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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 22 - Dec 2014
Volume 15, Issue 21 - Nov 2014
Volume 15, Issue 20 - Nov 2014
Volume 15, Issue 19 - Oct 2014
Volume 15, Issue 18 - Oct 2014
Volume 15, Issue 17 - Sep 2014
Volume 15, Issue 16 - Aug 2014
Volume 15, Issue 15 - Aug 2014
Volume 15, Issue 14 - Jul 2014
Volume 15, Issue 13 - Jul 2014
Volume 15, Issue 12 - Jun 2014
Volume 15, Issue 11 - Jun 2014
Volume 15, Issue 10 - May 2014
Volume 15, Issue 9 - May 2014
Volume 15, Issue 8 - Apr 2014
Volume 15, Issue 7 - Apr 2014
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Mar 2014
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Mar 2014
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Feb 2014
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Feb 2014
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jan 2014
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
Nanoparticle Induced Oxidative Stress in Cancer Cells: Adding New Pieces to an Incomplete Jigsaw Puzzle
Nogueira, Daniele Rubert ; Rolim, Clarice M. Bueno ; Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4739~4743
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4739
Nanotechnology is an emerging field with many promising applications in drug delivery systems. Because of outstanding developments in this field, rapidly increasing research is directed to the development of nanocarriers that may enhance the availability of drugs to the target sites. Substantial fraction of information has been added into the existing scientific literature focusing on the fact that nanoparticles usually generate reactive oxygen species to a greater extent than micro-sized particles. It is worth mentioning that oxidative stress regulates an array of cell signaling cascades that resulted in cancer cell damage. Accumulating experimental evidence over the years has shown that wide-ranging biological mechanisms are triggered by these NPs in cultured cells due to the unique properties of engineered nanoparticles. In this review, we have attempted to provide an overview of the signaling cascades that are activated by oxidative stress in cancer cells in response to different kinds of nanomaterials, including quantum dots, metallic and polymeric nanoparticles.
Roles of Oxidative Stress in the Development and Progression of Breast Cancer
Nourazarian, Ali Reza ; Kangari, Parisa ; Salmaninejad, Arash ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4745~4751
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4745
Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance in the redox status of the body. In such a state, increase of free radicals in the body can lead to tissue damage. One of the most important species of free radicals is reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by various metabolic pathways, including aerobic metabolism in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of various types of cancers. ROS affects different signaling pathways, including growth factors and mitogenic pathways, and controls many cellular processes, including cell proliferation, and thus stimulates the uncontrolled growth of cells which encourages the development of tumors and begins the process of carcinogenesis. Increased oxidative stress caused by reactive species can reduce the body's antioxidant defense against angiogenesis and metastasis in cancer cells. These processes are main factors in the development of cancer. Bimolecular reactions cause free radicals in which create such compounds as malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydroxyguanosine. These substances can be used as indicators of cancer. In this review, free radicals as oxidizing agents, antioxidants as the immune system, and the role of oxidative stress in cancer, particularly breast cancer, have been investigated in the hope that better identification of the factors involved in the occurrence and spread of cancer will improve the identification of treatment goals.
Biotoxins for Cancer Therapy
Liu, Cui-Cui ; Yang, Hao ; Zhang, Ling-Ling ; Zhang, Qian ; Chen, Bo ; Wang, Yi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4753~4758
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4753
In recent times, a number of studies have provided evidence that biotoxins present great potential as antitumor agents, such as snake venom, bee venom, some bacteria toxins and plant toxins, and thus could be used as chemotherapeutic agents against tumors. The biodiversity of venoms and toxins make them a unique source from which novel anticancer agent may be developed. Biotoxins, also known as natural toxins, include toxic substances produced by plants, animals and microorganisms. Here, we systematically list representative biological toxins that have antitumor properties, involving animal toxins, plant toxins, mycotoxins as well as bacterial toxins. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge involving biotoxins and the active compounds that have anti-cancer activity to induce cytotoxic, antitumor, immunomodulatory, and apoptotic effects in different tumor cells in vivo or in vitro. We also show insights into the molecular and functional evolution of biotoxins.
Radiotherapy for Ovarian Cancers - Redefining the Role
Rai, Bhavana ; Bansal, Anshuma ; Patel, Firuza Darius ; Sharma, Suresh Chander ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4759~4763
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4759
Radiation therapy in ovarian cancers has been considered an outdated concept for many years, mainly due to its toxicity and failure to show benefit in terms of survival. Chemotherapy has been extensively used after surgery for these cancers and it has almost replaced radiation therapy as an adjuvant treatment. Nevertheless, failures in ovarian cancers continue to occur even with the use of newer and effective chemotherapy regimens. About 70% patients demonstrate recurrence in the abdomen or pelvis after first line chemotherapy in ovarian cancers. With advances in technology and sophistication of radiation techniques, along with the molecular and biological knowledge of distinct histological subtypes, there is a need to redefine the role of radiation therapy. This review article focuses on the literature on use of radiation in ovarian cancers and its rationale and indications in the present day. For this, a literature pub med/medline search was performed from January 1975 to March 2014 to redefine the role of radiotherapy in ovarian cancers.
Dynamics and Liver Disease Specific Aspects of Quality of Life Among Patients with Chronic Liver Disease in Yunnan, China
Che, Yan-Hua ; You, Jing ; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi ; Li, Li ; Sriplung, Hucha ; Yan, Yuan-Zhi ; Ma, Si-Jia ; Zhang, Xiaoli ; Shen, Ting ; Chen, He-Min ; Rao, Shao-Feng ; Zhang, Ru-Yi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4765~4771
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4765
Background: Patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) may have compromised health related quality of life (HRQoL). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has long been the leading cause of CLD including liver cancer and cirrhosis. Knowledge on different symptom profiles of CLD should help in development of comprehensive treatment and patient care plans. Objective: To access the facets of HRQoL in chronic liver diseases throughout their spectrum of severity. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University in Yunnan Province of China. Both out- and inpatients undergoing treatment protocols for different HBV related liver disease states were consecutively collected from December 2012 to June 2013. ANOVA was used to compare the mean scores of EQ-5D and chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ) among 5 disease groups. The relationship between demographic variables predicting global CLDQ scores and the domains of CLDQ was analysed. Results: A total of 1040 patients including 520 without complications, 91 with compensated cirrhosis, 198 with decompensated cirrhosis, 131 with HCC and 100 with liver failure were recruited. All domains of CLDQ, the means of EQ-5D value and EQ VAS exhibited significant decline with worsening of disease severity from uncomplicated HBV to liver failure. The multivariate regression demonstrated the reduction of mean scores of CLDQ domain at advanced stage. Patients with liver failure and HCC had more HRQoL impairment than other disease states. No effect of patient gender was found. Patient age was associated with 'fatigue' and 'worry' domains (p=0.006; p=0.004) but not with other domains and global scores of CLDQ and ED-5D. Conclusions: The HRQoL in chronic hepatitis B patients is greatly affected by disease states. Care for HBV-related diseases should consider not only the outcomes of treatment strategies but also improvement in patient wellbeing.
BCR/ABL mRNA Targeting Small Interfering RNA Effects on Proliferation and Apoptosis in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
Zhu, Xi-Shan ; Lin, Zi-Ying ; Du, Jing ; Cao, Guang-Xin ; Liu, Gang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4773~4780
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4773
Background: To investigate the effects of small interference RNA (siRNA) targeting BCR/ABL mRNA on proliferation and apoptosis in the K562 human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell line and to provide a theoretical rationale and experimental evidence for its potential clinical application for anti-CML treatment. Materials and Methods: The gene sequence for BCR/ABL mRNA was found from the GeneBank. The target gene site on the BCR/ABL mRNA were selected according to Max-Planck-Institute (MPI) and rational siRNA design rules, the secondary structure of the candidate targeted mRNA was predicted, the relevant thermodynamic parameters were analyzed, and the targeted gene sequences were compared with BLAST to eliminate any sequences with significant homology. Inhibition of proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay and colony-formation inhibiting test. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry (FCM) and the morphology of apoptotic cells was identified by Giemsa-Wright staining. Western blotting was used to analyze the expression of BCR/ABL fusion protein in K562 cells after siRNA treatment. Results: The mRNA local secondary structure calculated by RNA structure software, and the optimal design of specific siRNA were contributed by bioinformatics rules. Five sequences of BCR/ABL siRNAs were designed and synthesized in vitro. Three sequences, siRNA1384, siRNA1276 and siRNA1786, which showed the most effective inhibition of K562 cell growth, were identified among the five candidate siRNAs, with a cell proliferative inhibitory rate nearly 50% after exposure to 12.5nmol/L~50nmol/L siRNA1384 for 24,48 and 72 hours. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (
) of siRNA1384, siRNA1276 and siRNA1786 for 24hours were 46.6 nmol/L, 59.3 nmol/L and 62.6 nmol/L, respectively, and 65.668 nmol/L, 76.6 nmol/L, 74.4 nmol/L for 72 hours. The colony-formation inhibiting test also indicated that, compared with control, cell growth of siRNA treated group was inhibited. FCM results showed that the rate of cell apoptosis increased 24 hours after transfecting siRNA. The results of annexinV/PI staining indicated that the rate of apoptosis imcreased (1.53%, 15.3%, 64.5%, 57.5% and 21.5%) following treamtne with siRNAs (siRNA34, siRNA372, siRNA1384, siRNA1276 and siRNA1786). Morphological analysis showed td typical morphologic changes of apoptosis such as shrunken, fragmentation nucleus as well as "apoptotic bodies" after K562 cell exposure to siRNA. Western blot analysis showed that BCR/ABL protein was reduced sharply after a single dose of 50nmol/L siRNA transfection. Conclusions: Proliferation of K562 cells was remarkbly inhibited by siRNAs (siRNA1384, siRNA1276 and siRNA1786) in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro, with effective induction of apoptosis at a concentration of 50 nmol/L. One anti-leukemia mechanism in K562 cells appeared that BCR/ABL targeted protein was highly down-regulated. The siRNAs (siRNA1384, siRNA1276 and siRNA1786) may prove valuable in the treatment of CML.
Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer With or Without Bevacizumab: Can the Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio Predict the Efficiency of Bevacizumab?
Dirican, Ahmet ; Varol, Umut ; Kucukzeybek, Yuksel ; Alacacioglu, Ahmet ; Erten, Cigdem ; Somali, Isil ; Can, Alper ; Demir, Lutfiye ; Bayoglu, Ibrahim Vedat ; Akyol, Murat ; Yildiz, Yasar ; Koyuncu, Betul ; Coban, Eyup ; Tarhan, Mustafa Oktay ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4781~4786
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4781
Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the predictive value of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) to better clarify which patient groups will benefit the most from particular treatments like bevacizumab. Materials and Methods: A total of 245 treatment-naive metastatic colorectal cancern (mCRC) patients were retrospectively enrolled and divided into 2 groups: 145 group A patients were treated with chemotherapy in combination with bevacizumab, and 100 group B patients were treated as above without bevacizumab. Results: Group A patients had better median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) (24.0 and 9.0 months) than group B patients (20 and 6.0 months) (p=0.033; p=0.015). In patients with low NLR, OS and PFS were significantly longer in group A patients (27 vs 18 months, p=0.001; 11 vs 7 months, p=0.017). Conclusions: We conclude that NLR, a basal cancer related inflammation marker, is associated with the resistance to bevacizumab-based treatments in mCRC patients.
Effectiveness of Education Interventions for the Management of Cancer Pain: A Systematic Review
Lee, Yoon Jae ; Hyun, Min Kyung ; Jung, Yea Ji ; Kang, Min Joo ; Keam, Bhumsuk ; Go, Su Jin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4787~4793
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4787
Background: Many cancer patients experience poor pain control due to various factors, including misconceptions regarding the use of opioid analgesics. For management of cancer pain, interventions involving education of both patients and physicians have been attempted. Objectives: This review aimed to assess the current evidence of the benefits of education for the management of cancer pain. Methods: We searched the Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane library, and major Korean databases to identify relevant studies. We included most study designs, but excluded case series. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and quality of life (QoL). Two reviewers assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane's tool for RCT and Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-randomized Studies (RoBANS) for non-randomized studies, independently. Results: After extensive searches, 3,324 publications were screened, and 32 studies were selected. The education interventions used in the included studies included a wide variety of education methods, but the most common method was a booklet produced for patients. Regardless of the education method used, the results of the meta-analysis were as follows. The SMDs of the most severe, average, and current pain in the RCTs were significant. The SMD of worst, average, and current pain were -0.34 (-0.55, -0.13), -0.40 (-0.64, -0.15), and -0.79 (-1.35, -0.23). In the non-randomized studies, the effects on average pain were significant, but those on worst and current pain were not. Conclusions: Education intervention reduced the pain of cancer patients. Therefore, patient education could be considered to be an effective method of cancer pain management. However, our data should be interpreted with caution, and studies using standardized protocols are needed to confirm these observations.
Which is the Best Chinese Herb Injection Based on the FOLFOX Regimen for Gastric Cancer? A Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Wang, Jian-Cheng ; Tian, Jin-Hui ; Ge, Long ; Gan, Yu-Hong ; Yang, Ke-Hu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4795~4800
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4795
Background: Few studies have directly compared clinical efficacy and safety among Chinese herb injections (CHIs) for gastric cancer (GC). The present study aimed to compare CHIs combined with FOLFOX regimens for GC to show which provides the best CHIs results. Materials and Methods: 9 electronic databases and 6 gray literature databases were comprehensive searched in April 20, 2013. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, two reviewers independently selected and assessed the included trials. The risk of bias tool described in the Cochrane Handbook version 5.1.0 and CONSORT statement were used to assess the quality of the trials. All calculations and graphs were performed and produced using ADDIS 1.16.5 software. Results: A total of 541 records were searched and 38 RCTs met the inclusion criteria (2,761 participants), involving 10 CHIs. The results of network meta-analysis showed that compared with FOLFOX alone, combinations with Kanglaite, Astragalus polysaccharides, Cinobufacini, or Yadanziyouru injections could furthest strengthen ORR, improve the quality of life, reduce nausea and vomiting, and reduce the incidence of leukopenia (III-IV). Conclusions: Kanglaite injection, Astragalus polysaccharides injection, Yadanziyouru injection were superior to other CHIs in clinical efficacy and safety for GC. The conclusions now need to be confirmed by large sample size direct head-to-head studies.
Vitamin D Receptor BsmI Polymorphism and Colorectal Cancer Risk: an Updated Analysis
Yu, Kun ; Yang, Jing ; Jiang, Yan ; Song, Run ; Lu, Qing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4801~4807
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4801
Background: Previous studies have investigated the association between the vitamin D receptor (VDR) BsmI polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility, but the results were conflicting. The aim of this study is to quantitatively summarize the relationship between this polymorphism and CRC risk. Materials and Methods: Two investigators independently searched the Medline, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Chinese Biomedicine databases for studies published before November 2013. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for VDR BsmI polymorphism and CRC were calculated in a fixed-effects model (the Mantel-Haenszel method) and a random-effects model (the DerSimonian and Laird method) when appropriate. Results: This meta-analysis included 14 case-control studies, which included 10,822 CRC cases and 11,779 controls. Overall, the variant genotype (BB) of the BsmI was associated with a lower CRC risk when compared with the wild-type bb homozygote (OR=0.66, 95%CI: 0.49-0.88). Similarly, a decreased CRC risk was also found in the dominant and recessive models. When stratifying for ethnicity, source of controls, and study sample size, associations were observed among Caucasians, population-based studies and studies with large study sample size (>1000 subjects). Limiting the analysis to the studies within Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the results were persistent and robust. No publication bias was found in the present study. Conclusions: This updated meta-analysis suggests that the VDR BsmI polymorphism may be associated with a moderate protective effect against CRC.
Tumorigenic Effects of Endocrine-disrupting Chemicals are Alleviated by Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Root Extract through Suppression of AhR Expression in Mammalian Cells
Chu, Xiao Ting ; de la Cruz, Joseph ; Hwang, Seong Gu ; Hong, Heeok ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4809~4813
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4809
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been reported to interfere with estrogen signaling. Exposure to these chemicals decreases the immune response and causes a wide range of diseases in animals and humans. Recently, many studies showed that licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root extract (LRE) commonly called "gamcho" in Korea exhibits antioxidative, chemoprotective, and detoxifying properties. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of LRE and to determine if and how LRE can alleviate the toxicity of EDCs. LRE was prepared by vacuum evaporation and freeze-drying after homogenization of licorice root powder that was soaked in 80% ethanol for 72 h. We used 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as a representative EDC, which is known to induce tumors or cancers; MCF-7 breast cancer cells, used as a tumor model, were treated with TCDD and various concentrations of LRE (0, 50, 100, 200,
) for 24, 48, and 72 h. As a result, TCDD stimulated MCF-7 cell proliferation, but LRE significantly inhibited TCDD-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The expression of TCDD toxicity-related genes, i.e., aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), AhR nuclear translocator, and cytochrome P450 1A1, was also down-regulated by LRE in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of cell cycle distribution after treatment of MCF-7 cells with TCDD showed that LRE inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells via G2/M phase arrest. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis also revealed that LRE dose-dependently increased the expression of the tumor suppressor genes p53 and p27 and down-regulated the expression of cell cycle-related genes. These data suggest that LRE can mitigate the tumorigenic effects of TCDD in breast cancer cells by suppression of AhR expression and cell cycle arrest. Thus, LRE can be used as a potential toxicity-alleviating agent against EDC-mediated diseases.
Implementation of Smoke-free Legislation in Malaysia: Are Adolescents Protected from Respiratory Health Effects?
Zulkifli, Aziemah ; Abidin, Najihah Zainol ; Abidin, Emilia Zainal ; Hashim, Zailina ; Rahman, Anita Abd ; Rasdi, Irniza ; Syed Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah ; Semple, Sean ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4815~4821
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4815
Background: This study aimed to examine the relationship between respiratory health of Malaysian adolescents with secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and smoke-free legislation (SFL) implementation. Materials and Methods: A total of 898 students from 21 schools across comprehensive- and partial-SFL states were recruited. SHS exposures and respiratory symptoms were assessed via questionnaire. Prenatal and postnatal SHS exposure information was obtained from parental-completed questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was: 11.9% ever wheeze, 5.6% current wheeze, 22.3% exercise-induced wheeze, 12.4% nocturnal cough, and 13.1% self-reported asthma. SHS exposure was most frequently reported in restaurants. Hierarchical logistic regression indicates living in a comprehensive-SFL state was not associated with a lower risk of reporting asthma symptoms. SHS exposure in public transport was linked to increased risk for wheeze (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 16.6; 95%confidence interval (CI), 2.69-101.7) and current wheezing (AOR 24.6; 95%CI, 3.53-171.8). Conclusions: Adolescents continue to be exposed to SHS in a range of public venues in both comprehensive- and partial-SFL states. Respiratory symptoms are common among those reporting SHS exposure on public transportation. Non-compliance with SFL appears to be frequent in many venues across Malaysia and enforcement should be given priority in order to reduce exposure.
Lack of Association Between the Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 -1306C>T Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Susceptibility: a Meta-analysis
Yang, Lu ; Li, Ning ; Wang, Siyu ; Kong, Yanan ; Tang, Hailin ; Xie, Xinhua ; Xie, Xiaoming ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4823~4827
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4823
Background: Since inconsistent results have been reported regarding the relation between the matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) -1306C>T polymorphism and susceptibility for breast cancer, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the issue. Materials and Methods: An internet search of PubMed and EMBASE was performed to identify eligible studies. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with their corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate any association between MMP-2 -1306C>T polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility. Results: Nine case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis, involving 9,858 cases and 10,871 controls. Overall, there was no evidence of any association between the MMP-2 -1306C>T polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility in different genetic models (T-allele vs C-allele: OR=0.95, 95%CI, 0.82-1.10, p=0.49; TT vs CC: OR=1.03, 95%CI, 0.90-1.19, p=0.66; TT+TC vs CC: OR=0.93, 95%CI, 0.78-1.10, p=0.38; TT vs TC+CC: OR=1.02, 95%CI, 0.89-1.17, p=0.77). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, CC was associated with a significant increase in breast susceptibility among Latin-Americans in the dominant model (OR=0.61, 95%CI, 0.40-0.93, p=0.02), but the association disappeared in other models. No significant association was observed among Europeans, East Asians and others in different genetic models. In the subgroup analysis by their source of controls, no significant association between MMP-2 -1306C>T polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility was noted among population-based studies and hospital-based studies in different genetic models. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that MMP-2 -1306C>T polymorphism is not associated with breast cancer susceptibility, although the association among Latin-Americans in the dominant model was significant.
Breastfeeding and Ovarian Cancer Risk: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 40 Epidemiological Studies
Li, Da-Peng ; Du, Chen ; Zhang, Zuo-Ming ; Li, Guang-Xiao ; Yu, Zhi-Fu ; Wang, Xin ; Li, Peng-Fei ; Cheng, Cheng ; Liu, Yu-Peng ; Zhao, Ya-Shuang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4829~4837
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4829
The present systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess any association between breastfeeding and the risk of ovarian cancer. A systematic search of published studies was performed in PUBMED and EMBASE and by reviewing reference lists from retrieved articles through March 2013. Data extraction was conducted independently by two authors. Pooled relative risk ratios were calculated using random-effect models. Totals of 5 cohort studies and 35 case-control studies including 17,139 women with ovarian cancer showed a 30% reduced risk of ovarian cancer when comparing the women who had breastfed with those who had never breastfed (pooled RR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.64-0.76; p = 0.00), with significant heterogeneity in the studies (p = 0.00; I2 = 76.29%). A significant decreasd in risk of epithelial ovarian cancer was also observed (pooled RR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.61-0.76). When the participants were restricted to only parous women, there was a slightly attenuated but still significant risk reduction of ovarian cancer (pooled RR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.69-0.83). For total breastfeeding duration, the pooled RRs in the < 6 months, 6-12 months and > 12 months of breastfeeding subgroups were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77-0.93), 0.73 (95% CI: 0.65-0.82) and 0.64 (95%CI: 0.56-0.73), respectively. Meta-regression of total breastfeeding duration indicated an increasing linear trend of risk reduction of ovarian cancer with the increasing total breastfeeding duration (p = 0.00). Breastfeeding was inversely associated with the risk of ovarian cancer, especially long-term breastfeeding duration that demonstrated a stronger protective effect.
Estimation of the Cure Rate in Iranian Breast Cancer Patients
Rahimzadeh, Mitra ; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza ; Gohari, Mahmood Reza ; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4839~4842
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4839
Background: Although the Cox's proportional hazard model is the popular approach for survival analysis to investigate significant risk factors of cancer patient survival, it is not appropriate in the case of log-term disease free survival. Recently, cure rate models have been introduced to distinguish between clinical determinants of cure and variables associated with the time to event of interest. The aim of this study was to use a cure rate model to determine the clinical associated factors for cure rates of patients with breast cancer (BC). Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study covered 305 patients with BC, admitted at Shahid Faiazbakhsh Hospital, Tehran, during 2006 to 2008 and followed until April 2012. Cases of patient death were confirmed by telephone contact. For data analysis, a non-mixed cure rate model with Poisson distribution and negative binomial distribution were employed. All analyses were carried out using a developed Macro in WinBugs. Deviance information criteria (DIC) were employed to find the best model. Results: The overall 1-year, 3-year and 5-year relative survival rates were 97%, 89% and 74%. Metastasis and stage of BC were the significant factors, but age was significant only in negative binomial model. The DIC also showed that the negative binomial model had a better fit. Conclusions: This study indicated that, metastasis and stage of BC were identified as the clinical criteria for cure rates. There are limited studies on BC survival which employed these cure rate models to identify the clinical factors associated with cure. These models are better than Cox, in the case of long-term survival.
Correlation of Inhibin and Several Antioxidants in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Mehde, Atheer Awad ; Mehdi, Wesen Adel ; Zainulabdeen, Jwan Abdulmohsin ; Abdulbari, Alaa Shawqi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4843~4846
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4843
Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is most common in childhood. Inhibin (a non-steroidal glycoprotein hormone of gonadal origin) can be used as marker of fertility. The current study was conducted to evaluate inhibin levels in ALL patients and to estimate its correlation with some antioxidants in these in comparison with control subjects. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on sixty patients with ALL and thirty children as controls. Fasting blood samples were taken from each subject and analyzed for haemoglobin, serum protein, vitamin E and C, in addition to glutathione and inhibin. Results: The results of the study showed highly significant decreases (p<0.001) in haemoglobin, glutathione and inhibin levels with significant decreases (p<0.05) in serum protein and vitamin E levels for patients group in comparison with controls while there was no significant differences in vitamin C. Moreover, there were significant correlations between inhibin levels and serum protein, glutathione and both vitamins (E and C) in the ALL patient group (r= 0.81, 0.80, 0.77 and 0.69, respectively). Conclusions: The present results indicated infertility in patients with ALL demonstrated by low inhibin level as a consequence of abnormality in anti-oxidative metabolism due to the cancer process. So, it can be suggested the need for routine measurement of inhibin for leukemic patients to estimate the action of hormones of gonadal origin.
Oncoplastic Breast Conserving Surgery with Nipple-areolar Preservation for Centrally Located Breast Cancer: a Retrospective Cohort Study
Ren, Zhao-Jun ; Li, Xiu-Juan ; Xu, Xin-Yu ; Xia, Lei ; Tang, Jin-Hai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4847~4849
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4847
A compariosn was made of survival outcomes of oncoplastic breast conserving therapy (oBCT) with nipple-areolar (NAC) preservation in women with centrally located breast cancer (CLBC) undergoing modified radical mastectomy (MRM) in China in a matched retrospective cohort study. We used a database including patients who received oBCT (n=91) or MRM (n=182) from 2003 to 2013 in our hospital. Matching was conducted according to five variables: age at diagnosis, axillary lymph node status, hormone receptor status, human epidermal growth factor-like receptor 2 status (HER-2) and tumor stage. The match ratio was 1:2. Median follow-up times for the oBCT and MRM groups were 83 and 81 months, respectively. There were no significant differences in 87-month overall, local, or distant recurrence-free survival between patients with oBCT and MRM (89%vs.90%; 93%vs.95%; 91%vs.92%;). For appropriate breast cancer patients, oBCT for CLBC is oncologically safe, oncoplastic techniques improving cosmetic outcomes.
Glutathione S-transferase M1 Null Genotype and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Susceptibility in China and India: Evidence from an Updated Meta-analysis
Liu, Hong-Zhou ; Peng, Jie ; Peng, Chun-Yan ; Yan, Ming ; Zheng, Fang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4851~4856
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4851
Background: Glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) have been reported to be associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the effect of the GSTMl null genotype was divergent in the literature and we therefore performed the present meta-analysis to explore the relationship in detail. Materials and Metbods: Reported studies were searched from 1990 to March 1, 2014 in PubMed and Wanfang Med Online. The total odds oatio (OR) and 95% CI were calculated and analyzed by Review Manager 5.1 and STATE 12. Results: Total OR was calculated from 26 articles with 3,769 cases and 5,517 controls and the association proved significant (OR [95%CI]=1.50 [1.25, 1.80], P<0.05) in the Chinese population. However, there was no significant association between hepatocellular carcinoma risk among subjects carrying the GSTM1 null genotype (OR [95%CI]=1.20 [0.88-1.64], P=0.24) in subgroups of publication in English and in Indian populations (OR [95%CI]=1.80 [0.80-4.20], P=0.15). Conclusions: The GSTM1 deletion polymorphism might not have a significant effect on the susceptibility of hepatocellular carcinoma overall.
Survival of Rectal Cancer in Yazd, Iran
Akhavan, Ali ; Binesh, Fariba ; Soltani, Amin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4857~4860
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4857
Background: Colorectal cancer is common in Iran. However our knowledge about survival of rectal cancer in our province is low. The aim of this study is to evaluate this question. Materials and Methods: Patients with documented pathology of adenocarcinoma of the rectum and rectosigmoid junction referred to our center from September 2004 to September 2012 were enrolled in this study. Metastatic and recurrent patients were excluded. A questionnaire including clinicopathologic parameters, quality and sequence of treatment modalities was filled in for each patient. Patients treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy were divided into standard and non-standard treatment groups, according to the sequence of treatment. Results: One hundred and nineteen patients were evaluated. Mean age was 60.8 year. The median overall survival was 62 months and five year survival was 55%. TNM staging system was not possible due to (Nx) in 21 (17.6%) patients. The others were in stage I, 20 patients (16.8%), II, 35 (29%.5) and III, 43(36.1%). According to our definition only 25 patients (21%) had been treated with standard treatment and 79% had not received it. A five year survival in patients with standard treatment was 85% and in the non-standard group it was 52%.Age, sex, stage and grade of tumor did not show any significant relation to survival. Conclusions: Our study showed a five year survival of rectal cancer in our patients was about 10% lower than the rate which is reported for developed countries. Preoperative concurrent chemoradiation significantly improved local control and even overall survival.
Survival of Patients with Ewing's Sarcoma in Yazd-Iran
Akhavan, Ali ; Binesh, Fariba ; Shamshiri, Hadi ; Ghanadi, Fazllolah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4861~4864
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4861
Background: The Ewing's sarcoma family is a group of small round cell tumors which accounts for 10-15% of all primary bone neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of Ewing's sarcoma patients in our province and to determine of influencing factors. Materials and Methods: All patients with documented Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor(PNET) family pathology were enrolled in this study during a period of eight years. For all of them local and systemic therapy were carried out. Overall and event free survival and prognostic factors were evaluated. Results: Thirty two patients were enrolled in the study. The median age was 17.5 years. Twenty (65.2%) were male and 9 (28.1%) were aged 14 years or less. Mean disease free survival was 26.8 (95%CI; 13.8-39.9) months and five year disease free survival was 26%. Mean overall survival was 38.7 months (95%CI; 25.9-50.6) and median overall survival was 24 months. Five year overall survival was 25%. From the variables evaluated, only presence of metastatic disease at presentation (p value=0. 028) and complete response (p value =0. 006) had significant relations to overall survival. Conclusions: Survival of Ewing's sarcoma in our province is disappointing. It seems to be mostly due to less effective treatment. Administration of adequate chemotherapy dosage, resection of tumor with negative margins and precise assessment of irradiation volume may prove helpful.
Expression of High Mobility Group Box - B1 (HMGB-1) and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
Wang, Jing-Luan ; Wu, Da-Wei ; Cheng, Zhao-Zhong ; Han, Wei-Zhong ; Xu, Sheng-Wei ; Sun, Ni-Na ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4865~4869
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4865
Objective: This study evaluated the expression level of high mobility group box-B1 (HMGB-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) inmorder to reveal any relation with development and prognosis. Methods: NSCLC and normal tissues were selected from 30 patients at age of 30-73, and used for RT-PCR and Western blot analyses of HMGB-1. A total of 100 paraffin embedded NSCLC tissues were also isolated from patients through surgical resection, and used for detection of HMGB-1 by immunohistochemistry. In addition, 50 samples were also applied for MMP-9 detection, and 30 normal tissues were considered as controls. Correlation analysis of HMGB-1 and MMP-9 was carried out by Pearsons correlation coefficient. Results: The average expression level of HMGB-1 in NSCLC patients was significantly higher than in normal lung tissues. In addition, patients in III-IV period exhibit significantly higher positive rate of HMGB-1 when compared with I-II period cases. Furthermore, a positive correlation with HMGB-1 was found in the expression of MPP-9. Conclusion: HMGB-1 was highly expressed in NSCLC, which may become a prognostic and predictive marker for NSCLC. Besides, MPP-9 was positively correlated with HMGB-1.
Macrophages Promote Coal Tar Pitch Extract-induced Tumorigenesis of BEAS-2B Cells and Tumor Metastasis in Nude Mice Mediated by AP-1
Zhang, Peng ; Jin, Yue-Fei ; Zhang, Qiao ; Wu, Yi-Ming ; Wu, Wei-Dong ; Yao, Wu ; Wu, Yong-Jun ; Li, Zhi-Tao ; Zhao, Yong ; Liu, Yu ; Feng, Fei-Fei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4871~4876
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4871
Background: We sought to evaluate the role of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) on the promotion of coal tar pitch extract (CTPE)-induced tumorigenesis of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and tumor metastasis in nude mice, and related mechanisms. Materials and Methods: BEAS-2B cells were first treated with 2.4 mg/mL CTPE for 72 hours. After removal of CTPE, the cells were continuously cultured and passaged using trypsin-EDTA. THP-1 cells were used as macrophage-like cells. BEAS-2B cells under different conditions (n=6/group) were injected into the back necks of nude mice, and alterations of tumor xenograft growth, indicative of tumorigenicity, and tumor metastasis were determined. Pathological changes (tumor nests and microvascular lesions) of HE-stained tumor tissues were also evaluated. The expression of AP-1(c-Jun) in xenografts and metastatic tumors was determined using immunohistochemistry. Results: Tumor size and weight in nude mice transplanted with the mixture of CTPE-induced passage 30 BEAS-2B and THP-1 cells (2:1) were increased compared to those from the CTPE-treated BEAS-2B cells at passage 30 alone at different observation time points. Tumor metastasis to lymph nodes and liver was only detected after transplantation of a mixture the two kinds of cells. The numbers of tumor nests and microvascular lesions, and the expression levels of AP-1 (c-Jun) in tumors from the mixture of two kinds of cells were increased apparently in contrast to those in tumor from the CTPE-treated BEAS-2B cells of passage 30 alone. In addition, there was positive correlation between AP-1 (c-Jun) expression level and the number of microvascular lesions, or between AP-1 (c-Jun) expression level and tumor metastasis in these two groups. Conclusions: TAMs not only facilitate tumorigenesis transformation of CTPE-induced BEAS-2B cells, but also promote tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis in nude mice in vivo, which may be mediated by AP-1.
Understanding and Responsiveness Level about Cervical Cancer and its Avoidance among Young Women of Pakistan
Khan, Ghulam Jilany ; Naeem, Hafiza Sadaf ; Khan, Sara ; Jamshaid, Talha ; Sajid, Muhammad Imran ; Bashir, Irfan ; Jamshaid, Muhammad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4877~4883
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4877
Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality amongst the gynecological cancers worldwide, especially in developing countries. There are few to no initial symptoms and signs. This study was conducted to assess the awareness level of young Pakistani women about cervical cancer and to educate them about this deadly disease. A detailed questionnaire regarding demographic data and information about cervical cancer was distributed in different cities of Punjab. A total of 873 women took part in this survey and 70.1 percent were totally unaware of this cancer. Only 8.5% of the whole surveyed population knew accurately about cancer of cervix, 7% of the surveyed respondents correctly specified the human papilloma virus as the causative agent. Only 5.2% respondents were able to identify the Pap smear test as a diagnostic measure. Out of all the surveyed population only 4.3% of individuals were found to be vaccinated against this disease and the majority was found from the medical profession. Medical professionals, students, working women, housewives and uneducated individuals took active part in this survey. This study demonstrates a low level of awareness among Pakistani women and a need for an active campaign by media and government to increase understanding as well as introducing measures for improved prevention and treatment of cervical cancer.
Does Clinical Experience Help Oncology Nursing Staff to Deal with Patient Pain Better than Nurses from other Displines? Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Amongst Nurses in a Tertiary Care in Malaysia
Yaakup, Hayati ; Eng, Tan Chai ; Shah, Shamsul Azhar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4885~4891
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4885
Background: Successful implementation of pain management procedures and guidelines in an institution depends very much on the acceptance of many levels of healthcare providers. Aim: The main purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes regarding pain among nurses working in tertiary care in a local setting and the factors that may be associated with this. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional research study used a modified version of the Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (NKAS) regarding pain. Basic demographic data were obtained for further correlation with the level of pain knowledge. Results: A total of 566 nurses, 34 male and 532 female, volunteered to participate in this study. The response rate (RR) was 76%, with an overall mean percentage score of
(range: 5-92.5). The majority of participants were younger nurses below 40 years of age and more than 70% had worked for less than 10 years (
). Up to 92% had never had any formal education in pain management in general. The total mean score of correct answers was
, with oncology nursing staff scoring a higher percentage when compared with nurses from other general and critical care wards (
, p<0.045). Only 2.5% out of all participants obtained a score of 80% or greater. The majority of the oncology nurses achieved the expected competency level (p<0.03). Conclusions: The present findings give further support for the universal concern about poor knowledge and attitudes among nurses' related to the optimal management of pain. The results reflected that neither number of years working nor age influenced the level of knowledge or attitudes of the practising nurses. Oncology nursing staff consistently scored better than the rest of the cohort. This reflects that clinical experience helped to improve attitudes and knowledge concerning better pain management.
Study on the Relationship Between CXCR4 Expression and Perineural Invasion in Pancreatic Cancer
Jiang, Yu-Mei ; Li, Guang ; Sun, Bao-Cun ; Zhao, Xiu-Lan ; Zhou, Zhong-Kai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4893~4896
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4893
Background: Recent reports have shown that C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) plays an important role in metastasis. Despite a clear understanding of the protein's structure and properties, its functional role remains elusive. We conducted the present study to evaluate the expressions of CXCR4 in pancreatic cancer, and to investigate its relationship with clinicopathological parameters, especially perineural invasion(PNI). Materials and Methods: The association between CXCR4 expression and perineural invasion was determined by immunohistochemistry in pancreatic cancer patients (n=51). Results: CXCR4 expression was correlated with the existence of PNI and the type of PNI (p=0.042, p=0.040). TIMP-2 expression was also correlated with the existence, the pathway and degree of PNI (p=0.000, p=0.006, p=0.000). Conclusions: Our results suggest an association between PNI and expression of CXCR4 and TIMP-2 in pancreatic cancer. CXCR4 may promote the occurrence of PNI in pancreatic cancer cells by decreasing the inhibition of TIMPs on MMP.
Parthenolide-Induced Apoptosis, Autophagy and Suppression of Proliferation in HepG2 Cells
Sun, Jing ; Zhang, Chan ; Bao, Yong-Li ; Wu, Yin ; Chen, Zhong-Liang ; Yu, Chun-Lei ; Huang, Yan-Xin ; Sun, Ying ; Zheng, Li-Hua ; Wang, Xue ; Li, Yu-Xin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4897~4902
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4897
Purpose: To investigate the anticancer effects and underlying mechanisms of parthenolide on HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Materials and Methods: Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay and cell apoptosis through DAPI, TUNEL staining and Western blotting. Monodansylcadaverin(MDC) and AO staining were used to detect cell autophagy. Cell proliferation was assessed by Ki67 immunofluorescence staining. Results: Parthenolide induced growth inhibition in HepG2 cells. DAPI and TUNEL staining showed that parthenolide could increase the number of apoptotic nuclei, while reducing the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and elevating the expression of related proteins, like p53, Bax, cleaved caspase9 and cleaved caspase3. Parthenolide could induce autophagy in HepG2 cells and inhibited the expression of proliferation-related gene, Ki-67. Conclusions: Parthenolide can exert anti-cancer effects by inducing cell apoptosis, activating autophagy and inhibiting cell proliferation.
Factors Associated with Decisions to Attend Cervical Cancer Screening among Women Aged 30-60 Years in Chatapadung Contracting Medical Unit, Thailand
Budkaew, Jiratha ; Chumworathayi, Bandit ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4903~4907
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4903
Background: This study aimed to identify factors associated with women's decisions to attend cervical cancer screening and to explore those linked with intention to attend in the coming year and to continue regular screening. Materials and Methods: A community based case-control study was conducted among woman 30-60 years of age in catchment area of Chatapadung Contracting Medical Unit (CCMU), networking of Khon Kaen Center Hospital, Thailand. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data, and in-depth interviews were then performed to explore in greater detail. Results: There were 195 participants. Only one third (32.3 %) had been screened for cervical cancer within the past 5 years. Some 67.7% reported that they had not been screened because they had no abnormal symptoms, single marital status, and no children. Only 10.6% of those never had screening intent to be screened within the next 12 months. High family income (adjusted OR=2.16, 95%CI=1.13-4.14), good attitude towards a Pap test (OR=1.87, 95%CI=1.09-4.23), and having received a recommendation from health care providers were important factors associated with decisions to attend cervical cancer screening (OR=1.73, 95%CI=1.01-4.63). From in-depth interviews, there were five reasons of their decisions to attend cervical cancer screening including yearly check-up, postpartum check-up, having abnormal symptom, encouragement by health care providers, and request from workplace. Conclusions: High family income, good attitude towards a Pap test, and receiving proper recommendation by health care providers, were important factors associated with decision to have cervical cancer screening among women 30-60 years old. Trying to enhance these factors and reduce barriers regarding screening, may increase the coverage rate for cervical cancer screening in Thailand.
Outcomes of Malignant Ovarian Germ-Cell Tumors Treated in Chiang Mai University Hospital over a Nine Year Period
Neeyalavira, Vithida ; Suprasert, Prapaporn ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4909~4913
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4909
Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCT) are rare neoplasms that most frequently occur in women at a young reproductive age. There have been limited data regarding this disease from Southeast Asian countries. We therefore conducted a retrospective study to analyze the clinical characteristics and the treatment outcomes of MOGCT treated at our institute between January, 2003 and December, 2012. Seventy-six patients were recruited from this period with the mean age of 21.6 years and 11.8% were pre-puberty. The two most common symptoms were pelvic mass and pelvic pain. Two-thirds of the studied patients presented at an early stage. The most common histology was immature teratoma (34.2%) followed by endodermal sinus tumor (28.9%), dysgerminoma (25%), mixed type (10.5%) and choriocarcinoma (1.3%). Over 80% of these patients received fertility sparing surgery and about 70% received adjuvant chemotherapy with the complete response rate at 73.3% and partial response at 11.1%. The most frequent chemotherapy was BEP regimen (bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin). With the mean follow up time at 56.0 months, 12 patients (15.8%) developed recurrence and only an advanced stage was the independent prognostic factor. The ten year progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival rate of our study were 81.9% and 86.2%, respectively. In conclusion, MOGCT often occurs at a young age. Treatment with fertility sparing operations and adjuvant chemotherapy with a BEP regimen showed a good outcome. An advanced stage is a significant prognostic factor for recurrence.
Cervical Cancer Gene Therapy by Gene Loaded PEG-PLA Nanomedicine
Liu, Bo ; Han, Shu-Mei ; Tang, Xiao-Yong ; Han, Li ; Li, Chang-Zhong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4915~4918
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4915
Background and Aims: Advances in the treatment of cervical cancer over the last decade have predominantly involved the development of genes directed at molecular targets. Gene therapy is recognized to be a novel method for the treatment of cervical cancer. Genes can be administered into target cells via nanocarriers. This study aimed to develop systemically administrable nano-vectors. Floate (Fa) containing gene loaded nanoparticles (NPs) could target HeLa human cervical cancer cells through combination with receptors on the cells to increase the nuclear uptake of genetic materials. Methods: Fa was linked onto Poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly (D, L-lactide) (PEG-PLA) to form Fa-PEG-PLA, and the resulting material was used to load plasmids of enhanced green fluorescence protein (pEGFP) to obtain gene loaded nanoparticles (Fa-NPs/DNA). Physical-chemical characteristics, in vitro release and cytotoxicity of Fa-NPs/DNA were evaluated. The in vitro transfection efficiency of Fa-NPs/DNA was evaluated in HeLa cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). PEG-PLA without Fa was used to load pEGFP from NPs/DNA as a control. Results: Fa-NPs/DNA has a particle size of 183 nm and a gene loading quantity of 92%. After 72h of transfection, Fa-NPs/DNA displayed over 20% higher transfection efficiency than NPs/DNA and 40% higher than naked DNA in HeLa cells. However, in HUVECs, no significant difference appeared between Fa-NPs/DNA and NPs/DNA. Conclusions: Fa-PEG-PLA NPs could function as excellent materials for gene loading. This nano-approach could be used as tumor cell targeted medicine for the treatment of cervical cancer.
Antiproliferative Effects of Celecoxib in Hep-2 Cells through Telomerase Inhibition and Induction of Apoptosis
Zhao, Yong-Qiang ; Feng, Hui-Wei ; Jia, Tao ; Chen, Xue-Mei ; Zhang, Hui ; Xu, An-Ting ; Zhang, Hai-Ling ; Fan, Xian-Liang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4919~4923
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4919
Background: To investigate the effect of celecoxib on telomerase activity and apoptosis in a human laryngeal squamous carcinoma cell line (Hep-2 cells). Materials and Methods: The growth inhibition rate of Hep-2 cells in vitro was measured by MTT assay, and apoptosis by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry (FCM). The TRAP-ELISA method was used to determine telomerase activity in Hep-2 cells. The mRNA expression of human telomerase RNA component(hTR), human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and human telomerase-associated protein(hTEP1) was determined by RT-PCR assay. Expression of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins was assessed by Western blotting. Results: Celecoxib can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner, repress telomerase activity, decrease hTERT mRNA and Bcl-2 protein expression and increase Bax protein expression, PGE2 had no effect on telomerase. Conclusions: Celecoxib had the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effect in Hep-2 cells. Apoptosis was accompanied by a decrease in telomerase activity which was directly correlated with hTERT mRNA and up-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2. Bcl-2 may thus play an important role in telomerase activity as well as apoptosis.
Methylation of RASSF1A and CDH13 Genes in Individualized Chemotherapy for Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
Zhai, Xu ; Li, Shi-Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4925~4928
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4925
Background: This study aimed to evaluate the methylation of RASSF1A and CDH13 gene promoter regions as a marker for monitoring chemotherapeutic efficacy with personalized medicine for patients with NSCLC, in the hope of providing a new direction for NSCLC individualized chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: 42 NSCLC patients and 40 healthy controls were included. Patient blood samples were collected in the whole process of chemotherapy. Methylation of RASSF1A and CDH13 gene promoter regions was detected by the methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). Results: The rate of RASSF1A and CDH13 gene methylation in 42 cases of NSCLC patients was significantly higher than in 40 healthy controls (52.4% to 0.0%, 54.8% to 0.0%, p<0.05). After the chemotherapy, the hyper-methylation of RASSF1A and CDH13 genes in PR group and SD group decreased significantly (p<0.05), and was significantly different from that in PD group (p<0.05), but not as compared with healthy controls (P>0.05). With chemotherapy, RASSF1A and CDH13 promoter region methylation rate in 42 cases of patients showed a declining trend. Conclusions: The methylation level of RASSF1A and CDH13 gene promoter region can reflect drug sensitivity of tumors to individualized treatment.
Differences Between Breast Cancer Patients Younger and Older than 40 Years: Mammographic Findings
Zhao, Yu-Mei ; Wang, Jian-Tao ; Liu, Jing ; Wang, Ju ; Wang, Hong-Li ; Liu, Pei-Fang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4929~4932
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4929
Objective: To compare the mammogarphic appearance between breast cancer patients aged <40 and
years. Methods: Needle localization and biopsy of suspicious mammographic lesions identified 1,959 breast carcinomas in a single institution from Jun 2012 to Apr 2013. According to the age, we divided patients into two groups: <40 and
years old, and analyzed mammographic appearance separately. Results: Young patients had 44.2% foci with calcification, but old patients only had 39.4% (P<0.001). In younger group, the ratios of cases according to mass density were 41.8% or higher, 58.2% equivalent and lower. In older group, the ratios were 55.5 % and 44.5%, respectively. There were statistical differences between high density and others (P<0.05). The ratios of cases according to mass margin were 13.9% circumscribed and microlobulated, 86.1% indistinct and spiculated in the younger group, as compared to 6.5% and 93.5%, respectively, in the older group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Mammographic findings differ between young and old patients with breast cancer, for example regarding mass density, mass margin and microcalcification ratios.
Preliminary Evaluation of Clinical Utility of CYFRA 21-1, CA 72-4, NSE, CA19-9 and CEA in Stomach Cancer
Gwak, Hee Keun ; Lee, Jai Hyuen ; Park, Seok Gun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4933~4938
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4933
Background: Although various tumor markers have been utilized in management of stomach cancer (SC), only a few reports have described relevance of examples such as CYFRA 21-1 and neuron-specific enolase (NSE). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential diagnostic performance of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 19-9, CA72-4, CYFRA 21-1 and NSE in patients with SC. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six SC patients with pathologic confirmation between 2012 and 2013 were enrolled. Serum levels of five tumor markers were analyzed using a solid-phase immunoradiometric assay. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted for the five tumor markers to investigate their diagnostic powers and adjusted cutoff values derived from analysis of ROC curves were evaluated to calculate the sensitivity of each for SC with recommended cutoff values. Results: Based on two different cutoff values (recommended and adjusted), CYFRA 21-1 (
and 1.2 ng/ml) had a respective sensitivity of 50% and 78.1%, compared with 8.3% and 18.8% for CEA (
and 3.9 ng/ml), 15.6% and 18.8% for CA 19-9 (
and 26.7 ng/ml), 28.1% and 9.6% for CA 72-4 (
and 13 ng/ml) and 7.3% and 7.3% for NSE (
and 15.0 ng/ml) in the initial staging of primary SC. The area under the curve (AUC) for CYFRA 21-1, with a value of 0.978 (95% confidence interval, 0.964-0.991) was comparatively the highest. Univariate analysis revealed significant relationships between tumor marker level and lymph node involvement, metastasis and staging with CYFRA 21-1, CA 72-4 and NSE. Conclusions: CYFRA 21-1 was the most sensitive tumor marker and showed the most powerful diagnostic performance among the five SC tumor markers. NSE and CA 72-4 are significantly related to lymph node involvement, metastasis or stage. Further evaluations are warranted to clarify the clinical usefulness and prognostic prediction of these markers in SC.
Awareness of Cancer and Cancer Screening by Korean Community Residents
Jo, Heui-Sug ; Kwon, Myung Soon ; Jung, Su-Mi ; Lee, Bo-Young ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4939~4944
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4939
The purpose of this study was through a survey of awareness of cancer and cancer screening of Korean community residents to identify the stereotypes of cancer and bases for development of improved screening programs for early detection. Subjects were residing in South Korea Gangwon-Province and were over 30 years and under 69 years old. The total was 2,700 persons which underwent structured telephone survey questionnaires considered with specific rates of gender, region, and age. For statistical analysis, PASW Statistics 17.0 WIN was utilized. Frequency analysis, the Chi-square (
) test for univariate analysis, and logistic regression analysis were performed. The awareness of cancer and cancer screening in subjects differed by gender, region and age. For the idea of cancer, women thought about death less than men (OR: 0.73, p<0.001). On the other hand, women had negative thoughts - fear/terror/suffering/pain/pain - more than their male counterparts (OR: 2.04, p<0.001). Next, for the idea of cancer screening, women recognized fear/terror more than men (OR: 1.38, p<0.01). The higher age, the more tension/anxiety/worry/burden/irritated/pressure (OR: 1.43, p<0.01, OR: 2.15, p<0.001, OR: 2.49, p<0.001)). People may be reminded of fear and death for cancer and of fear, terror, tension and anxiety for cancer screening. To change vague fear and negative attitudes of cancer could increase the rate of cancer screening as well as help to improve the quality of life for community cancer survivors and facilitate return to normal social life. Therefore, it is necessary to provide promotion and education to improve the awareness of cancer and cancer screening.
Genotype Distribution of Human Papillomavirus in Women with Abnormal Cervical Cytology in an Esophageal Carcinoma High Incidence Area of China
Mai, Rui-Qin ; Huang, Bo ; Shen, Ling ; Zhang, Guo-Hong ; Hong, Liang-Li ; Cai, Ying-Mu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4945~4950
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4945
Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) could affect genesis of both cervical and esophageal cancers. The type-specific distribution of HPV in cervical cytology abnormalities of women has remained unclear in Shantou, an esophageal cancer high-incidence area of China. Data from 22,617 women who were subjected to cervical HPV DNA testing with simultaneous cervical cytological examination during 2009-2013 were therefore here retrospectively evaluated in a hospital-based study. Overall, 16.2% (3,584/22,114)of women with normal cytology were HR-HPV positive, with HPV-52 (4.07%) as the most common type followed by -16 (3.63%), and -58 (2.46%). Prevalence of HR-HPV was 50.3% (253/503) in women with cervical cytological abnormalities, of which in ASC-H 71.4%, ASC-US 39.1%, HSIL 80.3% and LSIL 73.7%. HPV-58 (14.12%) was the most common type for all cervical cytological abnormalities, followed by HPV-16 (13.72%), and -52 (12.72%), while the more common HPV-16 type in ASC-H (42.9%) and HSIL (36.1%), HPV-52 and -58 were the most common types for ASC-US (10.3%) and LSIL (25%), respectively. Multiple HPV co-infections were identified in 33.2% (84/253) cytology abnormalities with positive HR-HPV, and the highest prevalence of HPV-58/16 combination in HSIL (28.6%, 6/21) was observed. Our data indicated a relative high prevalence of HPV-58 and -52 in women with cervical cytological abnormalities, which should be considered in the development of next-generation vaccines for Shantou.
Differential Expression of IQGAP1/2 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and its Relationship with Clinical Outcomes
Xia, Fa-Da ; Wang, Zhuo-Lu ; Chen, Hong-Xi ; Huang, Yun ; Li, Jin-Dong ; Wang, Zhi-Ming ; Li, Xin-Ying ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4951~4956
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4951
Purpose: To investigate IQGAP1 and IQGAP2 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and itsassociation with HCC clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes. Methods: IQGAP1 and IQGAP2 mRNA and protein were measured in HCC tissues, para-tumor tissues and normal tissues by RT-PCR and Western blotting. We further examined 150 HCC samples with adjacent para-tumor tissues and 11 normal specimens by immunohistochemistry to evaluate the correlation of IQGAP1 and IQGAP2 with clinicopathological features and prognosis. Results: IQGAP1 mRNA and protein were up-regulated while IQGAP2 mRNA and protein were down-regulated in human HCC tissues compared with para-tumor and normal liver tissues (p<0.05). IQGAP1 expression was higher in primary HCC (122/150, 81.3%) than matched adjacent tissues (30/150, 20%, p<0.001), whereas IQGAP2 was lower (31/150, 20.7% as compared to 112/150, 74.7%, P<0.001). Positive IQGAP1 expression correlated with larger tumor size (p=0.002), advanced TNM stage (p=0.002) and tumor differentiation (III and IV, p=0.034). Negative IQGAP2 expression was significantly associated with larger tumor size (p=0.009), multicentric tumor occurrence (p=0.01), advanced TNM stage (0.009) and tumor differentiation (III and IV, p=0.020). Survival analysis revealed that patients with either IQGAP1+ or IQGAP2-tumors had significantly reduced disease-free survival (p<0.001 and 0.006 respectively) and overall survival (p<0.001 for both). Multivariate analysis showed that IQGAP1/2 switch was an independent prognosis factor for disease-free survival (HR=2.824) and overall survival (HR=2.189). Conclusion: Positive IQGAP1 and negative IQGAP2 expression were closely correlated with tumor progression and could be used as adjunctive biomarkers to improve prognostication for HCC patients.
Stage-Wise Presentation of Non-Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer: an Analysis of Patients from the Kumaon Hills of India
Pandey, Kailash Chandra ; Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop ; Pant, Nirdosh Kumar ; Bhatt, Harish Chandra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4957~4961
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4957
Background: Head and neck cancer without distant metastases is amenable to various modalities of treatment. However, the stage at presentation is a very important determinant for treatment success. The present study was conducted to determine the stage-wise presentation of non-metastatic head and neck cancer patients from the hilly regions in Kumaon division of Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: The hospital records for non-metastatic head and neck cancer patients from the only functional cancer centre of the region for the period of two-years (January 2012-December 2013) were included. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma was excluded due to its staging system being different. Non-squamous histopathologies were also excluded. Patients hailing from nearby regions of Uttar Pradesh and Nepal were excluded, as were patients from non-hilly regions of Kumaon. Results: Of the 271 patients of head and neck cancer, 27 with distant metastases at diagnosis were excluded from the analysis. Of the 244 eligible patient records, 90.1% (n=222) were male, and 9.9% (n=22) were female. The proportions of patients with carcinoma of the larynx, oropharynx, oral cavity, hypopharynx and maxillary antrum were 31.9% (n=78), 27.9% (n=68), 20.5% (n=50), 12.7% (n=31) and 1.2% (n=3). A further 5.7% (n=14) were diagnosed as having secondary involvement of neck nodes with unknown primaries. The proportion of patients presenting in stages I, II, III, IVA and IVB were 0.8% (n=2), 2.5% (n=6), 9.4% (n=23), 51.6% (n=126) and 35.7% (n=87) respectively. Conclusions: An abysmally low proportion (3.3%) of non-metastatic head and neck cancer patients presented in the early stages (I and II). A vast majority of the patients (88.1%) presented with stages IVA and IVB. Not only does this reflect a poor therapeutic outlook, but also exposes the dire need for programmes focusing on cancer awareness and early detection in the region.
Effect on Smoking Quit Rate of Telling Smokers their Health Risk Appraisal in Terms of Health Age: A Randomized Control Trial
Paek, Yu-Jin ; Lee, Sungkyu ; Kim, Yun-Hee ; Lee, Kang-Sook ; Yim, Hyeon-Woo ; Kim, Myung-Shig ; Kim, Cheol-Hwan ; Jeung, Ok ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4963~4968
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4963
Background: We evaluated whether providing health risk appraisal for Koreans (KHRA) in terms of 'health age' during smoking cessation program would effectively help smokers quit smoking or not. Materials and Methods: A total of 332 male smokers aged between 30-65 years old, registered for a smoking cessation program in a public health center in a city, were recruited and underwent a baseline survey from January 2010 to February 2011. They were then prospectively randomized to a conventional counseling group (n=165) or a KHRA group (n=167), and received conventional counseling or KHRA-based counseling for six months. Abstinence rates were identified through carbon monoxide measurement (at the
weeks) or urinary cotinine level (at the
week). Results: The abstinence rate confirmed by exhaled carbon monoxide was significantly higher in the KHRA group (61.1%) than the control group (49.1%) at the
week (absolute difference 12.0%, 95% CI: 1.4%-22.6%). However, there was no difference in abstinence rates between the two groups at the 12th and 24th weeks. The predicting factors of 24 week's smoking cessation success were age, older than 50 years old (OR 2.02, 95% CI: 1.16-3.52), lower Fagerstr
m Test for Nicotine Dependence score less than 4 (OR 1.84, 95% CI: 1.03-3.29), and higher Self Efficacy/Temptation score (OR 1.79, 95% CI: 1.05-3.06). Conclusions: Smoking cessation counseling with KHRA could be effective compared to conventional counseling in the short period of smoking cessation. Further study is needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of KHRA in tobacco dependence treatment and to establish the indication and target population of this tool.
Effects of miR-152 on Cell Growth Inhibition, Motility Suppression and Apoptosis Induction in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells
Dang, Yi-Wu ; Zeng, Jing ; He, Rong-Quan ; Rong, Min-Hua ; Luo, Dian-Zhong ; Chen, Gang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4969~4976
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4969
Background: miR-152 is involved in the genesis and development of several malignancies. However, its role in HCC has not been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological significance of miR-152 and its effect on the malignant phenotype of HCC cells. Methods: miR-152 expression was detected using real-time quantitative RT-PCR in 89 pairs of HCC formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and their adjacent tissues. Functionally, in vitro effects and mechanisms of action of miR-152 on proliferation, viability, caspase activity, apoptosis and motility were explored in HepG2, HepB3 and SNU449 cells, as assessed by spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, fluorescence microscopy, wound-healing and Western blotting, respectively. Results: miR-152 expression in HCC was downregulated remarkably compared to that in adjacent hepatic tissues. miR-152 levels in groups of advanced clinical stage, larger tumor size and positive HBV infection, were significantly lower than in other groups. A miR-152 mimic could suppress cell growth, inhibit cell motility and increase caspase activity and apoptosis in HCC cell lines. Furthermore, Western blotting showed that the miR-152 mimic downregulated Wnt-1, DNMT1, ERK1/2, AKT and TNFRS6B signaling. Intriguingly, inverse correlation of TNFRF6B and miR-152 expression was found in HCC and bioinformatics confirmed that TNFRF6B might be a target of miR-152. Conclusions: Underexpression of miR-152 plays a vital role in hepatocarcinogenesis and lack of miR-152 is related to the progression of HCC through deregulation of cell proliferation, motility and apoptosis. miR-152 may act as a tumor suppressor miRNA by also targeting TNFRSF6B and is therefore a potential candidate biomarker for HCC diagnosis, prognosis and molecular therapy.
Functional RsaI/PstI Polymorphism in Cytochrome P450 2E1 Contributes to Bladder Cancer Susceptibility: Evidence from a Meta-analysis
Deng, Xiao-Dong ; Gao, Qin ; Zhang, Bo ; Zhang, Li-Xia ; Zhang, Wei ; Er, Zhe-Er Mu ; Xie, Ying ; Ma, Ying ; Liu, Yun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4977~4982
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4977
Background: Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) might be involved in the development of bladder cancer. However, previous studies of any association between CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI polymorphism and bladder cancer risk have yielded conflicting results. In this study, we performed a more precise estimation of the relationship by a meta-analysis based on the currently available evidence from the literature. Method: To assess the effect of CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI polymorphism on bladder cancer susceptibility, a meta-analysis of 6 available studies with 1,510 cases and 1,560 controls were performed through Feb 2014. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the strength of association for CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI polymorphism under different genetic models. Results: When available studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, we found that the C1C2 and C2C2 genotypes of CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI polymorphism significantly decreased bladder cancer risk under different genetic models (heterozygote: OR=0.766, 95%CI=0.613-0.957,
=0.019; homozygote: OR=0.51, 95%CI=0.303-0.858,
=0.011; dominant: OR=0.733, 95%CI=0.593-0.905,
=0.004; recessive: OR=0.565, 95%CI=0.337-0.947,
=0.030). Subgroup analysis indicated that C2C2 genotype was significantly associated with decreased bladder cancer risk under the homozygote genetic model in Caucasians. There was no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias. Conclusions: The current meta-analysis suggested that the CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI polymorphism might be associated with bladder cancer susceptibility, especially in Caucasians. Further studies are needed to validate the above conclusion.
Morphine: Patient Knowledge and Attitudes in the Central Anatolia Part of Turkey
Colak, Dilsen ; Oguz, Arzu ; Yazilitas, Dogan ; Imamoglu, Inanc Goksen ; Altinbas, Mustafa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4983~4988
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4983
Background: In Muslim majority countries (MMC) opioid use for pain management is extremely low. The underlying factors contributing to this are not well defined. Aim: The aim of this study was to survey the attitudes of cancer patients towards morphine use for pain management in a MMC and identify the factors that influence patient decisions to accept or refuse morphine as treatment for cancer pain. Settings/participants: Patients were questioned whether they had pain or not, the severity and the medications for pain management. Questions included what type of medication they thought morphine was, whether or not they would be willing to take morphine if recommended for pain management and the basis for their decision if they were against morphine use. Results: Four hundred and eighty-eight patients participated in the study. Some 50% of the patients who refused morphine use and 36.8% of the patients who would prefer another drug, if possible, identified fear of addiction as the basis for their decision. Reservation of morphine for later in their disease was the case for 22.4% of the patients who refused morphine use. Only 13.7 % of the patients refusing morphine and 9.7% of the patients who preferred another drug, if possible, cited religious reasons as the basis for this decision. Conclusions: Identifying the underlying factors contributing to low opioid use for pain management in MMC is important. Once the underlying factors were identified, all efforts should be taken to overcome them as they are barriers to improving patient pain management.
Associations between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of COX-2 and MMP-2 Genes and Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility in the Saudi Population
Shalaby, Manal Ali ; Nounou, Howaida Attia ; Alanazi, Mohammad Saud ; Alharby, Othman ; Azzam, Nahla ; Saeed, Hesham Mahmoud ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4989~4994
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4989
Background: It has been reported that COX-2 expression is associated with MMP-2 expression in thyroid and breast cancers, suggesting that MMPs are linked to COX-2-mediated carcinogenesis. Several polymorphisms within the MMP2 promoter region have been reported in cases with oncogenesis and tumor progression, especially in colorectal carcinogenesis. Materials and Methods: This research evaluated risk of association of the SNPs, including genes for COX-2 (AIG transition at +202) and MMP-2 (Crr transition at-1306), with colorectal cancer in 125 patients and 125 healthy controls. Results and Conclusions: Our data confirmed that MMP2 C-1306 T mutations were significantly more common in colon cancer patients than in our control Saudi population; p=O.0121. On the other hand in our study, there was no significant association between genotype distribution ofthe COX2 polymorphism and colorectal cancer; p=0.847. An elevated frequency ofthe mutated genotype in the control group as compared to the patients subjects indeed suggested that this polymorphism could decrease risk in the Saudi population. Our study confirmed that the polymorphisms that could affect the expressions of MMP-2 and COX-2 the colon cancer patients were significantly higher than that in the COX-2 negative group. The frequency of individuals with MMP2 polymorphisms in colon cancer patients was higher than individuals with combination of COX2 and MMP2 polymorphisms. Our study confirmed that individuals who carried the polymorphisms that could affect the expressions ofCOX2 are more susceptible to colon cancer. MMP2 regulatory polymorphisms could be considered as protective; further studies need to confirm the results with more samples and healthy subjects.
Influence of Ribosomal Protein L39-L in the Drug Resistance Mechanisms of Lacrimal Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Cells
Ye, Qing ; Ding, Shao-Feng ; Wang, Zhi-An ; Feng, Jie ; Tan, Wen-Bin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 4995~5000
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4995
Background: Cancer constitutes a key pressure on public health regardless of the economy state in different countries. As a kind of highly malignant epithelial tumor, lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma can occur in any part of the body, such as salivary gland, submandibular gland, trachea, lung, breast, skin and lacrimal gland. Chemotherapy is one of the key treatment techniques, but drug resistance, especially MDR, seriously blunts its effects. As an element of the 60S large ribosomal subunit, the ribosomal protein L39-L gene appears to be documented specifically in the human testis and many human cancer samples of different origins. Materials and Methods: Total RNA of cultured drug-resistant and susceptible lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cells was seperated, and real time quantitative RT-PCR were used to reveal transcription differences between amycin resistant and susceptible strains of lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cells. Viability assays were used to present the amycin resistance difference in a RPL39-L transfected lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line as compared to control vector and null-transfected lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cell lines. Results: The ribosomal protein L39-L transcription level was 6.5-fold higher in the drug-resistant human lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line than in the susceptible cell line by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The ribosomal protein L39-L transfected cells revealed enhanced drug resistance compared to plasmid vector-transfected or null-transfected cells as determined by methyl tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR) incorporation. Conclusions: The ribosomal protein L39-L gene could possibly have influence on the drug resistance mechanism of lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cells.
Garcinol, an Acetyltransferase Inhibitor, Suppresses Proliferation of Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF-7 Promoted by 17β-Estradiol
Ye, Xia ; Yuan, Lei ; Zhang, Li ; Zhao, Jing ; Zhang, Chun-Mei ; Deng, Hua-Yu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 5001~5007
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.5001
The acetyltransferase inhibitor garcinol, a polyisoprenylated benzophenone, is extracted from the rind of the fruit of Garcinia indica, a plant found extensively in tropical regions. Anti-cancer activity has been suggested but there is no report on its action via inhibiting acetylation against cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis-inhibtion induced by estradiol (
) in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The main purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of the acetyltransferase inhibitor garcinol on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis inhibition in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells treated with estrogen, and to explore the significance of changes in acetylation levels in this process. We used a variety of techniques such as CCK-8 analysis of cell proliferation, FCM analysis of cell cycling and apoptosis, immunofluorescence analysis of NF-
/p65 localization, and RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis of ac-H3, ac-H4, ac-p65, cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl. We found that on treatment with garcinol in MCF-7 cells,
-induced proliferation was inhibited, cell cycle progression was arrested at G0/G1 phase, and the cell apoptosis rate was increased. Expression of ac-H3, ac-H4 and NF-
/ac-p65 proteins in
-treated MCF-7 cells was increased, this being inhibited by garcinol but not ac-H4.The nuclear translocation of NF-
-treated MCF-7 cells was also inhibited, along with cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl in mRNA and protein expression levels. These results suggest that the effect of
on promoting proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis is linked to hyperacetylation levels of histones and nonhistone NF-
/p65 in MCF-7 cells. The acetyltransferase inhibitor garcinol plays an inhibitive role in MCF-7 cell proliferation promoted by
. Mechanisms are probably associated with decreasing ac-p65 protein expression level in the NF-
pathway, thus down-regulating the expression of cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl.
Assessing a Sun Protection Program Aimed at Greek Elementary School Students for Malign Melanoma Prevention
Saridi, Maria Ioannis ; Rekleiti, Maria Demetrios ; Toska, Aikaterini George ; Souliotis, Kyriakos ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 5009~5018
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.5009
Introduction: Numerous countries have launched campaigns regarding sun protection in the last decades. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess an intervention program aimed at higher knowledge and healthier attitudes regarding sun protection. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 4,133 students aged 8-12 years from a single Greek province. Results: In most items, knowledge levels after the intervention were found to be higher than those before (
), while knowledge about sun protection factors seems to have had the highest improvement (27.1% vs 56.6%). However, student attitudes did not appear to improve, with the exception of applying sunscreen with a higher SPF (29.7% vs 54.8%). Girls seemed to have healthier attitudes compared to boys, but gender played no role with regard to knowledge levels. Also, place of residence did not play any role regarding knowledge levels, although those living in semi-urban areas seemed to have more unhealthy attitudes. Logistic regression by correlating knowledge and attitudes established that higher knowledge levels are usually accompanied by healthier attitudes, albeit marginally. Conclusions: The intervention had a positive contribution to the student knowledge level regarding sun protection and also led to small improvements regarding some attitudes. Continuous similar interventions could lead to better results and the adoption of healthier attitudes.
Lack of CHEK2 Gene Mutations in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Patients using High Resolution Melting Analysis
Fayaz, Shima ; Fard-Esfahani, Pezhman ; Torbati, Peyman Mohammadi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 5019~5022
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.5019
Recently, mutations in the genes involved in cell cycle control, including CHEK2, are being considered as etiological factors in different kinds of cancers. The CHEK2 protein plays an important role in protecting damaged DNA from entering mitosis. In this study the potential effects of two common mutations
and Ile157Thr of CHEK2 gene in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) were evaluated. A total of 100 patients admitted to the Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine were diagnosed with DTC based on pathology reports of surgery samples. An additional 100 people were selected as a control group with no cancer history. PCR-HRM (high resolution melting) analysis was performed to deal with each of mutations in all case and control samples separately. During the analysis of
and Ile157Thr mutations of CHEK2 gene in the case and control groups, all the samples were identified as wild homozygote type. The finding suggests that
and Ile157Thr mutations of CHEK2 gene do not constitute a risk factor for DTC in the Iranian population. However, further studies with larger population are required to confirm the outcome.
Inactivated Sendai Virus Strain Tianjin Induces Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer MDA-MB-231 Cells
Chen, Jun ; Han, Han ; Chen, Min ; Xu, Xiao-Zhu ; Wang, Bin ; Shi, Li-Ying ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 5023~5028
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.5023
Sendai virus strain Tianjin is a novel genotype. Here, we investigate the antitumor and proapoptotic effects of ultraviolet-inactivated Sendai virus strain Tianjin (UV-Tianjin) on human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro, as well as the involvement of the apoptotic pathway in the mechanism of UV-Tianjin-induced antitumor effects. MTT assays showed that treatment with UV-Tianjin dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells but not normal MCF 10A breast epithelium cells. Hoechst staining and flow cytometric analysis revealed that UV-Tianjin induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, UV-Tianjin treatment resulted in reduction in the mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) and release of cytochrome complex (cyt c) via regulation of Bax and Bcl-2, as well as activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, Fas, FasL and caspase-8 in MDA-MB-231 cells. In summary, our study suggests that UV-Tianjin exhibits anticancer activity in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells through inducing apoptosis, which may involve both the endogenous mitochondrial and exogenous death receptor pathways.
Association Between Pancreatitis and Subsequent Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: a Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies
Tong, Gui-Xian ; Geng, Qing-Qing ; Chai, Jing ; Cheng, Jing ; Chen, Peng-Lai ; Liang, Han ; Shen, Xing-Rong ; Wang, De-Bin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 5029~5034
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.5029
This study aimed to summarize published epidemiological evidence for the relationship between pancreatitis and subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer (PC). We searched Medline and Embase for epidemiological studies published by February
, 2014 examining the risk of PC in pancreatitis patients using highly inclusive algorithms. Information about first author, year of publication, country of study, recruitment period, type of pancreatitis, study design, sample size, source of controls and attained age of subjects were extracted by two researchers and Stata 11.0 was used to perform the statistical analyses and examine publication bias. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with the random effects model. A total of 17 articles documenting 3 cohort and 14 case-control studies containing 14,667 PC cases and 17,587 pancreatitis cases were included in this study. The pooled OR between pancreatitis and PC risk was 7.05 (95%CI: 6.42-7.75). Howeever, the pooled ORs of case-control and cohort studies were 4.62 (95%CI: 4.08-5.22) and 16.3 (95%CI: 14.3-18.6) respectively. The risk of PC was the highest in patients with chronic pancreatitis (pooled OR=10.35; 95%CI: 9.13-11.75), followed by unspecified type of pancreatitis (pooled OR=6.41; 95%CI: 4.93-8.34), both acute and chronic pancreatitis (pooled OR=6.13; 95%CI: 5.00-7.52), and acute pancreatitis (pooled OR=2.12; 95%CI: 1.59-2.83). The pooled OR of PC in pancreatitis cases diagnosed within 1 year was the highest (pooled OR=23.3; 95%CI: 14.0-38.9); and the risk in subjects diagnosed with pancreatitis for no less than 2, 5 and 10 years were 3.03 (95%CI: 2.41-3.81), 2.82 (95%CI: 2.12-3.76) and 2.25 (95%CI: 1.59-3.19) respectively. Pancreatitis, especially chronic pancreatitis, was associated with a significantly increased risk of PC; and the risk decreased with increasing duration since diagnosis of pancreatitis.
A Cross-Country Comparison of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices about Tobacco Use: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey
Gupta, Bhawna ; Kumar, Narinder ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 5035~5042
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.5035
Background: Knowledge and individual perceptions about adverse effects of all forms of tobacco exert direct influence on the level of tobacco consumption in various socio-demographic groups. The objective of this study was to determine the nature, extent and demographic correlates of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of use of tobacco among adults in low and middle income countries. Materials and Methods: The Global Adult Tobacco Survey, conducted in fourteen different countries from 2008-2010, was sourced for the data analyzed in this study. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted to determine the prevalent knowledge and individual perceptions amongst adults about all forms of tobacco consumption. Results: There was relatively high awareness about the harmful effects of smoking tobacco with main awareness being about its relationship with lung cancer (>90% in most countries). In contrast, there was relatively low awareness about harmful effects of smokeless tobacco (< 90% in all countries except India and Bangladesh), and observed correlation of smoking tobacco with heart attack (40.6% in China, 65.1% in India) and stroke (28.2% in China, 50.5% in India). Conclusions: A large proportion of adults living in low and middle income countries possess adequate knowledge about smoking tobacco but have inadequate awareness as well as false perceptions about smokeless forms of tobacco. Popular beliefs of inverse relationships of tobacco consumption with knowledge, attitudes and perception of populations towards tobacco are challenged by the findings of this study.
Effects of Hypobaric Conditions on Apoptosis Signalling Pathways in HeLa Cells
Arican, Gul Ozcan ; Khalilia, Walid ; Serbes, Ugur ; Akman, Gizem ; Cetin, Idil ; Arican, Ercan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 5043~5047
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.5043
Nowadays increasing effectiveness in cancer therapy and investigation of formation of new strategies that enhance antiproliferative activity against target organs has become a subject of interest. Although the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis can not be fully explained, it is known that cell suicide program existing in their memory genetically is activated by pathophysiological conditions and events such as oxidative stress. Low pressure (hypobaric) conditions that create hypoxia promote apoptosis by inhibiting cell cycling. In this study, determination of the effects of fractional hypobaric applications at different times on HeLa cells at cellular and molecular levels were targeted. Experiments were carried out under hypobaric conditions (35.2 kPa) in a specially designed hypobaric cabin including 2%
and 98% N. Application of fractional hypobaric conditions was repeated two times for 3 hours with an interval of 24 hours. At the end of the implementation period cells were allowed to incubate for 24 hours for activation of repair mechanisms. Cell kinetic parameters such as growth rate (MTT) and apoptotic index were used in determination of the effect of hypobaric conditions on HeLa cells. Also in our study expression levels of the Bcl-2 gene family that have regulatory roles in apoptosis were determined by the RT-PCR technique to evaluate molecular mechanisms. The results showed that antiproliferative effect of hypobaric conditions on HeLa cells started three hours from the time of application and increased depending on the period of exposure. While there was a significant decrease in growth rate values, there was a significant increase in apoptotic index values (p<0.01). Also molecular studies showed that hypobaric conditions caused a significant increase in expression level of proapoptotic gene Bax and significant decrease in antiapoptotic Bfl-1. Consequently fractional application of hypobaric conditions on HeLa cell cultures increased both antiproliferative and apoptotic effects and these effects were triggered by the Bax gene.
CD44v3 and VEGF-C Expression and its Relationship with Lymph Node Metastasis in Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Uterine Cervix
Liu, Ye-Qing ; Li, Hai-Feng ; Han, Jing-Jing ; Tang, Qiong-Lan ; Sun, Qing ; Huang, Zhi-Quan ; Li, Hai-Gang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 5049~5053
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.5049
Background: To investigate the expression of CD44v3 and vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and their relationship with lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the uterine cervix. Materials and Methods: Expression of CD44v3 and VEGF-C was analyzed in 109 cases of cervical SCC by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The relationship was analyzed between expression and the patient age, histological differentiation, formation of tumor emboli in lymphoid vessels, lymph node metastasis, FIGO staging, and TNM classification. Results: Expression rates for both CD44v3 and VEGF-C were 43.1% in cervical SCC. The cells with positive immunohistochemical staining of CD44v3 were distributed mainly around the keratin pearls in well differentiated carcinomas, but distributed diffusely in the moderately and poorly differentiated lesions. VEGF-C was found stained positively in most of the tumor cells. There were differences in expression between normal epithelium and atypical hyperplasia as well as carcinoma. Both CD44v3 and VEGF-C were found to be associated positively with lymph node metastasis and TNM classification (both p=0.000). Neither CD44v3 nor VEGF-C was found to be associated with patient age, histological differentiation, formation of tumor emboli in lymphoid vessels and FIGO staging. CD44v3 was found to be associated with VEGF-C positively (p=0.000). Conclusions: Abnormal expression of CD44v3 and VEGF-C is associated closely with the lymph node metastasis in cervical SCC, and these agents may cooperate in carcinogenesis and development of metastatic lesions.
Expression and Characterization of Protein Latcripin-3, an Antioxidant and Antitumor Molecule from Lentinula edodes C91-3
Ann, Xiao-Hua ; Lun, Yong-Zhi ; Zhang, Wei ; Liu, Ben ; Li, Xing-Yun ; Zhong, Min-Tao ; Wang, Xiao-Li ; Cao, Jing ; Ning, An-Hong ; Huang, Min ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 5055~5061
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.5055
In this study, an anti-oxidant and anti-tumor protein Latcripin-3 of Lentinula edodes C91-3 was expressed in Escherichia coli. for the first time. According to the cDNA library, the full-length gene of Latcripin-3 was cloned by the methods of 3'-full rapid amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) and 5'-full RACE. The structural domain gene of Latcripin-3 was inserted into the pET32 a(+). The functional protein of Latcripin-3 was expressed in Rosetta-gami (DE3) E. coli, evaluated by Western blotting and mass spectrometry. DPPH testing showed that the protein Latcripin-3 can scavenge free radicals remarkably well. The activity of functional protein Latcripin-3 on A549 cells was studied with flow cytometry and the MTT method. The MTT assay results showed that there was a decreases in cell viability in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner in protein Latcripin-3 treated groups. Flow cytometry demonstrated that Latcripin-3 can induce apoptosis and block S phase dramatically in human A549 lung cancer cells as compared to the control group. At the same time, the cell ultrastructure observed by transmission electron microscopy supported the results of flow cytometry. This research offers new insights and advantages for identifying anti-oxidant and anti-tumor proteins.
Experiences of Family Caregivers of Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy
Sercekus, Pinar ; Besen, Dilek Buyukkaya ; Gunusen, Neslihan Partlak ; Edeer, Aylin Durmaz ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 5063~5069
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.5063
Background: Cancer is a disease which affects not only patients but also their families physically and emotionally. The purpose of this study was to determine the needs, challenges and ways of coping of caregivers of cancer patients. Materials and Methods: In the study, a phenomenological approach was used. Data were collected through semi-structured individual interviews. The study sample comprised 16 family members providing care for a cancer patient. Results: The study findings are grouped under four main themes: the impact of caregiving, masking feelings, experienced challenges and expectations, and coping. During the caregiving process, patient relatives are affected physiologically, psychologically and socially. It was determined that patient relatives hid their feelings and avoided talking about the disease for fear that they might upset the patient, and that they had difficulty in coping with the patient's reactions during the treatment process. Family members had difficulties arising from the health system, hospital conditions and treatment in addition to transportation and financial problems. Support is very important in coping, but it was determined that some of the relatives of patients did not receive adequate support. Patient relatives expect that health care professionals should provide them with more information about their patient's condition and the course of the disease that their patients should be dealt with by the physicians specialized in cancer, and that psychological support should be provided both for them and for their patient. Conclusions: During the caregiving process, family members are faced with many difficulties and they exhibit different coping behaviors which health care professionals should take into account.
Luteolin Arrests Cell Cycling, Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits the JAK/STAT3 Pathway in Human Cholangiocarcinoma Cells
Aneknan, Ploypailin ; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol ; Prawan, Auemduan ; Kongpetch, Sarinya ; Sripa, Banchob ; Senggunprai, Laddawan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 5071~5076
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.5071
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is one of the aggressive cancers with a very poor prognosis. Several efforts have been made to identify and develop new agents for prevention and treatment of this deadly disease. In the present study, we examined the anticancer effect of luteolin on human CCA, KKU-M156 cells. Sulforhodamine B assays showed that luteolin had potent cytotoxicity on CCA cells with IC50 values of
at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Treatment with luteolin also caused a concentration-dependent decline in colony forming ability. Consistent with growth inhibitory effects, luteolin arrested cell cycle progression at the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner as assessed by flow cytometry analysis. Protein expression of cyclin A and Cdc25A was down-regulated after luteolin treatment, supporting the arrest of cells at the G2/M boundary. Besides evident G2/M arrest, luteolin induced apoptosis of KKU-M156 cells, demonstrated by a distinct sub-G1 apoptotic peak and fluorescent dye staining. A decrease in the level of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was implicated in luteolin-induced apoptosis. We further investigated the effect of luteolin on JAK/STAT3, which is an important pathway involved in the development of CCA. The results showed that interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced JAK/STAT3 activation in KKU-M156 cells was suppressed by treatment with luteolin. Treatment with a specific JAK inhibitor, AG490, and luteolin diminished IL-6-stimulated CCA cell migration as assessed by wound healing assay. These data revealed anticancer activity of luteolin against CCA so the agent might have potential for CCA prevention and therapy.
Analysis of Laparoscopy-assisted Gastric Cancer Operations Performed by Inexperienced Junior Surgeons
Zhang, Xing-Mao ; Wang, Zheng ; Liang, Jian-Wei ; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 5077~5081
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.5077
To clarify whether gastric cancer patients can benefit from laparoscopy-assisted surgery completed by junior surgeons under supervision of expert surgeons, data of 232 patients with gastric cancer underwent operation performed by inexperienced junior surgeons were reviewed. Of the 232 patients, 137 underwent laparoscopy-assisted resection and in 118 cases this approach was successful. All of these 118 patients were assigned to laparoscopic group in this study, 19 patients who were switched to open resection were excluded. All laparoscopic operations were performed under the supervision of expert laparoscopic surgeons. Some 95 patients receiving open resection were assigned to the open group. All open operations were completed independently by the same surgeons. Short-term outcomes including oncologic outcomes, operative time intra-operative blood loss, time to first flatus, time to first defecation, postoperative hospital stay and perioperative complication were compared between the two groups. The numbers of lymph nodes harvested in the laparoscopic and open groups were
(p=0.029). There was no significant difference in the length of margins. The mean operative time was
min in laparoscopic group and
in the open group (p=0.866), and the mean blood loss in laparoscopic group was obviously less than that in open group (
; p=0.001). Time to first flatus in laparoscopic and open groups was
days respectively and the difference was not significant (p=0.135). Similarly no statically significant difference was noted for time to first defecation (
, p=0.586). Eleven patients in the laparoscopic group and 19 in the open group suffered from peri-operative complications and the difference between the two groups was significant (9.3% vs 20.0%, p=0.026). The conversion rate for laparoscopic surgery was 13.9%. Patients with gastric cancer can benefit from laparoscopy-assisted operations completed by inexperienced junior surgeons under supervision of expert laparoscopic surgeons.
Knowledge Production Status of Iranian Researchers in the Gastric Cancer Area: Based on the Medline Database
Ghojazadeh, Morteza ; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad ; Nasrolah-Zadeh, Raheleh ; Bayat-Khajeh, Parvaneh ; Piri, Reza ; Mirnia, Keyvan ; Azami-Aghdash, Saber ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 5083~5088
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.5083
Background: Scientometrics is a useful method for management of financial and human resources and has been applied many times in medical sciences during recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of science production by Iranian scientists in the gastric cancer field based on the Medline database. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-cross sectional study Iranian science production concerning gastric cancer during 2000-2011 was investigated based on Medline. After two stages of searching, 121 articles were found, then we reviewed publication date, authors names, journal title, impact factor (IF), and cooperation coefficient between researchers. SPSS.19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: There was a significant increase in published articles about gastric cancer by Iranian researchers in Medline database during 2006-2011. Mean cooperation coefficient between researchers was
person per article. Articles of this field were published in 19 countries and 56 journals. Those basex in Thailand, England, and America had the most published Iranian articles. Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Mohammadreza Zali had the most outstanding role in publishing scientific articles. Conclusions: According to results of this study, improving cooperation of researchers in conducting research and scientometric studies about other fields may have an important role in increasing both quality and quantity of published studies.
Comparison of Gadobenate Dimeglumine and Gadopentetate Dimeglumine for Breast MRI Screening: a Meta-analysis
Yang, Xiao-Ping ; Han, Yue-Dong ; Ye, Jian-Jun ; Chen, Gang ; Luo, Ying ; Ma, Hong-Xia ; Yu, Xue-Wen ; Niu, Juan-Qin ; Ren, Fang-Yuan ; Guo, You-Ming ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 5089~5095
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.5089
Background: As a common and essential contrast medium at present, gadobenate dimeglumine has shown better performance than some other agents when applied to Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening (Breast MRI Screening). Nevertheless, reports on the diagnostic performance of these two mediums (gadobenate dimeglumine and gadopentetate dimeglumine) are not completely consistent. Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of gadobenate dimeglumine and gadopentetate dimeglumine for Breast MRI Screening in patients suffering from breast cancer and to provide more convinced evidence to guide clinical practice in terms of appropriate contrast agents. Data Sources and Review Methods: Original articles in English and Chinese published before January 2013 were selected from available databases (The Cochrane Library, PUBMED, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Scientific Journals Full-text Database, Chinese Journal Full-text). The criteria for inclusion and exclusion were based on the standard for diagnosis tests. Meta-Disc software (Version 1.4) was used for data analysis. Then, the area under curve (AUC) of SROC and the spearman rank correlation of sensitivity against (1-specificity) were calculated. Results: Total of 17 researches involving 1934 patients were included. The pooled sensitivity of gadobenate dimeglumine and gadopentetate dimeglumine were 0.99 (0.97, 1.00) and 0.93 (0.88, 1.00) respectively. The pooled specificity for these two contrast agents were 0.924 (0.902, 0.943) and 0.838 (0.817, 0.858) respectively, and the AUC of SROC curve were 0.9781 and 0.9215 respectively. Conclusions: Gadobenate dimeglumine can be regarded as a more effective and feasible contrast medium for Breast MRI Screening. At least 5% differences in diagnostic performance are usually considered as clinically relevant.
An Outline of the Need for Psychology Knowledge in Health Professionals: Implications for Community Development and Breast Cancer Prevention
Ahmadian, Maryam ; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 5097~5105
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.5097
Knowledge of health and community psychology in health professionals influences psychosocial and community determinants of health and promoting participation in disease prevention at the community level. This paper appraises the potential of knowledge on psychology in health care professionals and its contribution to community empowerment through individual behavior change and health practice. The authors proposed a schematic model for the use of psychological knowledge in health professionals to promote participation in health interventions/disease prevention programs in developing countries. By implication, the paper provides a vision on policies towards supporting breast cancer secondary prevention efforts for community health development in Asian countries.
Effectiveness of Ultrasonographic Screening for Thyroid Cancer: Round-table Conference in the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency (NECA) in conjunction with the Korean Thyroid Association
Shin, Sangjin ; Park, Sae Eun ; Kim, Soo Young ; Hyun, Min Kyung ; Kim, Sun Wook ; Kwon, Jin Won ; Kim, Yeol ; Kim, Won Bae ; Na, Dong Gyu ; Park, Hyun-Ah ; Sheen, Seung Soo ; Yi, Ka Hee ; Chang, Hang-Seok ; Cho, Jung Jin ; Chung, Jae Hoon ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 12, 2014, Pages 5107~5110
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.5107
Background: The incidence rate of thyroid cancer has been increasing worldwide in recent years, and it is also the most prevalent cancer when it comes to the number of patients among Korean women. With it, ultrasonographic screening test has also become very common. However, there is still controversy over the performance of this screening test. Therefore, the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency (NECA) organized a Round-table Conference on the issues regarding ultrasonographic screening for thyroid cancer in Korea. The objective of the conference was mainly about delivering worthwhile information reflecting social value for the current situation, which was based on evidence surrounding thyroid cancer screening that relevant experts investigated and agreed on. The significance of this Round-table Conference lies in the fact that we reviewed the current evidence, and we were able to discuss the social value and future direction for ultrasonographic screening in Korea.