. However, reviews conducted to explore of strategies to promoting attendance for cervical screening have been limited. This study aimed to explore strategies to promote attendance for cervical screening. Materials and Methods: A literature search from databases (1994-2011) was undertaken to include papers that identified strategies related to the cervical screening. Results: Twenty-four papers were included in this review. The review of existing strategies identified valuable information on cervical screening and areas that could be improved in meeting womens' needs. Conclusions: The review highlighted important aspects of cervical screening that could be further addressed by promoting strategies to attendance. Assessing women's health beliefs, inpatient cervical cancer screening, nurse-led screening, and cognition-emotion focused programs are among the strategies to promote attendance for pap smear testing.
Lifestyle Behaviors and Early Diagnosis Practices of Cancer Patients
Yilmaz, Medine ; Sanli, Deniz ; Ucgun, Mujde ; Kaya, Nur Sahin ; Tokem, Yasemin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3269~3274
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3269
Background: The aim was to determine the lifestyle behaviors and the practices for early diagnosis of cancer of cancer patients. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional design was used for this study. The sample consisted of 222 patients with a diagnosis of cancer (non-random sample method). Ethical permission was obtained of the Non-interventional Research Ethics Committee of our Institution. Values of p<0.05 were accepted as statistically significant. Results: It was observed that 54.4% of the patients had never performed breast self-examination, 60.8% had never had a mammography, and 71.2% had never had a Pap smear. Sixty-six point two percent of patients had never had screening for colon cancer within the past ten years. GIS cancers were higher in smokers and ex-smokers (p=0.005), in drinkers and in ex-drinkers (p=0.000). The breast cancer rate was higher in obese people (p=0.019). Conclusions: The results of this study provide information on the healthy lifestyle behavior of cancer patients before their diagnosis, and their use of early diagnosis practices. The important aspect of this study is to extend cancer patients' period of life after the diagnosis and treatment process, to make them conscious of risky lifestyle and nutritional behavior so that they can maintain a high quality of life, and to start initiatives in this direction that would ensure changes in behavior.
Tumor Necrosis Factor-α 238 G/A Polymorphism and Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Evidence from a Meta-analysis
Cheng, Ke ; Zhao, Yu-Jun ; Liu, Lian ; Wan, Jing-Jing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3275~3279
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3275
Background: Tumor necrosis factor-
) plays a very important role in the development and progression of cancer. Many epidemiological studies have evaluated associations between the TNF-
238 G/A polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk, but the published data are inconclusive. Therefore, we performed the present meta-analysis. Methods: Electronic searches of several databases were conducted for all publications on the association between TNF-
238 G/A polymorphism and HCC through July 2012. Asummary odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to evaluate the strength of this association. Results: Eleven case-control studies with a total of 1,572 HCC cases and 1,875 controls were finally included in this meta-analysis. Overall, the TNF-
238 G/A polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in three genetic comparison models (For A versus G: OR 1.32, 95%CI 1.04-1.69, P = 0.02,
= 40%; for AG versus GG: OR 1.32, 95%CI 1.02-1.71, P = 0.03,
= 40%; for AA/AG versus GG: OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.03-1.72, P = 0.03,
= 41%) when all studies were pooled. Subgroup analysis by ethnicity further showed that there was a significant association between the TNF-
238 G/A polymorphism and risk of HCC in Asians under three genetic comparison models (For A versus G: OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.00-1.68, P = 0.05,
= 45% for AA/AG versus GG: OR 1.31, 95%CI 1.00-1.71, P = 0.05,
= 46%). Conclusions: This meta-analysis provided convincing evidence that the TNF-
238 G/A polymorphism is associated with increased susceptibility to HCC. However, more well-designed studies with large sample size are needed to validate this association in Caucasians.
Determining the Awareness of and Compliance with Breast Cancer Screening among Turkish Residential Women
Yilmaz, Demet ; Bebis, Hatice ; Ortabag, Tulay ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3281~3288
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3281
Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Despite being associated with high morbidity and mortality, breast cancer is a disease that can be diagnosed and treated early. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study of 321 women, data were collected by Questionnaire, Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Form and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale. Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, Chisquared tests and logistic regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results: It was found that only 2.2% of women have high and very high risk levels of breast cancer risk. There is a positive correlation between early diagnosis techniques and Health Belief Model Sub-Dimension scores which are sensibility, health motivation, BSE (Breast self-examination) self-efficient perception and negative correlation between mammography barrier score and BSE barrier score (p 0.05). When factors for not having BSE were examined, it was determined that the women who do not have information about breast cancer and the women who smoke have a higher risk of not having BSE. Conclusions: It is important to determine health beliefs and breast cancer risk levels of women to increase the frequency of early diagnosis. Women's health beliefs are thought to be a good guide for planning health education programs for nurses working in this area.
Retrospective Study of Predictors of Bone Metastasis in Prostate Cancer Cases
Ho, Christopher Chee Kong ; Seong, Poh Keat ; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md ; Abdul Manaf, Mohd Rizal ; Parameswaran, Muhilan ; Razack, Azad H.A. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3289~3292
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3289
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to identify clinical profiles of patients with low risk of having bone metastases, for which bone scanning could be safely eliminated. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cross sectional study looked at prostate cancer patients seen in the Urology Departments in 2 tertiary centres over the 11 year period starting from January 2000 to May 2011. Patient demographic data, levels of PSA at diagnosis, Gleason score for the biopsy core, T-staging as well as the lymph node status were recorded and analysed. Results: 258 men were included. The mean age of those 90 men (34.9%) with bone metastasis was
years. Logistic regression found that PSA level (P=0.000) at diagnosis and patient's nodal-stage (P=0.02) were the only two independent variables able to predict the probability of bone metastasis among the newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. Among thowse with a low PSA level less than 20ng/ml, and less than 10ng/ml, bone metastasis were detected in 10.3% (12 out of 117) and 9.7% (7 out of 72), respectively. However, by combining PSA level of 10ng/ml or lower, and nodal negative as the two criteria to predict negative bone scan, a relatively high negative predictive value of 93.8% was obtained. The probability of bone metastasis in prostate cancer can be calculated with this formula: -1.069+0.007(PSA value, ng/ml)+1.021(Nodal status, 0 or 1)=x Probability of bone metastasis=
. Conclusion: Newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients with a PSA level of 10ng/ml or lower and negative nodes have a very low risk of bone metastasis (negative predictive value 93.8%) and therefore bone scans may not be necessary.
Roles of Illness Attributions and Cultural Views of Cancer in Determining Participation in Cancer-Smart Lifestyle among Chinese and Western Youth in Australia
Wei, Celine ; Wilson, Carlene ; Knott, Vikki ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3293~3298
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3293
Background: The study investigated the influence of culturally-based health beliefs on engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviour. Specifically, the study compared levels of engagement between Western and Chinese youth in Australia and assessed the extent to which culture-specific attributions about the causes of illness, and health beliefs, predict engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviour. Materials and Methods: Ninety-four Western and 95 Chinese (N=189; Mean Age=20.8 years, SD=3 years) young adults completed an online questionnaire. Predictor variables were cultural health beliefs measured by the Chinese Cultural Views on Health and Illness scale (CCVH, Liang et al., 2008), and illness attributions beliefs measured by the Cause of Illness Questionnaire (CIQ, Armstrong and Swartzman, 1999). Outcomes variables were levels of engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviour. Results: Results indicated that Chinese participants have a significantly lower exercising rate and healthy dietary habits compared to the Western sample. Moreover, Chinese participants were found to believe more strongly than Westerners that cancer was associated with factors measured by the Traditional-Chinese-Model (TCM). Finally, the observed relationship between cultural health beliefs and physical inactivity was mediated by attributions of illness, in particular to the supernatural subscale, with the Sobel Test showing a significant mediation (z=-2.63, p=0.004). Conclusions: Mainstream approaches to encourage healthy lifestyles are unlikely to be effective when educating Chinese youth. Instead, health promotion programs should attempt to address the illness attribution beliefs and educate Chinese youth about the role of diet and exercise in prevention of diseases such as cancer.
Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS): A Case for Change in Definition, Analysis and Interpretation of "Cigarettes" and "Cigarettes Per Day" in Completed and Future Surveys
Jena, Pratap Kumar ; Kishore, Jugal ; Sarkar, Bidyut K. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3299~3304
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3299
Background: The Global Adult Tobacco Survey has 15 key indicators, cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) among daily smokers being one of them. The first wave of GATS in 14 countries indicated that mean CPD use is higher in women than men in India only, which is contrary to the current understanding of tobacco use globally. This study was undertaken to understand the unusual findings for mean CPD use in the GATS-India survey. Materials and Methods: Items B06a and B06b of the GATS India survey questionnaire that collected information on daily consumption of manufactured and rolled cigarettes were analyzed using SPSS software. Exclusive users were identified from these items after excluding the concurrent users of other tobacco products. Cigarette type, exclusive use and gender stratified analyses were made. Consumption of different types of cigarettes among the mixed users of manufactured and rolled cigarettes were correlated. Results: Higher mean number of CPD use among male daily-smokers was observed than their female counterparts in product specific analysis. Mean CPD as per GATS cigarette definition was higher in males than females for exclusive users but a reverse trend was observed in case of non-exclusive users. Use of manufactured cigarettes increased with increase in use of rolled cigarette among the mixed users and around half of these users reported equal CPD frequency for the both types of cigarettes. Conclusions: The anomaly in mean CPD estimate in GATS-India data was due to inclusion of two heterogeneous products to define cigarettes, variation in cigarette product specific user proportions contributing to the average and non-exclusive concurrent use of other tobacco products. The consumption pattern of cigarettes among the mixed users highlights bias in CPD reporting. Definition, analysis and interpretation of 'cigarettes per day' in the GATS India survey need to be improved by redefining cigarettes and making product specific analyses.
Evaluation of Human Papillomavirus Infections in Prostatic Disease: a Cross-Sectional Study in Iran
Ghasemian, Ehsan ; Monavari, Seyed Hamid Reza ; Irajian, Gholam Reza ; Nodoshan, Mohammad Reza Jalali ; Roudsari, Rouhollah Vahabpour ; Yahyapour, Yousef ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3305~3308
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3305
Background: The role of inflammation in prostate diseases is suggested by the presence of inflammatory cells within the prostate in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa) patients. In addition, bacterial and viral infection may lead to chronic and recurrent inflammation of the prostate. The human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a family of sexually transmitted viruses which have been implicated in the aetiology of cervical cancer and several other malignancies. This study evaluated the frequency of HPV infection in individuals with prostatic disease in Iran. Materials and Methods: The study included formalin fixed paraffin- embedded tissue samples of 196 primary prostate cases, including 29 PCa and 167 BPH samples. HPV DNA was purified and amplified through MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6+ primers with nested PCR. All patients were interviewed using a questionnaire to collect demographic information. Results: Nested PCR showed that HPV DNA was found in 17.2 percent of PCa samples and 4.8 percent of BPH samples (not significant). Conclusions: Our data do not support a significant role of HPV infection in prostatic disease in Iranian patients, but demographic data indicated a probable association between presence of HPV DNA and risk of inflammation in prostate tissue which might lead to prostate carcinoma. Further studies are required to elucidate any roles of HPV infection in prostatic disease.
Association of SYK Genetic Variations with Breast Cancer Pathogenesis
Shakeel, Shafaq ; Mahjabeen, Ishrat ; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar ; Faryal, Rani ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3309~3314
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3309
Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a non-receptor type cytoplasmic protein and a known tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer. Polymorphisms in SYK have been reported to be associated with cell invasion/cell morality and an increased risk of cancer development. In this case control study, all exons of the SYK gene and its exon/ intron boundaries were amplified in 200 breast cancer cases and 100 matched controls and then analyzed by single stranded conformational polymorphism. Amplified products showing altered mobility patterns were sequenced and analyzed. Twelve variations were identified in exonic and intronic regions of DNA encoding SH2 domain and kinase domain of the SYK gene. All of these mutations are novel. Among them, 5 missense mutations were observed in exon 15 while one missense mutation was found in exon 8. In addition to these mutations, six mutations were also identified in intronic regions. We found a significant association between SYK mutations and breast cancer and observed that Glu241Arg, a missense mutation is associated with an increase risk of ~7 fold (OR=6.7, 95% CI=1.54-28.8), Thr581Pro (missense mutation) is associated with increased risk of ~16 fold (OR=15.5, 95%CI=2.07-115.45) and 63367 T>G (missense mutation) is associated with increased risk of ~13 fold (OR=12.8, 95%CI=1.71-96.71) for breast cancer. Significant associations were observed for each of these variations with both late menopause (p<0.01) and early menarche (p<0.005) cases when compared to controls. Our findings suggest that the polymorphic gene SYK may contribute to the development of breast cancer in at least the Pakistani population. This study provides an insight view of SYK which may provide a significant finding for the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry.
Impact of Routine Histopathological Examination of Gall Bladder Specimens on Early Detection of Malignancy - A Study of 4,115 Cholecystectomy Specimens
Kalita, Dipti ; Pant, Leela ; Singh, Sompal ; Jain, Gaurav ; Kudesia, Madhur ; Gupta, Kusum ; Kaur, Charanjeet ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3315~3318
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3315
Gall bladder carcinoma is the most common cancer of biliary tree, characterized by rapid progression and a very high mortality rate. Detection at an early stage, however, is indicative of a very good prognosis and prolonged survival. The practice of histopathological examination of gall bladder specimens removed for clinically benign conditions and its usefulness has been a subject of controversy. The present prospective study was carried out over a period of four years in order to find out the incidence of unsuspected gallbladder carcinoma in cholecystectomy specimens received in our histopathology laboratory and to analyze their clinico-pathological features. A total of 4,115 cases were examined. Incidentally detected cases comprised 0.44%, which accounted for 72% of all gall bladder carcinomas detected. The majority were in an early, surgically resectable stage. From the results of this study we recommend that in India and other countries with relatively high incidences of gall bladder carcinoma, all cholecystectomy specimens should be submitted to histopathology laboratory, as this is the only means by which malignancies can be detected at an early, potentially curable stage.
Is Helicobacter pylori a Poor Prognostic Factor for HER-2 SISH Positive Gastric Cancer?
Selcukbiricik, Fatih ; Tural, Deniz ; Erdamar, Sibel ; Buyukunal, Evin ; Demirelli, Fuat ; Serdengecti, Suheyla ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3319~3322
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3319
Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the risk factors for gastric cancer (GC). Any prognostic effect of HER-2 status in gastric lymph node metastasis in H. pylori positive cases is unknown. Materials and Methods: A total of 74 patients, 47 (64%) male, and 27 (34%) female, who had subtotal or total gastrectomy and also positive lymph nodes, were included in the study. Age range was 29-87 years, and median age was 58 years. HER-2 expression was assessed in both gastric resection samples and lymph node material with carcinoma metastasis of the same patient by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and silver in situ hybridization (SISH) methods. H. pylori status was examined in gastric materials of all patients. Relationships between HER-2 status in gastric cancers and lymph nodes and H. pylori status were investigated. Results: H. pylori was positive in 40 cases (54%), and negative in 34 (46%). While in the primary tissues of H. pylori positive cases, SISH positivity for HER-2 was observed in 13 cases (86%), SISH negativity was observed in 2 (14%), in metastatic lymph nodes 21 cases (72%) were SISH positive and 8 cases (28%) were SISH negative (P=0.005 and P=0.019, respectively). Initial CEA values were high in 18 cases (78%) with positive H. pylori and in 5 cases (22%) with negative H. pylori (P=0.009). While SISH data of patients were negative in 59 cases (80%) and positive in 15 cases (20%) in primary tissues, they were negative in 56 cases (75%) and positive in 18 cases (25%) in lymph nodes. Discrepancy between primary tissue and lymph node results was detected in 3 cases, in which SISH was negative in the primary tissue and HER-2 expression was positive in the lymph nodes. Conclusions: Clinical progression was poor in H. pylori positive cases with HER-2 negativity in primary gastric tissue, but HER-2 positivity in the lymph nodes. SISH positivity can be expected in H. pylori positive cases, and it may be predicted that these cases can benefit from trastuzumab treatment.
Burden of Smoked and Smokeless Tobacco Consumption in India - Results from the Global adult Tobacco Survey India (GATS-India)- 2009-2010
Bhawna, Gupta ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3323~3329
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3323
Background: The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was carried out for systematically monitoring tobacco use and for tracking key tobacco control indicators. Materials and Methods: A total of 70,802 households, including 42,647 in rural areas and 28,155 in urban areas, were covered with a three stage sampling design. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices of tobacco consumption.Results: GATS-India highlighted that total tobacco use among its residents is overall 34.6%, varying for males (47.9%) and females (20.7%). The rural areas of the country exhibit comparatively higher prevalence rates (38.4%) in comparison to urban areas (25.3%). Overall, Khaini, a smokeless tobacco product (12.0%), is the most popular form of tobacco use among males and females, followed by bidi smoking (9.0%). Conclusion: Results of GATS data can be used as baseline for evaluation of new tobacco control approaches in India integrating culturally acceptable and cost effective measures.
Overexpression of Matrix Metalloproteinase 11 in Thai Prostatic Adenocarcinoma is Associated with Poor Survival
Nonsrijun, Nongnuch ; Mitchai, Jumphol ; Brown, Kamoltip ; Leksomboon, Ratana ; Tuamsuk, Panya ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3331~3335
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3331
Background: The incidence of prostate cancer, one of the most common cancers in elderly men, is increasing annually in Thailand. Matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP-11) is a member of the extracellular matrix metalloproteases which has been associated with human tumor progression and clinical outcome. Aim: To quantify MMP-11 expression in prostatic adenocarcinoma tissues and to determine whether its overexpression correlates with survival outcome, and to assess its potential as a new prognostic marker. Materials and Methods: Expression of MMP-11 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry in 103 Thai patients with prostatic adenocarcinoma. Overall survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression models. Results: Immunoreactivity of MMP-11 was seen in the stroma of prostatic adenocarcinoma tissue samples, high expression being significantly correlated with poor differentiation in Gleason grading, pathologic tumor stage 4 (pT4), and positive-bone metastasis (p<0.05), but not age and prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) level. Patients with high levels of MMP-11 expression demonstrated significantly shorter survival (p<0.001) when compared to those with low levels. Multivariate analysis showed that MMP-11 expression and pT stage were related with survival in prostatic adenocarcinoma [hazard ratio (HR)=0.448, 95% confidence interval (95%CI)=0.212-0.946, HR=0.333, 95%CI=0.15-0.74, respectively]. Conclusions: Expression of MMP-11 is significantly associated with survival in prostatic adenocarcinoma. High levels may potentially be used for prediction of a poor prognosis.
Bisphosphonates for Osteoporosis in Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Androgen-deprivation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Ding, Hui ; Yang, Li ; Du, Wan ; Teng, Yang ; Fu, Sheng-Jun ; Tao, Yan ; Lu, Jian-Zhong ; Wang, Zhi-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3337~3343
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3337
This systematic review was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of bisphosphonates for prevention and treatment of osteopenia or osteoporosis in men with non-metastatic prostate cancer receiving androgendeprivation therapy. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of bisphosphonates compared with placebo from Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and ISI - Science Citation Index. Meta-analyses of prespecified outcomes (bone mineral density, fractures, and adverse events) were performed using Review Manager. Ten RCTs with a total patient population of 1,017 were identified. There was generally more improvement in bone mineral density of the lumbar spine for patients who received bisphosphonate treatment than placebo or other medical treatment at 12 months (WMD 6.02,95%CI 5.39 to 6.65). Similar effects were also observed for total hip, trochanter or femoral neck bone mineral density. However, there was no significant reduction in fractures. Fever and gastrointestinal symptoms were the most common adverse events (10.4% vs. 1.2%; 0.10% vs. 0.03%). Currently, our meta-analysis suggested that oral and intravenous bisphosphonates caused a rapid increase in spine and hip or femoral BMD in non-metastatic prostate cancer patients receiving androgen-deprivation therapy. Fever and gastrointestinal symptoms were common with the use of bisphosphonates. These short-term trials (maximum of 12 months) did not show fracture reduction. In future, more efficient performance of higher quality, more rigorous, large sample, long-term randomised controlled trials (>12 months) are needed where outcomes are detailed.
Associations of CYP1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphisms with Lung Cancer Susceptibility in a Northern Indian Population
Shukla, R.K. ; Tilak, A.R. ; Kumar, C. ; Kant, S. ; Kumar, A. ; Mittal, B. ; Bhattacharya, S. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3345~3349
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3345
Background: Susceptibility to lung cancer has been shown to be modulated by inheritance of polymorphic genes encoding cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and glutathione S transferases (GSTM1 and GSTT1), which are involved in the bioactivation and detoxification of environmental toxins. This might be a factor in the variation in lung cancer incidence with ethnicity. Materials and Methods: We conducted a case-control study of 218 northern Indian lung cancer patients along with 238 healthy controls, to assess any association between CYP1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms, either separately or in combination, with the likelihood of development of Lung cancer in our population. Results: We observed a significant difference in the GSTT1 null deletion frequency in this population when compared with other populations (OR=1.87, 95%CI: 1.25-2.80-0.73, P=0.002). However, GSTM1 null genotype was found associated with lung cancer in the non-smoking subgroup. (P=0.170). Conclusions: Our study showed the GSTT1 null polymorphism to be associated with smoking-induced lung cancer and the GSTM1 null polymorphism to have a link with non-smoking related lung cancer.
Benzochloroporphyrin Derivative Induced Cytotoxicity and Inhibition of Tumor Recurrence During Photodynamic Therapy for Osteosarcoma
Gong, Hai-Yang ; Sun, Meng-Xiong ; Hu, Shuo ; Tao, Ying-Ying ; Gao, Bo ; Li, Guo-Dong ; Cai, Zheng-Dong ; Yao, Jian-Zhong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3351~3355
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3351
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising cancer treatment modality that uses dye-sensitized photooxidation of biologic matter in target tissue. This study explored effects of the photosensitizer BCPD-17 during PDT for osteosarcoma. LM-8 osteosarcoma cells were treated with BCPD-17 and cell viability after laser irradiation was assessed in vitro with the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The effects of BCPD-17 during PDT recurrence were then examined on tumor-bearing mice in vivo. BCPD-17 had dosedependent cytotoxic effects on LM-8 osteosarcoma cells after laser irradiation which also had energy-dependent effects on the cells. The rate of local recurrence was reduced when marginal resection of mice tumors was followed by BCPD-17-mediated PDT. Our results indicated BCPD-17-mediated PDT in combination with marginal resection of tumors is a potentially new effective treatment for osteosarcoma.
Skeletal-Related Events among Breast and Prostate Cancer Patients: Towards New Treatment Initiation in Malaysia's Hospital Setting
Ezat, Sharifa Wan Puteh ; Junid, Syed Mohamed Aljunid Syed ; Khamis, Noraziani ; Ahmed, Zafar ; Sulong, Saperi ; Nur, Amrizal Muhammad ; Aizuddin, Azimatun Noor ; Ismail, Fuad ; Abdullah, Norlia ; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md ; Kassim, Abdul Yazid Mohd ; Haflah, Nor Hazla Mohamed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3357~3362
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3357
The human skeleton is the most common organ to be affected by metastatic cancer and bone metastases are a major cause of cancer morbidity. The five most frequent cancers in Malaysia among males includes prostate whereas breast cancer is among those in females, both being associated with skeletal lesions. Bone metastases weaken bone structure, causing a range of symptoms and complications thus developing skeletal-related events (SRE). Patients with SRE may require palliative radiotherapy or surgery to bone for pain, having hypercalcaemia, pathologic fractures, and spinal cord compression. These complications contribute to a decline in patient healthrelated quality of life. The multidimensional assessment of health-related quality of life for those patients is important other than considering a beneficial treatment impact on patient survival, since the side effects of treatment and disease symptoms can significantly impact health-related quality of life. Cancer treatment could contribute to significant financial implications for the healthcare system. Therefore, it is essential to assess the health-related quality of life and treatment cost, among prostate and breast cancer patients in countries like Malaysia to rationalized cost-effective way for budget allocation or utilization of health care resources, hence helping in providing more personalized treatment for cancer patients.
Beyond Limitations: Practical Strategies for Improving Cancer Care in Nigeria
Eguzo, Kelechi ; Camazine, Brian ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3363~3368
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3363
Background: The burden due to cancers is an emerging public health concern especially in resource-limited countries like Nigeria. The WHO estimates that cancer kills more people than tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and malaria combined. As people in Nigeria and other developing countries are beginning to survive infectious diseases, there is an observed epidemiologic transition to chronic diseases, such as cancers. In 2008, 75 out of 1,000 Nigerians died of cancer. Despite the rising incidence and public health importance, Nigeria lacks an organized and comprehensive strategy to deal with cancers. Materials and Methods: This article reviewed 30 peer-reviewed manuscripts on cancer care in four countries. It highlights the limitations to cancer care in Nigeria; due to lack of awareness, low health literacy, absence of organized screening programs, inadequate manpower (in terms of quality and quantity) as well as limited treatment options. Results: This review led to the formulation of a proposal for Nigerian National Cancer Policy, mainly drawn from effective strategies used in Canada, Brazil and Kenya. This is a vertical cancer program that is patient-centered with an emphasis on tobacco control and cancer disease screening (similar to Canada and Brazil). Additionally, it emphasizes primary cancer prevention (similar to Kenya). Its horizontal integration with other disease programs like HIV/AIDS will improve affordability in a poor resourced country like Nigeria. Capacity building for health professionals, hub-and-spoke implementation of screening services, as well as investment in effective treatment options and increased research in cancer care are essential. International 'twinning collaborations' between institutions in richer countries and Nigeria will enhance effective knowledge translation and improve the quality of patient care. Conclusions: A national cancer policy must be developed and implemented in Nigeria in order to overcome the present limitations which help contribute to the observed increases in cancer morbidity and mortality rates. Cancer control is feasible in Nigeria if the nation was to consider and employ some of the cost-effective strategies proposed here.
Dilemmas of Oral Cancer Screening: An Update
Kujan, Omar ; Sloan, Philip ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3369~3373
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3369
Oral cancer is a global health burden with high mortality and morbidity. Advances in treatment have failed to improve the relatively poor survival rate due to late-stage diagnosis. Early detection and screening have been shown to be effective in reducing mortality and morbidity of most common cancers. Several studies have evaluated the effectiveness of oral cancer screening programs but clear results were not obtained. This narrative commentary aimed to give a critical insight into the dilemma of oral cancer screening and to suggest recommendations for future trends. Conventional oral examination still constitutes the gold standard screening tool for potentially malignant oral lesions and cancer. Interestingly, the findings of the most lasting (15-year) randomized controlled trial on oral cancer screening using visual examination (Kerala) supported the introduction of a screening program in high-risk individuals. Several screening adjuncts exist but are still not at the introduction stage. Further research to find an appropriate adjunct reliable tool for oral cancer screening is needed. In conclusion, oral cancer fulfills most of the essential principles of cancer screening but still many points need to be clarified. Therefore, there is a striking need to establish a global consortium on oral cancer screening that will oversee research and provide recommendations for health authorities at regular intervals.
Absence of EZH2 Gene Mutation in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients in Blast Crisis
Chen, Hao-Yue ; Yao, Hong ; Wu, Ling-Yu ; Liu, Can-Jun ; Zhu, Jian-Qin ; Liu, Chun-Hua ; Wang, Wei ; Dong, Sha-Sha ; Ping, Na-Na ; Chen, Su-Ning ; Sun, Miao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 5, 2013, Pages 3375~3376
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3375