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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 22 - Dec 2014
Volume 15, Issue 21 - Nov 2014
Volume 15, Issue 20 - Nov 2014
Volume 15, Issue 19 - Oct 2014
Volume 15, Issue 18 - Oct 2014
Volume 15, Issue 17 - Sep 2014
Volume 15, Issue 16 - Aug 2014
Volume 15, Issue 15 - Aug 2014
Volume 15, Issue 14 - Jul 2014
Volume 15, Issue 13 - Jul 2014
Volume 15, Issue 12 - Jun 2014
Volume 15, Issue 11 - Jun 2014
Volume 15, Issue 10 - May 2014
Volume 15, Issue 9 - May 2014
Volume 15, Issue 8 - Apr 2014
Volume 15, Issue 7 - Apr 2014
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Mar 2014
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Mar 2014
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Feb 2014
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Feb 2014
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jan 2014
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
Feasibility of Computed Tomography Colonography as a Diagnostic Procedure in Colon Cancer Screening in India
Manjunath, Kanabagatte Nanjundappa ; Gopalakrishna, Prabhu Karkala ; Siddalingaswamy, Puttappa Chandrappa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5111~5116
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5111
Computed Tomography Colonography (CTC) is a medical imaging technology used in identifying polyps and colon cancer masses in the large intestine. The technique has evolved a great deal since its invention and has become a routine diagnostic procedure in Western countries due to its non invasiveness and ease of use. The objective of our study was to explore the possibility of CTC application in Indian hospitals. This paper gives an overview of the procedure and its commercial viability. The explanation begins with the domain aspects from gastroenterologist perspective, the new way of thinking in polyp classification, the technical components of CTC procedure, and how engineering solutions have helped clinicians in solving the complexities involved in colon diagnosis. The colon cancer statistics in India and the results of single institution study we carried out with retrospective data is explained. By considering the increasing number of patients developing colon malignancies, the practicality of CTC in Indian hospitals is discussed. This paper does not reveal any technical aspects (algorithms) of engineering solutions implemented in CTC.
Tumorigenic Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals are Alleviated by Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Root Extract through Suppression of AhR Expression in Mammalian Cells
Chu, Xiao Ting ; Cruz, Joseph Dela ; Hwang, Seong Gu ; Hong, Heeok ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5117~5121
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5117
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been reported to interfere with estrogen signaling. Exposure to these chemicals decreases the immune response and causes a wide range of diseases in animals and humans. Recently, many studies showed that licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root extract (LRE) commonly called "gamcho" in Korea exhibits antioxidative, chemoprotective, and detoxifying properties. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of LRE and to determine if and how LRE can alleviate the toxicity of EDCs. LRE was prepared by vacuum evaporation and freeze-drying after homogenization of licorice root powder that was soaked in 80% ethanol for 72 h. We used 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as an EDC, which is known to induce tumors or cancers; MCF-7 breast cancer cells were used as a tumorigenic model. These were treated with TCDD and various concentrations of LRE (0, 50, 100, 200,
) for 24, 48, and 72 h. As a result, TCDD stimulated MCF-7 cell proliferation, but LRE significantly inhibited TCDD-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Expression of TCDD toxicity-related genes, i.e., aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), AhR nuclear translocator, and cytochrome P450 1A1, were subsequently down-regulated by LRE in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of cell cycle distribution after treatment of MCF-7 cells with TCDD and various concentrations of LRE showed that LRE inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells via G2/M phase arrest. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses also revealed that LRE dose-dependently increased the expression of the tumor suppressor genes p53 and p27 and down-regulated the expression of cell cycle-related genes. These data suggest that LRE can mitigate the tumorigenic effects of TCDD in breast cancer cells by suppression of AhR expression and cell cycle arrest. Thus, LRE can be used as a potential toxicity-alleviating agent against EDC-mediated disease.
IOTA Simple Rules in Differentiating between Benign and Malignant Ovarian Tumors
Tantipalakorn, Charuwan ; Wanapirak, Chanane ; Khunamornpong, Surapan ; Sukpan, Kornkanok ; Tongsong, Theera ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5123~5126
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5123
Background: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of IOTA simple rules in differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Materials and Methods: A study of diagnostic performance was conducted on women scheduled for elective surgery due to ovarian masses between March 2007 and March 2012. All patients underwent ultrasound examination for IOTA simple rules within 24 hours of surgery. All examinations were performed by the authors, who had no any clinical information of the patients, to differentiate between benign and malignant adnexal masses using IOTA simple rules. Gold standard diagnosis was based on pathological or operative findings. Results: A total of 398 adnexal masses, in 376 women, were available for analysis. Of them, the IOTA simple rules could be applied in 319 (80.1%) including 212 (66.5%) benign tumors and 107 (33.6%) malignant tumors. The simple rules yielded inconclusive results in 79 (19.9%) masses. In the 319 masses for which the IOTA simple rules could be applied, sensitivity was 82.9% and specificity 95.3%. Conclusions: The IOTA simple rules have high diagnostic performance in differentiating between benign and malignant adnexal masses. Nevertheless, inconclusive results are relatively common.
Cervical Cytological Screening Results of 8,495 Cases in Turkey - Common Inflammation but Infrequent Epithelial Cell Abnormalities?
Daloglu, Ferah Tuncel ; Karakaya, Yeliz Arman ; Balta, Hilal ; Altun, Eren ; Duman, Aslihan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5127~5131
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5127
Background: Cervical cancer is the ninth most common cancer among females in Turkey. Cervical smear is a routine screening test used for the detection of cervical abnormalities and also it detects certain infections of the cervix. Objective: To analyze cervical smear results of our clinic in order to determine most frequent pathology of the women in North Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study design, 8,495 cervical cytology cases diagnosed at the Pathology Department of the Regional Education and Research Hospital in Erzurum over the last one and half years extending from August 2012 to December 2013 were investigated. Results: The most common diagnosis was found to be inflammation, 65.5 % (5,566 out of 8,495), and the least was squamous epithelial abnormalities 0.2% (13 out of 8,495). There was some variation among the three pathologists regarding diagnosis but findings for the latter. Conclusions: Regular cervical smear tests are one of the most important strategies in early diagnosis of cervical cancer but there are conflicting data regarding the prevalence of epithelial cell abnormalities in Turkey, and the reasons o f this should be investigated.
Health Economics Evaluation of a Gastric Cancer Early Detection and Treatment Program in China
Li, Dan ; Yuan, Yuan ; Sun, Li-Ping ; Fang, Xue ; Zhou, Bao-Sen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5133~5136
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5133
Objective: To use health economics methodology to assess the screening program on gastric cancer in Zhuanghe, China, so as to provide the basis for health decision on expanding the program of early detection and treatment. Materials and Methods: The expense of an early detection and treatment program for gastric cancer in patients found by screening, and also costs of traditional treatment in a hospital of Zhuanghe were assessed. Three major techniques of medical economics, namely cost-effective analysis (CEA), cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and cost-utility analysis (CUA), were used to assess the screening program. Results: Results from CEA showed that investing every 25, 235 Yuan on screening program in Zhuanghe area, one gastric cancer patient could be saved. Data from CUA showed that it was cost 1, 370 Yuan per QALY saved. Results from CBA showed that: the total cost was 1,945,206 Yuan with a benefit as 8,669,709 Yuan and an CBR of 4.46. Conclusions: The early detection and treatment program of gastric cancer appears economic and society-beneficial. We suggest that it should be carry out in more high risk areas for gastric cancer.
Down-regulation of miRNA-452 is Associated with Adriamycin-resistance in Breast Cancer Cells
Hu, Qing ; Gong, Jian-Ping ; Li, Jian ; Zhong, Shan-Liang ; Chen, Wei-Xian ; Zhang, Jun-Ying ; Ma, Teng-Fei ; Ji, Hao ; Lv, Meng-Meng ; Zhao, Jian-Hua ; Tang, Jin-Hai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5137~5142
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5137
Adriamycin (ADR) is an important chemotherapeutic agent frequently used in treatment of breast cancer. However, resistance to ADR results in treatment failure in many patients. Recent studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) may play an important role in such drug-resistance. In the present study, microRNA-452 (miR-452) was found to be significantly down-regulated in adriamycin-resistant MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/ADR) compared with the parental MCF-7 cells by miRNA microarray and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). MiR-452 mimics and inhibitors partially changed the adriamycin-resistance of breast cancer cells, as also confirmed by apoptosis assay. In exploring the potential mechanisms of miR-452 in the adriamycin-resistance of breast cancer cells, bioinformatics analysis, RT-qPCR and Western blotting showed that dysregulation of miR-452 played an important role in the acquired adriamycin-resistance of breast cancer, maybe at least in part via targeting insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R).
Cost Effective Analysis of Recall Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening in Selangor - Results from a Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial
Abdul Rashid, Rima Marhayu ; Ramli, Sophia ; John, Jennifer ; Dahlui, Maznah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5143~5147
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5143
Cervical cancer screening in Malaysia is by opportunistic Pap smear which contributes to the low uptake rate. To overcome this, a pilot project called the SIPPS program (translated as information system of Pap smear program) had been introduced whereby women aged 20-65 years old are invited for Pap smear and receive recall to repeat the test. This study aimed at determining which recall method is most cost-effective in getting women to repeat Pap smear. A randomised control trial was conducted where one thousand women were recalled for repeat smear either by registered letter, phone messages, phone call or the usual postal letter. The total cost applied for cost-effectiveness analysis includes the cost of sending letter for first invitation, cost of the recall method and cost of two Pap smears. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) of Pap smear uptake by each recall method was then performed. The uptake of Pap smear by postal letter, registered letters, SMS and phone calls were 18.8%, 20.0%, 21.6% and 34.4%, respectively (p<0.05). The CER for the recall method was lowest by phone call compared to other interventions; RM 69.18 (SD RM 0.14) compared to RM 106.53 (SD RM 0.13), RM 134.02 (SD RM 0.15) and RM 136.38 (SD RM 0.11) for SMS, registered letter and letter, respectively. ICER showed that it is most cost saving if the usual method of recall by postal letter be changed to recall by phone call. The possibility of letter as a recall for repeat Pap smear to reach the women is higher compared to sending SMS or making phone call. However, getting women to do repeat Pap smear is better with phone call which allows direct communication. Despite the high cost of the phone call as a recall method for repeat Pap smear, it is the most cost-effective method compared to others.
Chronic Exposure to Chlorophenol Related Compounds in the Pesticide Production Workplace and Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis
Zendehdel, Rezvan ; Tayefeh-Rahimian, Raana ; Kabir, Ali ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5149~5153
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5149
Background: Chlorophenols (CPs) and related phenoxyacetic acids (PAs) are pesticide groups contaminated with highly toxic 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during production. PAs and CPs exposure is associated with risk of cancer, but the situation regarding lung cancer has not been clearly defined. We proposed a meta-analysis of published researches to evaluate relationship between chronic exposure to PAs and CPs in pesticide production workplaces and the risk of lung cancer. Materials and Methods: After searching PubMed, Scopus, Scholar Google, Web of Sciences until August 2013, the association between chronic PAs and CPs exposure in production workplace and lung cancer was studied in 15 cohort studies. The standardized mortality rate (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were collected from the papers. We used random or fixed-effects models, Egger test, funnel plot and meta regression in our analysis. Results: Five papers with six reports were included in the final analysis. The standardized mortality rate for lung cancer from the random model was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.03-1.35, p=0.014) with moderate heterogeneity. Publication bias was not found for included studies in meta-analysis (p=0.9). Conclusions: Our findings has strengthen the evidence of lung cancer from chronic exposure to chlorophenol related compounds (PAs, CPs).
Lobaplatin-TACE Combined with Radioactive
I Seed Implantation for Treatment of Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Peng, Sheng ; Yang, Qiu-Xia ; Zhang, Tao ; Lu, Ming-Jian ; Yang, Guang ; Liu, Zhen-Yin ; Zhang, Rong ; Zhang, Fu-Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5155~5160
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5155
Aim: To investigate the efficacy and safety of lobaplatin-transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with radioactive
seed implantation in treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: 75 patients with primary HCC were enrolled in the study, among them 43 receiving lobaplatin-TACE (TACE group) and 32 lobaplatin-TACE combined with
seed implantation (TACE+
group). After treatment, the local remission rates and postoperative complications of two groups were compared using the Pearson Chi-square test. Overall survival in the two groups was calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the differences were tested using Log-rank test. Results: There were 7 cases of complete response (CR), 13 of partial response (PR), 6 of stable disease (SD) and 17 of progressive disease (PD) in the TACE group, with 13 cases of CR, 9 of PR, 5 of SD and 5 of PD in the TACE+
group. The disease control rates of TACE and TACE+
group were 60.5% (26/43) and 84.4% (27/32), respectively, with a significant difference between them (P < 0.05). The survival rates at 6, 12 and 18 months in the TACE group were 100.0%, 81.8% and 50.0%, respectively, and those in TACE+
group were 100.0%, 93.8% and 65.6%. The mean survival times in the TACE and TACE+
groups were 19.5 and 22.9 months, respectively. There was a significant difference in the overall survival rate between two groups (P < 0.05). No serious complications were encountered in either group. Conclusion: Lobaplatin-TACE combined with
seed implantation is favorable and safe for treatment of primary HCC.
Recreational Physical Activity and Risk of Ovarian Cancer: a Meta-analysis
Zhou, Li-Min ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5161~5166
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5161
Our aim was to access the association between recreational physical activity (RPA) and risk of ovarian cancer (OC). The studies were retrieved from the PubMed and Embase databases up to February 20th, 2014. Risk ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate effect sizes. Random-effects or fixed-effects models were used to pool the data. The trim and fill method was applied for sensitivity analysis. Begg's rank correlation test and Egger's regression asymmetry test were employed to assess the publication bias. A total of 6 studies (435398 participants including 2983 OC patients) were included in this meta-analysis. The overall estimate indicated that there was weakly inverse association between RPA and OC risk (RR=0.90, 95%CI: 0.72-1.12, p=0.335). Meanwhile, for prospective cohort studies, a result consistent with the overall estimate was obtained (RR=1.12, 95% CI: 0.88-1.42, p=0.356). However, for case control studies, the pooled estimate of RR was 0.76 (95%CI: 0.64-0.90, p=0.002), indicating a clear significant association between RPA and OC risk. In addition, the sensitivity analysis indicated a significant link between RPA and risk of OC after removing Lahmann's study (RR=0.80, 95% CI: 0.68-0.93, p=0.004). No significant publication bias was found (Begg's test: p=1.00; Egger's test: p=0.817). In conclusion, our meta-analysis indicated a weakly inverse relationship between RPA and the occurrence of OC.
Characteristics of Hodgkin Lymphoma in a Defined Group of Iranian Pediatric Patients
Baharvand, Maryam ; Mortazavi, Hamed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5167~5169
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5167
This study was conducted to describe the characteristics of Hodgkin lymphoma in Iranian children. In a referral center for pediatric oncology (Mofid Hospital) in Tehran, patient data over a 10-year period were retrieved and recorded accordingly. Among 82 cases, 73.2% were male, 26.8% were female, and 70.7% were 5-9 years old. About 40% of patients were in stage III and 42.7% had systemic signs. Cervical nodes were commonly involved (91.5%). The most frequent histological subtype was mixed cellularity. The main hematological features were anemia (47.6%), lymphopenia (20.7%), and eosinophilia (8.7%). Survival rate was 72%, and 8.4% of patients were deceased. A 3% recurrence rate was observed in our patients. A significant relationship was found between the stage of disease and systemic signs (P<0.0005,
). Despite diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma in many children in Iran being made in higher stages, the mortality rate is relatively low.
Stereotactic Vacuum-Assisted Core Biopsy Results for Non-Palpable Breast Lesions
Agacayak, Filiz ; Ozturk, Alper ; Bozdogan, Atilla ; Selamoglu, Derya ; Alco, Gul ; Ordu, Cetin ; Pilanci, Kezban Nur ; Killi, Refik ; Ozmen, Vahit ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5171~5174
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5171
Background: The increase in breast cancer awareness and widespread use of mammographic screening has led to an increased detection of (non-palpable) breast cancers that cannot be discovered through physical examination. One of the methods used in the diagnosis of these cancers is vacuum-assisted core biopsy, which prevents a considerable number of patients from undergoing surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to present the results of stereotactic vacuum-assisted core biopsy for suspicious breast lesions. Materials and Methods: Files were retrospectively scanned and data on demographic, radiological and pathological findings were recorded for patients who underwent stereotactic vacuum-assisted core biopsy due to suspicious mammographic findings at the Interventional Radiology Centre of the Florence Nightingale Hospital between January 2010, and April 2013. Statistical analysis was carried out using Pearson's Chi-square, continuity correction, and Fisher's exact tests. Results: The mean age of the patients was 47 years (range: 36-70). Biopsies were performed due to BIRADS 3 lesions in 8 patients, BIRADS 4 lesions in 77 patients, and BIRADS 5 lesions in 3 patients. Mammography elucidated clusters of microcalcifications in 73 patients (83%) and focal lesions (asymmetrical density, distortion) in 15 patients (17%). In terms of complications, 1 patient had a hematoma, and 2 patients had ecchymoses (3/88; 3.3%). The histopathologic results revealed benign lesions in 63 patients (71.6%) and malignant lesions in 25 patients (28.4%). The mean duration of the procedure was 37 minutes (range: 18-55). Although all of the BIRADS 3 lesions were benign, 22 (28.6%) of the BIRADS 4 lesions and all of the BIRADS 5 lesions were malignant. Among the malignant cases, 80% were in situ, and 20% were invasive carcinomas. These patients underwent surgery. Conclusions: In cases where non-palpable breast lesions are considered to be suspicious in mammography scans, the vacuum-assisted core biopsy method provides an accurate histopathologic diagnosis thus preventing a significant number of patients undergoing unnecessary surgical procedures.
MicroRNAs as Promising Biomarkers for Tumor-staging: Evaluation of MiR21 MiR155 MiR29a and MiR92a in Predicting Tumor Stage of Rectal Cancer
Yang, Yun ; Peng, Wei ; Tang, Tian ; Xia, Lin ; Wang, Xiao-Dong ; Duan, Bao-Feng ; Shu, Ye ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5175~5180
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5175
Objective: In this study, tumor-stage predictive abilities of miR21, miR155, miR29a and miR92a were evaluated in rectal cancer (RC). Methods: Expression of miR21, miR155, miR29a and miR92a was detected and quantitated in tumor tissue and in adjacent normal tissue from 40 patients by TaqMan MicroRNA assay. Results: Significant overexpression of miR21, miR155, miR29a and miR92a was observed in RC tissues. While high expression of miR21, miR155 and miR29a in N1-2 and C-D stages presented a potential correlation with N and Duke stages, partial correlation analysis suggested that only miR155 rather than miR21 and miR29a played a greater influencing role. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis showed that miR155 could discriminate N0 from N1-2 with 85.0% sensitivity and 85.0% specificity, N2 from N0-1 with 90.0% sensitivity and 96.7% specificity, and C-D stage from A-B stage with 81.0% sensitivity and 84.2% specificity. Conclusions: Increase in expression of miR155 might represent a novel predictor for RC N and Dukes staging.
Tumor-Derived Transforming Growth Factor-β is Critical for Tumor Progression and Evasion from Immune Surveillance
Li, Zheng ; Zhang, Li-Juan ; Zhang, Hong-Ru ; Tian, Gao-Fei ; Tian, Jun ; Mao, Xiao-Li ; Jia, Zheng-Hu ; Meng, Zi-Yu ; Zhao, Li-Qing ; Yin, Zhi-Nan ; Wu, Zhen-Zhou ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5181~5186
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5181
Tumors have evolved numerous mechanisms by which they can escape from immune surveillance. One of these is to produce immunosuppressive cytokines. Transforming growth factor-
) is a pleiotropic cytokine with a crucial function in mediating immune suppression, especially in the tumor microenvironment. TGF-
produced by T cells has been demonstrated as an important factor for suppressing antitumor immune responses, but the role of tumor-derived TGF-
in this process is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that knockdown of tumor-derived TGF-
using shRNA resulted in dramatically reduced tumor size, slowing tumor formation, prolonging survival rate of tumor-bearing mice and inhibiting metastasis. We revealed possible underlying mechanisms as reducing the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and
Treg cells, and consequently enhanced IFN-
production by CTLs. Knockdown of tumor-derived TGF-
also significantly reduced the conversion of na
T cells into Treg cells in vitro. Finally, we found that knockdown of TGF-
suppressed cell migration, but did not change the proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells in vitro. In summary, our study provided evidence that tumor-derived TGF-
is a critical factor for tumor progression and evasion of immune surveillance, and blocking tumor-derived TGF-
may serve as a potential therapeutic approach for cancer.
Lack of Association between Fingernail Selenium and Thyroid Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study in French Polynesia
Ren, Yan ; Kitahara, Cari Meinhold ; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington ; Clero, Enora ; Brindel, Pauline ; Maillard, Stephane ; Cote, Suzanne ; Dewailly, Eric ; Rachedi, Frederique ; Boissin, Jean-Louis ; Sebbag, Joseph ; Shan, Larrys ; Bost-Bezeaud, Frederique ; Petitdidier, Patrick ; Xhaard, Constance ; Rubino, Carole ; de Vathaire, Florent ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5187~5194
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5187
Background: Numerous studies have suggested that selenium deficiency may be associated with an increased risk for several types of cancer, but few have focused on thyroid cancer. Materials and Methods: We examined the association between post-diagnostic fingernail selenium levels and differentiated thyroid cancer risk in a French Polynesian matched case-control study. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: The median selenium concentration among controls was
. Significantly, we found no association between fingernail selenium levels and thyroid cancer risk after conditioning on year of birth and sex and additionally adjusting for date of birth (highest versus lowest quartile: odds-ratio=1.12, 95% confidence interval: 0.66-1.90; p-trend=0.30). After additional adjustment for other covariates, this association remained non-significant (p-trend=0.60). When restricting the analysis to thyroid cancer of 10 mm or more, selenium in nails was non-significantly positively linked to thyroid cancer risk (p-trend=0.09). Although no significant interaction was evidenced between iodine in nails and selenium in nails effect (p=0.70), a non-significant (p-trend =0.10) positive association between selenium and thyroid cancer risk was seen in patients with less than 3 ppm of iodine in nails. The highest fingernail selenium concentration in French Polynesia was in the Marquises Islands (
) and in the Tuamotu-Gambier Archipelago (
). Conclusions: Our results do not support, among individuals with sufficient levels of selenium, that greater long-term exposure to selenium may reduce thyroid cancer risk. Because these findings are based on post-diagnostic measures, studies with prediagnostic selenium are needed for corroboration.
Survival Outcomes of Liver Metastasectomy in Colorectal Cancer Cases: A Single-Center Analysis in Turkey
Cokmert, Suna ; Ellidokuz, Hulya ; Demir, Lutfiye ; Fuzun, Mehmet ; Astarcioglu, Ibrahim ; Aslan, Deniz ; Yilmaz, Ugur ; Oztop, Ilhan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5195~5200
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5195
Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze our series of liver resections for metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) to determine prognostic factors affecting survival and to evaluate the potential roles of neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Ninety-nine patients who underwent metastasectomy for liver metastases due to colorectal cancer at the Department of Medical Oncology, 9 Eylul University Hospital between 1996 and 2010 were evaluated in this study. The patients were followed through July 2013. Demographic, perioperative, laboratory, radiological and chemotherapy as well as survival data were obtained by retrospective chart review. Results: In 47 (47.5%) patients, liver metastases were unresectable at initial evaluation; the remaining 52 (52.5%) patients exhibited resectable liver metastases. Simultaneous hepatic resection was applied to 52 (35.4%) patients with synchronous metastasis, whereas 5 (64.5%) patients underwent hepatic resection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Forty-two patients with metachronous metastasis underwent hepatic resection following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. R0 resection was obtained in 79 (79.8%) patients. A second hepatectomy was performed in 22 (23.2%) patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to 85 (85.9%) patients after metastasectomy. The median disease-free and overall survivals after initial metastasectomy were 12 and 37 months, respectively, the 1-year, 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates being 46.5%, 24.3% and 17.9%and 92.3%, 59.0% and 39.0%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, the primary tumor site, tumor differentiation, resection margin and DFS were independent factors predicting better overall survival. Conclusions: In selected cases, hepatic metastasectomy for mCRC to the liver can result in long-term survival. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy did not exert a positive effect on DFS or OS. Adjuvant chemotherapy also did not appear to impact DFS and OS.
Emodin-Provoked Oxidative Stress Induces Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer HCT116 Cells through a p53-Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway
Xie, Mei-Juan ; Ma, Yi-Hua ; Miao, Lin ; Wang, Yan ; Wang, Hai-Zhen ; Xing, Ying-Ying ; Xi, Tao ; Lu, Yuan-Yuan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5201~5205
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5201
Emodin, a natural anthraquinone isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Radix rhizoma Rhei, can induce apoptosis in many kinds of cancer cells. This study demonstrated that emodin induces apoptosis in human colon cancer HCT116 cells by provoking oxidative stress, which subsequently triggers a p53-mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Emodin induced mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss, increase in Bax and decrease in Bcl-2 expression and mitochondrial translocation and release of cytochrome c to cytosol in HCT116 cells. In response to emodin-treatment, ROS increased rapidly, and subsequently p53 was overexpressed. Pretreatment with the antioxidant NAC diminished apoptosis and p53 overexpression induced by emodin. Transfecting p53 siRNA also attenuated apoptosis induced by emodin, Bax expression and mitochondrial translocation being reduced compared to treatment with emodin alone. Taken together, these results indicate that ROS is a trigger of emodin-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells, and p53 expression increases under oxidative stress, leading to Bax-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis.
Susceptibility of Lung Cancer with Polymorphisms of CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTT1 and GSTP1 Genotypes in the Population of Inner Mongolia Region
Jiang, Xue-Yan ; Chang, Fu-Hou ; Bai, Tu-Ya ; Lv, Xiao-Li ; Wang, Min-Jie ; Wang, Guang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5207~5214
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5207
Background: To study the relationship of susceptibility to lung cancer with the gene polymorphisms of CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTT1, GSTP1 and smoking status in Han and Mongolian populations of Inner Mongolia, an autonomous region of China. Materials and Methods: PCR-RFLP, allele-specific and multiplex PCR were employed to identify the genotypes of CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTT1 and GSTP1 in a case-control study of 322 lung cancer patients diagnosed by bronchoscopy and 456 controls free of malignancy. Results: There is a significant difference in genotypic frequency of GSTT1 of healthy Mongolian and Han subjects. A statistically prominent association was found between CYP1A1 Msp1 (vt/vt) (OR=4.055, 95%CI:2.107-7.578, p=0.000), GSTM1 (-) (OR=2.290, 95%CI:1.467-3.573, p=0.000) and lung cancer in Mongolians. Similarly, in the Han population, CYP1A1 Msp1 (vt/vt) (OR=3.194, 95%CI:1.893-5.390, p=0.000) and GSTM1 (-) (OR=1.884, 95%CI:1.284-2.762, p=0.001) carriers also had an elevated risk of lung cancer. The smokers were more susceptible to lung cancer 2.144 fold and 1.631 fold than non-smokers in Mongolian and Han populations, respectively. The smokers who carried with CYP1A1 Msp1 (wt/vt+vt/vt), exon7 (Val/Val+Ile /Val), GSTM1 (-), GSTM3 (AB+BB), and GSTT1 (-) respectively were found all to have a high risk of lung cancer. Conclusions: CYP1A1 Msp1 (vt/vt) and GSTM1 (-) are risk factors of lung cancer in Han and Mongolian population in the Inner Mongolia region. The smokers with CYP1A1 Msp1 (wt/vt+vt/vt), CYP1A1 exon7 (Val/Val+Ile /Val), GSTM1 (-), GSTM3 (AB+BB), and GSTT1 (-) genotypes, respectively, are at elevated risk of lung cancer.
Treatment Outcomes of Gemcitabine in Refractory or Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patients
Chanpanitkitchot, Saranya ; Tangjitgamol, Siriwan ; Khunnarong, Jakkapan ; Thavaramara, Thaowalai ; Pataradool, Kamol ; Srijaipracharoen, Sunamchok ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5215~5221
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5215
Background: To study the response rate (RR), progression-free survival (PFS) and toxicity profiles of recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients treated with gemcitabine. Materials and Methods: Recurrent EOC patients who were treated with gemcitabine between January 2000 and December 2013 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital were identified and medical records were reviewed. Clinico-pathological features including data of gemcitabine treatment, response and toxicity were collected. Results: We identified 43 EOC patients who had gemcitabine treatment. All except one patient who did not receive any adjuvant treatment, had received platinum-based chemotherapy. Among these 42 patients, 31.0% had refractory cancer to first-line chemotherapy while 69.0% had recurrence with 48.8% being platinum-sensitive. The total cycles of gemcitabine used were 203 (median 4, range 2-9 cycles). Overall RR was 11.6%: 19% in platinum-sensitive vs 4.5% in platinum-resistant groups (p=0.158) and 42.9% in the patients having gemcitabine together with platinum vs 5.6% using gemcitabine alone (P=0.024). Median PFS was 3.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.73-4.49 months): 8.1 months (95% CI, 2.73-4.49 months) in combination regimen vs 3.2 months (95% CI, 2.01-4.42 months) in single regimen (p=0.077) and 8.1 months (95% CI, 4.73-11.48 months) with the gemcitabine combination vs 2.7 months (95% CI, 1.98-3.38 months) by single gemcitabine in platinum sensitive patients (P=0.007). Common toxicities were hematologic which were well tolerated and manageable. Conclusions: Gemcitabine has modest activity in pre-treated EOC. A combination regimen had higher activity than single agent in platinum sensitive patients with a significant improvement in RR and PFS.
Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Relation to Prostate Cancer in Iranian Men: A Case-Control Study
Askari, Faezeh ; Parizi, Mehdi Kardoust ; Jessri, Mahsa ; Rashidkhani, Bahram ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5223~5227
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5223
Background: Findings of epidemiologic studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and prostate cancer (PCa) risk have been inconclusive. We therefore examined the association between intake of fruits and vegetables and PCa risk in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this hospital based, case-control study, a total of 50 patients with PCa and 100 controls underwent face-to-face interviews. Regression analysis was used to examine the relation between fruit and vegetable intake and PCa risk. Results: A protective independent effect was observed for the highest tertile of total fruit and vegetable (OR: 0.33, CI: 0.04-0.30, p value<0.001), total fruit (OR: 0.30, CI: 0.06-0.4, p value=0.03) and total vegetable (OR: 0.31, CI: 0.02-0.21, p value<0.001) consumption. Within the group of fruits, a significant inverse association was observed for apple and pomegranate (p trends were 0.01 and 0.016, respectively). In the vegetable group, a significant inverse association was observed for tomatoes (p trend<0.001) and cabbage (p trend=0.021). Conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that fruits and vegetable intake might be negatively associated with PCa risk.
No Association between Traffic Density and Risk of Childhood Leukemia: a Meta-analysis
Sun, Xiao-Xi ; Zhang, Shan-Shan ; Ma, Xiao-Ling ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5229~5232
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5229
Background: While many studies have concluded that local traffic density is positively associated with childhood leukemia, the results are inconsistent. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between traffic density and the risk of childhood leukemia. Methods: A systematic literature review was carried out using PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from January 1979 to December 2013. We selected and assessed journal articles evaluating the relationship between local traffic density and the risk of leukemia in children. The analysis was carried out using STATA version 12.0. Results: A total of 11 articles, including 12 estimates of effect, were included in our meta-analysis. The summary effect size from the random-effects model, expressed as an odds ratio, was 1.03 (95% CI: 0.98-1.09, p=0.002). No significant association between traffic density and the risk of childhood leukemia was found. Similar conclusions were found on subgroup analysis. Conclusions: The results of our meta-analysis suggested no association between traffic density and the risk of childhood leukemia. This implies that living in close proximity to roads with heavy traffic may not increase the risk of childhood leukemia. However, further high-quality prospective trials are needed to support these results.
Combined Effects Methylation of FHIT, RASSF1A and RARβ Genes on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the Chinese Population
Li, Wen ; Deng, Jing ; Tang, Jian-Xin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5233~5237
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5233
Epigenetic modifications of tumour suppressor genes are involved in all kinds of human cancer. Aberrant promoter methylation is also considered to play an essential role in development of lung cancer, but the pathogenesis remains unclear.We collected the data of 112 subjects, including 56 diagnosed patients with lung cancer and 56 controls without cancer. Methylation of the FHIT, RASSF1A and RAR-
genes in DNA from all samples and the corresponding gene methylation status were assessed using the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR, MSP). The results showed that the total frequency of separate gene methylation was significantly higher in lung cancer compared with controls (33.9-85.7 vs 0 %) (p<0.01).Similar outcomes were obtained from the aberrant methylation of combinations of any two or three genes (p<0.01). There was a tendency that the frequency of combinations of any two or three genes was higher in stage I+II than that in stage III+IV with lung cancer. However, no significant difference was found across various clinical stages and clinic pathological gradings of lung cancer (p>0.05).These observations suggest that there is a significant association of promoter methylation of individual genes with lung cancer risk, and that aberrant methylation of combination of any two or three genes may be associated with clinical stage in lung cancer patients and involved in the initiation of lung cancer tumorigenesis. Methylation of FHIT, RASSF1A and
genes may be related to progression of lung oncogenesis.
Clinico-Pathological Patterns and Survival Outcome of Colorectal Cancer in Young Patients: Western Saudi Arabia Experience
Elsamany, Shereef Ahmed ; Alzahrani, Abdullah Saeed ; Mohamed, Mervat Mahrous ; Elmorsy, Soha Ali ; Zekri, Jamal Eddin ; Al-Shehri, Ahmed Saleh ; Haggag, Rasha Mostafa ; Alnagar, Ahmed Abdel-Reheem ; El Taani, Hani Abdalla ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5239~5243
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5239
Background: The prognosis of young colorectal cancer (CRC) patients has been addressed by several studies but with contradictory results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinico-pathological features of young Saudi patients with CRC in addition to displaying their survival outcome. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, young CRC patients (
years) diagnosed between 2007 and 2011 from 4 centres in western Saudi Arabia, were included. Clinico-pathological features, tumor markers, dates of disease relapse and death were collected. Survival parameters were compared with those of older Saudi patients, reported in previous studies. Results: One hundred and sixteen young patients with CRC were identified (32.2% rectal, 67.8% colon). Some 44% were metastatic while 32.7% had stage III at diagnosis. Patients with grade 3 tumors made up 29.4% of the total while 49.5% had positive lymphovascular invasion (LVI), 56% had a lymph node (LN) ratio
and 40.2% were K-ras mutant. Median disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in non-metastatic cases were 22.8 and 49.6 months respectively with better median DFS in K-ras wild compared to mutant patients (28.5 vs 20.9 months, p=0.005). In metastatic cases, median OS was 19.5 months. These survival outcomes are inferior compared to those of older Saudi patients reported in prior studies. Conclusions: Young CRC patients present more commonly with advanced stage and a high incidence of adverse prognostic factors such as LVI and high LN ratio. Young CRC patients seem to have worse survival compared to older Saudi patients.
Evaluation of the Atlas Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen Test for Diagnosis of Infection in Adult Patients
Osman, Hussein Ali ; Hasan, Habsah ; Suppian, Rapeah ; Bahar, Norhaniza ; Che Hussin, Nurzam Suhaila ; Rahim, Amry Abdul ; Hassan, Syed ; Andee, Dzulkarnaen Zakaria ; Zilfalil, Bin-Alwi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5245~5247
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5245
Background: Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is one of the most important causes of dyspepsia and gastric cancer and diagnosis can be made by invasive or non-invasive methods. The Atlas Helicobacter pylori antigen test is a new rapid non-invasive method which is simple to conduct. The aim of this study was to determine its sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted between July 2012 and December 2013. Stool samples of 59 dyspeptic patients who underwent upper endoscopy were evaluated for H. pylori stool antigen. Results: From the 59 patients who participated in this study, there were 36 (61%) males and 23 (39%) females. H. pylori was diagnosed in 24 (40.7%) gastric biopsies, 22 (91.7 %) of these being positive for the Atlas H. pylori antigen test. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were 91.7%, 100%, 100%, 94.6% and 96.6% respectively. Conclusions: The Atlas H. pylori antigen test is a new non-invasive method which is simple to perform and avails reliable results in a few minutes. Thus it can be the best option for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection due to its high sensitivity and specificity.
RTN4 3'-UTR Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in Chinese Han Population
Lu, De-Yi ; Mao, Xu-Hua ; Zhou, Ying-Hui ; Yan, Xiao-Long ; Wang, Wei-Ping ; Zheng, Ya-Biao ; Xiao, Juan-Juan ; Zhang, Ping ; Wang, Jian-Guo ; Ashwani, Neetika ; Ding, Wei-Liang ; Jiang, Hua ; Shang, Yan ; Wang, Ming-Hua ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5249~5252
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5249
Nogo protein, encoded by gene reticulon-4 (RTN4), includes three major isoforms by different splicing, named Nogo-A Nogo-B and Nogo-C. Nogo proteins play an important role in the apoptosis of cells, especially in tumor cells. RTN4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can influence the efficiency of transcription and translation thus being related with an individual's predisposition to cancer. The CAA insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs34917480) within RTN4 3'-UTR has been reported to be associated with many cancer types. In order to investigate the relationship between this polymorphism and susceptibility to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the Chinese population, we conducted the present case-control study including 411 NSCLC patients and 471 unrelated healthy controls. The genotype distributions were significantly different between cases and controls (p=0.014). We found that the del allele could significantly increase NSCLC risk (ins/ins vs ins/del: p=0.007, OR 1.46, 95%CI=1.11-1.93; dominant model: p=0.004, OR 1.47, 95%CI=1.13-1.92 and allele model: p=0.008, OR 1.35, 95%CI=1.08-1.67). This association was stronger in participants over 60 years old, males and smokers. We therefore conclude that the CAA insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs34917480) contributes to non-small cell lung cancer risk in Chinese population. Age, sex and environmental exposure are also related to carcinogenic effects of rs34917480.
Inhaled Formaldehyde Induces Bone Marrow Toxicity via Oxidative Stress in Exposed Mice
Yu, Guang-Yan ; Song, Xiang-Fu ; Liu, Ying ; Sun, Zhi-Wei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5253~5257
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5253
Formaldehyde (FA) is an economically important chemical, and has been found to cause various types of toxic damage to the body. Formaldehyde-induced toxic damage involves reactive oxygen species (ROS) that trigger subsequent toxic effects and inflammatory responses, which may increase risk of cancer. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the possible toxic mechanism in bone marrow caused by formaldehyde. In accordance with the principle of randomization, the mice were divided into four groups of 6 mice per group. One group was exposed to ambient air and the other three groups were exposed to different concentrations of formaldehyde (20, 40,
) for 15 days in the respective inhalation chambers, 2h a day. At the end of the 15-day experimental period, all mice were killed. Bone marrow cells were obtained. Some of those were used for the determination of blood cell numbers, bone marrow karyote numbers, CFU-F, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content; others were used for the determination of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cell cycle and Bcl-2, Bax, CytC protein expression. WBC and PLT numbers in median and high dose groups were obvious reduced, but there was no change on RBC numbers. There was also reduced numbers of bone marrow karyotes and CFU-F in the high dose group. SOD activity was decreased, but MDA content was increased. MMP and Bcl-2 expression were decreased with increasing formaldehyde concentration, while expression of Bax and Cyt C was increased. We also observed change in cell cycling, and found that there was S phase arrest in the high dose group. Our study suggested that a certain concentration of formaldehyde could have toxic effects on the hematopoietic system, with oxidative stress as a critical effect.
CT Based 3-Dimensional Treatment Planning of Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cancer of the Cervix : Comparison between Dose-Volume Histograms and ICRU Point Doses to the Rectum and Bladder
Hashim, Natasha ; Jamalludin, Zulaikha ; Ung, Ngie Min ; Ho, Gwo Fuang ; Malik, Rozita Abdul ; Ee Phua, Vincent Chee ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5259~5264
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5259
Background: CT based brachytherapy allows 3-dimensional (3D) assessment of organs at risk (OAR) doses with dose volume histograms (DVHs). The purpose of this study was to compare computed tomography (CT) based volumetric calculations and International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) reference-point estimates of radiation doses to the bladder and rectum in patients with carcinoma of the cervix treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). Materials and Methods: Between March 2011 and May 2012, 20 patients were treated with 55 fractions of brachytherapy using tandem and ovoids and underwent post-implant CT scans. The external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) dose was 48.6Gy in 27 fractions. HDR brachytherapy was delivered to a dose of 21 Gy in three fractions. The ICRU bladder and rectum point doses along with 4 additional rectal points were recorded. The maximum dose (
) to rectum was the highest recorded dose at one of these five points. Using the HDRplus 2.6 brachyhtherapy treatment planning system, the bladder and rectum were retrospectively contoured on the 55 CT datasets. The DVHs for rectum and bladder were calculated and the minimum doses to the highest irradiated 2cc area of rectum and bladder were recorded (
) for all individual fractions. The mean
of rectum was compared to the means of ICRU rectal point and rectal
using the Student's t-test. The mean
of bladder was compared with the mean ICRU bladder point using the same statistical test. The total dose, combining EBRT and HDR brachytherapy, were biologically normalized to the conventional 2 Gy/fraction using the linear-quadratic model. (
value of 10 Gy for target, 3 Gy for organs at risk). Results: The total prescribed dose was
. The mean dose to the rectum was
. The mean rectal
dose differed significantly from the mean dose calculated at the ICRU reference point (p<0.005); the mean difference was 0.82 Gy (0.48-1.19Gy). The mean EQD2 was
. The mean ratio of
rectum was 1.25 and the mean ratio of
rectum was 0.98 for all individual fractions. The mean dose to the bladder was
. However, the mean
dose did not differ significantly from the mean dose calculated at the ICRU reference point (p=0.307); the mean difference was 0.90 Gy (0.49-1.25Gy). The mean EQD2 was
. The mean ratio of
bladder was 1.24. In the majority of applications, the maximum dose point was not the ICRU point. On average, the rectum received 77% and bladder received 92% of the prescribed dose. Conclusions: OARs doses assessed by DVH criteria were higher than ICRU point doses. Our data suggest that the estimated dose to the ICRU bladder point may be a reasonable surrogate for the
. However, the dose to the ICRU rectal point does not appear to be a reasonable surrogate for the
Copayment Policy Effects on Healthcare Spending and Utilization by Korean Lung Cancer Patients at End of Life: A Retrospective Cohort Design 2003-2012
Kim, Sun Jung ; Han, Kyu-Tae ; Park, Eun-Cheol ; Park, Sohee ; Kim, Tae Hyun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5265~5270
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5265
Background: In Korea, the National Health Insurance program has initiated various copayment policies over a decade in order to alleviate patient financial burden. This study investigated healthcare spending and utilization in the last 12 months of life among patients who died with lung cancer by various copayment policy windows. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study using nationwide lung cancer health insurance claims data from 2002 to 2012. We used descriptive and multivariate methods to compare spending measured by total costs, payer costs, copayments, and utilization (measured by length of stay or outpatient days). Using 1,4417,380 individual health insurance claims (inpatients: 673,122, outpatients: 744,258), we obtained aggregated healthcare spending and utilization of 155,273 individual patient (131,494 inpatient and 103,855 outpatient) records. Results: National spending and utilization is growing, with a significant portion of inpatient healthcare spending and utilization occurring during the end-of-life period. Specifically, inpatients were more likely to have more spending and utilization as they got close to death. As coverage expanded, copayments decreased, but overall costs increased due to increased utilization. The trends were the same in both inpatient and outpatient services. Multivariate analysis confirmed the associations. Conclusions: We found evidence of the higher end of life healthcare spending and utilizations in lung cancer patients occurring as coverage expanded. The practice pattern within a hospital might be influenced by coverage policies. Health policy makers should consider initiating various health policies since these influence the long-term outcomes of service performance and overall healthcare spending and utilization.
MEKK3 and Survivin Expression in Cervical Cancer: Association with Clinicopathological Factors and Prognosis
Cao, Xue-Quan ; Lu, Hong-Sheng ; Zhang, Ling ; Chen, Li-Li ; Gan, Mei-Fu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5271~5276
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5271
Mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase 3 (MEKK3) is an important protein kinase and a member of the MAPK family, which regulates cellular responses to environmental stress and serves as key integration points along the signal transduction cascade that not only link diverse extracellular stimuli to subsequent signaling molecules but also amplify the initiating signals to ultimately activate effector molecules and induce cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. To explore the relationship between MEKK3 and cell apoptosis, clinicopathology and prognosis, we characterize the expression of MEKK3 and survivin in cervical cancer. MEKK3 and survivin expression was measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting of fresh surgical resections from 30 cases of cervical cancer and 25 cases of chronic cervicitis. Protein expression was detected by tissue microarray and immunochemistry (En Vision) in 107 cases of cervical cancer, 86 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and 35 cases of chronic cervicitis. Expression patterns were analyzed for their association with clinicopathological factors and prognosis in cervical cancer. Expression of MEKK3 and survivin mRNA was significantly higher in cervical cancer than in the controls (p<0.05). MEKK3 and survivin expression differed significantly between cervical carcinoma, CIN, and cervicitis (p<0.05) and correlated with clinical stage, infiltration depth, and lymph node metastasis (p<0.05). MEKK3 expression was positively correlated with survivin (p<0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that MEKK3 and survivin expression, lymph node metastasis, depth of invasion, and FIGO stage reduce cumulative survival. Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that MEKK3, survivin, and clinical staging are independent prognostic factors in cervical cancer (p<0.05). Expression of MEKK3 and survivin are significantly increased in cervical cancer, their overexpression participating in the occurrence and development of cervical cancer, with protein expression and clinical staging acting as independent prognostic factors for patients with cervical cancer.
The MDM2 SNP309T>G Polymorphism Increases Bladder Cancer Risk among Caucasians: a Meta-analysis
Wang, Huai-Gao ; Wu, Qing-Yun ; Zhou, Hui ; Peng, Xin-Sheng ; Shi, Meng-Jie ; Li, Jie-Mei ; Zhou, Yan-Fang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5277~5281
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5277
Published studies have evaluated associations between the MDM2 SNP309T>G polymorphism and bladder cancer susceptibility. However, these generated inconsistent results. The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the strength of association between MDM2 SNP309T>G polymorphism and bladder cancer risk by conducting a meta-analysis. We searched PubMed and Embase for related studies that had been published in English before April 1, 2014 and associations were assessed by summarizing the odds ratios (ORs) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Five case-control studies with a total of 972 cases and 1,012 controls were finally identified to be eligible for the meta-analysis. Overall, the results indicated that there was no significant association between the MDM2 SNP309T>G polymorphism and bladder cancer risk (for the allele model G vs. T: OR=1.08, 95% CI 0.85-1.36, p=0.54; for the co-dominant model GG vs. TT: OR=1.20, 95% CI 0.74-1.93, p=0.46; for the dominant model GG+GT vs. TT: OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.80-1.20, p=0.83; for the recessive model GG vs. GT+TT: OR=1.20, 95% CI 0.83-1.74, p=0.33). However, on subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significant associations were found in Caucasians in three models (for the allele model G vs. T: OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.10-1.81, p=0.006; for the co-dominant model GG vs. TT: OR=2.16, 95% CI 1.28-3.63, p=0.004; for the recessive model GG vs. GT+TT: OR=2.06, 95% CI 1.31-3.22, p=0.002). In summary, the present meta-analysis provides evidence that the genotype for the MDM2 SNP309T>G polymorphism may be associated with genetic susceptibility to bladder cancer among Caucasians.
Quality of Life by Stage of Cervical Cancer among Malaysian Patients
Azmawati, Mohammed Nawi ; Najibah, Endut ; Ahmad Zailani Hatta, Mohd Dali ; Norfazilah, Ahmad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5283~5286
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5283
Stage of cervical cancer may adversely affect the quality of life (QOL) among patients. The objective of this study was to predict the QOL among cervical cancer patients by the stage of their cancer. A cross-sectional study from September 2012 until January 2013 was conducted among cervical cancer patients who completed treatment. All patients completed a interviewer-guided questionnaire comprising four sections: (A) socio-demographic data, (B) medical history, (C) QOL measured by general health status questionnaire (QLQ-30) and (D) cervical cancer specific module CX-24 (EORTC) was used to measured patient's functional, symptom scale and their global health status. Results showed that global health status, emotional functioning and pain score were higher in stage III cervical cancer patients while role functioning was higher in stage I cervical cancer patients. Patients with stage IV cancer have a lower mean score in global health status (adjusted b-22.0, 95 CI% -35.6, -8.49) and emotional functioning (adjusted b -22.5, 95CI% -38.1, -6.69) while stage III had lower mean score in role functioning (adjusted b -14.3, 95CI% -25.4, -3.21) but higher mean score in pain (adjusted b 22.1, 95 CI% 8.56, 35.7). In conclusion, stage III and IV cervical cancers mainly affect the QOL of cervical cancer patients. Focus should be given to these subgroups to help in improving the QOL.
Associations between Quality of Life and Marital Status in Cancer Patients and Survivors
Han, Kyu-Tae ; Kim, Sun Jung ; Song, Haiyan ; Chun, Sung-Youn ; Kim, Chan Ok ; Kim, Jung-Soo ; Park, Eun-Cheol ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5287~5291
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5287
Background: The cancer survival rate in Korea has substantially increased, necessitating the management of not only patients with cancer but also longer term survivors. Although the divorce rate has drastically increased in Korea, there is not sufficient research regarding the relationship between changes in marital status and quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients and survivors. Thus, we aimed to examine the relationship between marital status and QOL in such cases. Materials and Methods: This study was performed using the Community Health Survey of 2008 administered by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (N=169,328). We used t-tests and Chi-square tests to compare demographic variables between men and women, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare QOL scores among comparison groups. We also performed a multilevel analysis on the relationship between QOL and marital status while accounting for provincial differences. Results: Decline of EuroQOL five dimensions (EQ-5D) in single patients with cancer was greater than in any other marital status group, but there was no statistically significant decline in survivors of cancer with regard to marital status. In the general population, the decline of EQ-5D was higher among single people than married people. Using the EuroQOL visual analog scale (EQ-VAS), single people had higher values than those of other marital status among both patients with cancer and survivors of cancer. In the general population, EQ-VAS values were higher for single people compared to married people. Conclusions: There may be a significant relationship between marital status and QOL in cancer patients and survivors. Policy interventions to manage patients with cancer who experience a decline in QOL as well as marital problems should be conducted.
Salt Processed Food and Gastric Cancer in a Chinese Population
Lin, Si-Hao ; Li, Yuan-Hang ; Leung, Kayee ; Huang, Cheng-Yu ; Wang, Xiao-Rong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5293~5298
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5293
To investigate the association between salt processed food and gastric cancer, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in a high risk area of China. One hundred and seven newly diagnosed cases with histological confirmation of gastric cancer and 209 controls were recruited. Information on dietary intake was collected with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratios with adjustment for other potential confounders. Comparing the high intake group with never consumption of salt processed foods, salted meat, pickled vegetables and preserved vegetables were significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Meanwhile, salt taste preference in diet showed a dose-response relationship with gastric cancer. Our results suggest that consumption of salted meat, pickled and preserved vegetables, are positively associated with gastric cancer. Reduction of salt and salt processed food in diets might be one practical measure to preventing gastric cancer.
Geographic Distribution and Epidemiology of Lung Cancer During 2011 in Zhejiang Province of China
Lin, Xia-Lu ; Chen, Yan ; Gong, Wei-Wei ; Wu, Zhao-Fan ; Zou, Bao-Bo ; Zhao, Jin-Shun ; Gu, Hua ; Jiang, Jian-Min ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5299~5303
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5299
Background: To explore etiology for providing scientific clues for the prevention of lung cancer. Materials and Methods: Data for lung cancer incidence and meteorological geographic factors from 25 counties in Zhejiang province of China during 2011 were studied. Stepwise multiple regression and correlation analysis were performed to analyze the geographic distribution and epidemiology of lung cancer. Results: 8,291 new cases (5,998 in males and 2,293 females) of lung cancer during 2011 in Zhejiang province were reported in the 25 studied counties. Reported and standardized incidence rates for lung cancer were 58.0 and 47.0 per 100,000 population, respectively. The incidence of lung cancer increased with age. Geographic distribution analysis shows that the standardized incidence rates of lung cancer in northeastern Zhejiang province were higher than in the southwestern part, such as in Nanhu, Fuyang, Wuxing and Yuyao counties, where the rates were more than 50 per 100,000 population. In the southwestern Zhejiang province, for instance, in Yueqing, Xianju and Jiande counties, the standardized incidence rates of lung cancer were lower than 37 per 100,000 population. Spearman correlation tests showed that forest coverage rate, air quality index (AQI), and annual precipitation level are associated with the incidence of lung cancer. Conclusions: Lung cancer in Zhejiang province shows obvious regional differences. High incidence appears associated with low forest coverage rate, poor air quality and low annual precipitation. Therefore, increasing the forest coverage rate and controlling air pollution may play an important role in lung cancer prevention.
Side Effects of Chemotherapy among Cancer Patients in a Malaysian General Hospital: Experiences, Perceptions and Informational Needs from Clinical Pharmacists
Chan, Huan-Keat ; Ismail, Sabrina ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5305~5309
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5305
Background: This study aimed to assess the most common physical side effects experienced by local chemotherapy patients. Their perceptions of these side effects and informational needs from clinical pharmacists were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: This was a single-center, cross-sectional study. A face-to-face interview guided by a structured questionnaire with cancer patients admitted to receive repeated cycles of chemotherapy was conducted. Information collected included chemotherapy-related side effects after last chemotherapy experience, the most worrisome side effects, the side effects overlooked by healthcare professionals and the preferred method, amount and source of receiving related information. Results: Of 99 patients recruited, 90 participated in this survey (response rate: 90.9%). The majority were in the age range of 45-64 years (73.3%) and female (93.3%). Seventy-five (83.3%) and seventy-one (78.9%) experienced nausea and vomiting, respectively. Both symptoms were selected as two of the most worrisome side effects (16.7% vs. 33.3%). Other common and worrisome side effects were hair loss and loss of appetite. Symptoms caused by peripheral neuropathies were perceived as the major symptoms being overlooked (6.7%). Most patients demanded information about side effects (60.0%) and they would like to receive as much information as possible (86.7%). Oral conversation (83.3%) remained as the preferred method and the clinical pharmacist was preferred by 46.7% of patients as the educator in this aspect. Conclusions: The high prevalence of chemotherapy-related side effects among local patients is of concern. Findings of their perceptions and informational needs may serve as a valuable guide for clinical pharmacists to help in side effect management in Malaysia.
Luteolin-loaded Phytosomes Sensitize Human Breast Carcinoma MDA-MB 231 Cells to Doxorubicin by Suppressing Nrf2 Mediated Signalling
Sabzichi, Mehdi ; Hamishehkar, Hamed ; Ramezani, Fatemeh ; Sharifi, Simin ; Tabasinezhad, Maryam ; Pirouzpanah, Mohammadbagher ; Ghanbari, Parisa ; Samadi, Nasser ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5311~5316
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5311
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been recognized as a transcription factor that controls mechanisms of cellular defense response by regulation of three classes of genes, including endogenous antioxidants, phase II detoxifying enzymes and transporters. Previous studies have revealed roles of Nrf2 in resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and high level expression of Nrf2 has been found in many types of cancer. At physiological concentrations, luteolin as a flavonoid compound can inhibit Nrf2 and sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. We reported luteolin loaded in phytosomes as an advanced nanoparticle carrier sensitized MDA-MB 231 cells to doxorubicin. In this study, we prepared nano phytosomes of luteolin to enhance the bioavailability of luteolin and improve passive targeting in breast cancer cells. Our results showed that cotreatment of cells with nano particles containing luteolin and doxorubicin resulted in the highest percentage cell death in MDA-MB 231cells (p<0.05). Furthermore, luteolin-loaded nanoparticles reduced Nrf2 gene expression at the mRNA level in cells to a greater extent than luteolin alone (p<0.05). Similarly, expression of downstream genes for Nrf2 including Ho1 and MDR1 were reduced significantly (p<0.05). Inhibition of Nrf-2 expression caused a marked increase in cancer cell death (p<0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that phytosome technology can improve the efficacy of chemotherapy by overcoming resistance and enhancing permeability of cancer cells to chemical agents and may thus be considered as a potential delivery system to improve therapeutic protocols for cancer patients.
Association Between Three eNOS Polymorphisms and Cancer Risk: a Meta-analysis
Wu, Xun ; Wang, Zhi-Feng ; Xu, Yin ; Ren, Rui ; Heng, Bao-Li ; Su, Ze-Xuan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5317~5324
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5317
Polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene may influence the risk of cancer, but the results are still debatable. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to provide a more complete picture and conducted a meta-analysis to derive a precise estimation. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, Google Scholar and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases until April 2014 to identify eligible studies. Thirty-one studies with cancer patients and controls were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the polled analysis revealed that the T-786C polymorphism was significantly associated with increased cancer risk under multiple genetic models (C vs T: OR=1.135, 95%CI=1.048-1.228; CC vs TT: OR=1.278, 95%CI=1.045-1.562; TC vsTT: OR=1.136, 95%CI=1.023-1.261; CC+TC vs TT: OR=1.159, 95%CI=1.047-1.281; CC vs TC+TT: OR=1.204, 95%CI= 1.003-1.447). G894T was associated with significant risk for females (TT vs GG: OR=1.414, 95%CI=1.056-1.892; TT vs GT+GG: OR=1.356, 95%CI=1.108-1.661) and for breast cancer (T vs G: OR=1.097, 95%CI=1.001-1.203; TT vs GG: OR=1.346, 95%CI=1.012-1.789; TT vs GT+GG: OR=1.269, 95%CI=1.028-1.566). Increased susceptibility was revealed for prostate cancer with 4a/b (ba vs bb: OR=1.338, 95%CI=1.013-1.768; aa+ba vs bb: OR=1.474, 95%CI=1.002-2.170). This meta-analysis indicated that the eNOS T-786C polymorphism is associated with elevated cancer risk; the G894T polymorphism contributes to susceptibility to breast cancer and cancer generally in females; and the 4a/b polymorphism may be associated with prostate cancer risk.
Construction of a Protein-Protein Interaction Network for Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia and Pathway Prediction of Molecular Complexes
Zhou, Chao ; Teng, Wen-Jing ; Yang, Jing ; Hu, Zhen-Bo ; Wang, Cong-Cong ; Qin, Bao-Ning ; Lv, Qing-Liang ; Liu, Ze-Wang ; Sun, Chang-Gang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5325~5330
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5325
Background: Chronic myelocytic leukemia is a disease that threatens both adults and children. Great progress has been achieved in treatment but protein-protein interaction networks underlining chronic myelocytic leukemia are less known. Objective: To develop a protein-protein interaction network for chronic myelocytic leukemia based on gene expression and to predict biological pathways underlying molecular complexes in the network. Materials and Methods: Genes involved in chronic myelocytic leukemia were selected from OMIM database. Literature mining was performed by Agilent Literature Search plugin and a protein-protein interaction network of chronic myelocytic leukemia was established by Cytoscape. The molecular complexes in the network were detected by Clusterviz plugin and pathway enrichment of molecular complexes were performed by DAVID online. Results and Discussion: There are seventy-nine chronic myelocytic leukemia genes in the Mendelian Inheritance In Man Database. The protein-protein interaction network of chronic myelocytic leukemia contained 638 nodes, 1830 edges and perhaps 5 molecular complexes. Among them, complex 1 is involved in pathways that are related to cytokine secretion, cytokine-receptor binding, cytokine receptor signaling, while complex 3 is related to biological behavior of tumors which can provide the bioinformatic foundation for further understanding the mechanisms of chronic myelocytic leukemia.
Comparison between Early and Late Onset Breast Cancer in Pakistani Women Undergoing Breast Conservative Therapy: is There any Difference?
Bhatti, Abu Bakar Hafeez ; Jamshed, Aarif ; Khan, Amina ; Siddiqui, Neelam ; Muzaffar, Nargis ; Shah, Mazhar Ali ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5331~5336
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5331
Background: Early onset breast cancer is associated with poor outcomes but variable results have been reported. It is a significant problem in Pakistani women but remains under reported. Breast conservation plays an important role in surgical management of this younger patient group. The objective of this study was to determine the outcome of breast conservative therapy in patients with early onset breast cancer in our population and compare it with their older counterparts. Materials and Methods: A review of patients with invasive breast cancer who underwent breast conservation surgery at Shaukat Khanum Cancer Hospital from 1997 to 2009 was performed. Patients were divided into two groups i.e. Group I age
and Group II >40 years. A total of 401 patients with breast cancer were identified in Group I and 405 patients in Group II. Demographics, histopathological findings and receptor status of the two groups were compared. The Chi square test was used for categorical variables. Outcome was assessed on basis of 10 year locoregional recurrence free survival (LRRFS), disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). For survival analysis Kaplan Meier curves were used and significance was determined using the Log rank test. Cox regression was applied for multivariate analysis. Results: Median follow up was 4.31 (0.1-15.5) years. Median age at presentation was 34.6 years (17-40) and 51.9 years (41-82) for the two groups. Groups were significantly different from each other with respect to grade, receptor status, tumor stage and use of neoadjuvant therapy. No significant difference was present between the two groups for estimated 10 year LRRFS (86% vs 95%) (p=0.1), DFS (70% vs 70%) (p=0.5) and OS (75% vs 63%) (p=0.1). On multivariate analysis, tumor stage was an independent predictor of LRRFS, DFS and OS. Conclusions: Early onset breast cancer is associated with a distinct biology but does not lead to poorer outcomes in our population.
Recurrence Risk and Prognostic Parameters in Stage I Rectal Cancers
Cihan, Sener ; Kucukoner, Mehmet ; Ozdemir, Nuriye ; Dane, Faysal ; Sendur, Mehmet Ali Nahit ; Yazilitas, Dogan ; Urakci, Zuhat ; Durnali, Ayse ; Yuksel, Sinemis ; Aksoy, Sercan ; Colak, Dilsen ; Seker, Mehmet Metin ; Taskoylu, Burcu Yapar ; Oguz, Arzu ; Isikdogan, Abdurrahman ; Zengin, Nurullah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5337~5341
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5337
Background: The standard therapy for stage I rectum cancer is surgical resection. Currently, there is no strong evidence to suggest that any type of adjuvant therapy is beneficial. The risks of local relapse and distant metastasis are higher in rectal tumors. Therefore, while there is no clearly defined absolute indication for adjuvant therapy in lymph node negative colon cancers, rectum tumors that are T3N0 and higher require adjuvant treatment. Due to the more aggressive nature of rectal cancers, we explored the clinical and pathologic factors that could predict the risk of relapse in Stage I (T1-T2) disease and whether there was any progression-free survival benefit to adjuvant therapy. Materials and Methods: This multicenter study was carried out by the Anatolian Society of Medical Oncology. A total of 178 patients with rectal cancers who underwent curative surgery between January 1994 and August 2012 in 13 centers were included in the study. Patient demographics, including survival data and tumor characteristics were obtained from medical charts. Results: The median age was 58 years (range 26-85 years). Most tumors were well or moderately differentiated. For adjuvant treatment, 13 patients (7.3%) received radiotherapy alone, 12 patients (6.7%) received chemotherapy alone and 15 patients (8.4%) were given chemoradiotherapy. Median follow up was 29 months (3-225 months). Some 42 patients (23.6%) had relapse during follow up; 30 with local recurrence (71.4%) whereas 12 (28.6%) were distant metastases. Among the patients, 5-year DFS was 64% and OS was 82%. Mucinous histology and receiving adjuvant therapy were found to have statistically insignificant correlations with relapse and survival. Conclusions: In our retrospective analysis, approximately one quarter of patients exhibited either local or systemic relapse. The rates of relapse were slightly higher in the patients who had no adjuvant therapy. There may thus be a role for adjuvant therapy in high-risk stage I rectal tumors.
Meta-analysis of Six Randomized Control Trials of Chemotherapy Plus Anti-HER Monoclonal Antibody for Advanced Gastric and Gastroesophageal Cancer
Luo, Huai-Qing ; Han, Li ; Jiang, Yan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5343~5348
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5343
Background: A meta-analysis was performed to examine the benefit/risk ratio for the addition of anti- HER MoAbs to chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastric and gastroesophageal cancer from six randomized phase II/III trials. Materials and Methods: We searched relative trials from Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane library databases, China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, Google Scholar and the NIH ClinicalTrials. Primary outcomes were overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes were toxicities. All analyses were performed using STATA 12.0. Results: This meta-analysis included six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 2, 297 patients and we demonstrated that the anti-HER MoAbs arm did have a positive effect on ORR in the anti-HER MoAbs arm (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.00-1.64, p=0.01). There was an increasing benefit regarding OS (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.60-0.88, p<0.05) and PFS (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60-0.84, p<0.05) in the anti-HER2 subgroup, but a reduction of OS (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.87-1.36, p<0.05) and PFS (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.98 -1.28, P<0.05) in anti-EGFR subgroup. Some grade 3-4 toxicity had a significantly higher incidence in the anti-HER MoAbs arm. There was no significant publication bias for all endpoints. Conclusions: The addition of trstuzumab MoAb to chemotherapy for gastric and gastroesophageal cancer significantly improved outcome of OS and PFS endpoints, while other MoAbs led to no improvement in results. Some adverse events were increased in anti-HER MoAbs arm compared with the control.
Use of an Artificial Neural Network to Predict Risk Factors of Nosocomial Infection in Lung Cancer Patients
Chen, Jie ; Pan, Qin-Shi ; Hong, Wan-Dong ; Pan, Jingye ; Zhang, Wen-Hui ; Xu, Gang ; Wang, Yu-Min ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5349~5353
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5349
Statistical methods to analyze and predict the related risk factors of nosocomial infection in lung cancer patients are various, but the results are inconsistent. A total of 609 patients with lung cancer were enrolled to allow factor comparison using Student's t-test or the Mann-Whitney test or the Chi-square test. Variables that were significantly related to the presence of nosocomial infection were selected as candidates for input into the final ANN model. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the performance of the artificial neural network (ANN) model and logistic regression (LR) model. The prevalence of nosocomial infection from lung cancer in this entire study population was 20.1% (165/609), nosocomial infections occurring in sputum specimens (85.5%), followed by blood (6.73%), urine (6.0%) and pleural effusions (1.82%). It was shown that long term hospitalization (
, P= 0.000), poor clinical stage (IIIb and IV stage, P=0.002), older age (
old, P=0.023), and use the hormones were linked to nosocomial infection and the ANN model consisted of these four factors. The artificial neural network model with variables consisting of age, clinical stage, time of hospitalization, and use of hormones should be useful for predicting nosocomial infection in lung cancer cases.
Roles of Sonography and Hysteroscopy in the Detection of Premalignant and Malignant Polyps in Women Presenting with Postmenopausal Bleeding and Thickened Endometrium
Cavkaytar, Sabri ; Kokanali, Mahmut Kuntay ; Ceran, Ufuk ; Topcu, Hasan Onur ; Sirvan, Levent ; Doganay, Melike ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5355~5358
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5355
Background: To assess the role of sonographic endometrial thickness and hysteroscopic polyp size in predicting premalignant and malignant polyps in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: A total of 328 postmenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding and thickened endometrium underwent operative hysteroscopy due to detection of endometrial polyps were included in this retrospective study. Preoperative endometrial thickness measured by transvaginal ultrasonography and polyp size on hysteroscopy were noted. Hysteroscopic resection with histology was performed for endometrial polyps. Endometrial thickness and polyp size were evaluated on the basis of final diagnosis established by histologic examination. Receiver operator characteristic curves were calculated to assess the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of endometrial thickness and polyp size for detecting pemalignant and malignant polyps. Results: Premalignant and malignant polyps were identified in 26 (7.9%) of cases. Sonographic measurement showed a greater endometrial thickness in cases of premalignant and malignant polyps when compared to benign polyps. On surgical hysteroscopy, premalignant and malignant polyps were also larger. Endometrial thickness demonstrated a sensitivity of 53.8%, specificity of 85.8%, PPV of 24.6% and NPV of 95.6% at a cut-off limit of 11.5 mm with diagnostic accuracy of 83.2%. Polyp size has a diagnostic accuracy of 94.8% with a sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity of 95.0%, PPV of 61.5% and NPV of 99.3% at a cut-off point of 19.5mm. Conclusions: Endometrial thickness measured by transvaginal ultrasonography is not sufficient in predicting premalignant and malignant endometrial polyps in postmenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding and thickened endometrium. Polyp size on hysteroscopy is a more accurate parameter, because of better sensitivity and specificity. However, while polyp size
seems to have a great accuracy for predicting premalignancy and malignancy, histologic evaluation is still necessary to exclude premalignant and malignant polyps.
Feasibility and Safety of Robotic Surgery for Gynecologic Cancers
Manchana, Tarinee ; Sirisabya, Nakarin ; Vasuratna, Apichai ; Termrungruanglert, Wichai ; Tresukosol, Damrong ; Wisawasukmongchol, Wirach ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5359~5364
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5359
Background: To determine surgical outcomes, perioperative complications, and patient outcomes in gynecologic cancer patients undergoing robotic surgery. Materials and Methods: Surgical outcomes, including docking time, total operative time, console time, estimated blood loss (EBL), conversion rate and perioperative complications were retrospectively reviewed in 30 gynecologic cancer patients undergoing robotic surgery. Patient outcomes included recovery time and patient satisfaction, as scored by a visual analogue scale (VAS) from 0-10. Results: The operations included 24 hysterectomies with pelvic lymphadenectomy (PLD) and/or para-aortic lymphadenectomy, four radical hysterectomies with PLD, and two radical trachelectomies with PLD. Mean docking time was
, total operative time was
, and console time was
. These times were decreased in the second half of the cases. There was no conversion rate. Three intraoperative complications, including one external iliac artery injury, one bladder injury, and one massive bleeding requiring blood transfusion were reported. Postoperative complications occurred in eight patients, most were minor. Only one patient had port herniation that required reoperation. Mean hospital stay was
, and recovery time was
. Two-thirds of patients felt very satisfied and one-third felt satisfied; the mean satisfaction score was 9.4 +0.9. Two patients with stage III endometrial cancer developed isolated port site metastasis at five and 13 months postoperatively. Conclusions: Robotic surgery for gynecologic cancer appears to be feasible, with acceptable perioperative complication rate, fast recovery time and high patient satisfaction.
Lymph Node Ratio is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Node Positive Rectal Cancer Patients Treated with Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Curative Resection
Zeng, Wei-Gen ; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang ; Wang, Zheng ; Liang, Jian-Wei ; Hou, Hui-Rong ; Zhou, Hai-Tao ; Zhang, Xing-Mao ; Hu, Jun-Jie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5365~5369
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5365
Background: The lymph node ratio (LNR) has been shown to be an important prognostic factor for colorectal cancer. However, studies focusing on the prognostic impact of LNR in rectal cancer patients who received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by curative resection have been limited. The aim of this study was to investigate LNR in rectal cancer patients who received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by curative resection. Materials and Methods: A total of 131 consecutive rectal cancer patients who underwent neoadjuvant CRT and total mesorectal excision were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the LNR (
[n=86], >0.2 [n=45]) to evaluate the prognostic effect on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results: The median number of retrieved and metastatic lymph node (LN) was 14 (range 1-48) and 2 (range 1-10), respectively. The median LNR was 0.154 (range 0.04-1.0). In multivariate analysis, LNR was shown to be an independent prognostic factor for both overall survival (hazard ratio[HR]=3.778; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.741-8.198; p=0.001) and disease-free survival (HR=3.637; 95%CI 1.838-7.195; p<0.001). Increased LNR was significantly associated with worse OS and DFS in patients with <12 harvested LNs, and as well as in those
harvested LNs (p<0.05). In addition, LNR had a prognostic impact on both OS and DFS in patients with N1 staging (p<0.001). Conclusions: LNR is an independent prognostic factor in ypN-positive rectal cancer patients, both in patients with <12 harvested LNs, and as well as in those
harvested LNs. LNR provides better prognostic value than pN staging. Therefore, it should be used as an additional prognostic indicator in ypN-positive rectal cancer patients.
Risk of Lymph Node Metastases from Early Gastric Cancer in Relation to Depth of Invasion: Experience in a Single Institution
Wang, Zheng ; Ma, Li ; Zhang, Xing-Mao ; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5371~5375
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5371
Background: An accurate assessment of potential lymph node metastasis is important for the appropriate treatment of early gastric cancers. Therefore, this study analyzed predictive factors associated with lymph node metastasis and identified differences between mucosal and submucosal gastric cancers. Materials and Methods: A total of 518 early gastric cancer patients who underwent radical gastrectomy were reviewed in this study. Clinicopathological features were analyzed to identify predictive factors for lymph node metastasis. Results: The rate of lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer was 15.3% overall, 3.3% for mucosal cancer, and 23.5% for submucosal cancer. Using univariate analysis, risk factors for lymph node metastasis were identified as tumor location, tumor size, depth of tumor invasion, histological type and lymphovascular invasion. Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor size >2 cm, submucosal invasion, undifferentiated tumors and lymphovascular invasion were independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis. When the carcinomas were confined to the mucosal layer, tumor size showed a significant correlation with lymph node metastasis. On the other hand, histological type and lymphovascular invasion were associated with lymph node metastasis in submucosal carcinomas. Conclusions: Tumor size >2 cm, submucosal tumor, undifferentiated tumor and lymphovascular invasion are predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer. Risk factors are quite different depending on depth of tumor invasion. Endoscopic treatment might be possible in highly selective cases.
Comparison of Quality of Life of Turkish Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Breast Conserving Surgery or Modified Radical Mastectomy
Acil, Hande ; Cavdar, Ikbal ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5377~5381
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5377
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in quality of life in patients who received breast conserving surgery (BCS) or modified radical mastectomy (MRM) for breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 women with breast cancer who underwent either BCS or MRM between September 2011 and April 2012 at a private health center and completed their chemotherapy and radiation therapy cycles were included in the study. To assess the quality of life, we used a demographic questionnaire, the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the Quality of Life assessment in Breast Cancer (EORTC QLQ-BR23). Results: Using QLQ-C30, we found that patients who underwent BCS had better functional status and fewer symptoms than patients who underwent MRM. In QLQ-BR23, independent factors improving the functional scales were BCS, higher level of education and marital status (married); independent factors improving symptoms were BCS, higher level of education, younger age and low and normal body mass index (BMI). In QLQ-C30, independent factors affecting the functional and symptom scales were only BCS and higher level of education. Conclusions: We determined that patients who received BCS had better functional status and less frequent symptoms than patients who underwent MRM.
Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 Levels Associated with Pathological Responses to Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy in Rectal Cancer
Yeo, Seung-Gu ; Kim, Dae Yong ; Kim, Tae Hyun ; Kim, Sun Young ; Baek, Ji Yeon ; Chang, Hee Jin ; Park, Ji Won ; Oh, Jae Hwan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5383~5387
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5383
Purpose: To investigate whether pretreatment serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) levels are associated with pathological responses to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with rectal cancer. Materials and Methods: In total, 260 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (cT3-4NanyM0) who underwent preoperative CRT and radical surgery were analyzed retrospectively. CRT consisted of 50.4 Gy pelvic radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. Radical surgery was performed at a median of 7 weeks after CRT completion. Pathological CRT response criteria included downstaging (ypStage 0-I) and ypT0-1. A discrimination threshold of CA 19-9 level was determined using a receiver operating characteristics analysis. Results: The median CA 19-9 level was 8.0 (1.0-648.0) U/mL. Downstaging occurred in 94 (36.2%) patients and ypT0-1 in 50 (19.2%). The calculated optimal threshold CA 19-9 level was 10.2 U/mL for downstaging and 9.0 U/mL for ypT0-1. On multivariate analysis, CA 19-9 (
) was significantly associated with downstaging (odds ratio, 2.089; 95% confidence interval, 1.189-3.669; P=0.010) or ypT0-1 (OR, 2.207; 95%CI, 1.079-4.512; P=0.030), independent of clinical stage or carcinoembryonic antigen. Conclusions: This study firstly showed a significant association of pretreatment serum CA 19-9 levels with pathological CRT responses of rectal cancer. The CA 19-9 level is suggested to be valuable in predicting CRT responses of rectal cancer cases before treatment.
Impact of a Clinical Pathway on Hospital Costs, Length of Stay and Early Outcomes after Hepatectomy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Zhu, Liang ; Li, Jun ; Li, Xiao-Kang ; Feng, Jun-Qiang ; Gao, Jian-Min ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5389~5393
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5389
Background: A clinical pathway (CP) can standardize and improve perioperative care for a number of interventions. In hepatic surgery, however, pertinent evidence is very limited. This study was conducted to implement a CP for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients undergoing hepatectomy, and to evaluate its effects on hospital costs, length of hospital stay (LOHS) and early clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods: Medical records for HCC patients undergoing hepatectomy were retrospectively reviewed before implementation of a CP (the non-CP group) from March 2012 to August 2012. This information was compared with the data collected prospectively from patients after implementation of the CP (the CP group) between September 2012 and April 2013. Hospital costs, LOHS and early clinical outcomes were evaluated and compared between groups. Results: There were no significant differences in terms of patient clinical characteristics between the two groups. For clinical outcome measures, no significant differences were found in postoperative complications, mortality and readmission rate. The hospital costs were significantly reduced from 24,844 RMB in the non-CP group to 19,761 RMB in the CP group (p<0.01). In addition, patients of the CP group also had shorter LOHS compared with the non-CP group (8.3 versus 12.3 days, p<0.001). Conclusions: The CP proved to be an effective approach to minimize hospital costs and LOHS with hepatectomy for HCC without compromising patient care.
Seniors Have a Better Learning Curve for Laparoscopic Colorectal Cancer Resection
Zhang, Xing-Mao ; Wang, Zheng ; Liang, Jian-Wei ; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5395~5399
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5395
Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the outcomes of laparoscopic colorectal resection in a period of learning curve completed by surgeons with different experience and aptitudes with a view to making clear whether seniors had a better learning curve compared with juniors. Methods: From May 2010 to August 2012, the first twenty patients underwent laparoscopic colorectal resection completed by each surgeon were selected for analysis retrospectively. A total of 240 patients treated by 5 seniors and 7 juniors were divided into the senior group (n=100) and the junior group (n=140). The short-term outcomes of laparoscopic surgery of the two groups were compared. Results: The mean numbers of lymph nodes harvested were
in the senior group and
in the junior group (p=0.010); The mean operative times were
as compared to
(p=0.006), and blood loss values were
, respectively (p=0.001); Conversion rate in the senior group was obviously lower than in the junior group (10.0% vs 20.7%, p=0.027) and the mean time to passing of first flatus were
days (p=0.001). For low rectal cancer, the sphincter preserving rates were 68.7% and 35.3% (p=0.027). Conclusions: Seniors could perform laparoscopic colorectal resection with relatively better oncological outcomes and quicker recovery, and seniors could master the laparoscopic skill more easily and quickly. Seniors had a better learning curve for laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection compared to juniors.
Awareness of Risk Factors for Cancer among Omani adults- A Community Based Study
Al-Azri, Mohammed ; AL-Rasbi, Khadija ; Al-Hinai, Mustafa ; Davidson, Robin ; Al-Maniri, Abdullah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5401~5406
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5401
Background: Cancer is the leading cause of mortality around the world. However, the majority of cancers occur as a result of modifiable risk factors; hence public awareness of cancer risk factors is crucial to reduce the incidence. The objective of this study was to identify the level of public awareness of cancer risk factors among the adult Omani population. Materials and Methods: A community based survey using the Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM) questionnaire was conducted in three areas of Oman to measure public awareness of cancer risk factors. Omani adults aged 18 years and above were invited to participate in the study. SPPSS (ver.20) was used to analyse the data. Results: A total of 384 participated from 500 invited individuals (response rate =77%). The majority of respondents agreed that smoking cigarettes (320, 83.3%), passive smoking (279, 72.7%) and excessive drinking of alcohol (265, 69%) are risks factors for cancer. However, fewer respondents agreed that eating less fruit and vegetables (83, 21.6%), eating more red or processed meat (116, 30.2%), being overweight (BMI> 25) (123, 32%), doing less physical exercise (119, 31%), being over 70 years old (72, 18.8%), having a close relative with cancer (134, 34.9%), infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) (117, 30.5%) and getting frequent sunburn during childhood (149, 38.8%) are risk factors for cancer. A significant association was found between participant responses and their educational level. The higher the educational level, the more likely that respondents identified cancer risk factors including smoking (p<0.0005), passive smoking (p= 0.007), excessive drinking of alcohol (p<0.0005), eating less fruit and vegetables (p= 0.001) and infection with HPV (p<0.0005). Conclusions: The majority of respondents in this study in Oman were not aware of the common risk factors for cancer. It may be possible to reduce the incidence of cancers in Oman by developing strategies to educate the public about these risk factors.
Additive Properties of Crude, Age Specific and Age Adjusted Rates for Cancer Incidence and Mortality
Takiar, Ramnath ; Shrivastava, Atul ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5407~5409
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5407
Background: In National Cancer Registry Programme (NCRP) reports, various rates are routinely provided for 50 cancer sites of males and 54 cancer sites of females. Very often, depending on our interest, we wish to see these rates for group of cancers like head and neck cancers, oral cancers, and reproductive cancers. In such a situation, the desired rates are calculated independently from the actual data and reported. The question is can we derive the rates for groups of cancers from the published reports when the data is provided only for the individual sites? Objective: In the present paper, an attempt is made to explore the mathematical properties of various rates to derive them directly for the group of cancer sites from the published data when the rates are provided only for the individual sites. Source of data: The cancer incidence data collected by two urban Population Based Cancer Registries (PBCRs), under the network of NCRP for the period of 2006-08 was considered for the study purposes. The Registries included were: Bangalore and Bhopal. Results: In the present communication, we have shown that the crude rate (CR), age specific rates and age-adjuste rates (AAR) all possess additive properties. This means, given the above rates for individual sites, the above rates can be calculated for groups of sites by simply adding them. In terms of formula it can be stated that CR(Site1+Site2+++ SiteN) = CR(Site1)+CR(Site2) +++ CR(SiteN). This formula holds good for age specific rates as well as for AAR. This property facilitates the calculation of various rates for defined groups of cancers by simply adding the above rates for individual sites from which they are made up.
Updated Meta-analysis of the Association Between CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI Polymorphisms and Lung Cancer Risk in Chinese Population
Wang, Ya-Dong ; Yang, Hai-Yan ; Liu, Jing ; Wang, Hai-Yu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5411~5416
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5411
Background: A number of studies have reported relationships of CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI polymorphisms with susceptibility to lung cancer in Chinese population. However, the epidemiologic results have been conflictive rather than conclusive. The purpose of this study was to address the associations of CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI polymorphisms with lung cancer risk in Chinese population comprehensively. Materials and Methods: Systematic searches were conducted in the PubMed, Science Direct, Elsevier, CNKI and Chinese Biomedical Literature Databases. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of association. Results: Overall, we observed a decreased lung cancer risk among subjects carrying CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI c1/c2 and c1/c2+c2/c2 genotypes (OR=0.76, 95%CI: 0.64-0.90 and OR=0.78, 95%CI: 0.66-0.93, respectively), as compared with subjects carrying the c1/c1 genotype. In subgroup analysis, we observed a decreased lung cancer risk among c1/c2 carriers in hospital-based studies (OR=0.81, 95%CI: 0.68-0.98) and among carriers with c1/c2 and c1/c2+c2/c2 genotypes in population-based studies(OR=0.57, 95%CI: 0.42-0.79 and OR=0.58, 95%CI: 0.43-0.79, respectively), as compared with subjects carrying the c1/c1 genotype. Limiting the analysis to studies with controls in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), we similarly observed a decreased lung cancer risk among c1/c2 and c1/c2+c2/c2 carriers (OR=0.73, 95%CI: 0.60-0.88 and OR=0.73, 95%CI: 0.60-0.88, respectively), as compared with c1/c1. Conclusions: Our results suggested that CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI c1/c2 and c1/c2+c2/c2 variants might be a protective factor for developing lung cancer in Chinese population. Further well-designed studies with larger sample size are required to verify our findings.
Metabolomics Investigation of Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma Based on UHPLC-QTOF/MS
Zhou, Qing-Yuan ; Wang, Yue-Lin ; Li, Xia ; Shen, Xiao-Yan ; Li, Ke-Jia ; Zheng, Jie ; Yu, Yun-Qiu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5417~5421
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5417
Objectives: The identification of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) biomarkers may serve as a predictor of disease progression and treatment response. The aim of this study was to map potential biomarkers in CTCL plasma. Design and Methods: Plasma metabolic perturbations between CTCL cases and healthy individuals were investigated using metabolomics and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS). Results: Principal component analysis (PCA) of the spectra showed clear metabolic changes between the two groups. Thirty six potential biomarkers associated with CTCL were found. Conclusions: Based on PCA, several biomarkers were determined and further identified by LC/MS/MS analysis. All of these could be potential early markers of CTCL. In addition, we established that heparin as a nticoagulant has better pre-treatment results than EDTA with the UHPLC-QTOF/MS appraoch.
Risk Factors for Endometrial Hyperplasia Concomitant Endometrial Polyps in Pre- and Post-menopausal Women
Topcu, Hasan Onur ; Erkaya, Salim ; Guzel, Ali Irfan ; Kokanali, Mahmut Kuntay ; Sarıkaya, Esma ; Muftuoglu, Kamil Hakan ; Doganay, Melike ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5423~5425
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5423
Purpose: To evaluate the risk factors for endometrial hyperplasia concomitant endometrial polyps in pre- and post-menopausal women. Materials and Methods: A total of 203 patients undergoing endometrial sampling before hysterectomy were evaluated in this retrospective study. Data recorded were age, gravidity, parity, body mass index (BMI: weight(kg)/
), endometrial thickness (ET), menopausal status, presence of adenomyosis and diabetes mellitus. Results: Endometrial hyperplasia and polyps were detected in 13 patients. There were statistically significant differences in terms of age, menopausal status, morbid obesity and diabetes mellitus (p<0.005). Logistic regression demonstrated that menopausal status and presence of diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors. Conclusions: According to the current study; menopause and diabetes mellitus are strong risk factors for the presence of concomitant endometrial polyps and endometrial hyperplasia.
Evaluation of Stapled versus Hand-Sewn Techniques for Colo-Rectal Anastomosis after Low Anterior Resection of Mid-Rectal Carcinoma: a Study on 50 Patients
Fayek, Ihab Samy ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5427~5431
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5427
Aim: To evaluate the outcome of stapled versus sutured colo-rectal anastomosis after low anterior resection of mid-rectal carcinoma. Patients and Methods: A prospective study of fifty patients who underwent colo-rectal anastomosis following low anterior resection (LAR) of T2 mid-rectal cancers at the Egyptian National Cancer Institute during the time period from June 2010 to June 2013 was conducted. Classification was into two groups; a stapled anastomosis group I (25 patients) and a hand-sewn anastomosis group II (25 patients). All operations are evaluated regarding intra-operative complications such as anastomotic line bleeding, visceral injuries or major blood loss. The anastomotic time and operative time are documented for each operation. All patients are evaluated post-operatively for anastomotic leakage (AL), wound infection and ileus. Results: The distance of the tumor from the anal verge was
in group I and
in group II. The mean operative time was
in the stapled group and
in the sutured group (p=0.002). The mean anastomotic times were
(p=0.001). Anastomotic leakage developed in three (12.0%) patients in the stapled group and in four (16.0%) patients in the sutured group (p=1.000). Post-operative ileus was observed in 3 patients in group I and one patient in group II. Wound infection developed in three (12.0%) patients in the stapled group and four (16.0%) patients in the sutured group (p=1.000). Conclusion: Colo-rectal anastomosis after low anterior resection for mid rectal carcinoma can be conducted safely either by stapling or hand-sewn techniques; however the stapling technique showed shorter anastomotic and operative times with no significant advantages regarding intra- or post-operative complications or hospital stay.
Cecropin Suppresses Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma BEL-7402 Cell Growth and Survival in vivo without Side-Toxicity
Jin, Xiao-Bao ; Wang, Ying-Jiao ; Liang, Lu-Lu ; Pu, Qiao-Hong ; Shen, Juan ; Lu, Xue-Mei ; Chu, Fu-Jiang ; Zhu, Jia-Yong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5433~5436
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5433
Conventional chemotherapy against hepatocellular carcinoma typically causes various side effects. Our previous study showed that cecropin of Musca domestica can induce apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 cells in vitro. However, whether cecropin inhibits BEL-7402 cell in vivo and the question of possible side effects remained undentified. The present study confirmed tumor-inhibitory effects of cecropin in vivo, and furthermore strongly suggested that cecropin cytotoxicity in BEL-7402 cells in vivo may be mainly derived from its pro-apoptotic action. Specifically, we found that cecropin exerted no obvious side effects in tumor-bearing mice as it had no significant hematoxicity as well as visceral toxicity. Therefore, cecropin may be a potential candidate for further investigation as an antitumor agent against hepatocellular carcinoma.
Effects of PLCE1 Gene Silencing by RNA Interference on Cell Cycling and Apoptosis in Esophageal Carcinoma Cells
Zhao, Li ; Wei, Zi-Bai ; Yang, Chang-Qing ; Chen, Jing-Jing ; Li, Dan ; Ji, Ai-Fang ; Ma, Liang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5437~5442
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5437
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most malignancies with a poor prognosis. The phospholipase
gene (PLCE1) encodes a novel ras-related protein effector mediating the effects of R-Ras on the actin cytoskeleton and membrane protrusion. However, molecular mechanisms pertinent to ESCC are unclear. We therefore designed PLCE1-special small interfering RNA and transfected to esophageal squamous cell (EC) 9706 cells to investigat the effects of PLCE1 gene silencing on the cell cycle and apoptosis of ESCC and indicate its important role in the development of ESCC. Esophageal cancer tissue specimens and normal esophageal mucosa were obtained and assayed by immunohistochemical staining to confirm overexpression of PLCE1 in neoplasias. Fluorescence microscopy was used to examine transfection efficiency, while the result of PLCE1 silencing was examined by reverse transcription (RT-PCR). Flow cytometry and annexin V apoptosis assays were used to assess the cell cycle and apoptosis, respectively. Expression of cyclin D1 and caspase-3 was detected by Western-blotting. The level of PLCE1 protein in esophageal cancer tissue was significantly higher than that in normal tissue. After transfection, the expression of PLCE1 mRNA in EC 9706 was significantly reduced, compared with the control group. Furthermore, flow cytometry results suggested that the PLCE1 gene silencing arrested the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase; apoptosis was significantly higher than in the negative control group and mock group. PLCE1 gene silencing by RNAi resulted in decreased expression of cyclin D1 and increased expression of caspase-3. Our study suggests that PLCE1 may be an oncogene and play an important role in esophageal carcinogenesis through regulating proteins which control cell cycling and apoptosis.
An Interleukin-6 Receptor Polymorphism is Associated with Opisthorchiasis-Linked Cholangiocarcinoma Risk in Thailand
Prayong, Pokpong ; Mairiang, Eimorn ; Pairojkul, Chawalit ; Chamgramol, Yaovalux ; Mairiang, Pisaln ; Bhudisawasdi, Vajarabhongsa ; Sripa, Banchob ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5443~5447
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5443
The cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a relatively rare cancer worldwide but it is highly prevalent in Thailand where the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini is endemic. There are reports that interleukin 6 (IL-6) may play an important role in the pathogenesis of opisthorchiasis associated CCA. Functionally, IL-6 can act on target cells through its receptor, IL-6R, and IL-6R polymorphisms may affect the functional activity of IL-6 leading to susceptibility to cholangiocarcinogenesis. Therefore, we assessed the association of the 48892 A/C (Asp358Ala) polymorphism in exon 9 of the IL-6R gene in 79 CCA cases compared to 80 healthy controls using the PCR-RFLP technique. The results showed significant differences between CCA cases and controls in overall genotype (p=0.001) and allele frequencies (p=0.0002). Chi-square for trend test revealed a significant association between genotype and CCA susceptibility (p=0.0002). The odds ratios (ORs) for genotype were 0.283 (95% CI=0.131-0.605, AC vs. AA; p=0.0003) and 0.206 (95% CI=0.196-1.245, CC vs. AA; p=0.0416), the OR for alleles was 0.347 (95% CI=0.187-0.633, allele C vs. allele A; p=0.0002) and that for the carrier C variant was 0.272 (95% CI=0.130-0.564; p=0.0001). This study demonstrated a close association between an IL-6R polymorphism, specifically higher A allele, and cholangiocarcinoma.
High Frequency of TP53 but not K-ras Gene Mutations in Bolivian Patients with Gallbladder Cancer
Asai, Takao ; Loza, Ernesto ; Roig, Guido Villa-Gomez ; Ajioka, Yoichi ; Tsuchiya, Yasuo ; Yamamoto, Masaharu ; Nakamura, Kazutoshi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5449~5454
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5449
Although genetic characteristics are considered to be a factor influencing the geographic variation in the prevalence of gallbladder cancer (GBC), they have not been well studied in Bolivia, which has a high prevalence rate of GBC. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of TP53 and K-ras mutations in Bolivian patients with GBC and to compare them with our previous data obtained in other high-GBC-prevalence countries, namely Japan, Chile, and Hungary. DNA was extracted from cancer sites in paraffin-embedded tissue from 36 patients using a microdissection technique. TP53 mutations at exons 5 to 8 and K-ras mutations at codons 12, 13 and 61 were examined using direct sequencing techniques. The data obtained were compared with those in the other high-GBC-prevalence countries. Of the 36 patients, 18 (50.0%) had a TP53 mutation (one mutation in each of 17 patients and three mutations in one patient), and only one (2.8%) had a K-ras mutation. Of the 20 TP53 mutations, 12 were of the transition type (60.0%). This rate was significantly lower than that in Chile (12/12, P<0.05). In addition, three mutations were of the CpG transition type (15.0%), which is a feature of endogenous mutation. All three were found in the hot spot region of the TP53 gene. In contrast, G:C to T:A transversion was found in Bolivia, suggesting the presence of exogenous carcinogens. Our findings suggest that the development of GBC in Bolivia is associated with both exogenous carcinogens and endogenous mechanisms. The identification of an environmental risk factor for GBC is needed to confirm these findings.
Saponins from Rubus parvifolius L. Induce Apoptosis in Human Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells through AMPK Activation and STAT3 Inhibition
Ge, Yu-Qing ; Xu, Xiao-Feng ; Yang, Bo ; Chen, Zhe ; Cheng, Ru-Bin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5455~5461
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5455
Background: Saponins are a major active component for the traditional Chinese medicine, Rubus parvifolius L., which has shown clear antitumor activities. However, the specific effects and mechanisms of saponins of Rubus parvifolius L. (SRP) remain unclear with regard to human chronic myeloid leukemia cells. The aim of this study was to investigate inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis induction effects of SRP in K562 cells and further elucidate its regulatory mechanisms. Materials and Methods: K562 cells were treated with different concentrations of SRP and MTT assays were performed to determine cell viability. Apoptosis induction by SRP was determined with FACS and DAPI staining analysis. Western blotting was used to detect expression of apoptosis and survival related genes. Specific inhibitors were added to confirm roles of STAT3 and AMPK pathways in SRP induction of apoptosis. Results: Our results indicated that SRP exhibited obvious inhibitory effects on the growth of K562 cells, and significantly induced apoptosis. Cleavage of pro-apoptotic proteins was dramatically increased after SRP exposure. SRP treatment also increased the activities of AMPK and JNK pathways, and inhibited the phosphorylation expression level of STAT3 in K562 cells. Inhibition of the AMPK pathway blocked the activation of JNK by SRP, indicating that SRP regulated the expression of JNK dependent oon the AMPK pathway. Furthermore, inhibition of the latter significantly conferred resistance to SRP pro-apoptotic activity, suggesting involvement of the AMPK pathway in induction of apoptosis. Pretreatment with a STAT3 inhibitor also augmented SRP induced growth inhibition and cell apoptosis, further confirming roles of the STAT3 pathway after SRP treatment. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that SRP induce cell apoptosis through AMPK activation and STAT3 inhibition in K562 cells. This suggests the possibility of further developing SRP as an alternative treatment option, or perhaps using it as adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent for chronic myeloid leukemia therapy.
MiR-421 Regulates Apoptosis of BGC-823 Gastric Cancer Cells by Targeting Caspase-3
Wu, Jian-Hong ; Yao, Yong-Liang ; Gu, Tao ; Wang, Ze-You ; Pu, Xiong-Yong ; Sun, Wang-Wei ; Zhang, Xian ; Jiang, Yi-Biao ; Wang, Jian-Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5463~5468
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5463
MicroRNAs might act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in cancer. Recent studies have shown that miR-421 is up-regulated in human gastric cancer. Here, we found that miR-421 was over-expressed in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that the caspase-3 gene was a target of miR-421. Caspase-3 was negatively regulated by miR-421 at the post-transcriptional level. Bax and Bcl-2 were also regulated by miR-421. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor receptor-I and -II, death receptors in the apoptosis pathway, were up-regulated by miR-421. The over-expression of miR-421 promoted gastric cancer cell growth and inhibited apoptosis of the BGC-823 gastric cancer cell line. These observations indicate that miR-421 acts as a tumor promoter by targeting the caspase-3 gene and preventing apoptosis of gastric cancer cells through inhibition of caspase-3 expression. These findings contribute to our understanding of the functions of miR-421 in gastric cancer.
Knowledge, Acceptance, and Willingness to Pay for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Vaccination among Female Parents in Thailand
Kruiroongroj, Siraporn ; Chaikledkaew, Usa ; Thavorncharoensap, Montarat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5469~5474
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5469
Background: This study aimed to examine the level of knowledge, attitude, acceptance, and willingness to pay (WTP) for HPV vaccination among female parents of girls aged 12-15 years in Thailand. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in eight schools across Bangkok. Results: Of 1,200 questionnaires sent out, a total of 861 questionnaires were received. Knowledge regarding the HPV vaccine among parents was quite low. Only half of the parents knew about the link between HPV and cervical cancer while one-third of them knew that the vaccine should be administered to the children before they become sexually active. Nevertheless, vaccine acceptance was high if it was offered for free: 76.9% for the bivalent and 74.4% for the quadrivalent vaccine. The proportion of respondents who were willing to copay for the vaccine if it was not totally free was also high, ranging from 68.9% for the bivalent to 67.3% for the quadrivalent vaccine. No significant difference between bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines in terms of prevalence of acceptance and willingness to pay was found. About one-third of the participants, who were willing to copay for the vaccine if it was not offered for free, indicated that they would copay less than 500 baht (30 baht = approx US$1) for three doses of bivalent vaccine. Conclusions: Substantial effort should be made to educate parents prior to introduction of a national HPV vaccination program. In terms of acceptance, either bivalent or quadrivalent vaccines can be recommended.
Situation Analysis of Existing Facilities for Screening, Treatment and Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Hospitals/Primary health Centers of Delhi-NCR Region, India
Chawla, P. Cheena ; Chawla, Anil Kumar ; Shrivastava, Richa ; Shrivastava, Anju ; Chaudhary, Seema ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5475~5482
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5475
Cervical cancer, the second most common malignancy all over the world, is associated with HPV infection. In a developing country like India, lack of early detection and treatment facilities is the main cause for its high burden. Therefore, through our study we e tried to present the current scenario of existing facilities for the detection and treatment of cervical cancer in hospitals and primary health centers (PHCs) of Delhi-NCR region. Data were collected from 312 healthcare facilities including public and private hospitals and PHCs of all nine districts from Delhi-NCR region. Healthcare providers including gynecologists, medical officers, women health care providers and paramedical staff were interviewed, using a questionnaire; the facilities for screening, diagnosing, and treating cervical cancer in each institution were recorded, using a previously designed checklist. Our study has shown that the basic facilities for the detection and treatment of cervical cancer are abhorrently lacking in Public hospitals and PHCs as compared to the Private hospitals in Delhi-NCR region. This study demonstrates that there is an urgent need for more investment in the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer facilities in public and rural healthcare facilities of Delhi-NCR region.
Clinical and Prognostic Significance of SOX11 in Breast Cancer
Liu, Dao-Tong ; Peng-Zhao, Peng-Zhao ; Han, Jing-Yan ; Lin, Fan-Zhong ; Bu, Xian-Min ; Xu, Qing-Xia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5483~5486
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5483
Recently, the transcription factor SOX11 has gained extensive attention as a diagnostic marker in a series of cancers. However, to date, the possible roles of SOX11 in breast cancer has not been investigated. In this study, immunohistochemical staining for SOX11 was performed for 116 cases of breast cancer. Nuclear SOX11 was observed in 42 (36.2%) and cytoplasmic SOX11 in 52 (44.8%) of breast cancer samples. Moreover, high expression of cytoplasmic and nuclear SOX11 was associated with clinicopathological factors, including earlier tumor grade, absence of lymph node metastasis and smaller tumor size. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated high nuclear SOX11 expression to be associated with more prolonged overall survival than those with low expression and it could be an independent predictor of survival for breast cancer patients. It is worthwhile to note that cytoplasmic SOX11 was not correlated with prognosis of breast cancer patients. These data suggest the possibility that nuclear SOX11 could be as a potential target for breast cancer therapy.
Clinical Value of Real Time Elastography in Patients with Unexplained Cervical Lymphadenopathy: Quantitative Evaluation
Fu, Ying ; Shi, Yun-Fei ; Yan, Kun ; Wang, Yan-Jie ; Yang, Wei ; Feng, Guo-Shuang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5487~5492
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5487
Ultrasonography is non-invasive and can give useful clues in the diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy, However, differential diagnosis is difficult in some situations even combined with color Doppler imaging. The present study was conducted to evaluate the clinical value of real time elastography in patients with unexplained cervical lymphadenopathy using a quantitative method. From May 2011 to February 2012, 39 enlarged lymph nodes from 39 patients with unexplained cervical lymphadenopathy were assessed. All the patients were examined by both B-mode ultrasound, color Doppler flow imaging and elastography. The method of analyzing elasto-graphic data was the calculation of the 10 parametres ("mean", "sd", "area%", "com", "kur", "ske", "con", "ent", "idm", "asm") offered by the software integrated into the Hitachi system. The findings were then correlated with the definitive tissue diagnosis obtained by lymph node dissection or biopsy. Final histology revealed 10 cases of metastatic lymph nodes, 11 cases of lymphoma, 12 cases of tuberculosis and 6 cases of nonspecific lymphadenitis. The significant distinguishing features for conventional ultrasound were the maximum short diameter (p=0.007) and absent of echogenic hilum (p=0.0293). The diagnostic accuracy was 43.6% (17/39 cases) and there were 17 patients with equivocal diagnosis. For elastography, "mean" (p=0.003), "area%" (p=0.009), "kurt" (p=0.0291), "skew" (p=0.014) and "cont" (p=0.012) demonstrated significant differences between groups. With 9 of the 17 patients with previous equivocal diagnoses (52.9%) definite and correct diagnoses could be obtained. The diagnostic accuracy for conventional ultrasound combined elastography was 69.2% (27/39 cases). There were differences in the diagnostic sensitivity of the two methods (p=0.0224). Ultrasound combined with elastography demonstrated higher rates of conclusive and accurate diagnoses in patients with unexplained cervical lymphadenopathy than conventional ultrasound. The quantitative program showed good correlation with the pathology of different lymph node diseases.
Efficacy of Taxane-Based Regimens in a First-line Setting for Recurrent and/or Metastatic Chinese Patients with Esophageal Cancer
Jiang, Chang ; Liao, Fang-Xin ; Rong, Yu-Ming ; Yang, Qiong ; Yin, Chen-Xi ; He, Wen-Zhuo ; Cai, Xiu-Yu ; Guo, Gui-Fang ; Qiu, Hui-Juan ; Chen, Xu-Xian ; Zhang, Bei ; Xia, Liang-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5493~5498
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5493
Objective: To compare the efficacy of taxane-based regimens in the first line setting retrospectively in Chinese patients with recurrent and/or metastatic esophageal cancer. Methods: We analyzed 102 recurrent and/or metastatic esophageal cancer patients who received taxanes-based regimens in a first-line setting from January 2009 to December 2013. Sixteen (15.7%) patients were administered Nab-PTX based chemotherapy and 86 patients (84.3%) received paclitaxel (PTX) or docetaxel (DTX) based chemotherapy. Patients in the PTX/DTX group could be further divided into TP (71 patients) and TPF (15 patients) groups. Results: The objective response rate (ORR) of all patients was 20.6%, and the disease control rate (DCR) was 67.6%. The median overall survival (OS) was 10.5 months (95% CI 10.1-16.4) and the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 6.04 months (95% CI 5.09-7.91). The DCR was higher in the TPF group than the TP group (93.3% vs. 59.1%; p = 0.015 ). There were no significant differences in ORR, OS, and PFS among Nab-PTX, TPF and TP groups. Conclusions: The three regimens of Nab-PTX based, TP and TPF proved active in a first line setting of Chinese patients with recurrent and/or metastatic esophageal cancer, and should thus be regarded as alternative treatments.
Coaxing Cancer Pro-Apoptoticity: An Approach Blending Therapeutic miRNAs and Dietary Phytochemicals
Vijayarathna, Soundararajan ; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 13, 2014, Pages 5499~5500
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5499