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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 14, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 14, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 14, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 14, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 14, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 14, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Overview of Cancer Registration Research in the Asian Pacific from 2008-2013
Moore, Malcolm A. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4461~4484
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4461
Cancer registration provides a firm basis for cancer control efforts and research into changing patterns of incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence is of obvious importance. Most of the countries of Asia have already published relevant data although the level of coverage and accuracy do vary a great deal both between and within countries. The present review concerns the relevant literature for the period 2008-2013, focusing on the types of research conducted and the conclusions that can be drawn with regard to what should be done in the future to translate the information available into effective intervention efforts to reduce the burden of disease. A major emphasis has been on determining variation in incidence and mortality/survival on the basis of ethnicity and socioeconomic as well as geographical background, as well as trends over time, either for cancer in general or specific organ sites. In addition a small number of papers focused on methodological, quality and cancer control issues, very pertinent to the future development of cancer registry based research.
Concomitant EGFR Inhibitors Combined with Radiation for Treatment of Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma
Zheng, De-Jie ; Yu, Guo-Hua ; Gao, Jian-Feng ; Gu, Jun-Dong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4485~4494
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4485
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is considered to be one of the key driver genes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Several clinical trials have shown great promise of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the first-line treatment of NSCLC. Many advances have been made in the understanding of EGFR signal transduction network and the interaction between EGFR and tumor microenvironment in mediating cancer survival and development. The concomitant targeted therapy and radiation is a new strategy in the treatment of NSCLC. A number of preclinical studies have demonstrated synergistic anti-tumor activity in the combination of EGFR inhibitors and radiotherapy in vitro and in vivo. In the present review, we discuss the rationale of the combination of EGFR inhibitors and radiotherapy in the treatment of NSCLC.
Do the Health Claims Made for Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Harmonize with Current Scientific Knowledge and Evaluation of its Biological Effects
Gupta, Rakesh Kumar ; Patel, Amit Kumar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4495~4499
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4495
Morinda citrifolia, also known as Great Morinda, Indian Mulberry, or Noni, is a plant belonging to the family Rubiaceae. A number of major chemical compounds have been identified in the leaves, roots, and fruits of the Noni plant. The fruit juice is in high demand in alternative medicine for different kinds for illnesses such as arthritis, diabetes, high blood pressure, muscle ached and pains, menstrual difficulties, headache, heart diseases, AIDS, gastric ulcer, sprains, mental depression, senility, poor digestion, arteriosclerosis, blood vessel problems, and drug addiction. Several studies have also demonstrated anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and apoptosis-inducing effects of Noni in various cancers. Based on a toxicological assessment, Noni juice was considered as safe. Though a large number of in vitro, and, to a certain extent, in vivo studies demonstrated a range of potentially beneficial effects, clinical data are essentially lacking. To what extent the findings from experimental pharmacological studies are of potential clinical relevance is not clear at present and this question needs to be explored in detail before an recommendations can be made.
Significance of Caveolin-1 Regulators in Pancreatic Cancer
Chen, Tao ; Liu, Liang ; Xu, Hua-Xiang ; Wang, Wen-Quan ; Wu, Chun-Tao ; Yao, Wan-Tong ; Yu, Xian-Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4501~4507
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4501
Caveolin-1 is a scaffold protein on the cell membrane. As the main component of caveolae, caveolin-1 is involved in many biological processes that include substance uptake and transmembrane signaling. Many of these processes and thus caveolin-1 contribute to cell transformation, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. Of particular interest are the dual rolesof tumor suppressor and oncogene that caveolin-1 appear to play in different malignancies, including pancreatic cancer. Therefore, analyzing caveolin-1 regulators and understanding their mechanisms of actionis key to identifying novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools for pancreatic cancer. This review details the mechanisms of action of caveolin-1 regulators and the potential significance for pancreatic cancer treatment.
Hepatitis B Virus Gene Mutations and Hepatocarcinogenesis
Liang, Tao ; Chen, En-Qiang ; Tang, Hong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4509~4513
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4509
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has long been the most common cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, some aspects of the pathogenesis of HBV infection and genesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still inconclusive. An increasing number of published studies indicate that hepatitis B virus mutations are associated with risk of HCC. These variations include, in particular, mutations in ORF S,C,X gene regions. This mini-review summarizes results of clinical studies and molecular mechanisms on the possible relations of HBV mutations with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Personality Traits in Cancer Patients
Turhal, Nazim Serdar ; Demirhan, Salih ; Satici, Celal ; Cinar, Caner ; Kinar, Abdullah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4515~4518
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4515
Background: This study was planned to investigate the personality traits of cancer patients in different treatment settings, and to correlate the demographics with the personality features. Materials and Methods: A total of 237 patients referred either to Marmara University School of Medicine (MUSM) Oncology Outpatient Unit or to the private office of the faculty between March 10th and April 22nd, 2010 were enrolled in the study. The Big Five Mini Test was used to evaluate the 40 personality traits of the patients. Results: The study group consisted of 98 males (41.35%) and 139 females (58.65%) with a mean age of 51. Out of the 237, 73.9% had an educational level beyond the junior high school, and 47.3% of all patients reported a positive family history for cancer. A significant difference in terms of reconcilability, extraversion, and responsibility was observed between patients admitting to the university outpatient clinic and the private office (p<0.05). Reconcilability and extraversion were found to differ between genders significantly (p<0.05). The description of the patients by him/herself or by relatives displayed a significant difference in terms of openness (p<0.05). Parameters such as educational level, family history of cancer, age and marital status showed no relevance to their characters. No discordance was observed between the self-analysis of the patient and the patient's relatives. Conclusions: Patients with cancer are typically highly reconcilable and responsible, moderately stable, open and extraverted.
Arab Women's Breast Cancer Screening Practices: A Literature Review
Donnelly, Tam Truong ; Al Khater, Al-Hareth ; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum ; Al Kuwari, Mohammed Ghaith ; Al-Meer, Nabila ; Malik, Mariam ; Singh, Rajvir ; Jong, Floor Christie-De ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4519~4528
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4519
Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are increasing in the Arab world and the involved women are often diagnosed at advanced stages of breast cancer. This literature review explores factors influencing Arab women's breast cancer screening behavior. Searched databases were: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL Plus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for WHO Eastern Mediterranean, and Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Breast cancer screening participation rates are low. Screening programs are opportunistic and relatively new to the region. Knowledge amongst women and health care providers, professional recommendation, socio-demographic factors, cultural traditions, beliefs, religious, social support, accessibility and perceived effectiveness of screening influence screening behavior.
Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution Effects on Perioperative Coagulation in Elderly Patients Undergoing Hepatic Carcinectomy
Guo, Jian-Rong ; Jin, Xiao-Ju ; Yu, Jun ; Xu, Feng ; Zhang, Yi-Wei ; Shen, Hua-Chun ; Shao, Yi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4529~4532
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4529
Background: Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) has been widely used to prevent the massive blood loss during hepatic carcinoma. The influences of ANH on coagulation function are still controversy, especially in elderly patients. The study observed ANH effects on coagulation function and fibrinolysis in elderly patients undergoing the disease. Materials and Methods: Thirty elderly patients (aged 60-70 yr) with liver cancer (ASA I or II) taken hepatic carcinectomy from February 2007 to February 2008 were randomly divided into ANH group (n=15) and control group (n=15). After tracheal intubation, patients in ANH group and control group were infused with 6% hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.4) and Ringer's solution, respectively. Blood samples were drawn from patients in both groups at five different time points: before anesthesia induction (T1), 30 min after ANH (T2), 1 h after start of operation (T3), immediately after operation (T4), and 24 h after operation (T5). Then coagulation function, soluble fibrin monomer complex (SFMC), prothrombin fragment (F1+2), and platelet membrane glycoprotein (CD62P and activated GP IIb/GP IIIa) were measured. Results: The perioperative blood loss and allogeneic blood transfusion were recorded during the surgery. The perioperative blood loss was not significantly different between two groups (p>0.05), but the volume of allogeneic blood transfusion in ANH group was significantly less than in control group (
) mL vs. (
) mL (p<0.01). Compared with the data of T1, the prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) measured after T3 were significantly longer (p<0.05) in both groups, but within normal range. There were no significant changes of thrombin time (TT) and D-dimer between two groups at different time points (p>0.05). SFMC and F1+2 increased in both groups, but were not statistically significant. PAC-1-positive cells and CD62P expressions in patients of ANH group were significantly lower than those at T1 (p<0.05) and T2-T5 (p>0.05). Conclusions: ANH has no obvious impact on fibrinolysis and coagulation function in elderly patients undergoing resection of liver cancer. The study suggested that ANH is safe to use in elderly patients and it could reduce allogeneic blood transfusion.
Screening for MiRNAs Related to Laryngeal Squamous Carcinoma Stem Cell Radiation
Huang, Chang-Xin ; Zhu, Ying ; Duan, Guang-Liang ; Yao, Ji-Fen ; Li, Zhao-Yang ; Li, Da ; Wang, Qing-Qing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4533~4537
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4533
Objective: To use microarray chip technology for screening of stem cell radiation related miRNAs in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma; study and explore the relationship of miRNAs with radiosensitivity of laryngeal squamous cells. Method: After conventional culture and amplification of the laryngeal squamous carcinoma cell line Hep-2, CD 133+ cells were screened out with combination of isolated culture of stem cell microspheres and FACS for preparation of laryngeal cancer stem cells. After radiation treatment, miRNAs of laryngeal squamous carcinoma stem cells before and after radiation were enriched and purified. After microarray hybridization with mammalian miRNA and scanning of fluorescence signal, the miRNAs of laryngeal squamous carcinoma stem cells before and after radiation was subject to differential screening and clustering analysis. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to verify part of the differentially expressed miRNAs. Results: 70 miRNAs related to laryngeal cancer stem cell radiation with 2-fold difference in expression were screened out, in which 62 were down-regulated and 8 were up-regulated. Fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR results were consistent with miRNAs chip results. Conclusion: Some miRNAs may be involved in self-regulation with laryngeal squamous carcinoma stem cell radiation.
Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Urinary Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma and its Association with Clinicopathological Characteristics
Tabriz, Hedieh Moradi ; Olfati, Golrokh ; Ahmadi, Seyed Ali ; Yusefnia, Sudabeh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4539~4543
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4539
Background: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most predominant type of urinary bladder tumor. As cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is recently introduced as an attractive target molecule in bladder TCC, we evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of this marker and its association with several clinicopathological characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in the Pathology department of Sina Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2006-2011. Ninety-two paraffin embedded blocks were selected from patients with urinary bladder TCC who underwent cystectomy or transurethral resection (TUR). Then, we assessed COX-2 expression by immunohistochemical staining using antibody against COX-2. Staining in more than 5% of tumor cells was considered as positive expression. Results: COX-2 was expressed in 50 % of our patients. This marker was markedly expressed in high grade bladder TCC (62.1%) versus other grades and there was statistically a significant difference in COX-2 expression between various grades (p=0.008). In addition, patients' age, lymphatic and perineurial invasion were associated with the expression of COX-2 (p=0.001, 0.015 and 0.039, respectively). However, other parameters such as stage, tumor size, venous invasion and lymph node metastasis did not show any significant relationship with this marker (all, p>0.05). Conclusions: COX-2 was expressed in urinary bladder TCC especially in high grade forms, advocating its probable role in the differentiation of this tumor. Accordingly, COX-2 could be a valuable biological target molecule in the evaluation and treatment of patients with bladder TCC.
Pattern of Tissue Expression of CA-125 and HE4 in Primary Epithelial Ovarian Tumours and Correlation with Serum CA-125 Levels
Devan, Shobana Mukunda ; Pailoor, Jayalakshmi ; Sthaneshwar, Pavai ; Narayanan, Vallikkanu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4545~4548
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4545
The objective of this study is to assess tissue expression of CA-125 and HE4 protein in primary benign and malignant epithelial tumours of the ovary and correlate with serum CA-125 levels. A total of 100 formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded sections of ovarian tumours which included serous adenoma (11), mucinous adenoma (42), serous carcinoma (20), mucinous carcinoma (12) and endometrioid carcinoma (15), histologically diagnosed between
January 2004 to
December 2012 at the University Malaya Medical Centre, were stained for HE4 (rabbit polyclonal antibody, Abcam, UK) and CA-125 (mouse monoclonal antibody clone: OC125, Cell Marque Corporation, Rocklin, California, USA). Pre-operative serum CA-125 levels were obtained from the laboratory information system. Immunoscore (I score) for HE4 and CA-125 was given based on the intensity of staining and percentage of positive tumour cells and considered significant when it was >50 (intensity of staining multiplied by percentage of positive tumour cells). Serum CA-125 levels were compared with the I score of HE4 and CA-125 in tissues. We noted that the CA-125 levels in serum and tissues were significantly raised in malignant compared to benign ovarian tumours (p value<0.05). Tissue expression of HE4 protein was also significantly raised in malignant tumours compared to benign tumours (p value<0.05). We conclude that HE4 can be a useful tissue immunomarker in addition to CA-125.
Lymphangiogenic and Angiogenic Microvessel Density in Chinese Patients with Gastric Carcinoma: Correlation with Clinicopathologic Parameters and Prognosis
Cao, Fang ; Hu, Yong-Wei ; Li, Ping ; Liu, Ying ; Wang, Kuo ; Ma, Lei ; Li, Peng-Fei ; Ni, Can-Rong ; Ding, Hou-Zhong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4549~4552
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4549
The incidence of gastric cancer worldwide, and in particular in developing countries, has shown a marked increase. Poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients occurs due to the rapid metastasis of the disease via the lymphatic and blood vessels. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and the clinical significance of D2-40 and CD34 in human gastric cancer. D2-40 and CD34 expression wasdetected in 1,072 cases of Chinese patients with gastric carcinoma using immunohistochemistry. The lymphatic vessel density (LVD) and microvessel density (MVD) were calculated and analyzed and the correlation with the clinicopathological factors and prognosis was determined. The LVD and MVD of the gastric cancer cases were significantly higher compared to those of normal tissues (P < 0.05). The expression of D2-40-LVD and CD34-MVD in the malignancies were positively related to the age, tumor size, invasion depth, lymphatic metastasis and pathological tumor-node-metastasis (pTNM) (P < 0.05); However, no statistically significant difference was identified between them with the patient gender (P > 0.05). Up-regulation of D2-40 and CD34 expression was significantly correlated with the poor survival rate in univariate and multivariate analyses. The LVD marked by D2-40 and the MVD marked by CD34 were positively correlated to the clinicopathological factors of the malignancies and may play important role in the development and progression of gastric cancer.
Screening of Differentially Expressed Genes Related to Bladder Cancer and Functional Analysis with DNA Microarray
Huang, Yi-Dong ; Shan, Wei ; Zeng, Li ; Wu, Yang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4553~4557
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4553
Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify genes related to bladder cancer with samples from normal and disease cases by microarray chip. Methods: After downloading the gene expression profile GSE3167 from Gene Expression Omnibus database which includes 50 bladder samples, comprising 9 normal and 41 disease samples, differentially expressed genes were identified with packages in R language. The selected differentially expressed genes were further analyzed using bioinformatics methods. Firstly, molecular functions, biological processes and cell component analysis were researched by software Gestalt. Then, software String was used to search interaction relationships among differentially expressed genes, and hub genes of the network were selected. Finally, by using plugins of software Cytoscape, Mcode and Bingo, module analysis of hub-genes was performed. Results: A total of 221 genes were identified as differentially expressed by comparing normal and disease bladder samples, and a network as well as the hub gene C1QBP was obtained from the network. The C1QBP module had the closest relationship to production of molecular mediators involved in inflammatory responses. Conclusion: We obtained differentially expressed genes of bladder cancer by microarray, and both PRDX2 and YWHAZ in the module with hub gene C1QBP were most significantly related to production of molecular mediators involved in inflammatory responses. From knowledge of inflammatory responses and cancer, our results showed that, the hub gene and its module could induce inflammation in bladder cancer. These related genes are candidate bio-markers for bladder cancer diagnosis and might be helpful in designing novel therapies.
Allele and Genotype Frequencies of the Polymorphic Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase and Colorectal Cancer among Jordanian Population
Yousef, Al-Motassem ; Shomaf, Maha ; Berger, Sondra ; Ababneh, Nidaa ; Bobali, Yahya ; Ali, Dema ; Al-Hasan, Sara ; Diab, Ola ; Ismail, Said ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4559~4565
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4559
Background: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is involved in DNA synthesis and repair. We here aimed to investigate two common polymorphisms, C677T and A1298C, with genotype and haplotype frequencies in colorectal cancer (CRC) cases among Jordanian. Materials and Methods: 131 CRC cases were studied for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms, compared to 117 controls taken from the general population, employing the PCR-RFLP technique. Results: We found the frequency of the three different genotypes of MTHFR C677T among Jordanians to be CC: 61.7%, CT: 35.2%, and TT 3.1% among CRC cases and 50.9%, 38.8% and 10.3% among controls. Carriers of the TT genotype were less likely to have CRC (OR=0.25; 95%CI: 0.076-0.811; p=0.021) as compared to those with the CC genotype. Genotype analysis of MTHFR A12987C revealed AA: 38.9%, AC: 45%, and CC 16% among CRC cases and 37.4%, 50.4% and 12.2% among controls. There was no significant association between genetic polymorphism at this site and CRC. Haplotype analysis of MTHFR polymorphism at the two loci showed differential distribution of the TA haplotype (677T-1298A) between cases and controls. The TA haplotype was associated with a decreased risk for colorectal cancer (OR=0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9, p=0.03). Conclusions: The genetic polymorphism of MTHFR at 677 and the TA haplotype may modulate the risk for CRC development among the Jordanian population. Our findings may reflect an importance of genes involved in folate metabolism in cancer risk.
Treatment Outcome for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in University Malaya Medical Centre from 2004-2008
Ee Phua, Vincent Chee ; Loo, Wei Hoong ; Yusof, Mastura Md ; Ishak, Wan Zamaniah Wan ; Tho, Lye Mun ; Ung, Ngie Min ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4567~4570
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4567
Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the commonest radiocurable cancer in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the treatment outcomes and late effects of radiotherapy for NPC patients treated in University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). Materials and Methods: All newly diagnosed patients with NPC referred for treatment to the Oncology unit at UMMC from 2004-2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment outcomes were 5 years overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), locoregional control (LRC) and radiotherapy-related late effects. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis and differences in survival according to AJCC stage was compared using the log-rank test. Results: A total of 176 patients with newly diagnosed NPC were treated in UMMC during this period. Late presentation was common, with 33.5% presenting with T3-4 disease, 84.7% with N1-3 disease and 75.6% with AJCC stage 3-4 disease. Radical RT was given to 162 patients with 22.7% having RT alone and 69.3% having CCRT. The stipulated OTT was 7 weeks and 72.2% managed to complete their RT within this time period. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was given to 14.8% while adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 16.5%. The 5 years OS was 51.6% with a median follow up of 58 months. The 5 years OS according to stage were 81.8% for stage I, 77.9% for stage II, 47.4% for stage III and 25.9% for stage IV. The 5 years overall CSS, DFS and LRC were 54.4%, 48.4% and 70.6%, respectively. RT related late effects were documented in 80.2%. The commonest was xerostomia (66.7%). Other documented late effects were hearing deficit (17.3%), visual deficit (3.1%), neck stiffness (3.1%), dysphagia (3.4%), cranial nerve palsy (2.5%), pneumonitis (0.6%) and hypothyroidism (1.2%). Conclusions: The 5 years OS and LRC in this study are low compared to the latest studies especially those utilizing IMRT. Implementation of IMRT for NPC treatment should be strongly encouraged.
Depression and Predictors in Taiwanese Survivors with Oral Cancer
Chen, Shu-Ching ; Huang, Bing-Shen ; Lin, Chien-Yu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4571~4576
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4571
Background: Depression is a comorbid disabling problem and potentially affects patient likelihood of survival. The aims of this study were to recognize the characteristics of depression and investigate associated predictor factors in patients with oral cancers. Methods: A cross-sectional and correlational design was used to collect data for this study conducted in northern Taiwan. A set of questionnaires was used to measure depression, symptom distress, performance status, social support, and demographic and disease-related information. Logistic regression was conducted to determine important factors predicting depression. Results: A total of 132 oral cancer patients participated in this study. Of these, 18.2% were identified as depression cases. The patient average performance status score was 90 or higher. Patients reported mild-to-moderate levels of symptom distress. The majority of social support was from families. Religious belief, alcohol use, symptom distress, and social support from family were found to be important factors predicting depression. Patients with religious belief with alcohol use reported greater symptom distress, and those with lower levels of social support from families were significantly more likely to develop depression. Conclusions: Clinicians should assess patient emotional status and manage symptoms in a timely manner to enhance coping abilities. Supportive care provides assurance during the acute survivor phase.
Practice of Skin Cancer Prevention among Road Traffic Police Officers in Malaysia
Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4577~4581
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4577
Background: The objective of this study was to determine the practice of skin cancer prevention among Malaysian road traffic police officers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 202 Malaysian Road Police Traffic officers. Inclusion criteria were those officers who work wearing white uniform regulating traffic. The survey took place at the Police Traffic Station, Jln Tun H.S. Lee, Kuala Lumpur, the main Head Quarters of Malaysian's Traffic Department where almost 600 police traffic officers are employed. The police traffic officers are given the task to take care of the traffic from the main office of the police station, then, according to the task, the officers drive to their given location for their duty. Each task is approved by the Chief Traffic Inspector of Kuala Lumpur. Data collected in this study were analyzed using SPSS 13, with the T-test for univariate analysis and multiple linear regression for multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 202 road traffic police officers participated. The majority were older than 30 years of age, male, Malay, married, with secondary education, with monthly income more than 2000 Ringgit Malaysia (66.3%, 91.1%, 86.6%, 84.7%, 96%, 66.3%; respectively). Regarding the practice of skin cancer prevention, 84.6% of the study participants were found to wear hats, 68.9% sunglasses and 85.6% clothing that covering most of the body but only 16.9% used a sunscreen when they were outdoors. When analysis of the factors that influenced the practice of skin cancer prevention was performed, univariate analysis revealed that gender, age and monthly income significantly influenced the practice of skin cancer prevention. For multivariate analysis, gender, monthly income and race significantly influenced the practice of using sunscreen among road traffic police officers (p<0.001, p=0.019, p=0.027; respectively). Conclusions: The practice of skin cancer prevention among the traffic police officers showed good practices in terms of wearinga hat, sun glasses and clothing that covers most of the body. However, the study revealed a poor practice of the use of sunscreen. The factors that influence the practice of sunscreen use were found to be gender, income, and race. The study suggests that more awareness campaign among traffic police officers is needed. Providing sunscreen for free for police traffic officers should be considered by the Police authorities.
Clinical Efficacy and Prognosis Factors for Advanced Hepatoblastoma in Children: A 6-year Retrospective Study
Zhang, Yi ; Zhang, Wei-Ling ; Huang, Dong-Sheng ; Hong, Liang ; Wang, Yi-Zhuo ; Zhu, Xia ; Hu, Hui-Min ; Zhang, Pin-Wei ; Yi, You ; Han, Tao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4583~4589
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4583
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of multimodality treatment of advanced paediatric hepatoblastoma (HB) and the factors affecting prognosis. Methods: A total of 35 children underwent multimodality treatments consisting of chemotherapy, surgery, interventional therapy, and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. The patients were followed up every month. Results: Serum AFP levels in 33 out of 35 patients in this study were significantly increased (P = 0.0002). According to the statistical scatter plot, the values of serum AFP on the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentages were 1,210, 1,210 and 28,318 ng/dl, respectively. Of the 35 cases, 21 were stage IV. 18 cases were treated with systemic chemotherapy before surgery, and 3 cases with locally interventional chemotherapy before surgery. Statistical analysis showed that the preferred interventional treatment affected prognosis, and that there was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.024). Some 33 patients completed the follow-up, of which 17 were in complete remission (CR), 5 were in partial remission (PR), 1 became disease progressive (DP), and 10 died. The remission and overall survival rates were 66.7% (22/33) and 69.7% (23/33), respectively. Patients with the mixed HB phenotypes had worse prognoses than the epithelial phenotype (P < 0.001), and patients in stage IV had a lower survival rate than those in stage III (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Multimodality treatment can effectively improve remission rate and prolong the survival of children with advanced HB. In addition, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a tumor marker of liver malignant tumors, HB pathological classification, and staging are highly useful in predicting prognosis.
Survival Rate of Breast Cancer Patients In Malaysia: A Population-based Study
Abdullah, Nor Aini ; Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita Wan ; Muhammad, Nor Asiah ; Ali, Zainudin Mohamad ; Ibrahim, Lailanor ; Tamim, Nor Saleha Ibrahim ; Mustafa, Amal Nasir ; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4591~4594
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4591
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. Other than hospital-based results, there are no documented population-based survival rates of Malaysian women for breast cancers. This populationbased retrospective cohort study was therefore conducted. Data were obtained from Health Informatics Centre, Ministry of Health Malaysia, National Cancer Registry and National Registration Department for the period from
January 2000 to
December 2005. Cases were captured by ICD-10 and linked to death certificates to identify the status. Only complete data were analysed. Survival time was calculated from the estimated date of diagnosis to the date of death or date of loss to follow-up. Observed survival rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method using SPSS Statistical Software version 17. A total of 10,230 complete data sets were analysed. The mean age at diagnosis was 50.6 years old. The overall 5-year survival rate was 49% with median survival time of 68.1 months. Indian women had a higher survival rate of 54% compared to Chinese women (49%) and Malays (45%). The overall 5-year survival rate of breast cancer patient among Malaysian women was still low for the cohort of 2000 to 2005 as compared to survival rates in developed nations. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the strategies for early detection and intervention.
Effect of Variation of ABCB1 and ABCC3 Genotypes on the Survival of Bone Tumor Cases after Chemotherapy
Yang, Jie ; Wang, Zhi-Gang ; Cai, Hai-Qing ; Li, Yu-Chan ; Xu, Yun-Lan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4595~4598
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4595
We conducted a comprehensive study to investigate the role of genes involved in transport pathways in response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome of osteosarcoma cases. Genotyping of six SNPs was performed in a 384-well plate format on the Sequenom MassARRAY platform for 208 osteosarcoma patients to reveal any correlations of the six SNPs with response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome. Individuals with the ABCB1 rs1128503 TT and ABCC3 rs4148416 TT genotypes had a higher probability of responding poorly to chemotherapy, indicated by odds ratios (ORs) of 2.46 (95%CI, 1.21-5.74) and 3.78 (95% CI, 1.20-13.85), respectively. Moreover, the ABCB1 rs1128503 TT and ABCC3 rs4148416 TT genotypes were significantly associated with shorter diseasefree survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Our study found the two SNPs in two transporter genes and one phase II metabolism enzyme to be associated with response to chemotherapy and overall survival in osteosarcoma patients, suggesting potential prognostic biomarker applications of the two SNPs.
Curcumin Inhibits Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cell Proliferation Through Regulation of Bcl-2/Bax and Cytochrome C
Li, Yue ; Zhang, Shuai ; Geng, Jian-Xiong ; Hu, Xiao-Yang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4599~4602
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4599
We intended to study the mechanism of the inhibitory action of curcumin on human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell. The cell growth was determined by CCK-8 assay, and the results indicated that curcumin inhibited the cell proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. And to further confirm the relative anti-cancer mechanism of curcumin, RT-PCR was carried out to analysis the expression of relative apoptotic proteins Bax, Bcl-2. We found that curcumin could up-regulate the expression of Bax but down-regulate the expression of Bcl-2 in A549 cells. In addition, curcumin affect the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. These results suggested that curcumin inhibited cancer cell growth through the regulation of Bcl-2/Bax and affect the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.
Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Alters Oxidative Stress Marker and Antioxidant Activity in Cervical Cancer Cell Lines
Gupta, Rakesh Kumar ; Singh, Neeta ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4603~4606
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4603
Background: Cervical cancer, the second most common cancer in women, has a high mortality rate. Cisplatin, an antitumor agent, is generally used for its treatment. However, the administration of cisplatin is associated with side effects and intrinsic resistance. Morinda citrifolia (Noni), a natural plant product, has been shown to have antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: Both HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cell lines were treated with 10% Noni, 10 mg/dl cisplatin, or a combination of both 10% Noni and 10 mg/dl cisplatin for 24 hours. Post culturing, the cells were pelleted and stored at
for malondialdehyde and catalase assays. Results: On treatment with Noni, CP, and their combination, the level of MDA decreased by 0.76 fold, 0.49 fold, and 0.68 fold respectively in HeLa cells; and by 0.93 fold, 0.67 fold, and 0.79 fold respectively in SiHa cells, as compared to their controls; whereas catalase activity increased by 1.61 fold, 0.54 fold, and 2.35 fold, respectively in HeLa cells; and by 0.98 fold, 0.39 fold, and 1.85 fold respectively in SiHa cells. Conclusions: A decrease in level of lipid peroxidation and an increase in catalase activity were observed with Noni by itself and the effect ameliorated changes observed with cisplatin when given in combination.
Effects of Gastric Cancer Cells on the Differentiation of Treg Cells
Hu, Jing-Lan ; Yang, Zhen ; Tang, Jian-Rong ; Fu, Xue-Qin ; Yao, Lan-Jie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4607~4610
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4607
The aim of this study was evaluated the prevalence of Treg cells in peripheral blood in patients with gastric cancer, and investigate the effect of gastric cancer cells on their differentiation. ELISA was employed to assess the concentrations of TGF-
and IL-10 in gastric cancer patients' serum. Then, mouse gastric cancer cells were co-cultured with T lymphocytes or T lymphocytes + anti-TGF-
. Flow cytometric analysis and RT-PCR were then performed to detect Treg cells and TGF-
and IL-10 expression in gastric cancer cells. Our data showed that the expression of TGF-
and IL-10 in the patients with gastric cancer was increased compared to the case with healthy donors. The population of Treg cells and the expression levels of TGF-
and IL-10 in the co-culture group were much higher than in the control group (18.6% vs 9.5%) (P<0.05). Moreover, the population of Treg cells and the expression levels of TGF-
and IL-10 in the co-culture systerm were clearly decreased after addition of anti-TGF-
(7.7% vs 19.6%) (P<0.01). In conclusion, gastric cancer cells may induce Treg cell differentiation through TGF-
, and further promote immunosuppression.
Antioxidants May Protect Cancer Cells from Apoptosis Signals and Enhance Cell Viability
Akan, Zafer ; Garip, Ayse Inhan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4611~4614
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4611
Quercetin is one of the most abundant dietary flavonoids widely present in many fruits and vegetables. Previous in vitro studies has shown that quercetin acts as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and it has potent anticarcinogenic properties as an apoptosis inducer. In this study we examined apoptotic effects of quercetin on the K562 erythroleukemia cell line. K562 cells were induced to undergo apoptosis by hydrogen peroxide. Cell viability and apoptosis level were assessed by annexin V and PI staining methods using flow cytometry. Viability of K562 cells was increased by low dose of quercetin (5-100
) for 3 hours. High doses of quercetin proved toxic (100-500
, 24 hours) and resulted in decrease of K562 cell viability as expected (p<0.01). As to results, 100
quercetin was defined as a protective dose. Also, K562 cell apoptosis due to hydrogen peroxide was decreased in a dose dependent manner. As indicated in previous studies, reduction of superoxides by free radical scavengers like quercetin could be beneficial for prevention of cancer but consumption of such flavonoids during cancer treatment may weaken effects of chemotherapeutics and radiotherapy. Especially cancer patients should be carefully considered for traditional phytotherapy during cancer treatment, which can lead to controversial results.
The Synergistic Anticancer Effect of Artesunate Combined with Allicin in Osteosarcoma Cell Line in Vitro and in Vivo
Jiang, Wei ; Huang, Yong ; Wang, Jing-Peng ; Yu, Xiao-Yun ; Zhang, Lin-Yi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4615~4619
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4615
Background: Artesunate, extracted from Artemisia annua, has been proven to have anti-cancer potential. Allicin, diallyl thiosulfinate, the main biologically active compound derived from garlic, is also of interest in cancer treatment research. This object of this report was to document synergistic effects of artesunate combined with allicin on osteosarcoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Methods: After treatment with artesunate and allicin at various concentrations, the viability of osteosarcoma cells was analyzed by MTT method, with assessment of invasion and motility, colony formation and apoptosis. Western Blotting was performed to determine the expression of caspase-3/9, and activity was also detected after drug treatment. Moreover, in a nude mouse model established with orthotopic xenograft tumors, tumor weight and volume were monitored after drug administration via the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route. Results: The viability of osteosarcoma cells in the combination group was significantly decreased in a concentration and time dependent manner; moreover, invasion, motility and colony formation ability were significantly suppressed and the apoptotic rate was significantly increased through caspase-3/9 expression and activity enhancement in the combination group. Furthermore, suppression of tumor growth was evident in vivo. Conclusion: Our results indicated that artesunate and allicin in combination exert synergistic effects on osteosarcoma cell proliferation and apoptosis.
Mining Proteins Associated with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Complex Networks
Liu, Ying ; Liu, Chuan-Xia ; Wu, Zhong-Ting ; Ge, Lin ; Zhou, Hong-Mei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4621~4625
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4621
The purpose of this study was to construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network related to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Each protein was ranked and those most associated with OSCC were mined within the network. First, OSCC-related genes were retrieved from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. Then they were mapped to their protein identifiers and a seed set of proteins was built. The seed proteins were expanded using the nearest neighbor expansion method to construct a PPI network through the Online Predicated Human Interaction Database (OPHID). The network was verified to be statistically significant, the score of each protein was evaluated by algorithm, then the OSCC-related proteins were ranked. 38 OSCC related seed proteins were expanded to 750 protein pairs. A protein-protein interaction nerwork was then constructed and the 30 top-ranked proteins listed. The four highest-scoring seed proteins were SMAD4, CTNNB1, HRAS, NOTCH1, and four non-seed proteins P53, EP300, SMAD3, SRC were mined using the nearest neighbor expansion method. The methods shown here may facilitate the discovery of important OSCC proteins and guide medical researchers in further pertinent studies.
Protective Role of Aspirin, Vitamin C, and Zinc and their Effects on Zinc Status in the DMH-Induced Colon Carcinoma Model
Christudoss, Pamela ; Selvakumar, Ratnasamy ; Pulimood, Anna Benjamin ; Fleming, Jude Joseph ; Mathew, George ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4627~4634
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4627
Chemoprotection refers to the use of specific natural or synthetic chemical agents to suppress or prevent the progression to cancer. The purpose of this study is to assess the protective effect of aspirin, vitamin C or zinc in a dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) colon carcinoma model in rats and to investigate the effect of these supplements on changes associated with colonic zinc status. Rats were randomly divided into three groups, group 1 (aspirin), group 2 (vitamin C) and group 3 (zinc), each being subdivided into two groups and given subcutaneous injection of DMH (30 mg/kg body wt) twice a week for 3 months and sacrificed at 4 months (A-precancer model) and 6 months (B-cancer model). Groups 1, 2, 3 were simultaneously given aspirin, vitamin C, or zinc supplement respectively from the beginning till the end of the study. It was observed that 87.5% of rats co-treated with aspirin or vitamin C showed normal colonic histology, along with a significant decrease in colonic tissue zinc at both time points. Rats co-treated with zinc showed 100% reduction in tumor incidence with no significant change in colonic tissue zinc. Plasma zinc, colonic CuZnSOD (copper-zinc superoxide dismutase) and alkaline phosphatase activity showed no significant changes in all 3 cotreated groups. These results suggest that aspirin, vitamin C or zinc given separately, exert a chemoprotective effect against chemically induced DMH colonic preneoplastic progression and colonic carcinogenesis in rats. The inhibitory effects are associated with maintaining the colonic tissue zinc levels and zinc enzymes at near normal without significant changes.
Effects of Vinorelbine on Cisplatin Resistance Reversal in Human Lung Cancer A549/DDP Cells
Zhou, Yu-Ting ; Li, Kun ; Tian, Hui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4635~4639
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4635
Multi-drug resistance (MDR) is an essential aspect of human lung cancer chemotherapy failure. Recent studies have shown that vinorelbine is involved in underlying processes in human tumors, reversing the MDR inseveral types of cancer cells. However, the roles and potential mechanism are not fully clear. In this study, we explored effects of vinorelbine in multi-drug resistance reversal of human lung cancer A549/DDP cells. We found that vinorelbine increased drug sensitivity to cisplatin and intracellular accumulation of rhodamine-123, while decreasing expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multi-drug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) and glutathione-S-transferase
) in A549/DDP cells. At the same time, we also established downregulation of p-Akt and decreased transcriptional activation of NF-
and twist after vinorelbine treatment. The results indicated that vinorelbine might be used as a potential therapeutic strategy in human lung cancer.
Multidisciplinary Collaborative Therapy for 30 Children with Orbital Rhabdomyosarcoma
Ge, Xin ; Huang, Dong-Sheng ; Shi, Ji-Tong ; Ma, Jian-Min ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4641~4646
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4641
Objective: To explore clinical experience and propose new ideas for treating children diagnosed with orbital rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data for30 patients (16 males and 14 females, with a median age of 6.2 years) with primary orbital RMS who were enrolled in the Department of Eye Oncology and Pediatrics of our hospital from November 2004 to December 2012. International Rhabdomyosarcoma Organization Staging Standards indicated that among the 30 patients, 4 cases were in phase II, 20 were in phase III, and 6 were in phase IV. All patients underwent a multidisciplinary collaborative model of comprehensive treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, external radiotherapy,
radioactive particle implantation, and autologous peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation). Results: Follow-up was conducted until March 2013, with a median follow-up time of 47.2 months (5 to 95 months), and 7 deaths occurred. The 2-year estimated survival rate reached 86.1%, the
-year estimated survival rate was 77%, and the 5-year estimated survival rate was 70.6%. Conclusions: The multidisciplinary collaborative model can be a safe and effective approach to the comprehensive treatment of children with orbital RMS. It has clinical significance in improving the tumor remission rate.
Evaluation of BreastLight as a Tool for Early Detection of Breast Lesions among Females Attending National Cancer Institute, Cairo University
Labib, Nargis Albert ; Ghobashi, Maha Mohamed ; Moneer, Manar Mohamed ; Helal, Maha Hesien ; Abdalgaleel, Shaimaa Abdalaleem ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4647~4650
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4647
Background: Breast illumination was suggested as a simple method for breast cancer screening. BreastLight is a simple apparatus for this purpose. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of BreastLight as a screening tool of breast cancer in comparison to mammography and histopathology. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based cross sectional study was conducted in the mammography unit of the radiodiagnosis department at National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. All participants were subjected to breast examination with the BreastLight tool, mammography and ultrasonography. Suspicious cases were biopsied for histopathological examination which is considered as a gold standard. Results: The mean age of the participants was
years. Breast illumination method had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and total accuracy of 93.0%, 73.7%, 91.4%, 77.8% and 88.2%, respectively in detection of breast cancer. Conclusions: Breast illumination method with BreastLight apparatus is a promising easy-to-use tool to screen for breast cancer suitable for primary health care physician or at-home use. It needs further evaluation especially in asymptomatic women.
Chloroquine and Valproic Acid Combined Treatment in Vitro has Enhanced Cytotoxicity in an Osteosarcoma Cell Line
Wang, Chuan-Kun ; Yu, Xi-Dong ; Li, Qiang ; Xie, Gang ; Teng, Yue ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4651~4654
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4651
Choroquine (CQ) and valproic acid (VPA) have been extensively studied for biological effects. Here, we focused on efficacy of combined CQ and VPA on osteosarcoma cell lines. Viability of osteosarcoma cell lines (U20S and HOS) was analyzed by MTT assay. Apoptotic assays and colony formation assays were also applied. ROS generation and Western Blotting were performed to determine the mechanism of CQ and VPA combination in the process of apoptosis. The viability of different osteosarcoma cell lines significantly decreased after CQ and VPA combination treatment compared with either drug used alone, and apoptosis was increased significantly. ROS generation was triggered leading to expression of apoptosis related genes being increased and of antiapoptotic related genes being decreased. From our data shown here, CQ and VPA combination treatment in vitro enhanced cytotoxicy to osteosarcoma cells.
Experiences of Family of Patient with Newly Diagnosed Advanced Terminal Stage Hepatocellular Cancer
Shih, Whei-Mei Jean ; Hsiao, Ping-Ju ; Chen, Min-Li ; Lin, Mei-Hsiang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4655~4660
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4655
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide due to its generally poor prognosis. Caregiver burden for liver cancer cases is higher than with other cancer and needs especial attention. Methods: To explore the experiences of families of patients with newly diagnosed advanced terminal stage hepatocellular cancer by interview. Results: Nine participants were recruited in this study. Content analysis of the interviews revealed four themes: blaming oneself, disrupting the pace of life, searching all possible regimens, and not letting go. Conclusions: This study provides new insight into the needs and support of family members especially when they are facing loved ones with newly diagnosed advanced terminal stage HCC. These results will inform future supportive care service development and intervention research aimed at providing assistance in reducing unmet supportive care needs and psychological distress of these family members.
Survival Analysis in Advanced Non Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Platinum Based Chemotherapy in Combination with Paclitaxel, Gemcitabine and Etoposide
Natukula, Kirmani ; Jamil, Kaiser ; Pingali, Usha Rani ; Attili, Venkata Satya Suresh ; Madireddy, Umamaheshwar Rao Naidu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4661~4666
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4661
Background: The wide spectrum of clinical features in advanced stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) probably contributes to disparities in outcomes because of different prognostic variables significant for stage IIIB/IV patients. Hence the aim of this study was to check for favorable response of patients to various chemotherapeutic combinations with respect to patient survival in stage IIIB and stage IV NSCLC disease. We selected those patients for our study who were receiving treatment with paclitaxel, gemcitabine or etoposide in combination with platinum based drugs. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two patients who visited the hospital from June 2009 to November 2012 with confirmed diagnosis of lung cancer were included, and data were collected for follow up and classified according to treatment received with respect to patients' regimen and response, and overall survival. This study analyzed tumor variables that were associated with clinical outcome in advanced NSCLC patients who were undergoing first-line chemotherapy for stage IIIB/IV NSCLC. Results: Comparative data on various parameters like age, gender, stage, histology, site of disease, metastatic site and chemo-regimens was analyzed; these parameters predicted variable significant improvement for overall survival (
). One and two year survival rates were 20.8% and 15.3%. Conclusions: In this study we found slight improvement in survival rates in NSCLC and clinical outcomes with one combination (carboplatin+paclitaxel). Overall there were only marginal differences in survival rates for other chemo-regimens evaluated in this study.
Cigarette Smoking and Prostate Cancer Risk: Negative Results of the Seoul Male Cancer Cohort Study
Bae, Jong-Myon ; Li, Zhong-Min ; Shin, Myung-Hee ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Lee, Moo-Song ; Ahn, Yoon-Ok ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4667~4669
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4667
We evaluated cigarette smoking as a risk factor for prostate cancer in a prospective, population-based cohort study. The subjects were 14,450 males among the participants in the Seoul Male Cancer Cohort Study who had at least 1-year follow-up. They were followed up between 1993 and 2008. During the 16-year follow-up period, 87 cases of prostate cancer occurred over the 207,326 person-years of the study. The age-adjusted relative risks of past and current smokers at entry were 0.60 (95%CI: 0.34-1.06) and 0.70 (95%CI: 0.43-1.13), respectively, suggesting that cigarette smoking may not be a risk factor for prostate cancer. The relationship between prostate cancer and other modifiable factors, such as Westernized diet, should be studied with the goal of establishing prevention programs for prostate cancer.
Variation of Blood T Lymphocyte Subgroups in Patients with Non- small Cell Lung Cancer
Wang, Wen-Jing ; Tao, Zhen ; Gu, Wei ; Sun, Li-Hua ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4671~4673
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4671
Objectives: To study variation in T lymphocyte subgoups and its clinical significance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Levels of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, NK and Treg cells in peripheral blood of NSCLC cases and healthy adults were determined by flow cytometry. Results: CD3+, CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ ratio and NK cells in NSCLCs were decreased significantly in comparison with the control group (P < 0.01), and decreased with increase in the clinical stage of NSCLC, while CD8+ cells demonstrated no significant change (P > 0.05). Treg cells were significantly more frequent than in the control group (P < 0.01), and increased with the clinical stage of NSCLC. Conclusion: The cellular immune function of the NSCLC patients is lowered. It is important to detect change of T lymphocyte subgroups by flow cytometry for the diagnosis, treatment and prognostic assessment of NSCLC patients.
Effect of miR27a on Proliferation and Invasion in Colonic Cancer Cells
Gao, Yang ; Li, Bao-Dong ; Liu, Yong-Gang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4675~4678
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4675
The aim of this study was to detect the expression of miR196a, miR146a, miR27a and miR200a in patients with colon cancer, and investigate the effect of miR27a expression on proliferation and invasion in colonic cancer cells. RT-PCR was employed to detect the expression levels in colon cancers. Then, colon cancer cells were cultured and transfected with 100 nM of miR27a mimics (80 nmol/L) or 80 nM miR27a inhibitors (80 nmol/L) in 24-well plates. Proliferation and invasion of colonic cancer cells were then determined by CCK-8 and Transwell assays, respectively. Our data showed miR27a to be high-expressed in patients with colon cancer. In addition, proliferation and invasion in the miR27a mimic group were significantly higher than in the control group and negative group (P<0.05), while, proliferation and invasion in the miR27a inhibitor group were obviously lowered (P<0.05). In conclusion, high expression of miR27a may play an important role in enhancing proliferation and invasion of colon cancer cells.
ERCC1 Expression Does Not Predict Survival and Treatment Response in Advanced Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cases Treated with Platinum Based Chemotherapy
Ozdemir, Ozer ; Ozdemir, Pelin ; Veral, Ali ; Uluer, Hatice ; Ozhan, Mustafa Hikmet ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4679~4683
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4679
Background: ERCC1 is considered as a promising molecular marker that may predict platinum based chemotherapy response in non small cell lung cancer patients. We therefore investigated whether its expression is indeed associated with clinical outcomes in advanced stage NSCLC patients. Materials and Methods: Pretreatment tumor biopsy samples of 83 stage 3B and 4 non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with platinum based chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed for immunohistochemical ERCC1 expression. None of the patients received curative surgery or radiotherapy. Results: By calculating H- scores regarding the extent and intensity of immunohistochemical staining of tumor biopsy samples, ERCC1 expression was found to be positive in 50 patients (60.2%). ERCC1 positive and negative groups had no statistically significant differences regarding treatment response, progression free survival and overall survival (respectively p=0.161; p=0.412; p=0.823). Conclusions: In our study we found no association between ERCC1 expression and survival or treatment response. The study has some limitations, such as small sample size and retrospective analysis method. There is need of more knowledge for use of ERCC1 guided chemotherapy regimens in advanced stage NSCLC.
Autophagy Inhibition Sensitizes Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in Human Gastric Cancer Cell Line Sgc7901
Zhang, Hui-Qing ; He, Bo ; Fang, Nian ; Lu, Shan ; Liao, Yu-Qian ; Wan, Yi-Ye ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4685~4688
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4685
We aimed to investigate the mechanism and effects of autophagy on cisplatin (DDP)-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901. After SGC7901 cells were treated with DDP and/or chloroquine, cell proliferation was measured using MTT assay; cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry; autophagy and apotosis-related proteins expression were detected by Western blot; and quantitative analysis of autophagy after monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining was performed using fluorescence microscopy. We found after treatment with 5 mg/L DDP for 24 h, the rates of cell apoptosis were (
)%. Autophagy, characterized by an increase in the number of autophagic vesicles and the level of LC3-II protein was observed in cells treated with DDP. After inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine, the rates of cell apoptosis were increased to (
)%, and the level of Caspase-3 and P53 protein were increased, and Bcl-2 protein was decreased. Therefore, autophagy protects human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 against DDP-induced apoptosis, inhibition of autophagy can promote apoptosis, and combination therapy with DDP and chloroquine may be a promising therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer.
Ultrasound Score to Select Subcentimeter-sized Thyroid Nodules Requiring Ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy in Eastern China
Cheng, Pu ; Chen, En-Dong ; Zheng, Hua-Min ; He, Qiu-Xiang ; Li, Quan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4689~4692
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4689
Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a costly diagnostic item with a low yield in identifying the tiny proportion of nodules that actually represent malignant disease. Our aim through this study was to obtain an ultrasound (US) score for selecting subcentimeter-sized thyroid nodules requiring FNAB in eastern China. Some 248 patients for a total of 270 thyroid nodules less than 1 cm in diameter underwent FNAB and subsequent surgery from January 2006 to March 2012 at our hospital. The clinicopathological and US data from all the nodules were analyzed retrospectively. An US score was developed on the basis of independent predictive factors for malignancy. Irregular shape, hypoechogenicity, no well-defined margin, presence of calcifications and ratio between antero-posterior and transversal diameters (AP/TR)
were independent predictive factors for malignancy on logistic regression analysis. US score were statistically significant, with
favoring benignancy with an 80.3% sensitivity and a 72.7% specificity. US score is useful for differentiating between malignant and benign subcentimeter-sized thyroid nodules. We suggest FNAB for nodules when the US score is higher than 2.
Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Malignant Transformation Arising from Mature Cystic Teratoma of the Ovary: Experience at a Single Institution
Oranratanaphan, Shina ; Khemapech, Nipon ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4693~4697
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4693
Background: Malignant transformation arising in mature cystic teratoma (MCT) is one of the most serious complications of MCT. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant change. Some clinical findings such as advanced age group and large tumor size are significant risk factors of malignant transformation. This study was conducted in order to evaluate characteristics, cell types, treatment and outcome of malignant transformation arising from dermoid cysts in our institution. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed. General characteristics, operative data, procedure, operative finding and operative outcome were analyzed. Statistical assessment was performed with SPSS version 17.0, using mean, mode, median and percentage to describe those data. Results: During the 10 years period, 11 cases of malignant transformation from a total of 753 cases (1.46% incidence) of MCT were reviewed. Mean age of the patients was 41.2 years (SD 4.34, range 24-70). The most common presenting symptom was a palpable mass (8 cases; 72.7%). Primary surgical staging was performed in 4 patients (36.4%). Re-staging was conducted in the other 4. Complete cytoreduction was obtained in 45.5% (5 cases) and optimal surgical resection was obtained in 36.4% (4 cases). Mean tumor size was 14.1 cm. (SD 1.55, range 6-20). Squamous cell carcinoma was found in 36.4% (4 cases) and mucinous cancer in the other 4. More than half of them were stage Ia (54.5%, 6 cases). All patients whose stage more than Ia received chemotherapy (45.5%). Mean disease free survival was 5.53 years (1.32, 0.3-10). Conclusion: According to our study, the incidence of malignant transformation was consistent with previous studies. The common malignant transformation histologic types are both squamous and mucinous carcinoma which differed from previous reports. Early detection for early stage disease and optimal surgery are important for long term survival.
Limited Diagnostic Value of microRNAs for Detecting Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-analysis
Zhou, Xuan-Jun ; Dong, Zhao-Gang ; Yang, Yong-Mei ; Du, Lu-Tao ; Zhang, Xin ; Wang, Chuan-Xin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4699~4704
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4699
Background: MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to play important roles in the development and progression of colorectal cancer. Several studies utilizing microRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) have been reported. The aim of this meta-analysis was to comprehensively and quantitatively summarize the diagnostic value of microRNAs for detecting colorectal cancer. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library for published studies that used microRNAs as biomarkers for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Summary estimates for sensitivity, specificity and other measures of accuracy of microRNAs in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer were calculated using the bivariate random effects model. A summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve was also generated to summarize the overall effectiveness of the test. Result: Thirteen studies from twelve published articles met the inclusion criteria and were included. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic odd ratio of microRNAs for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer were 0.81 (95%CI: 0.79-0.84), 0.78 (95%CI: 0.75-0.82), 4.14 (95%CI: 2.90-5.92), 0.24 (95%CI: 0.19-0.30), and 19.2 (95%CI: 11.7-31.5), respectively. The area under the SROC curve was 0.89. Conclusions: The current evidence suggests that the microRNAs test might not be used alone as a screening tool for CRC. Combining microRNAs testing with other conventional tests such as FOBT may improve the diagnostic accuracy for detecting CRC.
Community Health Worker Hepatitis B Education for Cambodian American Men and Women
Taylor, Victoria Mary ; Burke, Nancy Jean ; Sos, Channdara ; Do, Huyen Hoai ; Liu, Qi ; Yasui, Yutaka ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4705~4709
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4705
Background: Cambodian Americans have high rates of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver cancer. There is very limited information about the utility of community health worker (CHW) approaches to cancer education for Asian American men. We have previously reported our positive findings from a trial of CHW education about HBV for Cambodian Americans who had never been tested for HBV. This report describes similarities and differences between the outcomes of our CHW HBV educational intervention among Cambodian American men and women. Methods: The study group for this analysis included 87 individuals (39 men and 48 women) who were randomized to the experimental (HBV education) arm of our trial, participated in the CHW educational intervention, and provided follow-up data six months post-intervention. We examined HBV testing rates at follow-up, changes in HBV-related knowledge between baseline and follow-up, and barriers to HBV testing (that were reported to CHWs) by gender. Results: At follow-up, 15% of men and 31% of women reported they had received a HBV test (p=0.09). HBV-related knowledge levels increased significantly among both men and women. With respect to HBV testing barriers, women were more likely than men to cite knowledge deficits, and men were more likely than women to cite logistic issues. Discussion: Our study findings indicate that CHW interventions can positively impact knowledge among Cambodian American men, as well as women. They also suggest CHW interventions may be less effective in promoting the use of preventive procedures by Cambodian American men than women. Future CHW research initiatives should consider contextual factors that may differ by gender and, therefore, potentially influence the relative effectiveness of CHW interventions for men versus women.
Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy Combined with Endocrine Therapy for Intermediate and Advanced Prostate Cancer: Long-term Outcome of Chinese Patients
Luo, Hua-Chun ; Cheng, Hui-Hua ; Lin, Gui-Shan ; Fu, Zhi-Chao ; Li, Dong-Shi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4711~4715
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4711
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate acute adverse events and efficacy of three-dimensional intensitymodulated radiotherapy (IMRT) combined with endocrine therapy for intermediate and advanced prostate cancer. Methods: Sixty-seven patients were treated with three-dimensional IMRT combined with maximum androgen blockade. The correlation between radiation-induced rectal injury and clinical factors was further analyzed. Results: After treatment, 21 patients had complete remission (CR), 37 had partial remission (PR), and nine had stable disease (SD), with an overall response rate of 86.5%. The follow-up period ranged from 12.5 to 99.6 months. Thirty-nine patients had a follow-up time of
five years. In this group, three-year and five-year overall survival rates were 89% and 89.5%, respectively; three-year and five-year progression-free survival rates were 72% and 63%. In univariate analyses, gross tumor volume was found to be prognostic for survival (
= 5.70, P = 0.037). Rates of leucopenia and anemia were 91.1% and 89.5%, respectively. Two patients developed acute liver injury, and a majority of patients developed acute radiation proctitis and cystitis, mainly grade 1/2. Tumor volume before treatment was the only prognostic factor influencing the severity of acute radiation proctitis (P < 0.05). Conclusions: IMRT combined with endocrine therapy demonstrated promising efficacy and was well tolerated in patients with intermediate and advanced prostate cancer.
An Australian Retrospective Study to Evaluate the Prognostic Role of p53 and eIF4E Cancer Markers in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC): Study Protocol
Singh, Jagtar ; Jayaraj, Rama ; Baxi, Siddhartha ; Mileva, Mariana ; Curtin, Justin ; Thomas, Mahiban ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4717~4721
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4717
Complete surgical resection of the primary tumour is a crucial predictive step for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), because incomplete resection may lead to increase in the recurrence rate. Molecular cancer markers have been investigated as potential predictors of prognosis marker, to identify patients who are at high risk of local recurrence. This retrospective study aimed to determine the prognostic correlation between p53 and eIF4E expression and clinical characteristics, recurrence and overall survival. Forty eight HNSCC patients were selected between 2006 and 2009 diagnosed at the Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Out of 48, only those 24 with negative surgical margins with hematoxylin and eosin (HandE) were chosedn for further analysis. A total of 77 surgical margins were obtained and subsequently analysed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining with monoclonal p53 and polyclonal eIF4E antibodies. Contingency table and
-test were used to investigate the correlation between p53 and eIF4E expression and clinical characteristics, recurrence and overall survival of the HNSCC patients. The follow up period was 74 months (range 1-74 months). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to generate recurrence and survival curves. This is a first retrospective study of Northern Territory patients, including Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Molecular study of surgical margins could help to identify patients with and without clear margins after surgery and help in choice of the most appropriate adjuvant treatment for HNSCC patients.
Age at Diagnosis in Bladder Cancer: Does Opium Addiction Play a Role?
Karbakhsh, Mojgan ; Dabbagh, Najmeh ; Shabani, Azadeh ; Tabibi, Ali ; Akhavizadegan, Hamed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4723~4725
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4723
Background: Bladder cancer is a major health problem, especially among men. Opium addiction can be an important risk factor. One important question is whether it can affect the age of onset of bladder cancer. We performed this study to evaluate this question. Materials and Methods: In a cross-section study, records of patients diagnosed with bladder carcinoma in Shahid Labbafinejad Medical Center, within 1999-2008 were included. Data were extracted from records regarding age at onset, gender, smoking status, and opioid addiction and analyzed with SPSS 13. Results: Within 10 years, 920 cases were diagnosed with bladder cancer of which 97 percent were transitional cell carcinoma. In 698 cases, opium addiction status was recorded in 21.3% (n=149). Age at diagnosis was
(median: 60) among opioid addicts which was significantly lower than nonaddicts (
, Median: 65) (P<0.001). Conclusions: Opium addiction can decrease the age of onset of bladder cancer.
Pyogenic Liver Abscess as a Warning Sign for Primary Liver Cancer: A Nationwide Population-based Study
Huang, Wen-Kuan ; Lin, Yung-Chang ; Chiou, Meng-Jiun ; Yang, Tsai-Sheng ; Chang, John Wen-Cheng ; Yu, Kuang-Hui ; Kuo, Chang-Fu ; See, Lai-Chu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4727~4731
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4727
Background: There have been no large-scale population-based studies to estimate the subsequent risk of primary liver cancer (PLC) among patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). This study aimed to provide relevant data. Materials and Methods: The Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database for the years 2000 and 2005 was used. The PLA group were adult inpatients who were newly diagnosed with PLA from 2000 to 2008. The control group was randomly selected and matched with the PLA group in terms of age, sex, and date in which medical treatment was sought other than for PLA. Results: There were 1,987 patients each in the PLA and control groups. In total, 56 had PLC, 48 (2.4%, 601.5 per 100,000 person-years) from the PLA group, and 8 from the control group. After adjusting for potential covariates, the hazard ratio of PLC for the PLA group was 3.4 times that of the control group (95% confidence interval = 1.6-7.3, p <0.001). The PLC risk for the PLA group was significantly higher within the first year after PLA diagnosis (hazard ratio: 35.4) as compared with the control group and became insignificant (hazard ratio: 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.8-4.9) more than one year after PLA diagnosis. Conclusions: Patients with PLA have a higher rate of PLC than matched controls, especially within the first year after the diagnosis of PLA, suggesting PLA is a warning sign for PLC.
Breastfeeding and the Risk of Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Wang, Ke-Lai ; Liu, Chun-Lan ; Zhuang, Yan ; Qu, Hong-Yi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4733~4737
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4733
Purpose: Numerous observational epidemiological studies have evaluated associations between breastfeeding and the risk of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma; however, the existing results are inconsistent. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: Medical literature was searched in the Pubmed and Embase databases to identify all English-language relevant studies up to April 10, 2013. Reference lists were thereafter hand-searched for additional articles. Studies that reported relative risk ratios (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were included. This meta-analysis was conducted in accordance with the guidelines for the meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology. Results: We finally included 10 case-control studies in our meta-analysis, involving 1,618 childhood Hodgkin lymphoma cases and 8,181 controls. Overall, we did found a borderline significant association between breastfeeding and reduced risk of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma comparing ever breastfed children to never breastfed children (pooled OR =0.79; 95%CI, 0.58-1.08; P=0.13), with limited evidence for between-study heterogeneity (P =0.12,
= 35.70%). Conclusion: There is limited evidence for an inverse association between breastfeeding and risk of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma.
GSTT1 null and MPO -463G>A Polymorphisms and Carboplatin Toxicity in an Indian Population
Bag, Arundhati ; Pant, Nirdosh Kumar ; Jeena, Lalit Mohan ; Bag, Niladri ; Jyala, Narayan Singh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4739~4742
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4739
Carboplatin, a second generation platinum drug, is widely used to treat different types of cancers. However, myelosuppression remains a major consideration in its use. Genetic polymorphisms of enzymes involved in drug disposition can influence therapeutic outcome. The homozygous null deletion of phase II metabolic gene GSTT1 that abolishes its xenobiotic- detoxifying ability may be associated with carboplatin toxicity. Further, since carboplatin generates oxidative stress, polymorphisms of oxidative stress genes that regulate the cellular level of free radicals may have important roles in generating drug- related adverse effects. We here investigated the null polymorphism of GSTT1, and the -463G>A promoter polymorphism of oxidative stress gene myeloperoxidase (MPO) for carboplatin toxicity in a population of northern India. Cancer patients who were treated with carboplatin, and developed toxicity was considered. The study group comprised of 10 patients who developed therapy- related adverse effects. Peripheral blood was taken from patients for DNA isolation. GSTT1 null genotype was determined by conducting duplex PCR and MPO-463 G>A was determined by PCR followed by RFLP. Hematologic toxicity was experienced by 5 patients, 2 of them had grade 3 and 4 toxicity and 3 others had grade 2 toxicity. They also had gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Remaining 5 individuals developed GI toxicity but no hematological toxicity. While GG homozygous of MPO was present in majority of patients having hematologic toxicity (in 4 out of 5 individuals), one A allele (AG genotype) was present in 4 patients who did not have any hematological toxicity. Thus variant A allele of MPO -463G>A may be related to lower hematological toxicity. These preliminary data, however, are required to be confirmed in larger studies along with other relevant polymorphisms.
Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Osteoporosis among Korean Cancer Survivors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys
Choi, Kyung-Hyun ; Park, Sang Min ; Park, Joo-Sung ; Park, Jae-Hyun ; Kim, Kyae Hyung ; Kim, Myung-Ju ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4743~4750
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4743
Background: Identifying and managing osteoporosis among cancer survivors is an important issue, yet little is known about the bone health of cancer survivors in Korea. This study was designed to measure the prevalence of osteoporosis and to assess related factors among Korean cancer survivors. Materials and Methods: This study was designed as a cross-sectional analysis. Data were obtained from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measurement of the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck, and from standardized questionnaires among 556 cancer survivors and 17,623 non-cancer controls who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2011). We calculated adjusted proportions of osteoporosis in non-cancer controls vs. cancer survivors, and we performed multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of osteoporosis among cancer survivors was significant higher than that of the non-cancer controls after adjusting for related factors. Furthermore, osteoporosis among cancer survivors was higher in elderly subjects (60-69 years : adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.04, 95% CI : 1.16-8.00,
years : aOR 6.60, 95% CI 2.20-19.79), in female cancer survivors (aOR: 7.03, 95% CI: 1.88-26.28), and in a group with lower monthly income (aOR: 3.38, 95% CI: 1.31-8.71). In male cancer survivors, underweight and lower calcium intake were risk factors. Conclusions: These data suggest that the osteoporosis among cancer survivors varies according to non-oncologic and oncologic factors. Effective screening should be applied, and a sufficient and comprehensive management should be matched to individual cancer survivors early after cancer treatment.
Does Immunohistochemistry Provide Additional Prognostic Data in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?
Demir, Lutfiye ; Ekinci, Nese ; Erten, Cigdem ; Kucukzeybek, Yuksel ; Alacacioglu, Ahmet ; Somali, Isil ; Can, Alper ; Dirican, Ahmet ; Bayoglu, Vedat ; Akyol, Murat ; Cakalagaoglu, Fulya ; Tarhan, Mustafa Oktay ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4751~4758
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4751
Background: To investigate the predictive and prognostic effects of clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) features in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). Materials and Methods: Fifty-six patients who were diagnosed with GIST between 2002 and 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Relationships between clinicopathologic/immunohistochemical factors and prognosis were investigated. Results: Median overall survival (OS) of the whole study group was 74.9 months (42.8-107.1 months), while it was 95.2 months in resectable and 44.7 months in metastatic patients respectively (p=0.007). Epitheliolid tumor morphology was significantly associated with shortened OS as compared to other histologies (p=0.001). SMA(+) tumours were significantly correlated with low (<10/50HPF) mitotic activity (p=0.034). Moreover, SMA(+) patients tended to survive longer and had significantly longer disease-free survival (DFS) times than SMA (-) patients (37.7 months vs 15.9 months; p=0.002). High Ki-67 level (
) was significantly associated with shorter OS (34 vs 95.2 months; 95%CI; p=0.001). CD34 (-) tumours were significantly associated with low proliferative tumours (Ki-67<%10) (p=0.026). Median PFS (progression-free survival) of the patients who received imatinib was 36 months (27.7-44.2 months). CD34 (-) patients had significantly longer PFS times than that of negative tumours; (50.8 vs 29.8 months; p=0.045). S100 and desmin expression did not play any role in predicting the prognosis of GISTs. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that
mitotic activity/HPF was the only independent factor for risk of death in GIST patients. Conclusions: Despite the negative prognostic and predictive effect of high Ki-67 and CD34 expression, mitotic activity remains the strongest prognostic factor in GIST patients. SMA positivity seems to affect GIST prognosis positively. However, large-scale, multicenter studies are required to provide supportive data for these findings.
Risk Factors for Early and Late Intrahepatic Recurrence in Patients with Single Hepatocellular Carcinoma Without Macrovascular Invasion after Curative Resection
Li, Shu-Hong ; Guo, Zhi-Xing ; Xiao, Cheng-Zuo ; Wei, Wei ; Shi, Ming ; Chen, Zhi-Yuan ; Cai, Mu-Yan ; Zheng, Lie ; Guo, Rong-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4759~4763
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4759
Background: Prognostic factors of postoperative early and late recurrence in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undergoing curative resection remain to be clarified. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for postoperative early (
2 year) and late (> 2 year) intrahepatic recurrences in patients with single HCCs without macrovascular invasion. Methods: A total of 280 patients from December 2004 to December 2007 were retrospectively included in this study. Intrahepatic recurrence was classified into early (
2 year) and late (> 2 year) and the Chi-Square test or Fisher's exact test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to determine significant risk factors. Results: During the follow-up, 124 patients had intrahepatic recurrence, early and late in 82 and 42 patients, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that microvascular invasion (p=0.006, HR: 2.397, 95% CI: 1.290-4.451) was the only independent risk factor for early recurrence, while being female (p = 0.031, HR: 0.326, 95% CI: 0.118-0.901), and having a high degree of cirrhosis (P=0.001, HR: 2.483, 95% CI: 1.417-4.349) were independent risk factors for late recurrence. Conclusions: Early and late recurrence of HCC is linked to different risk factors in patients with single HCC without macrovascular invasion. This results suggested different emphases of strategies for prevent of recurrence after curative resection, more active intervention including adjuvant therapy, anti-cirrhosis drugs and careful follow-up being necessary for patients with relevant risk factors.
Research on the Relationship Between Serum Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines and Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
Song, Xiao-Yun ; Zhou, Shi-Jie ; Xiao, Ning ; Li, Yun-Song ; Zhen, De-Zhi ; Su, Chong-Yu ; Liu, Zhi-Dong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4765~4768
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4765
Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the levels of TNF-
, IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF in serum of patients with non- small cell lung cancer, for assessing their possible diagnostic and prognostic roles. Methods: We enrolled 48 patients newly diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer and 40 healthy controls. TNF-
, IL-6 and IL-8 levels were measured in the serum of all the subjects with specific radioimmunoassay kits, while EGF was analyzed by sandwich enzyme immunoassay techniques. Results: A statistically significant difference was observed between lung cancer patients and the control group regarding the values of TNF-
, IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF in serum. Moreover, TNF-
, IL-8 and VEGF levels were higher in patients with advanced stages compared to early stages. In addition, higher serum levels of TNF-
, IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF were found in smokers than in non-smokers, both in patients and controls. Conclusion: Serum levels of TNF-
, IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF were all elevated in lung cancer patients, suggesting that inflammatory cytokines could be jointly used as a screening tool. Though TNF-
, IL-8 and VEGF levels were related to advanced disease, long-term survival studies of NSCLC patients should be performed to confirm whether they can act as biomarkers of advanced disease. In addition, smoking would be an important contributor to the processes of inflammation and lung cancer.
Overall Survival of Filipino Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: A Single-Institution Experience
Albano, Pia Marie ; Lumang-Salvador, Christianne ; Orosa, Jose ; Racelis, Sheryl ; Leano, Modesty ; Angeles, Lara Mae ; Ramos, John Donnie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4769~4774
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4769
This paper is the first to present the incidence and overall survival of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) from the extreme northern part of the Philippines. We retrospectively retrieved the records of patients with histologically-confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx at the Mariano Marcos Memorial Hospital and Medical Center, Ilocos Norte, Philippines, from 2003 to 2012 and analysed prognostic factors associated with survival. Of the 150 cases, only 80 (53.3%) were still living when the study was terminated. Median age at initial diagnosis was 61.5 years and the male to female ratio was 7:3. The majority of the cases had tumours in the oral cavity (50.7%), followed by the larynx (36.7%). Sex (log rank=1.94, p value/
=0.16), tumor site (log rank=0.02, p value/
=0.90), tumor grade (log rank=1.74, p value/
=0.42), and node stage (log rank=0.07, p value/
=0.80) were not shown to be associated with the survival of our cases. Only 45 (30.0%) had no regional lymph node involvement (N0) at presentation and 12 (8.0%) had already developed distant metastases. Among the 150 patients, 71 (47.3%) were not able to receive treatment of any kind. Oddly, treatment (log rank=1.65, p value/
=0.20) was also shown to be not associated with survival. The survival rate of those who underwent surgery, radiotherapy, or both was not statistically different from those who did not receive any treatment. Only the tumor stage (log rank=4.51, p value/
=0.03) was associated with patient survival. The overall mean survival was 49.3 months, with survival rate diminishing from 88.3% during the 1st year to 1.80% by end of the study. This relatively low survival rate of our cases only reflects their poor access to quality diagnostic and treatment facilities.
GPR48 Promotes Multiple Cancer Cell Proliferation via Activation of Wnt Signaling
Zhu, Yong-Bin ; Xu, Lin ; Chen, Ming ; Ma, Hai-Na ; Lou, Fang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4775~4778
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4775
The key signaling networks regulating cancer cell proliferation remain to be defined. The leucine-rich repeat containing G-protein coupled receptor 48 (GPR48) plays an important role in multiple organ development. In the present study, we investigated whether GPR48 functions in cancer cells using MCF-7, HepG2, NCI-N87 and PC-3 cells. We found that GPR48 overexpression promotes while its knockdown using small interfering RNA oligos inhibits cell proliferation. In addition, Wnt/
-catenin signaling was activated in cells overexpressing GPR48. Therefore, our results indicated that GPR48 activates Wnt/
-catenin signaling to regulate cancer cell proliferation.
Subtypes of White Blood Cells in Patients with Prostate Cancer or Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Healthy Individuals
Cihan, Yasemin Benderli ; Arslan, Alaettin ; Ergul, Mehmet Ali ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4779~4783
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4779
Background: This study aimed to evaluate the baseline white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, basophil, eosinophil count, total prostate-specific antigen (TPSA), free PSA (FPSA) level, neutrophilto- lymphocyte and neutrophil-to-monocyte ratios among patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), as well as healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: 2005-2012 laboratory files of 160 patients with prostate cancer at Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Oncology Outpatient Clinic, 285 patients who were pathologically diagnosed with BPH in Urology Outpatient Clinic and 200 healthy individuals who were admitted to Internal Medicine Outpatient Clinic were retrospectively analyzed. Baseline WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, basophil, eosinophil count, TPSA, FPSA level, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and neutrophil-to-monocyte ratio were recorded and compared across groups. Results: Patients with prostate cancer had a lower lymphocyte level compared to the patients with BPH and healthy controls (p<0.001). The mean monocyte count, leukocyte-to-monocyte ratio, and leukocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio were higher in patients with prostate cancer, but without significance. The mean WBC and leukocyte count were lower in patients with prostate cancer, but again without statistical significance (p=0.130). The mean TPSA and FPSA were 39.4 and 5.67, respectively in patients with prostate cancer, while they were 5.78 and 1.28 in patients with BPH. There was a significant difference in the mean TPSA and FPSA levels between the patient groups (p<0.001). Conclusions: Our study results showed that patients with prostate cancer had a lower level of lymphocytes, neutrophils and WBCs and a higher level of monocytes with a significant difference in lymphocyte count, compared to healthy controls. We suggest that lymphocyte count may be used in combination with other parameters in the diagnosis of prostate cancer, thanks to its ease of assessment.
Alcohol Consumption and Breast Cancer Survival: A Metaanalysis of Cohort Studies
Gou, Yun-Jiu ; Xie, Ding-Xiong ; Yang, Ke-Hu ; Liu, Ya-Li ; Zhang, Jian-Hua ; Li, Bin ; He, Xiao-Dong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4785~4790
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4785
Background and Objectives: Evidence for associations between alcohol consumption with breast cancer survival are conflicting, so we conducted the present meta-analysis. Methods: Comprehensive searches were conducted to find cohort studies that evaluated the relationship between alcohol consumption with breast cancer survival. Data were analyzed with meta-analysis software. Results: We included 25 cohort studies. The meta-analysis results showed that alcohol consumption was not associated with increased breast cancer mortality and recurrence after pooling all data from highest versus lowest comparisons. Subgroup analyses showed that pre-diagnostic or post-diagnostic consumpotion, and ER status did not affect the relationship with breast cancer mortality and recurrence. Although the relationships of different alcohol consumption with breast cancer mortality and recurrence were not significant, there seemed to be a dose-response relationship of alcohol consumption with breast cancer mortality and recurrence. Only alcohol consumption of >20 g/d was associated with increased breast cancer mortality, but not with increased breast cancer recurrence. Conclusion: Although our meta-analysis showed alcohol drinking was not associated with increased breast cancer mortality and recurrence, there seemed to be a dose-response relationship of alcohol consumption with breast cancer mortality and recurrence and alcohol consumption of >20 g/d was associated with increased breast cancer mortality.
Phase II Study on Javanica Oil Emulsion Injection (Yadanzi
) Combined with Chemotherapy in Treating Patients with Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma
Lu, Yan-Yan ; Huang, Xin-En ; Cao, Jie ; Xu, Xia ; Wu, Xue-Yan ; Liu, Jin ; Xiang, Jin ; Xu, Lin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4791~4794
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4791
Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of Javanica oil emulsion injection (Yadanzi
) combined with pemetrexed and platinum (PP) for treating patients with advanced lung cancer. Patients and Methods: From June 2011 to June 2013, we recruited 58 patients with advanced lung cancer, and divided them into two groups. Twenty eight patients received Yadanzi
(from ZheJiang Jiuxu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.) together with PP chemotherapy (combined group), while the others were given only PP chemotherapy (control group). After two cycles of treatment, efficacy and safety of treatment were evaluated. Results: The overall respnse rate [(CR+PR+SD)/(CR+PR+SD+PD)] of the combined group was higher than that of control group (89.7% vs. 86.2%, p>0.05). Regarding rate of life improvement, it was 82.8% in combined group, and 51.7% in the control group (p<0.05). In terms of side effects, leukopenia in combined group was less frequent than that in control group (p<0.05). More patients in the control group were found to suffer liver toxicity. Conclusions: Javanica oil emulsion injection combined with chemotherapy could be considered as a safe and effective regimen in treating patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. It can improve the quality of life and reduce the possibility of leukopenia. Further clinical trials with a large sample size should be conducted to confirm whether addition of Yadanzi
to chemotherapy could increase the response rate, reduce toxicity, enhance tolerability and improve quality of life for patients with advanced lung cancer.
Challenges in Volunteering from Cancer Care Volunteers Perspectives
Kamaludin, Kauthar Mohamad ; Muhammad, Mazanah ; Abdul Wahat, Nor Wahiza ; Ibrahim, Rahimah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4795~4800
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4795
The involvement of non-government organizations (NGOs) and support groups has helped strengthen public health services in addressing cancer care burden. Owing to the contribution of volunteers in cancer care, this article documents a qualitative study that examined challenges in attracting and retaining cancer care volunteers as part of the effort to develop a volunteer recruitment model. Data were collected through three focus group discussions involving 19 cancer support group members in Malaysia. Findings of the study revealed that mobility and locality appeared to be significant in Malaysian context, while the need for financial support and time flexibility are challenges faced by cancer support groups to attract and retain volunteers. The findings imply that cancer care initiatives can benefit from more local volunteers but at the same time these volunteers require flexibility and financial support to sustain their engagement.
Clinical Study on Mannan Peptide Combined with TP Regimen in Treating Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
Yan, Huai-An ; Shen, Kang ; Huang, Xin-En ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4801~4804
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4801
Purpose: To investigate short-term response rate, quality of life and toxicities of mannan peptide combined with TP regimen in treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: Forty one patients with NSCLC were divided into an experimental group treated with TP regimen combined with mannan peptide (21 patients) and a control group treated with TP alone (20 patients). Results: Response rates were 61.9% (13/21) for the experimental and 60% (12/20) for the control group (p>0.05). Regarding toxicity, white blood cell decreased more frequently in the control group (65%, 13/20) than in the experimental group (33.3%, 7/21) (p<0.05); nausea and vomiting also occurred more frequently in the control group (55%, 11/20 vs 23.8%, 5/21) (p<0.05). In terms of quality of life, this index was improved by 57.1% (12/21) and 25% (5/20) in experimental and control groups, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusions: Response rate of TP after combined with mannan peptide is mildly increased, while this combination alleviates bone marrow suppression as well as nausea and vomiting of TP, and improves quality of life when treating patients with NSCLC. However, this conclusion should be confirmed by randomized clinical trails.
Evaluation of Quality of Life in Turkish Patients with Head and Neck Cancer
Akkas, Ebru Atasever ; Yucel, Birsen ; Kilickap, Saadettin ; Altuntas, Emine Elif ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4805~4809
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4805
Background: In this study, our aim was to investigate the effect of factors, such as radiotherapy, the dose of radiotherapy, the region of radiotherapy, the age of the patient, performance, co-morbidity, the stage of the disease and the therapy modalities on the quality of life of patients with head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: Eighty-two patients who were treated by either chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy, at the Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, between February 2007 and September 2010, for head and neck cancer were included. The quality of life European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Questionnaire module to be used in Quality of Life assessments in Head and Neck Cancer (EORTC QLQ-H&N35) questionnaire was conducted in all patients before starting the radiotherapy, in the middle, at the end, at 1 month and at 6 months after the treatment. Results: According to the questionnaires at the end and at the
month after the radiotherapy, it was found that the age of the patient, co-morbidity, ECOG performance state, localization, type of treatment, the stage of the disease, the dose and the region of radiotherapy affect some of the symptom scales for quality of life. Conclusions: Quality of life was affected negatively during and after the radiotherapy. However, in the
month after the therapy, a significant improvement was observed in most symptoms.
Significance of Blood Group and Social Factors in Carcinoma Cervix in a Semi-Urban Population in India
Lee, Jun Kai ; Raju, Kalyani ; Lingaiah, Harendra Kumar Malligere ; Mariyappa, Narayanaswamy ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4811~4814
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4811
Background: To assess the significance of social factors as risk factors for carcinoma cervix and to determine the significance of blood group to prevalence of carcinoma cervix in a semi-urban population of Kolar, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: One hundred cases of carcinoma cervix were included in the study, along with 200 females of the same ages considered as controls. Case details were collected from the hospital record section regarding social factors and blood groups and the data were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods. Results: Blood group B showed the highest number of cases (55 cases) followed by blood group O (29 cases) in carcinoma cervix which was statistically significant (p<0.001). Age of marriage between 11 to 20 years showed highest number of carcinoma cervix cases (77 cases) and this also was statistically significant (p<0.001). Patients with rural background were 75 (p=0.112, odds ratio: 1.54), parity of more than or equal to two constituted 96 cases (p=0.006, odds ratio: 4.07) and Hindu patients were 95 in number (p=0.220, odds ratio: 1.89). Conclusions: Blood group B and age of marriage between 11 and 20 years were significantly associated with carcinoma cervix in our population. Region of residence, parity and religion presented with a altered risk for carcinoma cervix.
Diagnostic Value of Protein Ki67 (MIB-1) in Atypical Pap Smears of Postmenopausal Women
Fakhrjou, Ashraf ; Dastranj-Tabrizi, Ali ; Ghojazadeh, Morteza ; Ghorashi, Sona ; Velayati, Atefeh ; Piri, Reza ; Vahedi, Amir ; Sayyah-Melli, Manizhe ; Smaeili, Heydar-Ali ; Bonakdari, Amir ; Halimi, Monireh ; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4815~4818
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4815
Background: Atrophic epithelium of cervix sampled from postmenopausal women may mimic high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Papanicolaou-stained (Pap) smears. Ki-67 (MIB-1) protein presents on proliferating cells, and percentage of cells with positive nuclei provides a reliable tool for rapid evaluation of the growth fraction. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of protein Ki67 staining in atypical pap smears of postmenopausal women. Methods: In a case-control setting, pap smears of 75 women with an atypical pap smear (case group) and 75 with normal pap smears (controls) were obtained before and after estrogen treatment. Afterward, samples were exposed to the monoclonal antibody Ki-67 (MIB-1) and the immunohistochemically demonstrated Ki-67+ cells were compared. Results: Mean ages of cases and controls were
years respectively (P=0.50). There was one (2.7%) positive Ki-67 specimen in the case group, without any positive Ki-67 specimen in the control group (P=0.50). Conclusions: Measurement of proliferative activity index in Pap smears restrained with MIB1 is a simple, reliable, and cost-effective method for excluding negatives. This would imply that it might allow a substantial reduction of diagnostic estrogen courses and subsequent Pap smears in postmenopausal women with atypical findings.
Increased Serum S-TRAIL Level in Newly Diagnosed Stage-IV Lung Adenocarcinoma but not Squamous Cell Carcinoma is Correlated with Age and Smoking
Kargi, Aysegul ; Bisgin, Atil ; Yalcin, Arzu Didem ; Kargi, Ahmet Bulent ; Sahin, Emel ; Gumuslu, Saadet ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4819~4822
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4819
Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Many factors can protect against or facilitate its development. A TNF family member TRAIL, has a complex physiological role beyond that of merely activating the apoptotic pathway in cancer cells. Vitamin D is converted to its active form locally in the lung, and is also thought to play an important role in lung health. Our goal was to investigate the possible clinical significance of serum sTRAIL and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) levels in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods: Totals of 18 consecutive adenocarcinoma and 22 squamous cell carcinoma patients with stage-IV non-small cell lung cancer referred to our institute were included in this study. There were 12 men and 6 women, with ages ranging from 38 to 97 (mean 60.5) years with adenocarcinoma, and 20 men and 2 women, with ages ranging from 46 to 80 (mean 65) years with squamous cell carcinoma. Serum levels of sTRAIL and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) were measured in all samples at the time of diagnosis. Results: sTRAIL levels in NSCLC patients were higher than in the control group. Although there was no correlation between patient survival and sTRAIL levels, the highest sTRAIL levels were correlated with age and cigarette smoking in the adenocarcinoma patients. sTRAIL level in healthy individuals were correlated with serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3). Conclusions: Serum sTRAIL concentrations were increased in NSCLC patients, and correlated with age and smoking history, but not with overall survival.
AZD1480 Can Inhibit the Biological Behavior of Ovarian Cancer SKOV3 Cells in vitro
Sun, Zhao-Ling ; Tang, Ya-Juan ; Wu, Wei-Guang ; Xing, Jun ; He, Yan-Fang ; Xin, De-Mei ; Yu, Yan-Li ; Yang, Yang ; Han, Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4823~4827
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4823
Objective: To study the mechanism of effects of AZD1480 on the SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell line. Methods: The MTT method was used to assess cellular proliferation, flow cytometry for cellular apoptosis, the scratch test to determine migration, transwell chamber assays to detect cellular invasion, plate clone experiments to detect the clone forming ability and Western blotting to determine p-STAT3 protein levels. Results: The proliferation rate, migration ability, invasiveness and the clone forming ability of SKOV3 cells were reduced after treatment with AZD1480, while apoptosis rate and chemotherapeutic susceptibility were increased. After treatment with AZD1480 plus cisplatin, the apoptosis rate increased significantly while the expression level of p-STAT3 protein was decreased. Conclusion: AZD1480 can inhibit the proliferation, invasion, metastasis and clone formation of SKOV3 cells, induce cellulsar apoptosis, increase the chemotherapeutic sensitivity and reduce the expression level of p-STAT3 protein.
Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour of Women Working in Government Hospitals Regarding Breast Self Examination
Yurdakos, Kursat ; Gulhan, Yildirim Beyazit ; Unalan, Demet ; Ozturk, Ahmet ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4829~4834
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4829
Background: Breast self examination (BSE), performed regularly every month, is one of the most important methods in the early diagnosis of breast cancer. This study was performed with the aim of establishing the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of women working in government hospitals within the province of Samsun regarding BSE. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January-March 2012, on a total of 550 women (500 health personnel, and 50 general administration services (GAS) workers) from 7 government hospitals and the Cancer Early Diagnosis, Screening, and Education Centre (CEDSEC). Percentages were used for the descriptive statistics, and the chi-square test for the evaluation of statistical importance. Values of p<0.05 were accepted as significant. Results: The mean age of the participants was
, and 42.5% were in the 30-39 year old age group, 78.0% being married. Seventy-eight point four percent (78.4%) of the health personnel and 76.0% of the GAS workers performed BSE. However, the rates of performing BSE regularly every month were only 25.6% and 5.0%. Within the health personnel, 1.4% stated that they did not perform BSE because they found it unnecessary as they had no history of breast cancer in their family, 3.6% did not do so due to fear and stress, 13.2% because they forgot, and 14.6% because they had no complaints. Some 22.2% of the health personnel and 52.0% of the GAS workers had undergone mammographic evaluation, the difference being significant (p<0.05), 84.1% of the health personnel and 61.9% of the GAS workers knowing symptoms of breast cancer. Conclusions: Women in society should be brought to a certain level of awareness and knowledge regarding BSE. It is of the utmost importance that health personnel, who carry the responsibility for counseling and enlightening society, should interiorize the necessary knowledge, attitudes and behavior.
Feasibility Study of Docetaxel and Cyclophosphamide Six- Cycle Therapy as Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Japanese Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Breast Cancer Patients
Abe, Hajime ; Mori, Tsuyoshi ; Kawai, Yuki ; Tomida, Kaori ; Kubota, Yoshihiro ; Umeda, Tomoko ; Tani, Tohru ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4835~4838
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4835
Background: We compared treatment completion rates and safety of docetaxel and cyclophosphamide sixcycle therapy (TC6) with docetaxel followed by 5FU, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (T-FEC) therapy in Japanese patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer. Materials and Methods: We administered TC6 q3w or T-FEC q3w to HER2-negative breast cancer patients. The primary endpoint of this trial was toxicity. As second endpoints, the treatment completion rate and relative dose intensity were evaluated. Results: The TC6 and T-FEC group consisted of 22 and 21 patients, respectively. Concerning hematological toxicity, grade 3 or higher adverse reactions included neutropenia and febrile neutropenia. As non-hematological adverse events, exanthema and peripheral neuropathy were frequently reported in the TC6 group, whereas more patients of the T-FEC group reported nausea and vomiting. In TC6, the treatment completion rate was 86.4% and the relative dose intensity of docetaxel was 93.2%. In T-FEC, the values were 95.2% and 98.9%, respectively. Conclusions: These results suggest that TC6 is tolerable in Japanese, and that this regimen can also be performed in outpatient clinics. However, with the TC6 regimen, the compliance was slightly lower than with the T-FEC regimen, and supportive therapy needs to be managed appropriately.
Schistosomiasis Combined with Colorectal Carcinoma Diagnosed Based on Endoscopic Findings and Clinicopathological Characteristics: A Report on 32 Cases
Liu, Wei ; Zeng, Hong-Ze ; Wang, Qi-Ming ; Yi, Hang ; Mou, Yi ; Wu, Chun-Cheng ; Hu, Bing ; Tang, Cheng-Wei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4839~4842
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4839
Aims and Background: To improve understanding of the relationship between schistosome-related enteropathy and colorectal carcinoma with particular focus on endoscopic findings and clinicopathological characteristics of colonic schistosomiasis. Materials and Methods: All cases of intestinal schistosomiasis diagnosed at West China Hospital, Chengdu, China, between October 2006 and October 2012 were included in this study. A total of 179 cases of colonic schistosomiasis diagnosed through colonoscopy and pathological examinations were collected for analysis and the demographics, symptoms, endoscopic findings and clinicopathological characteristics were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Of the 179 colonic schistosomiasis patients, 32 combined with colorectal cancer (CRC) were found, between the ages of 44 and 85 years (24 males, 75%). These 32 lesions were classified as 12 endophytic/ulcerative (37.5%), 10 exophytic/fungating (31.2%), 4 annular (12.5%), 3 giant polypus (9.4%), and 3 IIc (superficial depressed type) (9.4%). The segments of rectum and sigmoid colon were involved in 19 patients (59.4%) and 6 patients (18.8%), respectively. The histopathologic types were classified as follows: 30 welldifferentiated adenocarcinomas, one mucinous adenocarcinoma and one poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The pathological findings suggest colorectal malignancy with deposited schistosome ova. Conclusions: Chronic schistosomal infestation has a probable etiological role in promoting genesis of colorectal neoplasms.
Safety Assessment of Intravenous Administration of Trastuzumab in 100ml Saline for the Treatment of HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Patients
Abe, Hajime ; Mori, Tsuyoshi ; Kawai, Yuki ; Tomida, Kaori ; Yamazaki, Keiichi ; Kubota, Yoshihiro ; Umeda, Tomoko ; Tani, Tohru ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4843~4846
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4843
Background: The infusion rate is considered to affect incidence and severity of infusion reactions (IRs) caused by protein formulations. Trastuzumab (TRS) is approved for 90-minute infusion as the initial dose followed by 30-minute infusion with 250 ml saline. In the study, we evaluated the safety of TRS intravenously administered over 30 minutes with 100 ml saline to reduce burden of patients, safety of infusion with 250 ml saline already being established. Materials and Methods: Women with HER2 positive breast cancer,
left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), were registered in the study. Patients received 8mg/kg of TRS 250 ml over 90 minutes followed by 6mg/kg of TRS 100ml over 30 minutes in a three-week cycle. Results: A total of 31 patients were recruited, 24 for adjuvant therapy and seven with metastases. The median age was 59 years (range 39 to 82). The total number of TRS doses ranged from 5 to 17 with the median of 15. Mild IR occurred in two patients at the first dose. However, no IR was observed after reducing to 100 ml saline. No decrease of LVEF, increase of serum brain natriuretic peptide or any other adverse events were reported. Conclusions: Intravenous infusion of TRS with 100 ml saline over 30 minutes in breast cancer patients can be considered safe based on results from the study. It can be given on an outpatient basis as with the currently recommended dilution in 250 ml saline.
Is FDG -PET-CT A Valuable Tool in Prediction of Persistent Disease in Head and Neck Cancer
Uzel, Esengul Kocak ; Ekmekcioglu, Ozgul ; Elicin, Olgun ; Halac, Metin ; Uzel, Omer Erol ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4847~4851
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4847
Objectives: To evaluate accuracy of FDG-PET CT in prediction of persistent disease in head and neck cancer cases and to determine prognostic value of metabolic tumor response. Materials and Methods: Between 2009 and 2011, 46 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck receiving PET-CT were treated with definitive radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy. There were 29 nasopharyngeal, 11 hypopharyngeal, 3 oropharyngeal and 3 laryngeal cancer patients, with a median age of 50.5 years (range 16-84), 32 males and 14 females. All patients were evaluated with PET-CT median 3-5 months (2.4-9.4) after completion of radiotherapy. Results: After a median 20 months of follow up, complete metabolic response was observed in 63% of patients. Suspicious residual uptake was present in 10.9% and residual metabolic uptake in 26.0% of patients. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of FDG-PET-CT for detection of residual disease was 91% and 81%, 64% and 96% respectively. Two year LRC was 95% in complete responders while it was 34% in non-complete responders. Conclusions: FDG PET CT is a valuable tool for assessment of treatment response, especially in patients at high risk of local recurrence, and also as an indicator of prognosis. Definitely more precise criteria are required for assessment of response, there being no clear cut uptake value indicating residual disease. Futhermore, repair processes of normal tissue may consume glucose which appear as increased uptake in control FDG PET CT.
Hypoxia Induced Multidrug Resistance of Laryngeal Cancer Cells via Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1α
Li, Da-Wei ; Dong, Pin ; Wang, Fei ; Chen, Xin-Wei ; Xu, Cheng-Zhi ; Zhou, Liang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4853~4858
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4853
Objectives: To investigate whether hypoxia has an effect on regulation of multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapeutic drugs in laryngeal carcinoma cells and explore the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-
). Methods: Laryngeal cancer cells were cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The sensitivity of the cells to multiple drugs and levels of apoptosis induced by paclitaxel were determined by MTT assay and annexin-V/propidium iodide staining analysis, respectively. HIF-
expression was blocked by RNA interference. The expression of HIF-
gene was detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. The value of fluorescence intensity of intracellular adriamycin accumulation and retention in cells was evaluated by flow cytometry. Results: The sensitivity to multiple chemotherapy agents and induction of apoptosis by paclitaxel could be reduced by hypoxia (P<0.05). A the same time, the adriamycin releasing index of cells was increased (P<0.05). However, resistance acquisition subject to hypoxia in vitro was suppressed by down-regulating HIF-
expression. Conclusion: HIF-
could be considered as a key regulator for mediating hypoxia-induced MDR in laryngeal cancer cells via inhibition of drug-induced apoptosis and decrease in intracellular drug accumulation.
Topical Use of Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)-Based Cream to Prevent Radiation Dermatitis in Breast Cancer Patients: a Single-Blind Randomized Preliminary Study
Kong, Moonkyoo ; Hong, Seong Eon ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4859~4864
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4859
Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a recombinant human epidermal growth factor (EGF)-based cream for the prevention of acute radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy (RT). Materials and Methods: Between December 2012 and April 2013, 40 breast cancer patients who received postoperative RT were prospectively enrolled in this study and randomly assigned to receive human recombinant EGF-based cream (intervention group) or general supportive skin care (control group). The grade of radiation dermatitis and pain score were examined at weekly intervals during RT and 6 weeks after RT completion. Results: All patients completed the planned RT and complied well with instructions for applying the study cream and general supportive skin care. In the intervention group, radiation dermatitis of maximum grade 3, 2, and 1 developed in 3 (15%), 11 (55%), and 6 patients (30%), respectively. In comparison, in the control group, radiation dermatitis of maximum grade 3, 2, and 1 developed in 8 (40%), 10 (50%), and 2 patients (10%), respectively. The intervention group showed lower incidence of grade 3 radiation dermatitis than the control group (p=0.068 in univariate analysis and p=0.035 in multivariate analysis). There was no statistically significant difference in the maximal pain score between the two groups (p=0.934). Conclusions: This single-blind randomized preliminary study showed that recombinant human EGF-based cream can have a beneficial role in preventing or minimizing radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients. To confirm the results of our study, additional studies with a large sample size are required.
Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Acceptability among Female University Students in South Africa
Hoque, Muhammad Ehsanul ; Ghuman, Shanaz ; Van Hal, Guido ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4865~4869
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4865
Background: The objectives of this present study were to assess the awareness of cervical cancer and its risk factors among female undergraduates in South Africa, and to determine the their level of acceptability of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2013 among 440 full time undergraduate female students. Results: Of those students who never had sex (n=163), 96 (58.9%) had ever heard of cervical cancer and only 12 students (12.5%) knew that HPV causes cervical cancer. More than a third (35.4%) of the students correctly said that sexual intercourse before age of 18 years is a risk factor for cervical cancer and 55.2% of the students knew about the Pap smear test which is used for screening cervical cancer. The majority (77.3%) were willing to accept HPV vaccination. Results revealed that students who knew about the Pap smear test, and were aware that having multiple sex partners, sexual intercourse before the age of 18 years, smoking and having contracted any STDs are risk factors for cervical cancer were more likely to accept HPV vaccination compared to other groups. Conclusions: The general knowledge of South African female university students about cervical cancer is not sufficient but they have positive attitudes toward getting vaccinated with the HPV vaccine.
Meta-analysis of Outcomes Compared between Robotic and Laparoscopic Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer
Liao, Gui-Xiang ; Xie, Guo-Zhu ; Li, Rong ; Zhao, Zhi-Hong ; Sun, Quan-Quan ; Du, Sha-Sha ; Ren, Chen ; Li, Guo-Xing ; Deng, Hai-Jun ; Yuan, Ya-Wei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4871~4875
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4871
This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the outcomes of robotic gastrectomy (RG) and laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) for treating gastric cancer. A systematic literature search was carried out using the PubMed database, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Library database to obtain comparative studies assessing the safety and efficiency between RG and LG in May, 2013. Data of interest were analyzed by using of Review Manager version 5.2 software (Cochrane Collaboration). A fixed effects model or random effects model was applied according to heterogeneity. Seven papers reporting results that compared robotic gastrectomy with laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer were selected for this meta-analysis. Our metaanalysis included 2,235 patients with gastric cancer, of which 1,473 had undergone laparoscopic gastrectomy, and 762 had received robotic gastrectomy. Compared with laparoscopic gastrectomy, robotic gastrectomy was associated with longer operative time but less blood loss. There were no significant difference in terms of hospital stay, total postoperative complication rate, proximal margin, distal margin, numbers of harvested lymph nodes and mortality rate between robotic gastrectomy and laparoscopic gastrectomy. Our meta-analysis showed that robotic gastrectomy is a safe technique for treating gastric cancer that compares favorably with laparoscopic gastrectomy in short term outcomes. However, the long term outcomes between the two techniques need to be further examined.
Awareness of Turkish Female Adolescents and Young Women about HPV and their Attitudes Towards HPV Vaccination
Ozyer, Sebnem ; Uzunlar, Ozlem ; Ozler, Sibel ; Kaymak, Oktay ; Baser, Eralp ; Gungor, Tayfun ; Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4877~4881
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4877
Background: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccines and attitudes towards vaccination among the females aged 9-24 years in Turkey. Materials and Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were filled out individually by the participants covering demographic information, knowledge about HPV infection and HPV vaccines, attitudes towards vaccination, and the perceptions of them about their parental attitudes about vaccination. Results: Of the 408 subjects participating in the study, 41.6% (n=170) had heard of HPV. Thirty-three percent (n=136) knew the causal relationship between HPV and cervical cancer. Only 27.9% (n=114) of them knew that HPV vaccines can prevent cervical cancer. Eleven percent (n=46) of the females participating in the study were willing to be vaccinated, and only 1.4% (n=6) were already vaccinated at the current time. The main reason listed among the participants who were not willing to be vaccinated was lack of information. Conclusions: Awareness and knowledge of Turkish female adolescents and young women about HPV, relation with cervical cancer and prevention of cervical cancer by Pap smear and vaccine are still limited. If the most important barrier to vaccination, which is reported as lack of information, were to be addressed, it would greatly impact the decision-making and vaccine acceptance.
Upregulated Myc Expression in N-Methyl Nitrosourea (MNU)-induced Rat Mammary Tumours
Barathidasan, Rajamani ; Pawaiya, Rajveer Singh ; Rai, Ram Bahal ; Dhama, Kuldeep ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4883~4889
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4883
Background: The most common incident cancer and cause of cancer-related deaths in women is breast cancer. The Myc gene is upregulated in many cancer types including breast cancer, and it is considered as a potential anti-cancer drug target. The present study was conducted to evaluate the Myc (gene and protein) expression pattern in an experimental mammary tumour model in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty six Sprague Dawley rats were divided into: Experimental group (26 animals), which received the chemical carcinogen N-methyl nitrosourea (MNU) and a control group (10 animals), which received vehicle only. c-Myc oncoprotein and its mRNA expression pattern were evaluated using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively, in normal rat mammary tissue and mammary tumours. The rat glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene was used as internal control for semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Results: Histopathological examination of mammary tissues and tumours from MNU treated animals revealed the presence of premalignant lesions, benign tumours, in situ carcinomas and invasive carcinomas. Immunohistochemical evaluation of tumour tissues showed upregulation and heterogeneous cellular localization of c-Myc oncoprotein. The expression levels of c-Myc oncoprotein were significantly elevated (75-91%) in all the tumours. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed increased expression of c-Myc mRNA in mammary tumours compared to normal mammary tissues. Conclusions: Further large-scale investigation study is needed to adopt this experimental rat mammary tumour model as an in vivo model to study anti-cancer strategies directed against Myc or its downstream partners at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level.
Growth, Clonability, and Radiation Resistance of Esophageal Carcinoma-derived Stem-like Cells
Li, Jian-Cheng ; Liu, Di ; Yang, Yan ; Wang, Xiao-Ying ; Pan, Ding-Long ; Qiu, Zi-Dan ; Su, Ying ; Pan, Jian-Ji ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4891~4896
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4891
Objective: To separate/enrich tumor stem-like cells from the human esophageal carcinoma cell line OE-19 by using serum-free suspension culture and to identify their biological characteristics and radiation resistance. Methods: OE-19 cells were cultivated using adherent and suspension culture methods. The tumor stem-like phenotype of CD44 expression was detected using flow cytometry. We examined growth characteristics, cloning capacity in soft agar, and radiation resistance of 2 groups of cells. Results: Suspended cells in serum-free medium formed spheres that were enriched for CD44 expression. CD44 was expressed in 62.5% of suspended cells, but only in 11.7% of adherent cells. The suspended cells had greater capacity for proliferation and colony formation in soft agar than the adherent cells. When the suspended and adherent cells were irradiated at 5 Gy, 10 Gy, or 15 Gy, the proportion of CD44+ suspended cells strongly and weakly positive for CD44 was 77.8%, 66.5%, 57.5%; and 21.7%, 31.6%, 41.4%, respectively. In contrast, the proportion of CD44+ adherent cells strongly positive for CD44 was 18.9%, 14.%, and 9.95%, respectively. When the irradiation dose was increased to 30 Gy, the survival of the suspended and adherent cells was significantly reduced, and viable CD44+ cells were not detected. Conclusion: Suspended cell spheres generated from OE-19 esophageal carcinoma cells in serum-free stem medium are enriched in tumor stem-like cells. CD44 may be a marker for these cells.
Effectiveness of Cervical Cancer Screening Based on a Mathematical Screening Model using data from the Hiroshima Prefecture Cancer Registry
Ito, Katsura ; Tsunematsu, Miwako ; Satoh, Kenichi ; Kakehashi, Masayuki ; Nagata, Yasushi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4897~4902
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4897
Here we assessed the effectiveness of cervical cancer screening using data from the Hiroshima Prefecture Cancer Registry regarding patient age at the start of screening and differences in screening intervals. A screening model was created to calculate the health status in relation to prognosis following cervical cancer screening and its influence on life expectancy. Epidemiological data on the mortality rate of cervical cancer by age groups and mortality rates from the Hiroshima Prefecture Cancer Registry were used for the model projections. Our results showed that life expectancy when screening rate was 100% compared with 0% was extended by approximately 1 month. Furthermore, when the incidence of cervical cancer was 0% compared with the screening rate was 100%, life expectancy was extended by a maximum of 3 months. Moreover, among individuals affected by cervical c ancer, a difference of 13 years in life expectancy was calculated between screened and unscreened groups.
Cervical Precancerous Lesions and Cancer among Patients in the Gynaecology Outpatient Department at a Tertiary Hospital in South Africa
Hank, Edward ; Hoque, Muhammad Ehsanul ; Zungu, Lindiwe ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4903~4906
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4903
Background: The purpose of this study was to determine proportional rates of cervical precancerous lesions and cancer, and associations with socio-demographic variables, HIV status, and CD4 cell count. Materials and Methods: A retrospective comparative study was conducted targeting the medical records of all women over age 18 that were diagnosed histologically through colposcopy with cervical precancerous lesions and cancer from 1 December 2011 to 30 November 2012. Results: A total of 313 patient records were used for data analysis. The average age was 39.1 (SD=2.04) years. More than a third (37.1%) of the patients had CIN III or cervical cancer. There was a significant association between age, CD4 cell count, HIV status, and cervical lesions (p<0.05). Age was found to be an influential predictor of cervical lesions (OR=0.67, 95%CI: 0.46-0.98). Conclusions: There exists an association between age and cervical lesions, with presentation of cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer at a younger age among HIV reactive patients. The National Guidelines should be brought in line with the National HIV Counseling and Testing Policy to offer Pap smears to all sexually active women that test HIV reactive during routine HIV Testing.
Lgr4 Promotes Glioma Cell Proliferation through Activation of Wnt Signaling
Yu, Chun-Yong ; Liang, Guo-Biao ; Du, Peng ; Liu, Yun-Hui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4907~4911
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4907
The key signaling networks regulating glioma cell proliferation remain poorly defined. The leucine-rich repeat containing G-protein coupled receptor 4 (Lgr4) has been implicated in intestinal, gastric, and epidermal cell functions. We investigated whether Lgr4 functions in glioma cells and found that Lgr4 expression was significantly increased in glioma tissues. In addition, Lgr4 overexpression promoted while its knockdown using small interfering RNA oligos inhibited glioma cell proliferation. In addition, Wnt/
-catenin signaling was activated in cells overexpressing Lgr4. Therefore, our results revealed that Lgr4 activates Wnt/
-catenin signaling to regulate glioma cell proliferation.
Inpatients' Knowledge about Primary Liver Cancer and Hepatitis
He, Wen-Jing ; Xu, Ming-Yan ; Xu, Rui-Rui ; Zhou, Xiao-Qiong ; Ouyang, Jun-Jie ; Han, Hui ; Chen, Geng-Zhen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4913~4918
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4913
Objective: To assess the level of an inpatient population's awareness about hepatitis and primary liver cancer (PLC), the most common type of which is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and then to initiate education of this group. Methods: A survey was conducted with 1300 participants within the inpatient unit in representative tertiary hospitals in the Chaoshan area of China. Structured questionnaires contained demographic data and statements about different aspects of liver cancer and hepatitis. The questionnaires were completed by trained medical practitioners after they had conducted the interviews. Results: One way ANOVA showed that the sample population lacked adequate knowledge about HCC and hepatitis. Stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the participant's level of education had the greatest impact on their total knowledge score when other variables remained constant. Conclusions: The study demonstrated: a general lack of awareness amongst the participants about the preventative strategies, and the management options available for people with primary liver cancer and hepatitis; education level was an important factor affecting knowledge levels. The demonstrated deficiencies in people's knowledge about hepatitis and HCC, and their lack of subsequent protective behaviours are likely to play an important role in HCC and hepatitis transmission or prevention.
Breast Self Examination Practice and Breast Cancer Risk Perception among Female University Students in Ajman
Al-Sharbatti, Shatha Saed ; Shaikh, Rizwana Burhanuddin ; Mathew, Elsheba ; Al-Biate, Mawahib Abd Salman ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4919~4923
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4919
Breast cancer is the top cancer in women worldwide and its incidence is increasing, particularly in developing countries. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), many cases are first diagnosed in later stages and at younger age compared to those seen in developed countries. Early detection in order to improve breast cancer outcome and survival remains the cornerstone of breast cancer control. Performance of breast self examination is one of the important steps for identifying breast disease at an early stage, by the woman herself. No information has hitherto been available about the frequency of this practice among female university students in UAE or about their breast cancer risk perception and therefore the present study was conducted in Ajman. It was found that 22.7% of the participants practiced BSE but only 3% of them practiced BSE monthly. Marital status but not age as significantly associated with age likelihood. The most frequent reported barriers for BSE were lack of knowledge, considering oneself not at risk and the absence of doctor advice. These factors need to be taken into account in intervention efforts.
Evaluation of Breast Self-Examination (BSE) Application in First and Second Degree Relatives of Patients with Breast Cancer
Bebis, Hatice ; Altunkurek, Serife Zehra ; Acikel, Cengizhan ; Akar, Ilker ; Altunkurek, Serife Zehra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4925~4930
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4925
Background: The aim of this study was to determine beliefs concerning breast self-examination in first- and second-degree relatives of patients with breast cancer and evaluate their breast self-examination (BSE) application. Materials and Methods: A survey study was conducted in an oncology polyclinic and general surgery clinic of a hospital in Ankara, the capital of Turkey with a sample of 140 women. Results: It was determined that 60.7% of the participants had conducted BSE and 48.1% had undergone a clinical breast examination. Perceived selfefficacy of the women who performed BSE were significantly higher compared with women who did not practice BSE (p<0.001) Furthermore, perceived barriers were lower among those who had performed BSE (p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis indicated that women who perceived higher self-efficacy (OR: 1.119, 95% CI: 1.056-1.185, p<0.001) and had regular CBE (OR: 8.250, 95% CI: 3.140-21.884, p<0.001) and educational status (OR: 5.287, 95% CI: 1.480-18.880, p<0.01) were more likely to perform BSE. Conclusions: Findings from this study indicated that perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy, and educational status could be predictors of BSE behavior among the first- and second-degree relatives of patients with breast cancer. Therefore, BSE training programs that emphasize self-efficacy and address perceived barriers are recommended.
Effect of Reiki on Symptom Management in Oncology
Demir, Melike ; Can, Gulbeyaz ; Celek, Enis ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4931~4933
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4931
Reiki is a form of energy therapy in which the therapist, with or without light touch, is believed to access universal energy sources that can strengthen the body's ability to heal itself, reduce inflammation, and relieve pain and stress. There is currently no licensing for Reiki nor, given its apparent low risk, is there likely to be. Reiki appears to be generally safe, and serious adverse effects have not been reported. So in this article provides coverage of how to use Reiki in oncology services.
Challenges and Outlook for the UICC-Asian Regional Office
Akaza, Hideyuki ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4935~4937
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4935
At the United Nations High-level Meeting on Non-communicable Disease Prevention and Control in 2011 the link between health and socioeconomic issues was raised, becoming a global political issue. Health equity is one challenge that has hitherto not been addressed directly, although there is a growing shared recognition that cancer in Asia is an urgent social issue. At the UICC-ARO we are working to promote and widen networks of individuals and organizations in Asia and involve them in cooperation for this purpose. As part of our current activities, we are addressing the question of the "Economic burden of cancer in Asian countries: How should we face the current situation?" from a variety of angles and seeking to bring together a wealth of multidisciplinary knowledge about cancer in Asia and its related socioeconomic factors. It is essential to ensure that the real picture of cancer in Asia, which is currently not accurately understood, is conveyed clearly to all concerned, and also that the differences between cancer in Asia and in the West are highlighted.
What and Where for Publications by Cancer Registries in the Asian Pacific? - Roles for the APJCP in the Future
Moore, Malcolm Anthony ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4939~4942
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4939
The absolute necessity of cancer registration for cancer control planning is well accepted. The registry at the national or local level can provide not only essential data for cancer incidence, mortality and survival but may also point to risk and protective factors and efficacy of interventions by conducting epidemiological research. Timely publication of research findings in PubMed indexed journals is of the essence, especially in examples that allow free access so that the widest dissemination of information can be achieved. The present commentary covers the scope of research in Asia or using Asian data the period 2008-2013, nearly 40% of a total of over 300 papers being published in the APJCP. In order to reach its full potential the registry should incorporate many skills. Cooperation for this purpose, whether it be national, regional, Asia-wide or international, is a high priority and the International Agency for Research on Cancer, together with the National Cancer Institute in Thailand and the APOCP/APJCP are staging an Asian Cancer Network Forum in Bangkok in February of 2014 to allow discussion of ways forward. It is hoped that representatives from all regions of Asia will decide to attend and a l so contribute country reports for publication in a special supplement of the APJCP.
Importance of Patient-Physician Relationship in Cancer Prevention: A Self Experience-Based Survey
Ghobadifar, Mohamed Amin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4943~4944
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4943
Robotic Prostatectomy in Urological Surgery: An Observership at Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York
Pandey, Saumya ; Chandravati, Chandravati ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 14, issue 8, 2013, Pages 4945~4945
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4945