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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 22 - Dec 2014
Volume 15, Issue 21 - Nov 2014
Volume 15, Issue 20 - Nov 2014
Volume 15, Issue 19 - Oct 2014
Volume 15, Issue 18 - Oct 2014
Volume 15, Issue 17 - Sep 2014
Volume 15, Issue 16 - Aug 2014
Volume 15, Issue 15 - Aug 2014
Volume 15, Issue 14 - Jul 2014
Volume 15, Issue 13 - Jul 2014
Volume 15, Issue 12 - Jun 2014
Volume 15, Issue 11 - Jun 2014
Volume 15, Issue 10 - May 2014
Volume 15, Issue 9 - May 2014
Volume 15, Issue 8 - Apr 2014
Volume 15, Issue 7 - Apr 2014
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Mar 2014
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Mar 2014
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Feb 2014
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Feb 2014
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jan 2014
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
MicroRNAs: Biogenesis, Roles for Carcinogenesis and as Potential Biomarkers for Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis
Kavitha, Nowroji ; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan ; Jothy, Subramanion Lachumy ; Oon, Chern Ein ; Chen, Yeng ; Kanwar, Jagat Rakesh ; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7489~7497
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7489
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs of 20-24 nucleotides that play important roles in carcinogenesis. Accordingly, miRNAs control numerous cancer-relevant biological events such as cell proliferation, cell cycle control, metabolism and apoptosis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge and concepts concerning the biogenesis of miRNAs, miRNA roles in cancer and their potential as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis including the regulation of key cancer-related pathways, such as cell cycle control and miRNA dysregulation. Moreover, microRNA molecules are already receiving the attention of world researchers as therapeutic targets and agents. Therefore, in-depth knowledge of microRNAs has the potential not only to identify their roles in cancer, but also to exploit them as potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and identify therapeutic targets for new drug discovery.
Health and Economic Costs of Physical Inactivity
Kruk, Joanna ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7499~7503
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7499
Physical inactivity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries and is being recognized as a serious public health problem. Recent evidence shows a high percentages of individuals worldwide who are physically inactive, i.e. do not achieve the WHO's present recommendation of 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous intensity per week in addition to usual activities. Living in sedentary lifestyle is one of the leading causes of deaths and a high risk factor for several chronic diseases, like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes type 2, and osteoporosis. This article summarizes evidence for relative risk of the civilization diseases attributable to physical inactivity and the most important conclusions available from the recent investigations computing the economic costs specific to physical inactivity. The findings provide health and economic arguments needed for people to understand the meaning of a sedentary lifestyle. This may be also useful for public health policy in the creation of programmes for prevention of physical inactivity.
Multiple Effects of Bracken Fern under in vivo and in vitro Conditions
Tourchi-Roudsari, Motahhareh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7505~7513
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7505
Several toxic substances have been detected in plants which are responsible for animal and human diseases. Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is one example, widely distributed in many parts of the world. It is known to cause cancer in humans and other animals. In fact, man can be directly or indirectly exposed to the danger by consuming fern, contaminated water, milk, meat, and spore inhalation. Experimental studies have shown an association between bracken exposure and gastric cancer, and research has shown genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in vitro. This paper describes and reviews toxic, carcinogenic, genotoxic/cytotoxic, and immunomodulatory effects of bracken and included possible toxic agents. The chemistry of Ptaquiloside (PT) reactions is emphasized, along with bracken problems in livestock, possible pathways of exposure in man, and control for human health.
Adiponectin Receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) rs1342387 Polymorphism and Risk of Cancer: a Meta-analysis
Yu, Li-Xiang ; Zhou, Nan-Nan ; Liu, Li-Yuan ; Wang, Fei ; Ma, Zhong-Bing ; Li, Jie ; Yu, Zhi-Gang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7515~7520
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7515
Many studies have indicated possible associations between a polymorphism of adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) rs1342387 and risk of cancer, but contradictory results have been reported. The main aim of this study was to draw a reliable conclusion about the relationship between the rs1342387 polymorphism and cancer incidence, by conducting a literature search of Pubmed, Embase, Wanfang and Cochrane libraries. Eleven studies including 3, 738 cases and 4, 748 controls were identified in this meta-analysis. The ADIPOR1 rs1342387 polymorphism was associated with risk of colorectal cancer for all genetic comparison models (GG vs AA, OR: 1.44, 95%CI: 1.21-1.70; G carriers vs A carriers, OR: 1.23, 95%CI: 1.11-1.36; dominant model, OR: 1.28, 95%CI: 1.10-1.49 and recessive model, OR: 1.31, 95%CI: 1.12-1.55). Stratified by ethnicity, the rs1342387 polymorphism was significantly associated with risk of colorectal cancer in Asian ancestry for all genetic comparison models (GG vs AA, OR: 1.56, 95%CI: 1.26-1.92; G carriers vs. A carriers OR: 1.30, 95%CI: 1.18-1.43; dominant model OR: 1.31, 95%CI: 1.08-1.60 and recessive model OR: 1.44, 95%CI: 1.26-1.64), but not in Caucasian or mixed (Caucasian mainly) groups. In summary, the ADIPOR1 rs1342387 polymorphism is significantly associated with risk of colorectal cancer among individuals of Asian ancestry.
Amentoflavone Acts as a Radioprotector for Irradiated v79 Cells by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Cell Cycle and Mitochondrial Mass
Xu, Ping ; Jiang, En-Jin ; Wen, Si-Yuan ; Lu, Dan-Dan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7521~7526
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7521
Radioprotective effects of amentoflavone were investigated by examining cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycling concentrations of intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species), and relative mitochondrial mass by flow cytometry after
irradiation. Pretreatment with amentoflavone 24 hours prior to 8 Gy
-ray irradiation significantly inhibited apoptosis, promoted the G2 phase, decreased the concentration of ROS and mitochondrial mass. These results collectively indicate that amentoflavone is an effective radioprotective agent.
Anticancer Potential of an Ethanol Extract of Saussurea Involucrata against Hepatic Cancer Cells in vitro
Byambaragchaa, Munkhzaya ; Cruz, Joseph Dela ; Kh, Altantsetseg ; Hwang, Seong-Gu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7527~7532
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7527
Saussurea involucrata is a Mongolian medicinal plant well known for its effects in promoting blood circulation, and anti-inflammation and analgesic functions. Earlier studies reported that Saussurea involucrata has anticancer activity. The purpose of this study was to confirm the anticancer activity of an ethanol extract of Saussurea involucrata against hepatic cancer and elucidate its mechanisms of action. Hepatocellular carcinoma cells were tested in vitro for cytotoxicity, AO/EB staining for apoptotic cells, apoptotic DNA fragmentation and cell cycle distribution in response to Saussurea involucrata extract (SIE). The mRNA expression of caspase-3,-9 and Cdk2 and protein expression of caspase-3,-9, PARP, XIAP, Cdk2 and p21 were analyzed through real time PCR and Western blotting. Treatment with SIE inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation dose- and time-dependently, but SIE only exerted a modest cytotoxic effect on a viability of Chang human liver cells. Cells exposed to SIE showed typical hallmarks of apoptotic cell death. Cell cycle analysis revealed that SIE caused G1-phase arrest in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, Saussurea involucrata ethanol extract has potential cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Its mechanism of action might be associated with the inhibition of DNA synthesis, cell cycle (G1) arrest and apoptosis induction through up-regulation of the protein expressions of caspase-3,-9 a nd p21, degradation of PARP and down-regulation of the protein expression of Cdk2 and XIAP.
Breast Cancer in Bedouin-Arab Patients in Southern Israel: Epidemiologic and Biologic Features in Comparison with Jewish Patients
Lazarev, Irina ; Flaschner, Maayan ; Geffen, David B. ; Ariad, Samuel ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7533~7537
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7533
Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent cancer type, and the leading cause of death from cancer among women in Israel. The Bedouin-Arab (BA) population in southern Israel is characterized by a high rate of consanguinity, common hereditary disorders, and transition from a semi-nomadic, traditional society to a more sedentary and urbanized society. In this hospital-based study, the demographic and the clinicopathological characteristics of BC in BA were compared with Jewish patients. Materials and Methods: 85 BA patients treated at the Soroka Medical Center, Beer Sheba, during the years 2004-2012, were studied and compared with 180 consecutive Jewish patients treated during the year 2007. Clinicopathological features compared included age, menopausal state, number of births, a history of BC in first-degree relatives, tumor size (T), extent of lymph-node involvement (N), distant metastases (M), stage, grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR), and Her2 status. Types of treatment, relapse rate and site, as well as outcome were also studied. Cox's regression models were applied for studying disease-free, and overall survival. Results: Compared with Jewish patients, BA patients were younger (average age
, p<0.001), had a lower rate of BC in first-degree relatives (p<0.001), and a larger number of births (
, p<0.001). BA patients had larger tumors (p=0.02), more extensive lymph-node involvement (p=0.002), and more advanced stage (p=0.003). Grade, ER, PR, and Her2 status were similar in the two ethnic groups. Relapse type was most commonly systemic in BA patients (p=0.05), and loco-regional in Jewish patients (p=0.02). Median survival was 63, and 35 months for Jewish and BA patients, respectively (log-rank test, p=0.02). In Cox multivariate analysis, stage and PR status (HR-0.14, p<0.0001; HR-3.11, p=0.046), but not ethnicity, influenced overall survival. Conclusions: BC presents a decade earlier, and with more advanced disease in BA compared with Jewish patients. Biologic parameters including grade, ER, PR, and Her2 status were similar in both groups. Although prognosis was worse in BA than in Jewish patients, it was affected only by stage and PR status, but not by ethnicity.
Exercise Barriers in Korean Colorectal Cancer Patients
Kang, Dong-Woo ; Chung, Jae Youn ; Lee, Mi Kyung ; Lee, Junga ; Park, Ji-Hye ; Kim, Dong-Il ; Jones, Lee W. ; Ahn, Joong Bae ; Kim, Nam Kyu ; Jeon, Justin Y. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7539~7545
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7539
Background: It has been proved that participating in exercise improves colorectal cancer patients' prognosis. This study is to identify barriers to exercise in Korean colorectal cancer patients and survivors. Materials and Methods: A total of 427 colorectal cancer patients and survivors from different stages and medical status completed a self-administered questionnaire that surveyed their barriers to exercise and exercise participation. Results: The greatest perceived exercise barriers for the sampled population as a whole were fatigue, low level of physical fitness, and poor health. Those under 60-years old reported lack of time (p=0.008), whereas those over 60 reported low level of physical fitness (p=0.014) as greater exercise barriers than their counterparts. Women reported fatigue as a greater barrier than men (p<0.001). Those who were receiving treatment rated poor health (p=0.0005) and cancer-related factors as greater exercise barriers compared to those who were not receiving treatment. A multivariate model found that other demographic and medical status were not potential factors that may affect exercise participation. Further, for those who were not participating in physical activity, tendency to be physically inactive (p<0.001) and lack of exercise skill (p<0.001) were highly significant barriers, compared to those who were participating in physical activity. Also, for those who were not meeting ACSM guidelines, cancer-related exercise barriers were additionally reported (p<0.001), compared to those who were. Conclusions: Our study suggests that fatigue, low level of physical fitness, and poor health are most reported exercise barriers for Korean colorectal cancer survivors and there are differences in exercise barriers by age, sex, treatment status, and physical activity level. Therefore, support for cancer patients should be provided considering these variables to increase exercise participation.
Evolution of the Mir-155 Family and Possible Targets in Cancers and the Immune System
Xie, Guang-Bing ; Liu, Wei-Jia ; Pan, Zhi-Jun ; Cheng, Tian-Yin ; Luo, Chao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7547~7552
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7547
The mir-155 family is not only involved in a diversity of cancers, but also as a regulator of the immune system. However, the evolutionary history of this family is still unclear. The present study indicates that mir-155 evolved independently with lineage-specific gain of miRNAs. In addition, arm switching has occurred in the mir-155 family, and alternative splicing could produce two different lengths of ancestral sequences, implying the alternative splicing can also drive evolution for intragenic miRNAs. Here we screened validated target genes and immunity-related proteins, followed by analyzation of the mir-155 family function by high-throughput methods like the gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Eneyclopedin of Genes and Genemes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. The high-throughput analysis showed that the CCND1 and EGFR genes were outstanding in being significantly enriched, and the target genes cebpb and VCAM1 and the protein SMAD2 were also vital in mir-155-related immune reponse activities. Therefore, we conclude that the mir-155 family is highly conserved in evolution, and CCND1 and EGFR genes might be potential targets of mir-155 with regard to progress of cancers, while the cebpb and VCAM1 genes and the protein SMAD2 might be key factors in the mir-155 regulated immune activities.
Overexpression of Hiwi Promotes Growth of Human Breast Cancer Cells
Wang, Da-Wei ; Wang, Zhao-Hui ; Wang, Ling-Ling ; Song, Yang ; Zhang, Gui-Zhen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7553~7558
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7553
The Piwi subfamily comprises two argonaute (Ago) family proteins, which are defined by the presence of PAZ and Piwi domains, with well known roles in RNA silencing. Hiwi, a human Piwi subfamily member, has been shown to play essential roles in stem cell self-renewal and gametogenesis. Recently, accumulating reports have indicated that abnormal hiwi expression is associated with poorer prognosis of multiple types of human cancers, including examples in the breast. However, little is known about details of the oncogenic role of hiwi in breast cancers. In present study, we confirmed overexpression of hiwi in breast cancer specimens and breast cancer cell lines at both mRNA and protein levels. Thus both RT-qPCR and Western blot data revealed significantly higher hiwi in intratumor than peritumor specimens, overexpression being associated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis and histological grade. Hiwi overexpression was also identified in breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, and gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies were adopted to identify the role of hiwi in the MCF-7 cell growth. Results demonstrated that hiwi expression in MCF-7 cells was significantly up- or down-regulated by the two strategies. We next evaluated the influence of hiwi overexpression or knockdown on the growth of breast cancer cells. Both cell count and colony formation assays confirmed promoting roles of hiwi in MCF-7 cells, which could be inhibited by hiwi specific blockage by siRNAs. In summary, the present study confirmed overexpression of hiwi in breast cancer specimens and breast cancer cell lines, and provided e vidence of promotion by hiwi of cell growth. The results imply an oncogenic role of hiwi in breast cancers.
Number of Mediastinal Lymph Nodes as a Prognostic Factor in PN2 Non Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Single Centre Experience and Review of the Literature
Takanen, Silvia ; Bangrazi, Caterina ; Graziano, Vanessa ; Parisi, Alessandro ; Resuli, Blerina ; Simione, Luca ; Caiazzo, Rossella ; Raffetto, Nicola ; Tombolini, Vincenzo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7559~7562
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7559
Currently the most important prognostic factor in lung cancer is the stage. In the current lung TNM classification system, N category is defined exclusively by anatomic nodal location though, in other type of tumours, number of lymph nodes is confirmed to be a fundamental prognostic factor. Therefore we evaluated the number of mediastinal lymph nodes as a prognostic factor in locally advanced NSCLC after multimodality treatment, observing a significant effect of the number of lymph nodes in terms of OS (p<0.01) and DFS (p<0.001): patients with a low number of positive mediastinal nodes have a better prognosis.
Comparison of Viral Hepatitis-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma Due to HBV and HCV - Cohort from Liver Clinics in Pakistan
Munaf, Alvina ; Memon, Muhammad Sadik ; Kumar, Prem ; Ahmed, Sultan ; Kumar, Maheshwari Bhunesh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7563~7567
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7563
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the first cause of death in cirrhotic patients, mostly due to viral hepatitis with HCV or HBV infection. This study was performed to estimate the true prevalence of viral hepatitis-related HCC and the demographic and clinical-pathological associations with the two virus types. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional observational study enrolled clinical data base of 188 HCC patients and variables included from baseline were age, sex, area of residence, clinical-pathological features such as underlying co-morbidity, presence or absence of liver cirrhosis, macrovascular involvement, tumor extension and metastasis, liver lobes involved, serum alpha-fetoprotein level, and hepatitis serologies. Results: Overall prevalence of HCV- and HBV-related HCC was 66.0% and 34.0%, respectively. Patients with HCV were more likely to develop HCC at advanced age (
years), with highly raised serum AFP levels (
) 78.2% (HBV 67.1%), large tumor size (HCV-66% >5 cm, HBV-59.3%), and presence of portal vein thrombosis (8.06%, HBV 1.56%). A binominal multivariate analysis showed that HCV-HCC group were more likely to be cirrhotic (OR=0.245, 95%CI: 0.117, 0.516) and had more than two times higher rate of solitary macrovascular involvement (OR=2.533, 95%CI: 1.162, 5.521) as compared with HBV associated HCC. Conclusions: Statistically significant variations were observed from baseline to clinical-pathological characteristics in HCV vs HBV associated HCC. Our study suggests prompt and early screening for high risk patients so that the rate of progression of these chronic viral diseases to cirrhosis and cancer can be decreased.
Female Breast Cancer Mortality Rates in Turkey
Dogan, Nurhan ; Toprak, Dilek ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7569~7573
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7569
The main objective of this study was to analyze the mortality trends of female breast cancer in Turkey between the years 1987-2008. The rates per 100,000 age-standardized to the European standard population were assessed and time trends presented using joinpoint regression analysis. Average annual percent change (AAPC), anual percent change (APC) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Nearly 23,000 breast cancer deaths occurred in Turkey during the period 1987-2008, with the average annual age-standardized mortality rate (ASR) being 11.9 per 100,000 women. In the last five years, significant increases were observed in all age groups, but there was no significant change over the age of 65. In this period, the biggest significant increase was in the 45-54 age group (AAPC=4.3, 95%CI=2.6 to 6.0).
Five miRNAs as Novel Diagnostic Biomarker Candidates for Primary Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Tang, Jin-Feng ; Yu, Zhong-Hua ; Liu, Tie ; Lin, Zi-Ying ; Wang, Ya-Hong ; Yang, La-Wei ; He, Hui-Juan ; Cao, Jun ; Huang, Hai-Li ; Liu, Gang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7575~7581
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7575
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in the development and progression of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). Despite advances in the field of cancer molecular biology and biomarker discovery, the development of clinically validated biomarkers for primary NPC has remained elusive. In this study, we investigated the expression and clinical significance of miRNAs as novel primary NPC diagnostic biomarkers. We used an array containing 2, 500 miRNAs to identify 22 significant miRNAs, and these candidate miRNAs were validated using 67 fresh NPC and 25 normal control tissues via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Expression and correlation analyses were performed with various statistical approaches, in addition to logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses to evaluate diagnostic efficacy. qRT-PCR revealed five differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-93-5p, miR-135b-5p, miR-205-5p and miR-183-5p) in NPC tissue samples relative to control samples (p<0.05), with miR-135b-5p and miR-205-5p being of significant diagnostic value (p<0.01). Moreover, comparison of NPC patient clinicopathologic data revealed a negative correlation between miR-93-5p and miR-183-5p expression levels and lymph node status (p<0.05). These findings display an altered expression of many miRNAs in NPC tissues, thus providing information pertinent to pathophysiological and diagnostic research. Ultimately, miR-135b-5p and miR-205-5p may be implicated as novel NPC candidate biomarkers, while miR-93-5p, miR-650 and miR-183-5p may find application as relevant clinical pathology and diagnostic candidate biomarkers.
Detection of MicroRNA-21 Expression as a Potential Screening Biomarker for Colorectal Cancer: a Meta-analysis
Jiang, Jian-Xin ; Zhang, Na ; Liu, Zhong-Min ; Wang, Yan-Ying ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7583~7588
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7583
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer-related death and cancer-related incidence worldwide. The potential of microRNA-21 (miR-21) as a biomarker for CRC detection has been studied in several studies. However, the results were inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted the present meta-analysis to systematically assess the diagnostic value of miR-21 for CRC. Materials and Methods: Using a random-effect model, the pooled sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were calculated to evaluate the diagnostic performance of miR-21 for CRC. A summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve and an area under the curve (AUC) were also generated to assess the diagnosis accuracy of miR-21 for CRC. Q test and I2 statistics were used to assess between-study heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated by the Deeks' funnel plot asymmetry test. Results: A total of 986 CRC patients and 702 matched healthy controls from 8 studies were involved in the meta-analysis. The pooled results for SEN, SPE, PLR, NLR, DOR, and AUC were 57% (95%CI: 39%-74%), 87% (95%CI: 78%-93%), 4.4 (95%CI: 2.4-8.0), 0.49 (95%CI: 0.32-0.74), 9 (95%CI: 4-22), and 0.83 (95%CI: 0.79-0.86), respectively. Subgroup analyses further suggested that blood-based studies showed a better diagnostic accuracy compared with feces-based studies, indicating that blood may be a better matrix for miR-21 assay and CRC detection. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that miR-21 has a potential diagnostic value for CRC with a moderate level of overall diagnostic accuracy. Hence, it could be used as auxiliary means for the initial screening of CRC and avoid unnecessary colonoscopy, which is an invasive and expensive procedure.
Germline Variations of Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1 (APEX1) Detected in Female Breast Cancer Patients
Ali, Kashif ; Mahjabeen, Ishrat ; Sabir, Maimoona ; Baig, Ruqia Mehmood ; Zafeer, Maryam ; Faheem, Muhammad ; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7589~7595
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7589
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APEX1) is a multifunctional protein which plays a central role in the BER pathway. APEX1 gene being highly polymorphic in cancer patients and has been indicated to have a contributive role in Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site accumulation in DNA and consequently an increased risk of cancer development. In this case-control study, all exons of the APEX1 gene and its exon/intron boundaries were amplified in 530 breast cancer patients and 395 matched healthy controls and then analyzed by single-stranded conformational polymorphism followed by sequencing. Sequence analysis revealed fourteen heterozygous mutations, seven 5'UTR, one 3'UTR, two intronic and four missense. Among identified mutations one 5'UTR (rs41561214), one 3'UTR (rs17112002) and one missense mutation (Ser129Arg, Mahjabeen et al., 2013) had already been reported while the remaining eleven mutations. Six novel mutations (g.20923366T>G, g.20923435G>A, g.20923462G>A, g.20923516G>A, 20923539G>A, g.20923529C>T) were observed in 5'UTR region, two (g.20923585T>G, g.20923589T>G) in intron1 and three missense (Glu101Lys, Ala121Pro, Ser123Trp) in exon 4. Frequencues of 5'UTR mutations; g.20923366T>G, g.20923435G>A and 3'UTR (rs17112002) were calculated as 0.13, 0.1 and 0.1 respectively. Whereas, the frequency of missense mutations Glu101Lys, Ser123Trp and Ser129Arg was calculated as 0.05. A significant association was observed between APEX1 mutations and increased breast cancer by ~9 fold (OR=8.68, 95%CI=2.64 to 28.5) with g.20923435G>A (5'UTR), ~13 fold (OR= 12.6, 95%CI=3.01 to 53.0) with g.20923539G>A (5'UTR) and~5 fold increase with three missense mutations [Glu101Lys (OR=4.82, 95%CI=1.97 to 11.80), Ser123Trp (OR=4.62, 95%CI=1.7 to 12.19), Ser129Arg (OR=4.86, 95%CI=1.43 to 16.53)]. The incidence of observed mutations was found higher in patients with family history and with early menopause. In conclusion, our study demonstrates a significant association between germ line APEX1 mutations and breast cancer patients in the Pakistani population.
Evaluation of HER-2/neu Overexpression in Gastric Carcinoma using a Tissue Microarray
Rakhshani, Nasser ; Kalantari, Elham ; Bakhti, Hadi ; Sohrabi, Masoud Reza ; Mehrazma, Mitra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7597~7602
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7597
Background: Amplification and overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) oncogene has considerable prognostic value in breast and gastric cancers. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency, overexpression pattern, clinical significance, and concordance between the results for protein expression and gene amplification of HER-2/neu in gastric and gastro-esophageal junction carcinomas. Materials and Methods: In this study, 101 gastric tissue samples which were included in tissue microarray were immunohistochemically examined for overexpression of HER2/neu. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) was used for HER-2/neu amplification. The correlation of HER2/neu amplification with clinicopathological parameters was also assessed. In addition, concordance between CISH and IHC was detected. Results: This study demonstrated a significant difference in the overexpression of HER2/neu in gastric tumors. The overexpression of HER2/neu was significantly higher in intestinal type, poorly differentiated grade, large size (
) and positive nodal involvement tumors (p-value=0.041, 0.015, 0.038 and 0.071, respectively). Also, amplification of HER2/neu according to CISH test, had a significant positive correlation with tumor size and tumor type (p-value=0.018 and 0.058, respectively).Concordance between CISH and IHC was 76.9% in 101 evaluable samples. Conclusions: IHC/CISH differences were attributed to basolateral membranous immunoreactivity of glandular cells resulting in incomplete membranous reactivity and/or a higher rate of tumor heterogeneity in gastric cancers compared to breast cancers. Therefore, this can be a potential marker for targeted therapy of malignant gastric tumors.
Prognostic Significance of Altered Blood and Tissue Glutathione Levels in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cases
Khan, Sami Ullah ; Mahjabeen, Ishrat ; Malik, Faraz Arshad ; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7603~7609
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7603
Glutathione is a thiol compound that plays an important role in the antioxidant defense system of the cell and its deficiency leads to an increased susceptibility to oxidative stress and, thus, progression of many disease states including head and neck cancer. In the present study, alterations of glutathione levels were investigated in study cohort of 500 samples (cohort 1 containing 200 head and neck cancer blood samples along with 200 healthy controls and cohort II with 50 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tissue samples along with 50 control tissues) by high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that mean blood glutathione levels were significantly reduced in head and neck cancer patients (p<0.001) compared to respective controls. In contrast, the levels of glutathione total (p<0.05) and glutathione reduced (p<0.05) were significantly elevated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tissues compared to the adjacent cancer-free control tissues. In addition to this, pearson correlation performed to correlate different tissue glutathione levels (GSH) with clinical/pathological parameters demonstrated a significant negative correlation between pT-stage and GSH level (
; p<0.01), C-stage and GSH level (
; p<0.01), grade and GSH (
; p<0.01) and grade versus redox index (
; p<0.01) in HNSCC tissues. Our study suggests that dysregulation of glutathione levels in head and neck cancer has the potential to predict metastasis, and may serve as a prognostic marker.
Preparation of 5-fluorouracil-loaded Nanoparticles and Study of Interaction with Gastric Cancer Cells
Fan, Yu-Ling ; Fan, Bing-Yu ; Li, Qiang ; Di, Hai-Xiao ; Meng, Xiang-Yu ; Ling, Na ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7611~7615
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7611
Aims: To prepare 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) nanoparticles with higher encapsulation efficiency and drug loading, and then investigate interaction with the SGC-7901 gastric cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: Prescription was optimized by orthogonal experiments, the encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity were tested by high-performance liquid chromatography, and inhibition of proliferation by 5-Fu nanoparticles and 5-Fu given to cells for 24, 48 and 72 hours was investigated by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay (MTT). In addition, 5-Fu nanoparticles were labeled by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), and absorption into cells was tested by flow cytometry. Results: The optimal conditions for preparation were concentrations of 5-Fu of 5mg/ml, of
of 60 mg/ml and of chitosan of 2 mg/ml. With a stirring speed of 1200rpm, encapsulation efficiency of 5-Fu nanoparticles was
and loading capacity was
; gastric cancer cells were significantly inhibited by 5-Fu nanoparticles in a time and concentration dependent manner, and compared to 5-Fu with slower drug release, in a certain concentration range, inhibition with 5-Fu nanoparticles was stronger. 5-Fu nanoparticles were absorbed by the cells in line with the concentration. Conclusions: 5-Fu nanoparticles can inhibit growth of gastric cancer cells in vitro to a greater extent than with 5-Fu with good adsorption characteristics, supporting feasibility as a carrier.
Mechanism of Fatty Acid Synthase in Drug Tolerance Related to Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition of Breast Cancer
Li, Jun-Qin ; Xue, Hui ; Zhou, Lan ; Dong, Li-Hua ; Wei, Da-Peng ; Li, Hua ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7617~7623
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7617
Objective: The mechanism of action of fatty acid synthase (FASN) in drug tolerance of breast cancer cells with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) features was investigated. Methods: The breast cancer cell line MCF-7-MEK5 with stably occurring EMT and tumour necrosis factor-
) tolerance was used as the experimental model, whereas MCF-7 acted as the control. Tumour cells were implanted into nude mice for in vivo analysis, and cerulenin was used as a FASN inhibitor. RT-PCR, real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot were employed to detect the expression of FASN, TNFR-1, TNFR-2, Wnt-1,
-catenin and cytC at the RNA and protein levels. Results: Compared with MCF-7, TNFR-1 expression in MCF-7-MEK5 was slightly changed, TNFR-2 was decreased, and FASN, Wnt-1,
-catenin and cytC were increased. The expression of Wnt-1 and
-catenin in MCF-7-MEK5 decreased after cerulenin treatment, whereas cytC expression increased. Conclusions: The important function of FASN in the drug tolerance of breast cancer may be due to the following mechanisms: FASN downregulated TNFR-2 expression through lipid rafts to make the cells less sensitive to TNF-
, and simultaneously activated the Wnt-
-catenin signalling pathway. Thus, cytC expression increased, which provided cells with anti-apoptotic capacity and induced drug tolerance.
A Bibliometric Analysis of Diets and Breast Cancer Research
Kotepui, Manas ; Wannaiampikul, Sivaporn ; Chupeerach, Chaowanee ; Duangmano, Suwit ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7625~7628
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7625
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. The primary aim of this work was to provide an in-depth evaluation of research publications in the field of diets and breast cancer. The impact of economic outcome on national academic productivity was also investigated. Data were retrieved using Pubmed for English-language publications. The search included all research for which articles included words relating to "diets and breast cancer". Population and national income data were obtained from publicly available databases. Impact factors for journals were obtained from Journal Citation Reports
(Thomson Scientific). There were 2,396 publications from 60 countries in 384 journals with an impact factor. Among them, 1,652 (68.94%) publications were Original articles. The United States had the highest quantity (51% of total) and highest of mean impact factor (8.852) for publication. Sweden had the highest productivity of publication when adjusted for number of population (6 publications per million population). Publications from the Asian nation increased from 5.3% in 2006 to 14.6% in 2012. The Original article type was also associated with geography (p<0.001; OR=2.183; 95%CI=1.526-3.123), Asian countries produced more proportion of Original articles (82%) than those of rest of the world (67.6%). Diets and breast cancer-associated research output continues to increase annually worldwide including publications from Asian countries. Although the United States produced the most publications, European nations per capita were higher in publication output.
Psychological Problems and Psychosocial Predictors of Cigarette Smoking Behavior among Undergraduate Students in Malaysia
Saravanan, Coumaravelou ; Heidhy, Imran ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7629~7634
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7629
Background: Cigarette smokers have their own motivation and justification to smoke. For example, smoking reduces their stress or enhances their pleasure. This study aimed to identify the (a) prevalence of cigarette smokers among undergraduates in Malaysia, (b) gender differences in nicotine dependence among current smokers, (c) differences in psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) based on the status of smoking cigarettes (current, former and non-smokers) and (d) extent to which precipitating factors (tension reduction, addiction, automatism, handling, social interaction, pleasure, and stimulation) predict the smoking behavior among current smokers. Materials and Methods: In this study 780 undergraduate students participated from a private university in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor state in Malaysia. The Depression, Stress and Anxiety Scale, Modified Reason for Smoking Scale and Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test were used to measure psychological problems, predictors of smoking behavior and nicotine dependency among current smokers. Results: The results showed that 14.7%(n=106) of the students were smokers. Current smokers exhibited more psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) compared to former and non-smokers. Addiction, tension reduction, pleasure and automatism were predictors of smoking behavior among the current smoking students. Step wise regression analysis showed that smoking behavior was highly predicted by nicotine dependency or addiction. Smoking students were motivated to smoke cigarettes as they believed that it reduced their tension and enhance pleasure. Conclusions: Hence, there is a need for health promotion and anti-tobacco prevention as cigarette smokers experience more psychological problems. Nicotine dependency or addition was one of the major causes for smoking behavior among the student population in Malaysia.
Screening of Precancerous Gastric Lesions by Serum Pepsinogen, Gastrin-17, Anti-Helicobacter Pylori and Anti-Caga Antibodies in Dyspeptic Patients over 50 years Old in Guilan Province, North of Iran
Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz ; Joukar, Farahnaz ; Rajpout, Yaghoub ; Hasandokht, Tolou ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7635~7638
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7635
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the value of serum gastric markers to differentiate between patients with precancerous lesions and nonatrophic chronic gastritis. Materials and Methods: Serum samples of 128 patients with dyspepsia who were candidates for endoscopic examination were tested for pepsinogen (PG I and PG II), PG I/II ratio, gastrin 17(G-17), anti-Helicobacter pylori (anti-H pylori ) and anti-CagA antibodies. Two sample t-tests, chi-square tests and Pearson's correlation analyses were used for analysis using SPSS (version 20). Results: PGI, PG I/II ratio values were decreased significantly in the precancerous lesion group (0.05, 0.001 respectively). The frequency of H pylori infection was significantly (p=0.03) different between the two groups ofthe study. Conclusions: We suggest PGI and the PG I/II ratio as valuable markers for screening of premalignant gastric lesions.
Associations of ERCC4 rs1800067 Polymorphism with Cancer Risk: an Updated Meta-analysis
Yuan, Quan ; Liu, Jing-Wei ; Xing, Cheng-Zhong ; Yuan, Yuan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7639~7644
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7639
Background: Results from previous studies concerning the association of ERCC4 rs1800067 polymorphism with risk of cancer were inconsistent. To explore the exact relation with susceptibility, we conducted the present meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Literature of electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Wanfang and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were systematically searched. ORs and their 95%CIs were used to assess the strength of associations between ERCC4 polymorphism and cancer risk. Results: There was no significant association between ERCC4 rs1800067 AA or AG genotypes and overall risk of cancer (AA vs. GG: OR=0.998, 95%CI=0.670-1.486, P=0.992; AG vs. GG: OR=0.970, 95%CI=0.888-1.061, P=0.508). A dominant genetic model also did not demonstrate significant association of (AA+AG) genotype carriers with altered risk of overall cancer (OR=0.985, 95%CI=0.909-1.068, P=0.719). In addition, no significant association was observed between A allele of ERCC4 rs1800067 A/G polymorphism and altered cancer risk compared with G allele (OR=0.952, 95%CI=0.851-1.063, P=0.381). Subgroup analysis suggested that AA genotype carriers were significantly associated with decreased risk of glioma compared with wild-type GG genotype individuals (OR=0.523, 95%CI=0.275-0.993, P=0.048). For subgroup of lung cancer, A allele of ERCC4 rs1800067 A/G polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased risk of lung cancer compared with G allele (OR=0.806, 95%CI=0.697-0.931, P=0.003). Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicated that ERCC4 rs1800067 A/G polymorphism might not be associated with risk of overall cancer. However, individuals with the AA genotype were associated with significantly reduced risk of glioma compared with wild-type GG genotype; The A allele was associated with significantly reduced risk of lung cancer compared with G allele. Future large-scale studies performed in multiple populations are warranted to confirm our results.
Regulatory Network Analysis of MicroRNAs and Genes in Neuroblastoma
Wang, Li ; Che, Xiang-Jiu ; Wang, Ning ; Li, Jie ; Zhu, Ming-Hui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7645~7652
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7645
Neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extracranial solid tumor, accounts for 10% of childhood cancer. To date, scientists have gained quite a lot of knowledge about microRNAs (miRNAs) and their genes in NB. Discovering inner regulation networks, however, still presents problems. Our study was focused on determining differentially-expressed miRNAs, their target genes and transcription factors (TFs) which exert profound influence on the pathogenesis of NB. Here we constructed three regulatory networks: differentially-expressed, related and global. We compared and analyzed the differences between the three networks to distinguish key pathways and significant nodes. Certain pathways demonstrated specific features. The differentially-expressed network consists of already identified differentially-expressed genes, miRNAs and their host genes. With this network, we can clearly see how pathways of differentially expressed genes, differentially expressed miRNAs and TFs affect on the progression of NB. MYCN, for example, which is a mutated gene of NB, is targeted by hsa-miR-29a and hsa-miR-34a, and regulates another eight differentially-expressed miRNAs that target genes VEGFA, BCL2, REL2 and so on. Further related genes and miRNAs were obtained to construct the related network and it was observed that a miRNA and its target gene exhibit special features. Hsa-miR-34a, for example, targets gene MYC, which regulates hsa-miR-34a in turn. This forms a self-adaption association. TFs like MYC and PTEN having six types of adjacent nodes and other classes of TFs investigated really can help to demonstrate that TFs affect pathways through expressions of significant miRNAs involved in the pathogenesis of NB. The present study providing comprehensive data partially reveals the mechanism of NB and should facilitate future studies to gain more significant and related data results for NB.
Quality of Life and Psychological Well-Being of Colorectal Cancer Survivors in Jordan
Abu-Helalah, Munir Ahmad ; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad ; Al-Hanaqta, Motasem Mohammad ; Arqoub, Kamal Hasan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7653~7664
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7653
Background: Colorectal ranked first among cancers reported in males and ranked second amongst females in Jordan, accounting for 12.7% and 10.5% of cancers in males and females, respectively. Colorectal cancer patients can suffer several consequences after treatment that include pain and fatigue, constipation, stoma complications, sexual problems, appearance and body-image concerns as well as psychological dysfunction. There is no published quantitative data on the health-related quality of life and psychological wellbeing of Jordanian colorectal cancer survivors. Method: This project was a cross-sectional study of colorectal cancer survivors diagnosed in 2009 and 2010. Assessment was performed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), the colorectal cancer specific module (EORTC QLQ-CR 29) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data on potential predictors of scores were also collected. Results: A total of 241 subjects completed the study with mean age of
. Males represented 52.3% of study participants. A majority of participants reported good to high overall health; the mean Global health score was
with only 6.64% of study participants scoring less than 33.3%. The striking result in this study was that none of the study participants participated in a psychosocial support group; only 4 of them (1.7%) were even offered such support. The mean scores for HADS, depression score, and anxiety score were
, respectively. However, 77.1% of study participants were within the normal category for the depression score and 81.7% were within this category for anxiety score; 5.4% of participants had severe anxiety and 5.4% of them had severe depression. Discussion: Patients with colorectal cancer in Jordan have a good quality of life and psychological wellbeing scores when compared with patients from western countries. None of the colorectal cancer patients managed at the Ministry of Health received any formal counselling, or participated in psychological or social support programmes. This highlights the urgent need for a psychosocial support programme, psychological screening and consultations for patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer at the Ministry of Health Hospitals.
Body Mass Index Effects on Risk of Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis
Poorolajal, Jalal ; Jenabi, Ensiyeh ; Masoumi, Seyyedeh Zahra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7665~7671
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7665
Objectives: The association between body mass index (BMI) and ovarian cancer risk is unclear and requires further investigation. The present meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect of overweight and obesity on ovarian cancer risk in the premenopausal and postmenopausal periods. Data sources: Major electronic databases were searched until February 2014 including Medline and Scopus. Reference lists and relevant conference databases were searched and the authors were contacted for additional unpublished references. Review Methods: All cohort and case-control studies addressing the effect of BMI on ovarian cancer were included, irrespective of publication date and language. The effect measure of choice was risk ratio (RR) for cohort studies and odds ratio (OR) for case-control studies. The results were reported using a random effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Of 3,776 retrieved studies, 19 were ultimately analyzed including 10 cohort studies involving 29,237,219 person-years and 9 case-control studies involving 96,965 people. The results of both cohort and case-control studies showed being overweight and obesity increased the risk of ovarian cancer compared to women with normal weight during both premenopausal and postmenopausal periods: RR=1.08 (95%CI: 0.97, 1.19) and OR=1.26 (95%CI: 0.97, 1.63) for overweight and RR=1.27 (95%CI: 1.16, 1.38) and OR=1.26 (95%CI: 1.06, 1.50) for obesity. Conclusions: There is sufficient evidence that an increase in BMI can increase the risk of ovarian cancer regardless of the menopausal status, mimicking a dose-response relationship although the association is not very strong.
Histopathological Profile of Benign Colorectal Diseases in Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia
Albasri, Abdulkader Mohammed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7673~7677
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7673
Background: Patients with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Colon cancer risk in IBD increases with longer duration and greater anatomic extent of colitis, the presence of primary sclerosing cholangitis, family history of CRC and degree of inflammation of the bowel. This study aimed to characterize the histopathological pattern of benign colorectal diseases among Saudi patients and to highlight age and gender variations of lesions as base line data for future studies to investigate the link between benign/IBD and colorectal cancers in the local population. Materials and Methods: The materials consisted of 684 biopsies, reported as benign (excluding malignancies and polyps) at the Department of Pathology, King Fahad Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia from January 2006 to December 2013. Data collected and entered in MS-Excel and were analyzed using SPSS-20. Results: Of 684 colorectal tissues reviewed, 408 specimens (59.6%) were from male patients and 276 specimens (40.4%) were from females giving a male: female ratio of 1.5:1. Age of the patients ranged from 4 to 75 years with a mean of 39.6 years. The most frequent histologic diagnosis was a chronic non specific proctocolitis followed by ulcerative colitis, accounting respectively for 52.6% and 31.7% of all cases. These were followed by Crohn's disease 22 (3.2%), ischemic bowel disease 20 (2.9%), diverticular disease 14 (2%), eosinophilic colitis 12 (1.7%) and solitary rectal ulcer 12 (1.7%). A minority of 21 patients (3.1%) were cases of acute nonspecific proctocolitis, schistosomiasis, tuberculosis, volvulus and pseudomembranous colitis. Conclusions: These data show that although chronic non specific proctocolitis and ulcerative colitis were the dominant diagnoses, Crohn's disease, ischemic bowel disease and diverticular disease also existed to a lesser extent and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of benign colorectal diseases. This study provides a base line data for future studies which would be taken up to investigate the link between benign/IBD and colorectal cancers in the local population.
Hong Kong Chinese Women's Lay Beliefs about Cervical Cancer Causation and Prevention
Wang, Linda Dong-Ling ; Lam, Wendy Wing Tak ; Wu, Joseph ; Fielding, Richard ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7679~7686
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7679
Background: This study aimed to seek insights into Chinese women's lay beliefs about cervical cancer causal attributions and prevention. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three new immigrant adult women from Mainland China and thirty-five Hong Kong adult women underwent semi-structured in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed and analyzed using a Grounded Theory approach. Results: This study generated three foci: causal beliefs about cervical cancer, perceived risk of cervical cancer, and beliefs about cervical cancer prevention. Personal risky practices, contaminated food and environment pollution were perceived as the primary causes of cervical cancer. New immigrant women more likely attributed cervical cancer to external factors. Most participants perceived cervical cancer as an important common fatal female cancer with increased risk/prevalence. Many participants, particularly new immigrant women participants, expressed helplessness about cervical cancer prevention due to lack of knowledge of prevention, it being perceived as beyond individual control. Many new immigrant participants had never undergone regular cervical screening while almost all Hong Kong participants had done so. Conclusions: Some Chinese women hold pessimistic beliefs about cervical cancer prevention with inadequate knowledge about risk factors. Future cervical cancer prevention programs should provide more information and include capacity building to increase Chinese women's knowledge and self-efficacy towards cervical cancer prevention.
A Novel All-trans Retinoid Acid Derivative N-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-Retinamide Inhibits Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cell Migration through Down-regulating Expression of Myosin Light Chain Kinase
Fan, Ting-Ting ; Cheng, Ying ; Wang, Yin-Feng ; Gui, Shu-Yu ; Chen, Fei-Hu ; Zhou, Qing ; Wang, Yuan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7687~7692
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7687
Aim: To observe the effects of a novel all-trans retinoid acid (ATRA) derivative, N-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-retinamide (ATPR), on lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and to explore the potential mechanism of ATPR inhibiting of A549 cell migration. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxicity of ATRA and ATPR on A549 cells was assessed using MTT assay. Wound healing assays were used to analyze the influences of ATRA, ATPR, ML-7 (a highly selective inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)), PMA (an activator of MAPKs) and PD98059 (a selective inhibitor of ERK1/2) on the migration of A549 cells. Expression of MLCK and phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) were assessed by Western blotting. Results: ATRA and ATPR inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and the effect of ATPR was much more remarkable compared with ATRA. Relative migration rate and migration distance of A549 cells both decreased significantly after treatment with ATPR or ML-7. The effect on cell migration of PD98059 combining ATPR treatment was more notable than that of ATPR alone. Moreover, compared with control groups, the expression levels of MLCK and phosphorylated MLC in A549 cells were both clearly reduced in ATRA and ATPR groups. Conclusions: ATPR could suppress the migration and invasion of A549 cells, and the mechanism might be concerned with down-regulating the expression of MLCK in the ERK-MAPK signaling pathway, pointing to therapeutic prospects in lung cancer.
Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Barriers Towards HPV Vaccination among Nurses in Turkey: a Longitudinal Study
Yanikkerem, Emre ; Koker, Gokcen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7693~7702
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7693
Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV) occurs in women of all age groups, and causes cervical, anal, vaginal, vulvar, penile and oropharyngeal cancers. The aim of the study was to discover what nurses know about HPV infection, testing and vaccination and to determine vaccine practice of their daughters and perceived barriers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional and prospective study was carried out nurses who have worked in a hospital between January and June 2014. Pre-test and post-test were used to evaluate the nurses' knowledge about HPV infection, testing and vaccination. This study was performed with nurses who had girls between 9 and 26 years of age for evaluating the behavior of vaccination after three months of education. Results: The mean of pre-test and post-test scores about HPV infection, which included 22 items, were
, respectively. Before education the HPV testing knowledge score was remarkably poor (
over 5), after education it increased to
. The mean HPV vaccine knowledge score were
(post-test) on a 0-8 scale. The difference between mean total pre-test (
) and post-test (
) scores was statistically significant (p<0.001). After three months of education, only two of the nurses' daughters were vaccinated. The main reason was noted by nurses were not willing to be vaccinated was cost, doubts about safety and efficacy related to the vaccine. About one-third of nurses declared that they would receive the vaccine for their daughter later. Conclusions: Nurses have a crucial role in the prevention, treatment, increasing public awareness and care for population. The education of the nurses about HPV infection, test and vaccination will play an important part decreasing cancer mortality and morbidity.
Are So-Called Cancer-Testis Genes Expressed Only in Testis?
Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh ; Rezazadeh, Fatemeh ; Zare-Abdollahi, Davood ; Omrani, Mir Davood ; Movafagh, Abolfazl ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7703~7705
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7703
Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are a group of tumor-associated antigens with restricted expression in normal tissues except for testis and expression in a wide variety of tumor tissues. This pattern of expression makes them suitable targets for immunotherapy as well as potential biomarkers for early detection of cancer. However, some genes attributed to this family are now known to be expressed in other normal tissues which put their potential applications in immunotherapy and cancer detection under question. Here we analyzed expression of two previously known CT antigens, RHOXF2 and PIWIL2, in AML patients versus normal donors and found no significant difference in the expression of these genes between the two groups. As these two genes showed expression in normal leukocytes, their expression pattern seems to be wider than to be attributed to the CT gene family. Future research should focus on the expression profiles of so called CT antigens to find those with more testis specific expression.
Impact of Poster Presentations on Academic Knowledge Transfer from the Oncologist Perspective in Turkey
Arslan, Deniz ; Koca, Timur ; Tastekin, Didem ; Basaran, Hamit ; Bozcuk, Hakan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7707~7711
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7707
Background: Currently poster presentations offer a common visual medium for knowledge transfer by a wide range of health professionals. Our study aimed to determine the scientific importance of poster presentations for Medical and Radiation Oncologists. Methods: A survey form including 40 questions was distributed to a total of 131 oncologists experienced in poster presentations. One hundred completed survey forms were included in the study. Descriptive statistics and modified thematic analyses were performed on the responses. Results: Overall 64% of the participants agreed that posters were a good medium for knowledge transfer. Some 88% agreed that concise and clear styled presentations would increase appealing interests for poster contents. Visual appearance was cited more influential than content of the subject; 70% of participants agreed that appearances of posters could help to draw more viewer attention. Of respondents, 63% believed that posters accompanied by their author were more attractive for congress attendees, and 33% of them declared that the halo effect of the poster presenter was also important. Conclusion: The present study indicated that intelligibility, appearance and visuality of posters are most important factors from the aspect of oncologist participants. Presenters must take into account these important points when preparing their academic posters.
Impact of Caspase-8 (CASP8) -652 6N Del and D302H Polymorphisms on Prostate Cancer in Different Ethnic Groups
Zhang, Cheng-Dong ; Li, Hong-Tao ; Liu, Kun ; Lin, Zhi-Di ; Peng, Qi-Liu ; Qin, Xue ; He, Min ; Wu, Hua ; Mo, Zeng-Nan ; Yang, Xiao-Li ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7713~7718
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7713
Background: Despite evidence suggesting roles for caspase-8 (CASP8) -652 6N del and D302H polymorphisms in prostate cancer (PCa), the association of these polymorphisms with PCa risk remains inconclusive. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to more precisely estimate the association of CASP8 -652 6N del and D302H polymorphisms with PCa susceptibility. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all case-control studies of CASP8 D302H and -652 6N del polymorphisms and PCa risk. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association and the precision of the estimate, respectively. Results: Nine -625 6N del studies and 4 D302H studies were included. CASP8 -652 6N del and D302H polymorphisms were not significantly associated with PCa risk in the overall analyses. However, in the subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity, -625 6N del was significantly associated with PCa risk in the East Asian and Indian populations under the recessive model. Furthermore, the subgroup analysis strongly suggested that D302H was associated with lower PCa risk in the Non-Indian population under the dominant model. Conclusions: In our meta-analysis, ethnic-specific differences were evident in the association of CASP8-625 6N del and D302H polymorphisms with PCa risk.
Combination of FDG PET/CT and Contrast-Enhanced MSCT in Detecting Lymph Node Metastasis of Esophageal Cancer
Tan, Ru ; Yao, Shu-Zhan ; Huang, Zhao-Qin ; Li, Jun ; Li, Xin ; Tan, Hai-Hua ; Liu, Qing-Wei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7719~7724
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7719
Background: Lymph node metastasis is believed to be a dependent negative prognostic factor of esophageal cancer. To explore detection methods with high sensitivity and accuracy for metastases to regional and distant lymph nodes in the clinic is of great significance. This study focused on clinical application of FDG PET/CT and contrast-enhanced multiple-slice helical computed tomography (MSCT) in lymph node staging of esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifteen cases were examined with enhanced 64-slice-MSCT scan, and FDG PET/CT imaging was conducted for neck, chest and upper abdomen within one week. The primary lesion, location and numbers of metastatic lymph nodes were observed. Surgery was performed within one week after FDG PET/CT detection. All resected lesions were confirmed histopathologically as the gold standard. Comparative analysis of the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy based on FDG PET/CT and MSCT was conducted. Results: There were 946 lymph node groups resected during surgery from 115 patients, and 221 were confirmed to have metastasis pathologically. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of FDG PET/CT in detecting lymph node metastasis were 74.7%, 97.2% and 92.0%, while with MSCT they were 64.7%, 96.4%, and 89.0%, respectively. A significance difference was observed in sensitivity (p=0.030), but not the others (p>0.05). The accuracy of FDG PET/CT in detecting regional lymph node with or without metastasis were 91.9%, as compared to 89.4% for MSCT, while FDG PET/CT and MSCT values for detecting distant lymph node with or without metastasis were 94.4% and 94.7%. No significant difference was observed for either regional or distant lymph node metastasis. Additionally, for detecting para-esophageal lymph nodes metastasis, the sensitivity of FDG PET/CT was 72%, compared with 54.7% for MSCT (p=0.029). Conclusions: FDG PET/CT is more sensitive than MSCT in detecting lymph node metastasis, especially for para-esophageal lymph nodes in esophageal cancer cases, although no significant difference was observed between FDG PET/CT and MSCT in detecting both regional and distant lymph node metastasis. However, enhanced MSCT was found to be of great value in distinguishing false negative metastatic lymph nodes from FDG PET/CT. The combination of FDG PET/CT with MSCT should improve the accuracy in lymph node metastasis staging of esophageal cancer.
Hepatitis C Virus Prevalence and Genotyping among Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients in Baghdad
Al-Kubaisy, Waqar Abd Al Qahar ; Obaid, Kadhim Jawad ; Noor, Nor Aini Mohd ; Ibrahim, Nik Shamsidah Binti Nik ; Al-Azawi, Ahmed Albu-Kareem ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7725~7730
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7725
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause for cancer death in the world, now being especially linked to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This case-control study consisting of 65 HCC patients and 82 patients with other malignant tumours as controls was conducted to determine the association of HCV markers with HCC. Serum of each participant was obtained for detection of HCV Ab and RNA by DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA). Twenty six per cent (26.0%) of HCC patients had positive anti-HCV which was significantly greater than the control group (p=0.001). HCC patients significantly have a risk of exposure to HCV infection almost 3 times than the control group (OR=2.87, 95% C.I=1.1-7). Anti-HCV seropositive rate was significantly (p=0.03) higher among old age HCC patients and increases with age. Males with HCC significantly showed to have more than 9 times risk of exposure to HCV infection (OR=9.375, 95 % CI=1.299-67.647) than females. HCV-RNA seropositive rate was (70.8%) significantly higher among HCC patients compared to (22.2%) the control group (p=0.019). The most prevalent genotype (as a single or mixed pattern of infection) was HCV-1b. This study detected a significantly higher HCV seropositive rate of antibodies and RNA in HCC patients.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Germ-Line C677T and A1298C SNPs are Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk in the Turkish Population
Ozen, Filiz ; Sen, Metin ; Ozdemir, Ozturk ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7731~7735
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7731
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of death due to cancer in the worldwide and the incidence is also increasing in Turkey. Our present aim was to investigate any association between germ-line methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and CRC risk in Turkey. A total of 86 CRC cases and 212 control individuals of the same ethnicity were included in the current study. Peripheral blood-DNA samples were used for genotyping by StripAssay technique, based on the reverse-hybridization principle and real-time PCR methods. Results were compared in Pearson Chi-square and multiple logistic regression models. The MTHFR 677TT (homozygous) genotype was found in 20.9% and the T allele frequency 4.2-fold increased in CRC when compared with the control group.The second SNP MTHFR 1298CC (homozygous) genotype was found in 14.0% and the C allele frequency 1.4-fold elevated in the CRC group. The current data suggest strong associations between both SNPs of germ-line MTHFR 677 C>T and 1298 A>C genotypes and CRC susceptibility in the Turkish population. Now the results need to be confirmed with a larger sample size.
The Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio has a High Negative Predictive Value for Pathologic Complete Response in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy
Eryilmaz, Melek Karakurt ; Mutlu, Hasan ; Salim, Derya Kivrak ; Musri, Fatma Yalcin ; Tural, Deniz ; Coskun, Hasan Senol ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7737~7740
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7737
Background: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a strong predictor of mortality in patients with pancreatic, colorectal, lung, gastric cancer and renal cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between pathological complete response (pCR) and pretreatment NLR values in locally advanced breast cancer (BC) patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Materials and Methods: Datawere collected retrospectively from the Akdeniz University School of Medicine Database for locally advanced BC patients treated with NACT between January 2000-December 2013. Results: A total of 78 patients were analyzed. Sixteen (20%) patients achieved pCR. Estrogen receptor (ER) positivity was lower in pCR+ than pCR-cases (p=0.011). The median NLR values were similar in both arms. The optimum NLR cut-off point for BC patients with PCR+ was 2.33 (AUC:0.544, 95%CI [0.401-0.688], p=0.586) with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value (NPV) of 50%, 51,6%, 21,1%, and 80%, respectively. Conclusions: This study showed no relationship between the pCR and pretreatment NLR values. Because of a considerable high NPV, in the patients with higher NLR who had luminal type BC in which pCR is lower after NACT, such treatment may not be recommended.
GSTM1 Polymorphisms and Lung Cancer Risk in the Chinese Population: a Meta-Analysis Based on 47 Studies
Chen, Xin-Ping ; Xu, Wei-Hua ; Xu, Da-Feng ; Xie, Xian-He ; Yao, Jia ; Fu, Sheng-Miao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7741~7746
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7741
Although a number of studies have been conducted on the association between GSTM1 polymorphisms and lung cancer in China, this association remains elusive and controversial. To clarify the effects of GSTM1 polymorphisms on the risk of lung cancer, a meta-analysis was performed in the Chinese population. Related studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) up to 5th April 2014. A total of 45 articles (47 studies) including 6,623 cases and 7,865 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Overall, a significant association (OR = 1.45, 95%CI: 1.32-1.60) was found between the null GSTM1 and lung cancer risk when all studies in Chinese population pooled into the meta-analysis. In subgroup analyses stratified by quality score, geographic area and source of controls, the same results were observed under all the models. This meta-analysis showed that the null GSTM1 may be a potential biomarker for lung cancer risk in Chinese, but further studies with gene-gene and gene-environment interactions are required for definite conclusions.
Synergistic Anti-tumor Effect of KLF4 and Curcumin in Human Gastric Carcinoma Cell Line
Ji, Jun ; Wang, He-Shuang ; Gao, Yan-Yan ; Sang, Li-Min ; Zhang, Li ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7747~7752
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7747
ppel-like factor 4 is a transcription factor which plays an important role in development and progression of various carcinomas. Curcumin characterized by excellent anti-cancer properties is regarded as a serviceable natural compound used in carcinoma therapy. This study aimed at exploring the impact of KLF4 overexpression in cooperation with curcumin on the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of human gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cells. Flow cytometry analysis, CCK-8 assays, transwell assays and Western blot results showed that KLF4 overexpression combined with curcumin had significant anti-proliferation, pro-apoptosis and anti-invasion effects on BGC-823 cells. We also found that KLF4 had synergistic effects with curcumin, better promoting apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation and invasion of gastric carcinona cells. These results indicate that KLF4 could be used as a potential therapeutic target; curcumin could act as an auxiliary and provide a promising therapeutic strategy in stomach cancer.
Trends in Incidence of Head and Neck Cancer in the Northern Territory, Australia, between 2007 and 2010
Jayaraj, Rama ; Singh, Jagtar ; Baxi, Siddhartha ; Ramamoorthi, Ramya ; Thomas, Mahiban ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7753~7756
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7753
Incidence trends of head and neck cancer (HNC) have implications for screening strategies, disease management, guiding health policy making, and are needed to further oral cancer research. This paper aims to describe trends in age-adjusted HNC incidence rates focusing on changes across calendar period between 2007 and 2010 in Australian Northern Territory. Age-adjusted incidence rates of HNC were calculated for 2007-2010 using Northern Territory population based data assembled by Department of Health, Northern Territory Government of Australia. Changes in the HNC rate ratio (RR) and Estimated Annual Percentage Change (EAPC) between 2007-2008, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 were calculated. A total of 171 HNC patients were recorded by the Northern Territory Department of Health during the time period between 2007 and 2010, out of which, 135 were males (78.9% of male HNC patients) and 36 were females (21.1% of female HNC patients). In conclusion, HNC incidence rate has decreased in the Northern Territory Australian males but remains unchanged in Australian females. High incidences of HNC may be associated with the high smoking rate and high alcohol consumption in the Northern Territory. Continued monitoring of trends in HNC incidence rates is crucial to inform Northern Territory based cancer prevention strategies.
Long Term Outcomes of Laser Conization for High Grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in Thai Women
Wongtiraporn, Weerasak ; Laiwejpithaya, Somsak ; Sangkarat, Suthi ; Benjapibal, Mongkol ; Rattanachaiyanont, Manee ; Ruengkhachorn, Irene ; Chaopotong, Pattama ; Laiwejpithaya, Sujera ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7757~7761
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7757
Aim: To report long term outcomes of laser conization for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in Thai women. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in patients undergoing laser conization due to abnormal cervical cytology suggesting neoplasia during 1989 to 1994 and having follow-up data until December 2010. Conization was performed under colposcopy using a 0.5-mm
laser beam with power density of
, and the surgical base was vaporized using a low power defocused beam. The follow-up protocol included cervical cytology and colposcopy. Long term outcome measures were failure rate (persistence and recurrence), post-conization status of transformation zone, and obstetric outcomes. Results: Of 104 patients undergoing conization, 71 had therapeutic conization for high grade CIN and were followed up for a median time of 115 (range 12-260) months. There was one case of persistent and one of recurrent disease comprising a failure rate of 2.8%. The post treatment transformation zone was well visualized in 68.3% of 63 patients with an intact uterus. Sixteen patients achieved 25 pregnancies; none had second trimester miscarriage. The obstetric outcomes were unremarkable. Conclusions: Laser conization under colposcopic visualization for the treatment of high grade CIN in Thai women has a low failure rate of 2.8%. The post-conization transformation zone could not be evaluated completely in approximately 30% of cases; therefore the follow-up protocol should include both cytology and colposcopy. Obstetric outcomes are not adversely affected by this therapeutic procedure.
Association of Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms with Gastritis in a Kazakh Population
Kulmambetova, Gulmira Nigmetzhanovna ; Imanbekova, Meruert Kuatbekovna ; Logvinenko, Andrey Alexeevich ; Sukashev, Adilbek Temirzhanovich ; Filipenko, Maxim Leonidovich ; Ramanсulov, Erlan Mirhaidarovich ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7763~7768
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7763
Background: Gastritis and gastric cancer are the most common diseases in the Kazakh population. Polymorphisms in genes coding of cytokines have been played important role with gastric disease risk. The risk alleles of cytokines in patients with gastritis can predict the risk of developing gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate cytokine gene polymorphisms as risk factors for the development of gastritis in a case-control study with gastritis patients and healthy individuals from the Kazakh ethnic group, living in North Kazakhstan. Materials and Methods: The polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequencing were used for detection of two functional polymorphisms in the IL1 gene family, and TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay Sets were applied for three potentially functional polymorphisms in the IL10 gene, and one in the TNFA promoter. Results: Association analysis of studied allelic variants and the development of gastritis in H. pylori-positive patients showed that IL1B -31C/C, IL1B -511T/T and IL1RN -2/2 allelic variants were associated with development of gastritis (OR=1.8 (1.07-3.16), p=0.025; OR=1.7 (1.04-2.99), p=0.035, and OR=4.92 (2.45-9.85), p<0.001) respectively. Haplotype C-Т that combines both homozygous allelic variants of IL1B gene also had a statistically significant association with slightly higher OR (OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.08-1.88). Conclusions: The data from the current study showed that the genotype IL-1B -511Т/-31C-IL1-RN-2 and H. pylori infection increase risk of gastritis in the Kazakh population. That genotype combination might be a factor increasing the risk of developing gastric cancer.
AIDS-Related Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: Imaging Feature Analysis of 27 Cases and Correlation with Pathologic Findings
Yang, Jun ; Wang, Peng ; Lv, Zhi-Bin ; Wei, Lian-Gui ; Xu, Yun-Liang ; Zhou, An ; Xu, Dong-Hai ; Ma, Da-Qing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7769~7773
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7769
Background: Some tumor types are related to HIV, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The morbidity and mortality of NHL has remained high, even after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was introduced. We collected cases of AIDS with NHL, and evaluated the imaging features and strategies for diagnosis. Materials and Methods: There were 27 patients with AIDS and tumors confirmed by pathology. There were 9 patients with Burkitt lymphoma, 16 with diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs), and 2 with primary central nervous system (PCNS) lymphomas. All of the patients underwent a series of imaging studies. Three radiologists analyzed the images, and any disagreement was discussed until consensus was reached. Results: The radiologic manifestations of AIDS with NHL were mainly masses and lymphadenopathy, 3 patients having one mass and 12 two or more masses. 7 patients had lymphadenopathy in one site and 3patients had lymphadenopathy in two or more sites. Coarse mucosal folds, thickening of the gastrointestinal wall, and lumen narrowing were typical manifestations of NHL within the gastrointestinal tract. There were 4 patients with masses and 5 with lymphadenopathy inthe 9 with Burkitt lymphoma, and 11 patients with masses 5 with lymphadenopathy in the 16 with DLBCLs. Conclusion: NHL is a malignancy that usually occurs in patients with AIDS. Imaging is an important method by which to evaluate lesions, masses, and lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy and stereotaxis biopsy are useful methods by which to diagnose NHL.
Cancer Prediction Based on Radical Basis Function Neural Network with Particle Swarm Optimization
Yan, Xiao-Bo ; Xiong, Wei-Qing ; Hu, Liang ; Zhao, Kuo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7775~7780
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7775
This paper addresses cancer prediction based on radial basis function neural network optimized by particle swarm optimization. Today, cancer hazard to people is increasing, and it is often difficult to cure cancer. The occurrence of cancer can be predicted by the method of the computer so that people can take timely and effective measures to prevent the occurrence of cancer. In this paper, the occurrence of cancer is predicted by the means of Radial Basis Function Neural Network Optimized by Particle Swarm Optimization. The neural network parameters to be optimized include the weight vector between network hidden layer and output layer, and the threshold of output layer neurons. The experimental data were obtained from the Wisconsin breast cancer database. A total of 12 experiments were done by setting 12 different sets of experimental result reliability. The findings show that the method can improve the accuracy, reliability and stability of cancer prediction greatly and effectively.
Red Cell Distribution Width as a Predictor of Prostate Cancer Progression
Albayrak, Sebahattin ; Zengin, Kursad ; Tanik, Serhat ; Bakirtas, Hasan ; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim ; Gurdal, Mesut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7781~7784
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7781
Background: The aims of this study were to investigate the utility of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) as a simple and readily available marker in prostate cancer, as well as to evaluate RDW as a predictor of progression in prostate cancer patients. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 62 newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy and 62 healthy controls of mean age 64 (range, 45-75) years at the Urology Clinic of Bozok University Hospital. Data collection was performed using our laboratory information system database to retrieve findings regarding RDW, hemoglobin, prostatespecific antigen (PSA), and age. The RDW values were compared between the healthy control group and prostate cancer patients. A high risk of progression as defined as a Gleason score (GS) >6, total number of cores positive for cancer >33%, each core containing >50% cancer cells, and a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level >10 ng/mL. Patients were classified according to risk of progression, as well as divided into subgroups according to the RDW quartile. Results: The mean RDW value of prostate cancer patients was 14.6, compared with 13.7 in the healthy control group (p=0.001). A higher RDW was associated with an increased risk of progression, whereas a lower RDW value was correlated with a low risk of progression. Conclusions: RDW is an easily derived measure that might, in combination with other markers, help predict prostate cancer risk and progression. We suggest that RDW may be used in combination with other parameters in the assessment of prostate cancer.
Biological Screening of Novel Derivatives of Valproic Acid for Anticancer and Antiangiogenic Properties
Farooq, Muhammad ; El-Faham, Ayman ; Khattab, Sherine N. ; Elkayal, Ahmed M. ; Ibrahim, Mahmoud F. ; Taha, Nael Abu ; Baabbad, Almohannad ; Wadaan, Mohammad A.M. ; Hamed, Ezaat A. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7785~7792
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7785
Background: Valproic acid (VPA) is a potent anticancer and antiangiogenic agent. However, design and synthesis of chemical derivatives with improved antiangiogenic and anticancer activities are still necessary. In this study a library of novel derivatives of VPA was synthesized and tested. Methods: A human liver cancer cell line (HepG2) and a human normal embryonic kidney cell line (HEK 293) were exposed to various concentrations of VPA derivatives for 24 hours and cell viability was checked by MTT colorimetric assay. Anti-angiogenic properties were evaluated in transgenic zebrafish embryos. Results: N-valproylglycine derivatives suppressed survival almost 70% (p value 0.001) in HepG2 cells but only 10-12% in HEK 293 cells (p value 0.133). They also suppressed angiogenic blood vessel formation by 80% when used between
in zebrafish embryos. Valproic acid hydrazides showed moderate level of anticancer activity by affecting 30-50% (p value 0.001) of cell viability in HepG2 cells and 8-10% in HEK293 cells (p value 0.034). Conclusion: The majority of compounds in this study showed potent and stronger antiangiogenic and anticancer activity than VPA. They proved selectively toxic to cancer cells and safer for normal cells. Moreover, these compounds inhibited developmental angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos. Based on the fact that liver is a highly vascularized organ, in case of liver carcinoma these compounds have the potential to target the pathological angiogenesis and could be an effective strategy to treat hepatocellular carcinoma.
Role of a Risk of Malignancy Index in Clinical Approaches to Adnexal Masses
Simsek, Hakki Sencer ; Tokmak, Aytekin ; Ozgu, Emre ; Doganay, Melike ; Danisman, Nuri ; Erkaya, Salim ; Gungor, Tayfun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7793~7797
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7793
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate predictive role of risk of malignancy index in discriminating between benign and malignant adnexal masses preoperatively. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted with a total of 569 patients with adnexal masses/ovarian cysts managed surgically at our clinic between January 2006 and January 2012. Obtained data from patient files were age, gravidity, parity, menopause status, ultrasound findings and CA125 levels. For all patients ultrasound scans were performed. For the assessment of risk of malignancy index (RMI) Jacobs' model was used. Histopathologic results of all patients were recorded postoperatively. Malignancy status of the surgically removed adnexal mass was the gold standard. Results: Of the total masses, 245 (43.1%) were malignant, 316 (55.5%) were benign and 8 (1.4%) were borderline. The mean age of benign cases was lower than malign cases (
, p<0.001). Four hundred and five of them (71.2%) were in premenopausal period. Malignant tumors were more frequent in postmenopausal women (81% versus 29%, p<0.001). All ultrasound parameters of RMI were statistically significantly favorable for malignant masses. In our study ROC curve analysis for RMI provided maximum Youden index at level of 163.85. When we based on cutoff level for RMI as 163.85 sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV was calculated 74.7%, 96.2%, 94% and 82.6%, respectively. Conclusions: RMI was found to be a significant marker in preoperative evaluation and management of patients with an adnexal mass, and was useful for referring patients to tertiary care centers. Although utilization of RMI provides increased diagnostic accuracy in preoperative evaluation of patient with an adnexal mass, new diagnostic tools with higher sensitivity and specificity are needed to discriminate ovarian cancer from benign masses.
Loss of Imprinting of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 is Associated with Increased Risk of Primary Lung Cancer in the Central China Region
Zhang, Ming ; Wu, Cui-Huan ; Zhu, Xiao-Ling ; Wang, You-Jie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7799~7803
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7799
Background: To determine the imprinting status of the IGF2 in Chinese patients with primary lung cancer and to analyze the clinical significance of the loss of imprinting (LOI) of IGF2. Materials and Methods: PCRRFLP and RT-PCR-RFLP were carried out to select heterozygous cases for the ApaI polymorphism within exon 9 of the IGF2 gene and further analyze IGF2 LOI in 64 lung cancer patients, respectively. Results: Of 64 lung cancer patients, 31 were heterozygous for IGF2. The positive rates of IGF2 LOI of lung cancer foci, matched paracancer tissues, and normal lung tissues were 77.4% (24/31), 61.3% (19/31), and 29.0% (9/31), respectively. The LOI differences for IGF2 among the three groups were statistically significant (
, p=0.000), and the LOI frequency of IGF2 in normal lung tissue was significantly lower than that in lung cancer foci and paracancer tissues (
, p=0.011). No statistical difference was observed between the lung tumor group and the matched paracancer group (
, p=0.168). The prevalence of advanced clinical stages (
; p=0.017) and lymph node metastasis (
; p=0.018) was significantly higher for LOI-positive paracancer tissues than for LOI-negative paracancer tissues. Conclusions: IGF2 LOI is highly frequent in Chinese primary lung cancer patients, especially those with increased risk of lymph node metastasis and advanced clinical stages. IGF2 LOI may be an early epigenetic event in human lung carcinogenesis.
Clinical Efficacy and Prognostic Factors of Chemoreduction Combined with Topical Treatment for Advanced Intraocular Retinoblastoma
Liu, Yan ; Zhang, Xi ; Liu, Fang ; Wang, Ke-Lei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7805~7809
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7805
Objective: To explore the clinical efficacy and prognostic factors of chemoreduction combined with topical treatment of advanced intraocular retinoblastoma (RB). Materials and Methods: A total of 22 eyes from 17 children with RB were selected for the study and treated with chemoreduction combined with topical cryotherapy, transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) or episcleral plaque brachytherapy. Clinical and follow-up data were retrospectively analyzed. Results: All children received 2~6 courses of chemoreduction treatment, (
courses on average); 17 eyes from 13 children were treated by chemoreduction combined with cryotherapy or TTT and 5 eyes from 4 children with chemoreduction combined with
episcleral plaque brachytherapy. The eye retention rate was 81.8% (18/22), among which 38.9% (7/18) featured restored or maintained good vision. Postoperative follow-up period was 7 to 34 months, (
months on average). The recurrence rate was 41.2% (7/17), among which 57.1% (4/7) were controlled by supplementing or appending cryotherapy or TTT treatment during the follow-up period. The tumor basal diameter and thickness were significantly reduced (P<0.05 or P<0.01) after treatment. All children demonstrated different degrees of hair loss, 70.6% (12/17) with different degrees of gastrointestinal reactions, 5.88% (1/17) with neutropenia and 11.8% (2/17) being seriously infected during the chemotherapeutic treatment. Univariate and logistic regression analysis showed that tumor basal diameter before treatment had a significant effect on the prognosis (P<0.01). Conclusions: Chemoreduction combined with topical therapy can effectively control RB in the short term, and tumor basal diameter before treatment is an independent risk factor for prognosis.
Comparison of Linear Accelerator and Helical Tomotherapy Plans for Glioblastoma Multiforme Patients
Koca, Timur ; Basaran, Hamit ; Sezen, Duygu ; Karaca, Sibel ; Ors, Yasemin ; Arslan, Deniz ; Aydin, Aysen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7811~7816
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7811
Background: Despite advances in radiotherapy, overall survival of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients is still poor. Moreover dosimetrical analyses with these newer treatment methods are insufficient. The current study is aimed to compare intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) linear accelerator (linac) and helical tomotherapy (HT) treatment plans for patients with prognostic aggressive brain tumors. Material and Methods: A total of 20 GBM patient plans were prospectively evaluated in both linac and HT planning systems. Plans are compared with respect to homogenity index, conformity index and organs at risk (OAR) sparing effects of the treatments. Results: Both treatment plans provided good results that can be applied to GBM patients but it was concluded that if the critical organs with relatively lower dose constraints are closer to the target region, HT for radiotherapeutical application could be preferred. Conclusion: Tomotherapy plans were superior to linear accelerator plans from the aspect of OAR sparing with slightly broader low dose ranges over the healthy tissues. In case a clinic has both of these IMRT systems, employment of HT is recommended based on the observed results and future re-irradiation strategies must be considered.
Overview of Childhood Cancers at a Regional Cancer Centre in North-East India
Hazarika, Munlima ; Krishnatreya, Manigreeva ; Bhuyan, Cidananda ; Saikia, Bhargab Jyoti ; Kataki, Amal Chandra ; Nandy, Pintu ; Hazarika, Monalisha ; Roy, Partha Sarathi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7817~7819
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7817
Childhood cancers are relatively uncommon in comparison to adult cancers. There is no literature available to shed light on clinic-pathological types and patterns of care for childhood cancers in our population in North-East India. In this analysis we therefore tried to determine the common childhood cancers diagnosed in our institute, clinical profile of the patients, types of treatment and compliance, and median survival estimates. Leukemia was most common, followed by retinoblastoma, central nervous system tumours and lymphomas. Ascertaining the clinic-pathological profile of childhood cancers in our population is essential for allocation and management of resources for this small but important group of patients.
Standardized Uptake Values Highly Correlate with Tumor Size and Fuhrman Grade in Patients with Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
Polat, Emre Can ; Otunctemur, Alper ; Ozbek, Emin ; Besiroglu, Huseyin ; Dursun, Murat ; Ozer, Kutan ; Horsanali, Mustafa Ozan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7821~7824
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7821
Background: We investigated the correlation between standardized uptake value (SUVmax), tumor size and Fuhrman grade in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RC). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 54 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma histopathologically diagnosed who underwent fluorine-18 fluoro-2 deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) between January 2005 and March 2014. Results: Avarage tumor sizes were
in low, medium and high SUVmax groups, respectively. The Spearman's correlation coefficient between the tumor size and SUVmax was 0.385 (p=0.004) and between the Fuhrman grade and SUVmax was 0.578 (p<0.001). Conclusions: SUVmax appears highly correlated with tumor size and Fuhrman grade in patients with histopathologically confirmed clear cell RC. Multicenter studies are needed to provide larger series for more accurate results.
Experimental Study on Inhibition Effects of the XAF1 Gene against Lung Cancer Cell Proliferation
Yang, Wen-Tao ; Chen, Dong-Lai ; Zhang, Fu-Quan ; Xia, Ying-Chen ; Zhu, Rong-Ying ; Zhou, Duan-Shan ; Chen, Yong-Bing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7825~7829
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7825
Objective: To investigate the effect of high expression of XAF1 in vivo or in vitro on lung cancer cell growth and apoptosis. Methods: 1. The A549 human lung cancer cell line was transfected with Ad5/F35 - XAF1, or Ad5/F35 - Null at the same multiplicity of infection (MOI); (hereinafter referred to as transient transfected cell strain); XAF1 gene mRNA and protein expression was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting respectively. 2. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and annexin V-FITC/PI double staining were used to detect cell proliferation and apoptosis before and after infection of Ad5/F35 - XAF1 with Western blotting for apoptosis related proteins, caspase 3, caspase - 8 and PARP. 3. After the XAF1 gene was transfected into lung cancer A549 cells by lentiviral vectors, and selected by screening with Blasticidin, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were applied to detect mRNA and protein expression, to establish a line with a stable high expression of XAF1 (hereinafter referred to as stable expression cell strain). Twenty nude mice were randomly divided into groups A and B, 10 in each group: A549/XAF1 stable expression cell strain was subcutaneously injected in group A, and A549/Ctrl stable cell line stable expression cell strain in group B (control group), to observe transplanted tumor growth in nude mice. Results: The mRNA and protein expression of XAF1 in A549 cells transfected by Ad5/F35 - XAF1 was significantly higher than in the control group. XAF1 mediated by adenovirus vector demonstrated a dose dependent inhibition of lung cancer cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. This was accompanied by cleavage of caspase -3, -8, -9 and PARP, suggesting activation of intrinsic or extrinsic apoptotic pathways. A cell strain of lung cancer highly expressing XAF1 was established, and this demonstrated delayed tumor growth after transplantation in vivo. Conclusion: Adenovirus mediated XAF1 gene expression could inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in lung cancer cells in vitro; highly stable expression of XAF1 could also significantly inhibit the growth of transplanted tumors in nude mouse, with no obvious adverse reactions observed. Therefore, the XAF1 gene could become a new target for lung cancer treatment.
Influence of Autologous and Homologous Blood Transfusion on Interleukins and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Peri-operative Patients with Esophageal Cancer
Xing, Yue-Li ; Wang, Yan-Chun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7831~7834
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7831
Objective: To explore the influence of different ways of blood transfusion on the expression levels of interleukins (IL) and tumor necrosis factor-
) inperi-operative patients with esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 patients with esophageal cancer who underwent radical operations were selected as study patients and randomly divided into an observation group (treated with autologous blood transfusion) and control group (with homologous blood transfusion). Changes of intra-operative indexes and peri-operative blood indexes, from hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit value (Hct), to levels of inflammatory factors like interleukins-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-
) were compared. Results: Operations for patients in both groups were successfully conducted, and no significant differences in mean surgical duration and intra-operative hemorrhage volume, fluid infusion volume and blood transfusion volume were detected (p>0.05). Compared with values before surgery, Hb and Hct levels decreased significantly while white blood cell count (WBC) increased 1, 5 and 7 d after operation (p<0.05, p<0.01). In addition, WBC was apparently higher in observation group than in control group 5 and 7 d after operation (p<0.01). Compared with before surgery, in the observation group, levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 had no significant differences after operation (P>0.05), but TNF-
level increased y (p<0.01), whereas in control group, IL-6 level had no significant difference (p>0.05), IL-8 level decreased obviously (p<0.05), IL-10 level increased markedly first and then decreased gradually as time passed but its level remained elevated (p<0.01), and TNF-
level increased first and then decreased, and there was no significant difference 7 d after operation (p>0.05). Conclusions: Decreased IL-8 and increased IL-10 levels are two important reasons for immunosuppression after homologous blood transfusion, whereas autologous blood transfusion can alleviate this while increasing the TNF-
level, which also has potential to improve anti-tumor immunity in the human body.
Neuroendocrine tumors in the Iran Cancer Institute: Predictive Factors of Patient Survival
Sadighi, Sanambar ; Roshanaee, Ghodratollah ; Vahedi, Saba ; Jahanzad, Easa ; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali ; Mousavi-Jarahi, Alireza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7835~7838
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7835
Background: Neuroendocrine tumors have widespread and different clinical presentations and prognoses. This study was conducted to assess their survival time and prognostic factors in Iran. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, 189 patients diagnosed of having neuroendocrine carcinoma were chosen. The tumor and clinical characteristics of the patients were modeled with a Cox proportional hazard approach. Survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meyer curves. Results: Crude median survival time was 30 months. Women survived longer than men (the median survival time for women was 40 and for men was 24 months). Age (<60 vs >60 years old with hazard ratio (HR) of 2.43, 95% CI 1.3-4.5), primary pathology report (carcinoid vs. others with HR 5.85 cm, 95% CI 2.4-14.3), tumor size cm (for 5-10, HR of 3.1, 95% CI 1.6 and for >10 HR of 8.2, 95% with 95% CI 3.1-21.9), and chemotherapy with single drug (taking vs. not taking with a HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.8) had significant effects on overall survival of patients. Conclusions: Survival time in patients with neuroendocrine carcinomas is related to demographics, clinical characteristics, tumor histology, and subtype specific treatment.
Clinico-Morphological Profile and Receptor Status in Breast Cancer Patients in a South Indian Institution
Ghosh, Saptarshi ; Sarkar, Shreyasee ; Simhareddy, Samara ; Kotne, Sivasankar ; Rao, Pammidimukkala Bramh Ananda ; Turlapati, Satya Prakash Venkatachalam ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7839~7842
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7839
Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide and the second most common cancer in females in India. Receptor status may be important for survival. Objective: To analyse and correlate the clinical and morphological parameters with receptor status in breast carcinoma patients in a tertiary care institution in Southern India. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study involved 320 patients of breast cancer diagnosed in an oncology hospital over a period of
years. Data was analysed using SPSS Version 21. Results: Some 60.6% patients with breast carcinomas belonged to the age group of 40 to 60 years. The most common histological type was infiltrating ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified, accounting for 84.4% of patients. On immunohistochemistry, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were expressed in 56.3% and 53.1% of cases, respectively. Conclusions: Breast cancers in India, a developing country, occur in younger women and tend to be more aggressive with lower rates of ER and PR expression and higher histological tumor grades. Both ER and PR status of the tumors had significant associations with the patient age, pathological TNM stage and histological tumor grade.
Distinct Postsurgical Management in Young and Elderly Breast Cancer Patients Results in Equal Survival Rates
Oran, Ebru Sen ; Yankol, Yucel ; Soybir, Gursel Remzi ; Karsidag, Tamer ; Sakalli, Onur ; Gecgel, Umit ; Soybir, Onur Can ; Soran, Atilla ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7843~7847
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7843
Background: Although breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common malignant diseases in women, the majority of the studies describing the characteristics of BC in elderly patients have been limited to survival assessments or tumor features, without using younger BC patients as a reference group. The aim of our study was to describe and compare tumor characteristics and management patterns in elderly versus younger breast cancer patients in Turkey. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 152 patients with invasive breast cancer who underwent surgery in our institution between 2002 and 2012. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to age at the time of diagnosis. Results: There were 62 patients in the elderly group (
years) and 90 patients in the younger group (<65 years). Compared to the younger group, tumors in the elderly group were more likely to be larger (p=0.018), of lower grade (p=0.005), and hormone receptor-positive (p>0.001). There were no significant differences regarding histology, localization, lymph node involvement, or types of surgical procedures between the 2 groups. Comorbidities were more common in elderly patients (p<0.001). In addition, elderly patients were more likely to receive hormonal therapy (p<0.001) and less likely to receive radiotherapy (p=0.08) and chemotherapy (p=0.003). There was no difference in survival and locoregional recurrence rates between the groups. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that breast cancer in elderly patients has more favorable tumor features, warranting less aggressive treatment regimens after surgery.
Effect of Trichostatin A on Anti HepG2 Liver Carcinoma Cells: Inhibition of HDAC Activity and Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling
Shi, Qing-Qiang ; Zuo, Guo-Wei ; Feng, Zi-Qiang ; Zhao, Lv-Cui ; Luo, Lian ; You, Zhi-Mei ; Li, Dang-Yang ; Xia, Jing ; Li, Jing ; Chen, Di-Long ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7849~7855
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7849
Purpose: To investigate the effect of deacetylase inhibitory trichostatin A (TSA) on anti HepG2 liver carcinoma cells and explore the underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods: HepG2 cells exposed to different concentrations of TSA for 24, 48, or 72h were examined for cell growth inhibition using CCK8, changes in cell cycle distribution with flow cytometry, cell apoptosis with annexin V-FTIC/PI double staining, and cell morphology changes under an inverted microscope. Expression of
-catenin, HDAC1, HDAC3, H3K9, CyclinD1 and Bax proteins was tested by Western blotting. Gene expression for
-catenin, HDAC1and HDAC3 was tested by q-PCR.
-catenin and H3K9 proteins were also tested by immunofluorescence. Activity of Renilla luciferase (pTCF/LEF-luc) was assessed using the Luciferase Reporter Assay system reagent. The activity of total HDACs was detected with a HDACs colorimetric kit. Results: Exposure to TSA caused significant dose-and time-dependent inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation (p<0.05) and resulted in increased cell percentages in G0/G1 and G2/M phases and decrease in the S phase. The apoptotic index in the control group was
, which increased to
in the treatment group. Exposure to 250 and 500nmol/L TSA also caused cell morphology changes with numerous floating cells. Expression of
-catenin, H3K9and Bax proteins was significantly increased, expression levels of CyclinD1, HDAC1, HDAC3 were decreased. Expression of
-catenin at the genetic level was significantly increased, with no significant difference in HDAC1and HDAC3 genes. In the cytoplasm, expression of
-catenin fluorescence protein was not obvious changed and in the nucleus, small amounts of green fluorescence were observed. H3K9 fluorescence protein were increased. Expression levels of the transcription factor TCF werealso increased in HepG2 cells following induction by TSA, whikle the activity of total HDACs was decreased. Conclusions: TSA inhibits HDAC activity, promotes histone acetylation, and activates Wnt/
-catenin signaling to inhibit proliferation of HepG2 cell, arrest cell cycling and induce apoptosis.
Interleukin-18 Synergism with Interleukin-2 in Cytotoxicity and NKG2D Expression of Human Natural Killer Cells
Qi, Yuan-Ying ; Lu, Chao ; Ju, Ying ; Wang, Zi-E ; Li, Yuan-Tang ; Shen, Ya-Juan ; Lu, Zhi-Ming ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7857~7861
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7857
Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in anti-tumor immunity. Interleukin (IL)-18 is an immunoregulatory cytokine that induces potent NK cell-dependent anti-tumor responses when administrated with other cytokines. In this study, we explored the effects of combining IL-18 and IL-2 on NK cytotoxicity as well as expression levels of the NK cell receptor NKG2D in vitro. Freshly isolated PBMCs were incubated for 48 h with IL-18 and IL-2, then CD107a expression on
NK cells was determined by three-colour flow cytometry to evaluate the cytotoxicity of NK cells against human erythroleukemia K562 cells and human colon carcinoma HT29 cells. Flow cytometric analysis was also employed to determine NKG2D expression on NK cells. The combined use of IL-18 and IL-2 significantly increased CD107a expression on NK cells compared with using IL-18 or IL-2 alone, suggesting that the combination of these two cytokines exerted synergistic enhancement of NK cytotoxicity. IL-18 also enhanced NKG2D expression on NK cells when administered with IL-2. In addition, blockade of NKG2D signaling with NKG2D-blocking antibody attenuated the up-regulatory effect of combining IL-18 and IL-2 on NK cytolysis. Our data revealed that IL-18 synergized with IL-2 to dramatically enhance the cytolytic activity of human NK cells in a NKG2D-dependent manner. The results appear encouraging for the use of combined IL-18 and IL-2 in tumor immunotherapy.
Presentation of Retinoblastoma Patients in Malaysia
Subramaniam, Shridevi ; Rahmat, Jamalia ; Rahman, Norazah Abdul ; Ramasamy, Sunder ; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala ; Pin, Goh Pik ; Alagaratnam, Joseph ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7863~7867
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7863
Background: Retinoblastoma is a rare type of cancer that usually develops in early childhood. If left untreated it can cause blindness and even death. The aim of this study is to determine sociodemographic and clinical features of retinoblastoma patients and also to determine the treatment pattern and outcome in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Data for this study were retrieved from the Retinoblastoma Registry of the National Eye Database (NED) in Malaysia. Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Hospital Umum Kuching, Sarawak and Hospital Queen Elizabeth, Kota Kinabalu were the major source data providers for this study. Data collected in the registry cover demography, clinical presentation, modes of treatment, outcomes and complications. Results: The study group consisted of 119 patients (162 eyes) diagnosed with retinoblastoma between 2004 and 2012. There were 68 male (57.1%) and 51 (42.9%) female. The median age at presentation was 22 months. A majority of patients were Malays (54.6%), followed by Chinese (18, 5%), Indians (8.4%), and indigenous races (15.9%). Seventy six (63.8%) patients had unilateral involvement whereas 43 patients had bilateral disease (36.1%). It was found that most children presented with leukocoria (110 patients), followed by strabismus (19), and protopsis (12). Among the 76 with unilateral involvement (76 eyes), enucleation was performed for a majority (79%). More than half of these patients had extraocular extension. Of the 40 who received chemotherapy, 95% were given drugs systemically. Furthermore, in 43 patients with bilateral involvement (86 eyes), 35 (41%) eyes were enucleated and 17 (49%) showed extraocular extension. Seventy-two percent of these patients received systemic chemotherapy. The patients were followed up 1 year after diagnosis, whereby 66 were found to be alive and 4 dead. Sixteen patients defaulted treatment and were lost to follow-up, whereas follow-up data were not available in 33 patients. Conclusions: Patients with retinoblastoma in this middle-income Asian setting are presenting at late stages. As a result, a high proportion of patients warrant aggressive management such as enucleation. We also showed that a high number of patients default follow-up. Therefore, reduction in refusal or delay to initial treatment, and follow-up should be emphasized in order to improve the survival rates of retinoblastoma in this part of the world.
Interleukin-12 and Interleukin-6 Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Bladder Cancer in the Iranian Population
Ebadi, Nader ; Jahed, Marzieh ; Mivehchi, Mohamad ; Majidizadeh, Tayebeh ; Asgary, Mojgan ; Hosseini, Seyed Ali ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7869~7873
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7869
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) as an antitumor and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as an inflammatory cytokine, are immunomodulatory products that play important roles in responses in cancers and inflammation. We tested the association between two polymorphisms of IL-12(1188A>C; rs3212227) and IL-6 (-174 C>G) and the risk of bladder cancer in 261 patients and 251 healthy individuals. We also investigated the possible association of these SNPs in patients with high-risk jobs and smoking habits with the incidence of bladder cancer. The genotype distributions of IL-6 (-174 C/G) genotype were similar between the cases and the control groups; however, among patients with smoking habits, the association between IL-6 gene polymorphism and incidence of bladder cancer was significant. After a control adjustment for age and sex, the following results were recorded: CC genotype (OR= 2.11, 95%CI=1.56-2.87, p=0.007), GC genotype (OR=2.18, 95%CI=1.16-4.12, p=0.014) and GC+CC (OR=2.6, 95%CI=1.43-4.47, p=0.011). A significant risk of bladder cancer was observed for the heterozygous genotype (AC) of IL-12 (OR=1.47, 95%CI=1.01-2.14, p=0.045) in all cases, and among smokers (AC) (OR=3.13, 95%CI=1.82-5.37, p=0.00014), combined AC+CC (OR=3.05, 95%CI=1.8-5.18, p=0.000015). Moreover among high risk job patients, there was more than a 3-fold increased risk of cancer in the carriers of IL-12 beta heterozygous (OR=3.7, 95%CI=2.04-6.57, p=0.000056) and combined AC+CC(OR=3.29, 95%CI=1.58-5.86, p=0.00002) genotypes as compared with the AA genotype with low-risk jobs. As a conclusion, this study suggests that IL-12(3'UTR A>C) and IL-6 (-174 C>G) genotypes are significantly associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in the Iranian population with smoking habits and/or performing high-risk jobs.
Awareness of Breast Cancer Risk among Female University Students from 24 Low, Middle Income and Emerging Economy Countries
Peltzer, Karl ; Pengpid, Supa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7875~7878
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7875
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness of breast cancer risk factors among female university students in 24 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 10,242 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.7, SD=2.9) from 25 universities in 24 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Using anonymous questionnaires the awareness of links between breast cancer and heredity, diet, overweight, exercise, alcohol use, smoking and stress was assessed. Results indicated that 35.4% of the women were not aware that any of these risk factors could influence breast cancer, 43.8% were aware of a genetic link, and only 12.5%, 10.9% and 10.6% correctly identified alcohol use, overweight and physical inactivity, respectively, as factors causing breast cancer. Moreover, 13.3% rated dietary fat and 11.5% fibre as influencing breast cancer; both low-fat and high-fibre diets may be weakly protective against breast cancer, and smoking (19.4%) and stress (13.5%), the most commonly chosen breast cancer lifestyle risk factors, have less clear impact on breast cancer. There were marked country differences, e.g., in regards of being aware of genetic causes of breast cancer risk in female students from Ivory Coast, India, Madagascar, Nigeria and Laos below 30% and female students from Pakistan, Singapore, Turkey, Grenada and Philippines 60 or more percent. This study provides insight in the breast cancer risk perception of young women, which can be utilized in breast cancer awareness and prevention programmes.
Intake of Freshwater Fish and Associated Fatty Acids and Risk of Breast Cancer
Gao, Chang-Ming ; Ding, Jian-Hua ; Li, Su-Ping ; Liu, Yan-Ting ; Tang, Jin-Hai ; Tajima, Kazuo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7879~7884
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7879
To investigate the association between intake of freshwater fish and their fatty acids and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women, we conducted a case-control study with 669 cases and 682 population-based controls in Jiangsu Province of China. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit detailed information. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Total freshwater fish intake was linked to decrease in the adjusted OR for breast cancer, but without dose-dependence. Analyses by freshwater fish species showed that consumption of black carp and silver carp was inversely related to breast cancer risk, with adjusted-ORs for the highest intake category of black carp (
) of 0.54 (95%CI=0.33-0.92;
<0.002) and for silver carp (
) of 0.19 (95%CI=0.11-0.33;
<0.001). In contrast, consumption of crucian carp was positively related to breast cancer risk, with an adjusted OR for the highest intake category (
) of 6.09 (95%CI=3.04-12.2;
<0.001). Moderate intakes of SFA, PUFA, n3-PUFA and n6-PUFA from freshwater fish may decrease the risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women. The findings of this study suggest that intake of freshwater fish and their fatty acids may modify risk of breast cancer, and that different species of freshwater fish could have a different actions on breast cancer risk. Future epidemiologic studies are needed to know the effects of freshwater fish intake on breast cancer risk and the cause of these effects.
High Feasibility of Liquid-Based Cytological Samples for Detection of EGFR Mutations in Chinese Patients with NSCLC
Wu, Chun-Yan ; Hou, Li-Kun ; Ren, Sheng-Xiang ; Su, Bo ; Chen, Gang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7885~7889
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7885
Background: Activating mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) could predict response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the detection of EGFR mutation is frequently challenging in clinical practice for the lack of tumor tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of performing EGFR mutation testing on various types of liquid-based cytology (LBC) samples. Materials and Methods: A total of 434 liquid-based cytology samples were collected from March 2010 and November 2013. Among them, 101 with diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma had paired surgically resected specimens. The ADx Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ADx-ARMS) was used to determine EGFR mutation status both in LBC and resected samples. Results: All liquid-based cytology samples were adequate for EGFR mutation analysis. The mutation rate was 50.5% in the 434 NSCLC patients with LBC samples and the incidence rates of EGFR mutation were consistent among different specimens. We also detected EGFR positives in 52.5% (53/101) patients with paired histologic specimens. The concordance rate of EGFR mutation between LBC samples and paired histologic specimens was 92.1%. Conclusions: Our results suggest that liquid-based cytology samples are highly reliable for EGFR mutation testing in patients with NSCLC.
Evaluation of the Knowledge and Perceptions with Regards to Pictorial Health Warnings on Tobacco Products among Tobacco Users Diagnosed with Head and Neck Carcinoma: a Study from the Kumaon Hills of India
Pant, Nirdosh Kumar ; Pandey, Kailash Chandra ; Madabhavi, Irappa ; Pandey, Vinod ; Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7891~7895
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7891
Background: Tobacco products continue to be used in large quantities in India despite the mandatory inclusion of pictorial health warnings (PHWs) on all tobacco packaging. The circumstances as to how people could continue the use of tobacco to the point of developing head and neck cancer despite enhanced awareness about the ill effects of tobacco is the main focus of this study. Materials and Methods: This study concerned patients with least 5-years history of tobacco use, having been diagnosed with histopathologically proven malignancies of the hypopharynx, larynx, oropharynx and oral cavity presenting at the Government Medical College-Haldwani, Nainital, India. A total of 183 patients were eligible for inclusion during July 1 2013 - June 30 2014. Of these, 59 patients used smoked tobacco exclusively, 22 patients used smokeless tobacco exclusively, and 102 patients used both forms of tobacco. Among users of smoked forms, 75.2% (n=121) were beedi users, and 24.8% (n=40) were cigarette users. Patients were asked direct questions as to whether they had noticed the presence of PHWs upon tobacco products. The reasons as to why PHWs were not effective in stopping the patients from tobacco use were investigated. Results: Of the 183 patients, 146 reported being aware about the presence of PHWs, and when they were asked reasons as to why they continued tobacco despite being aware of ill-effects, the commonest reason chosen (by 53.4%) was that patients had not regarded themselves as using tobacco heavy enough to cause cancer. Among the 36 patients who reported as being oblivious to the presence of PHWs on tobacco products, 63.9% reported that the products they used never displayed any PHWs, and 36.1% reported never having paid attention to the packaging. The awareness about PHWs was higher among cigarette smokers in comparison to beedi smokers (100% vs 76.1%, p=0.0002). Conclusions: Locally produced and marketed tobacco products such as beedis and oral tobacco often fail to display PHWs. The presence of PHWs without doubt enhances awareness about the carcinogenic risks of tobacco. However, enhanced awareness alone may not be enough, and as elucidated by this study, some persons continue to use tobacco to the point of developing malignancies. The need of the hour is the implementation of legal and economic sanctions discouraging the use of tobacco products.
Profile of Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors Among Employees at a Saudi University
Amin, Tarek Tawfik ; Al Sultan, Ali Ibrahim ; Mostafa, Ola Abdelmoniem ; Darwish, Amr Ahmed ; Al-Naboli, Mohamed Rashad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7897~7907
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7897
Background: There is paucity of studies defining the prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors in Saudi Arabia despite the surging epidemic of obesity, change in dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle. Objectives: This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of NCDs risk factors among employees at King Faisal University in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine the possible correlates for clustering of NCDs risk factors among them. Materials and Methods: All employees were invited to participate; the World Health Organization STEPwise approach was used for data collection which consisted of a personal interview to collect socio-demographic characteristics, NCD history, tobacco use, vegetables and fruit consumption, and physical activity (PA), followed by anthropometric measurements namely weight, height and waist circumference and blood pressure measurements, subjects were finally subjected to biochemical tests with determination of fasting plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, cholesterol and high density lipoproteins. Results: Of the surveyed employees (n=691), daily current smokers accounted for 22.7%. 94.9%, 95.1% and 86% consumed < 5 servings per day of vegetables, fruits and both fruits and vegetables respectively, 73% were physically inactive, 64% were overweight or obese, 22.1% had hypertension, and 21.5% were diabetics. Elevated cholesterol levels were found in 36.6%, low high density lipoproteins in 36.8%, and elevated triglycerides in 36.1%. Only 3% had no NCD risk factors, and 57.6% had
factors. Multivariate logistic regression showed that gender (being male, adjusted odds ratio 'aOR'=1.51), aged
years (aOR=3.06), < college education (aOR=1.75), current smokers (aOR=2.37), being obese (aOR=6.96) and having a low PA level (aOR=4.59) were the significant positive predictors for clustering of NCD risk factors. Conclusions: Over fifty percent of the studied university's employees had multiple (
) NCD risk factors. Screening and health promotion initiatives should be launched at least targeting the modifiable factors to avert the excessive risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and several types of cancers.
Prognostic Value of Preoperative Inflammation-Based Prognostic Scores on Hospital Mortality after Gastric Cancer Surgery
Dinc, Tolga ; Yildiz, Baris Dogu ; Kayilioglu, Ilgaz ; Sozen, Isa ; Tez, Mesut ; Coskun, Faruk ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7909~7911
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7909
Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy worldwide. Poor prognosis in gastric cancer is linked with hypoalbuminemia. Previous studies demonstrated relationships between gastric cancer and chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of preoperative inflammation-based prognostic scores regarding hospital mortality after gastrectomy. Unlike other recent articles on the same topic; we could only verify prognostic value of prognostic nutritional index for in hospital mortality after surgery.
Over-Expression of Beclin-1 Facilitates Acquired Resistance to Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor-Induced Apoptosis
Wang, Shi-Miao ; Li, Xiao-Hui ; Xiu, Zhi-Long ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7913~7917
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7913
Apoptotic cell death plays a predominant role in histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity. Nuclear morphological changes and activation of apoptotic executors are involved in CTS203-induced cell death. However, emerging issues of HDAC inhibitor-resistance have been observed in patients. Herein, MCF-7 cells were continuously exposed to CTS203 until the derived cells could proliferate normally in its presence. The newly obtained CTS203-resistant cells were nominated as MCF-7/203R. Compared to MCF-7 original cells, the MCF-7/203R cells were less sensitive to CTS203-induced apoptosis, with a minimal 6-fold higher
value. In contrast, the expression of Beclin-1 was dramatically up-regulated, positively correlated to the acquisition of CTS203-resistance. Our results revealed the participation of autophagy in acquired HDAC inhibitor-resistance and further identified Beclin-1 as a promising target for anti-drug resistance.
20(S)-Protopanaxadiol Induces Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Apoptosis through a Caspase-Mediated Pathway
Zhang, Hong ; Xu, Hua-Li ; Fu, Wen-Wen ; Xin, Ying ; Li, Mao-Wei ; Wang, Shuai-Jun ; Yu, Xiao-Feng ; Sui, Da-Yun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7919~7923
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7919
20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD), a ginsenoside isolated from Pananx quinquefolium L., has been shown to inhibit growth and proliferation in several cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate its anticancer activity in human breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells were incubated with different concentrations of 20(S)-PPD and cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay. Occurrence of apoptosis was detected by DAPI and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured with Rhodamine 123. The Bcl-2 and Bax expression were determined by Western blot analysis. Caspase activity was measured by colorimetric assay. 20(S)-PPD dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation in MCF-7 cells, with an
at 24h. MCF-7 cells treated with 20(S)-PPD presented typical apoptosis, as observed by morphological analysis in cell stained with DAPI. The percentages of annexin V-FITC positive cells were 8.92%, 17.8%, 24.5% and 30.5% in MCF-7 cells treated with 0, 15, 30 and
of 20(S)-PPD, respectively. Moreover, 20(S)-PPD could induce mitochondrial membrane potential loss, up-regulate Bax expression and down-regulate Bcl-2 expression. These events paralleled activation of caspase-9, -3 and PARP cleavage. Apoptosis induced by 20(S)-PPD was blocked by z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, suggesting induction of caspase-mediated apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, the 20(S)-PPD investigated is able to inhibit cell proliferation and to induce cancer cell death by a caspase-mediated apoptosis pathway.
Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence in Renal Cell Cancer Patients
Bulut, Suleyman ; Aktas, Binhan Kagan ; Erkmen, Akif Ersoy ; Ozden, Cuneyt ; Gokkaya, Cevdet Serkan ; Baykam, Mehmet Murat ; Memis, Ali ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7925~7928
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7925
Purpose: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is increasingly being recognized as a metabolic disease in recent studies. The aim of the present study was to identify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its association with RCC among urologic patients. Materials and Methods: The study included a total of 355 participants (117 adult RCC patients and 238 age matched controls) divided into groups, with and without MetS diagnosed using the criteria of the American Heart Association/The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Groups were compared statistically and logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the impact of MetS criteria on RCC risk. Results: Of the 117 RCC patients, 52 (44.4%) and of the 238 controls, 37 (15.5%) had MetS. A significant association (p<0.001) was found between the presence of MetS and RCC (OR: 4.35; 95% CI=2.62-7.21). As the number of MetS components accumulated from 3 to 5, RCC risk increased likewise from 4 to 6 times. Conclusions: MetS is more prevalent in RCC patients in Turkey compared to controls. Risk increases with the number of coexisting MetS components.
Proportion of Ovarian Cancers in Overall Ovarian Masses in Thailand
Kunpalin, Yada ; Triratanachat, Surang ; Tantbirojn, Patou ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7929~7934
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7929
Background: The primary objective of this study was to assess the proportion of malignancies in ovarian masses during
January 2002, to
December 2011 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. A secondary objective was to evaluate associations with patients' clinical characteristics and ovarian malignancy proportion and subtypes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective descriptive study analyzed data of ovarian masses larger than 3 centimeters in maximal diameter, from the division of Gynecologic Cyto-Pathology at KCMH. SPSS software version 17 (SPSS, Inc, Chicago, IL, USA) was used. Results: A total number of 6,115 patients were included. Among the total ovarian masses studied, 13.7% were malignant. After the age of sixty, the proportion reached almost 40%. It was also above 20% in women younger than 20 years old. During premenarche period, proportion of ovarian malignancies was 50%. Only 1% of ovarian masses were found to be malignant during the pregnancy and post-partum periods. Parity decreased the probability of ovarian malignancy during postmenopausal years. Period of menopause did not have any impact on this probability. During the first two decades of life, germ cell malignancy dominated. As the age increased, the percentage of surface epithelial-stromal malignancy increased with a peak at the fifth decade. In contrast, malignant sex cord-stromal cell tumors occurred at a constant rate in each age group after the thirties. Conclusions: Proportion of ovarian cancers in each age group, menstrual and pregnancy status are similar. However there are differences in the distribution of ovarian subtypes especially for the surface epithelial-stromal category.
Turkish Social Attitudes towards to Cancer Prevention: a Health Belief Model Study
Tasci-Duran, Emel ; Koc, Sukran ; Korkmaz, Medet ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7935~7940
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7935
This research was planned to reveal society's attitude towards cancer and early diagnosis using the health belief model. This study was planned as descriptive research in Isparta. A random sample of n=256 individuals of both genders was recruited at the largest shopping center. As a means of collection tool, a survey consisted of two forms, the first designed for sociodemographic information and the second covering 29 questions suitable for the content of Health Belief Model. Of the participants, 66.8% were female and 33.2% were male, and the average age was
years. Some 46.1% partly thought that they may develop cancer, and 49.6% were afraid of this possibility. As many as 50% indicated that cancer is an issue that comes from Allah. A significant difference was found between not going for control unless feeling bad, and blood analysis for cancer screening (
p= 0.03). It was seen that in an area with a high rate of cancer, people's awareness of cancer prevention and early diagnosis and attitudes towards these are insufficient.
Lack of Association between the COMT rs4680 Polymorphism and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Evidence from a Meta-analysis of 3,940 Individuals
Du, Jin-Ze ; Dong, Yu-Ling ; Wan, Guo-Xing ; Tao, Lin ; Lu, Li-Xia ; Li, Feng ; Pang, Li-Juan ; Jia, Wei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7941~7945
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7941
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is involved in estrogen metabolism and is vital to estrogen-induced carcinogenesis, including that of ovarian cancer. Although many recent epidemiologic studies have investigated associations between the COMT rs4680 polymorphism and ovarian cancer risk, the results remain inconclusive. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimate of associations. Systematic searches of the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biomedicine databases were undertaken to retrieve eligible studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled to assess the strength of the association. In total, 8 case-control studies involving 1,293 cases and 2,647 controls were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the results showed no evidence of significant association between the COMT rs4680 polymorphism and ovarian cancer risk in any of the assessed genetic models. Subgroup analyses by ethnicity also did not reveal any significant association in any genetic model (p>0.05). In conclusion, our findings suggest that the COMT rs4680 polymorphism may not contribute to the risk of ovarian cancer.
Dietary Factors and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: a Multi-Centre Case-Control Study in China
Liu, Shu-Zheng ; Chen, Wan-Qing ; Wang, Ning ; Yin, Meng-Meng ; Sun, Xi-Bin ; He, Yu-Tong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7947~7950
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7947
Background: Pancreatic cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death with an increasing trend in China. Dietary intake is believed to play an important role in pancreatic cancer carcinogenesis. The aim of this paper was to evaluate associations between some dietary factors and risk of pancreatic cancer in a multi-centre case-control study conducted in China. Materials and Methods: Cases (n=323) were ascertained from four provincial cancer hospitals. Controls (n=323) were randomly selected from the family members of patients without pancreatic cancer in the same hospitals, 1:1 matched to cases by gender, age and study center. Data were collected with a questionnaire by personal interview. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results: Tea intake (OR =0.49; 95%CI: 0.30-0.80) was associated with a half reduction in risk of pancreatic cancer. Reduced vegetable consumption (P trend: 0.04) was significant related to pancreatic cancer. Although no significant association was found for meat and fruit, ORs were all above or below the reference group. A protective effect was found for fruit (OR=1.73 for consumption of 1-2 times/week vs more than 3 times/week; 95%CI: 1.05-2.86). A high intake of meat was associated to a higher risk of pancreatic cancer (OR=0.59 for consumption of 1-2 times/week vs. more than 3 times/week; 95%CI: 0.35-0.97). Conclusions: The present study supports fruit consumption to reduce pancreatic cancer risk and indicates that high consumption of meat is related to an elevated risk. Direct inverse relations with tea and vegetable intake were also confirmed.
Cervical Pathology in Cytology-Negative/HPV-Positive Women: Results from Lampang Cancer Hospital, Thailand
Paengchit, Kannika ; Kietpeerakool, Chumnan ; Wangchai, Warunee ; Pouraeng, Saifon ; Lalitwongsa, Somkiet ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7951~7954
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7951
Background: To evaluate the cervical pathology of cytology-negative/high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) positive-women. Materials and Methods: This study recruited 4,583 women aged 30-70 years who had undergone cervical screening by liquid-based cytology and HR-HPV test (14 HR-HPV types) at Lampang Cancer Hospital during October 2012 to July 2013. Colposcopy was carried out in all women. Results: One hundred and ninety-two (4.19%) women were found to be cytology-negative/HR-HPV-positive. However, 23 cases were excluded because of incomplete information, leaving 169 women for further analyses. Of these 169, 45 (26.6%) were infected with HPV 16/18 and 49 (29.0%) with multiple genotypes of HR-HPV. Nineteen of 169 (11.24%) women were found to have CIN 2-3. No women in the present study had AIS or invasive cervical lesions. Prevalence of CIN 2-3 among women infected with HPV 16/18 was 15.6% which was higher than the 9.68% in those with non-HPV 16/18 oncogenic types. Conclusions: Overall, 11% of cytology-negative/HR-HPV-positive women had significant cervical lesions. Risk of harboring such lesions was substantially increased among those who were HPV 16/18 positive.
Association of rs1219648 in FGFR2 and rs1042522 in TP53 with Premenopausal Breast Cancer in an Iranian Azeri Population
Saadatian, Zahra ; Gharesouran, Jalal ; Ghojazadeh, Morteza ; Ghohari-Lasaki, Sahar ; Tarkesh-Esfahani, Najime ; Ardebili, Seyyed Mojtaba Mohaddes ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7955~7958
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7955
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in the world. In Iran, the incidence of breast cancer is on the increase. We here studied the association of rs1219648 in FGFR2 and rs1042522 in TP53 and their interaction in development of early onset sporadic breast cancer in Iranian Azeri population to evaluate epistatic effects on the risk of mammary neoplasia. We genotyped the two polymorphisms in 100 women with early onset breast cancer and 100 healthy women by PCR-RFLP. Allele frequency differences were tested using
-test with 95% confident intervals. Our results indicated a statistically significant association (p<0.05) between rs1219648, but not rs1042522, and risk of breast cancer. We also found that the combination of FGFR2 major genotype and TP53 hetero genotype had protective effects against breast cancer, while the hetero allele of FGFR2 in combination with the minor genotype of TP53 was associated with a high risk. This study revealed an important crosstalk between two polymorphisms in FGFR2 and TP53 in development of breast cancer. These candidates risk variants should be further evaluated in studies with a larger sample size.
Do Clinical Features and Survival of Single Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancers Differ from Double Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancers?
Ng, Char-Hong ; Pathy, Nirmala Bhoo ; Taib, Nur Aishah ; Ho, Gwo-Fuang ; Mun, Kein-Seong ; Rhodes, Anthony ; Looi, Lai-Meng ; Yip, Cheng-Har ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7959~7964
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7959
The significance of the single hormone receptor positive phenotype of breast cancer is still poorly understood. The use of hormone therapy has been found to be less effective for this type, which has a survival outcome midway between double positive and double negative phenotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in patient and tumor characteristics and survival between double-receptor positive (ER+PR+), double receptor negative (ER-PR-) and single receptor positive (ER+PR- and ER-PR+) breast cancer in an Asian setting. A total of 1,992 patients with newly diagnosed stage I to IV breast cancer between 2003 and 2008, and where information on ER and PR were available, were included in this study. The majority of patients had ER+PR+ tumors (n=903: 45.3%), followed by 741 (37.2%) ER-PR-, 247 (12.4%) ER+PR-, and 101 (5.1%) ER-PR+ tumors. Using multivariate analysis, ER+PR- tumors were 2.4 times more likely to be grade 3 compared to ER+PR+ tumors. ER+PR- and ER-PR+ tumors were 82% and 86% respectively less likely to be grade 3 compared with ER-PR- tumors. ER-PR+ tumours were associated with younger age. There were no survival differences between patients with ER+PR+ and ER-PR+ tumors. However, ER+PR- tumors have poorer survival compared with ER+PR+ tumours. ER-PR- tumours had the worst survival. Adjuvant hormonal therapy with tamoxifen was found to have identical survival advantage in patients with ER+PR+ and ER-PR+ tumors whereas impact was slightly lower in patients with ER+PR- tumors. In conclusion, we found ER+PR- tumors to be more aggressive and have poorer survival when compared to ER+PR+ tumors, while patients with ER-PR+ tumours were younger, but had a similar survival to their counterparts with ER+PR+ tumours.
Impact of IL-2 and IL-2R SNPs on Proliferation and Tumor-killing Activity of Lymphokine-Activated Killer Cells from Healthy Chinese Blood Donors
Li, Yan ; Meng, Fan-Dong ; Tian, Xin ; Sui, Cheng-Guang ; Liu, Yun-Peng ; Jiang, You-Hong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7965~7970
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7965
One of the goals of tumor immunotherapy is to generate immune cells with potent anti-tumor activity through in vitro techniques using peripheral blood collected from patients. However, cancer patients generally have poor immunological function. Thus using patient T cells, which have reduced in vitro proliferative capabilities and less tumor cell killing activity to generate lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells, fails to achieve optimal clinical efficacy. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a potent activating cytokine for both T cells and natural killer cells. Thus, this study aimed to identify optimal donors for allogeneic LAK cell immunotherapy based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the IL-2 and IL-2R genes. IL-2 and IL-2R SNPs were analyzed using HRM-PCR. LAK cells were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by culturing with IL-2. The frequency and tumor-killing activity of LAK cells in each group were analyzed by flow cytometry and tumor cell killing assays, respectively. Regarding polymorphisms at IL-2-330 (rs2069762) T/G, LAK cells from GG donors had significantly greater proliferation, tumor-killing activity, and IFN-
production than LAK cells from TT donors (P<0.05). Regarding polymorphisms at IL-2R rs2104286 A/G, LAK cell proliferation and tumor cell killing were significantly greater in LAK cells from AA donors than GG donors (P<0.05). These data suggest that either IL-2-330(rs2069762)T/G GG donors or IL-2R rs2104286 A/G AA donors are excellent candidates for allogeneic LAK cell immunotherapy.
CCNA1 Promoter Methylation: a Potential Marker for Grading Papanicolaou Smear Cervical Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions
Chujan, Suthipong ; Kitkumthorn, Nakarin ; Siriangkul, Sumalee ; Mutirangura, Apiwat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7971~7975
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7971
Background: From our previous study, we established that cyclin A1 (CCNA1) promoter methylation is strongly correlated with multistep progression of HPV-associated cervical cancer, suggesting potential use as a diagnostic maker of disease. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence of CCNA1 promoter methylation in residual cervical cells isolated from liquid-based cytology that underwent hrHPV DNA screening for cervical cancer, and then to evaluate this marker for diagnostic accuracy using parameters like sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratio. Methods: In this retrospective study, histopathology was used as the gold standard method with specimens separated into the following groups: negative (n=31), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, n=34) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (HSIL+, n=32). The hrHPV was detected by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and CCNA1 promoter methylation was examined by CCNA1 duplex methylation specific PCR. Results: The results showed the frequencies of CCNA1 promoter methylation were 0%, 5.88% and 83.33%, while the percentages of hrHPV were 66.67%, 82.35% and 100% in the negative, LSIL and HSIL+ groups, respectively. Although hrHPV infection showed high frequency in all three groups, it could not differentiate between the different groups and grades of precancerous lesions. In contrast, CCNA1 promoter methylation clearly distinguished between negative/LSIL and HSIL+, with high levels of all statistic parameters. Conclusion: CCNA1 promoter methylation is a potential marker for distinguishing between histologic negative/LSIL and HSIL+using cervical cytology samples.
Cervical Pathology in High-Risk Human Papillomavirus-Positive, Cytologically Normal Women
Supho, Buasorn ; Supoken, Amornrat ; Kleebkaew, Pilaiwan ; Kietpeerakool, Chumnan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7977~7980
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7977
This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of significant cervical pathology among women who are high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV)-positive/cytology negative, the most common combination of positive co-tests. The records of 244 women HR-HPV-positive/cytology-negative who had undergone colposcopy at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University during January 2010 and April 2014 were reviewed. Mean age was 46.4 years. Of these 224 women, 75 were positive for HPV types 16/18 (33.5%) and 123 were positive for non-16/18 types (54.9%). HR-HPV was not genotyped in the remaining 26 women (11.6%). Prevalence of significant lesions for the entire cohort was 2.4%, and 2.6% and 3.3%, respectively, for those with HPV 16/18 and other oncogenic HPV types. One woman with HPV 16/18 (1.3%) had invasive cervical cancer. Multiparous women were more likely to be infected with HPV 16/18 compared to nulliparous women (36.3% versus 17.6%, respectively). In conclusion, the prevalence of significant cervical lesion among our study population was 2.4%. Multiparous women were more likely to be infected with HPV 16/18 compared to nulliparous women.
Accuracy of Self-Checked Fecal Occult Blood Testing for Colorectal Cancer in Thai Patients
Lohsiriwat, Varut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7981~7984
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7981
Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) has been associated with a reduction in CRC incidence and CRC-related mortality. However, a conventional FOBT requires stool collection and handling, which may be inconvenient for participants. The EZ-Detect
(Siam Pharmaceutical Thailand) is a FDA-approved chromogen-substrate based FOBT which is basically a self-checked FOBT (no stool handling required). This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of EZ-Detect for CRC detection. Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand between November 2013 and May 2014. Some 96 patients with histologically-proven CRC and 101 patients with normal colonoscopic findings were invited to perform self-checked FOBT according to the manufacturer's instructions. Results were compared with endoscopic and pathologic findings. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for CRC detection were calculated. Results: The present study revealed the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of this self-checked FOBT for CRC detection to be 41% (95% CI: 31-51), 97% (95% CI: 92-99), 93% (95% CI: 81-98) and 63% (95% CI: 55-70), respectively. The overall accuracy of the self-checked FOBT for identifying CRC was 70%. The sensitivity for CRC detection based on 7th AJCC staging was 29% for stage I, 32% for stage II and 50% for stage III/IV (P=0.19). The sensitivity was 33% for proximal colon and 42% for distal colon and rectal cancer (P=0.76). Notably, none of nine infiltrative lesions gave a positive FOBT. Conclusions: The self-checked FOBT had an acceptable accuracy of CRC detection except for infiltrative tumors. This home-administrated or 'DIY' do-it-yourself FOBT could be considered as one non-invasive and convenient tool for CRC screening.
Data Quality of Childhood Cancer in Khon Kaen, Thailand, 1990-2007
Suwanrungruang, Krittika ; Kamsa-ard, Supot ; Wiangnon, Surapon ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7985~7987
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7985
Introduction: Khon Kaen Cancer Registry (KKCR) was established in 1984. KKCR aims to collect all cancer cases in Khon Kaen Province. The poorly qualified data may lead to distort the cancer burden and misinterpretation of policy maker. Objective: To assess data quality in childhood cancer between 1990 and 2007 in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand. Materials and Methods: Data of childhood cancer cases aged less than 20 years diagnosed during 1990-2007 were retrieved from the population-based data set of KKCR. All childhood cancer data were verified before data entry. Internal consistency, percentage of morphological verification (MV%) and cancer cased of the basis of diagnosis by death certificate only (DCO%) were evaluated. The age-adjusted rate (ASR) was calculated by standard method. Results: The data of childhood cancer from KKCR is acceptably qualified which reflects the quality of the whole registration.
Childhood Cancer Incidence and Survival 1985-2009, Khon Kaen, Thailand
Wiangnon, Surapon ; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee ; Komvilaisak, Patcharee ; Suwanrungruang, Krittika ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7989~7993
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7989
Background: The Khon Kaen Cancer Registry (KKCR) was established in 1984. Previous population-based incidences and survivals of childhood cancer in Thailand were determined using a short cancer registration period. Materials and Methods: Data were retrieved of all children residing in Khon Kaen, between 0-15 years, diagnosed as having cancer and registered in the KKCR (1985-2009). The follow-up censored date was December 31, 2012. The childhood cancers were classified into 12 diagnostic groups, according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer. The incidence was calculated by the standard method. Survival of childhood cancer was investigated using the KKCR population-based registration data and overall survival calculated using the Kaplan Meier method. Results: In the study period, 912 newly diagnosed cases of childhood cancer were registered. The respective mean and median age was 6.4 (SD=4.6) and 6 (0-14) years. The age-peak for incidence was 0-4 years. The age-standardized rate (ASR) was 83 per million. Leukemia was the most common cancer (N=360, ASR 33.8) followed by neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS, N=150, ASR 12.8) and lymphoma (N=79, ASR 7.0). The follow-up duration totaled 101,250 months. The death rate was 1.11 per 100 person-months (95%CI: 1.02 -1.20). The 5-year overall survival was 52% (95%CI: 53-56.9) for all cancers. The respective 5-year overall survival for (1) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), (2) acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL), (3) lymphoma, (4) germ cell tumors, (5) renal tumors, (6) retinoblastoma, (7) soft tissue tumors, (8) CNS tumors, (9) bone tumors, (10) liver tumors, and (11) neuroblastoma was (1) 51%, (2) 37%, (3) 63%, (4) 74%, (5) 67%, (6) 55%, (7) 46%, (8) 44%, (9) 36%, (10) 34%, and (11) 25%. Conclusions: The incidence of childhood cancer is lower than those of western countries. Respective overall survival for ALL, lymphoma, renal tumors, liver tumors, retinoblastoma, soft tissue tumors is lower than that reported in developed countries while survival for CNS tumors, neuroblastoma and germ cell tumors is comparable.
Induction of Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) Enzymatic Activity Contributes to Interferon-Gamma Induced Apoptosis and Death Receptor 5 Expression in Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cells
Chung, Ting Wen ; Tan, Kok-Tong ; Chan, Hong-Lin ; Lai, Ming-Derg ; Yen, Meng-Chi ; Li, Yi-Ron ; Lin, Sheng Hao ; Lin, Chi-Chen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 7995~8001
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.7995
) has been used to treat various malignant tumors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the direct anti-proliferative activity of IFN-
are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the in vitro antitumor activity of IFN-
on two human non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines, H322M and H226. Our findings indicated that IFN-
treatment caused a time-dependent reduction in cell viability and induced apoptosis through a FADD-mediated caspase-8/tBid/mitochondria-dependent pathway in both cell lines. Notably, we also postulated that IFN-
increased indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression and enzymatic activity in H322M and H226 cells. In addition, inhibition of IDO activity by the IDO inhibitor 1-MT or tryptophan significantly reduced IFN-
-induced apoptosis and death receptor 5 (DR5) expression, which suggests that IDO enzymatic activity plays an important role in the anti-NSCLC cancer effect of IFN-
. These results provide new mechanistic insights into interferon-
antitumor activity and further support IFN-
as a potential therapeutic adjuvant for the treatment of NCSLC.
Is MPV a Real Prognostic Indicator for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer?
Ozyalvacli, Gulzade ; Yasar, Zehra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 8003~8003
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.8003
Is Waterpipe Smoking Becoming Increasingly Widespread Among the Youth?
Cinar, Nursan ; Cakmak, Vahide ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 18, 2014, Pages 8005~8006
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.8005