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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 22 - Dec 2014
Volume 15, Issue 21 - Nov 2014
Volume 15, Issue 20 - Nov 2014
Volume 15, Issue 19 - Oct 2014
Volume 15, Issue 18 - Oct 2014
Volume 15, Issue 17 - Sep 2014
Volume 15, Issue 16 - Aug 2014
Volume 15, Issue 15 - Aug 2014
Volume 15, Issue 14 - Jul 2014
Volume 15, Issue 13 - Jul 2014
Volume 15, Issue 12 - Jun 2014
Volume 15, Issue 11 - Jun 2014
Volume 15, Issue 10 - May 2014
Volume 15, Issue 9 - May 2014
Volume 15, Issue 8 - Apr 2014
Volume 15, Issue 7 - Apr 2014
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Mar 2014
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Mar 2014
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Feb 2014
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Feb 2014
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jan 2014
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
Research Progress in Applying Proteomics Technology to Explore Early Diagnosis Biomarkers of Breast Cancer, Lung Cancer and Ovarian Cancer
Luo, Lu ; Dong, Li-You ; Yan, Qi-Gui ; Cao, San-Jie ; Wen, Xin-Tian ; Huang, Yong ; Huang, Xiao-Bo ; Wu, Rui ; Ma, Xiao-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8529~8538
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8529
According to the China tumor registry 2013 annual report, breast cancer, lung cancer, and ovarian cancer are three common cancers in China nowadays, with high mortality due to the absence of early diagnosis technology. However, proteomics has been widespreadly implanted into every field of life science and medicine as an important part of post-genomics era research. The development of theory and technology in proteomics has provided new ideas and research fields for cancer research. Proteomics can be used not only for elucidating the mechanisms of carcinogenesis focussing on whole proteins of the tissue or cell, but also seeking the biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy of cancer. In this review, we introduce proteomics principles, covering current technology used in exploring early diagnosis biomarkers of breast cancer, lung cancer and ovarian cancer.
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signal Transduction in Solid Tumors
Lei, Yuan-Yuan ; Wang, Wei-Jia ; Mei, Jin-Hong ; Wang, Chun-Liang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8539~8548
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8539
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is an important signaling pathway in living beings in response to extracellular stimuli. There are 5 main subgroups manipulating by a set of sequential actions: ERK(ERK1/ERK2), c-Jun N(JNK/SAPK), p38 MAPK(
), and ERK3/ERK4/ERK5. When stimulated, factors of upstream or downstream change, and by interacting with each other, these groups have long been recognized to be related to multiple biologic processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, death, migration, invasion and inflammation. However, once abnormally activated, cancer may occur. Several components of the MAPK network have already been proposed as targets in cancer therapy, such as p38, JNK, ERK, MEK, RAF, RAS, and DUSP1. Among them, alteration of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK-MAPK(RAS-MAPK) pathway has frequently been reported in human cancer as a result of abnormal activation of receptor tyrosine kinases or gain-of-function mutations in genes. The reported roles of MAPK signaling in apoptotic cell death are controversial, so that further in-depth investigations are needed to address these controversies. Based on an extensive analysis of published data, the goal of this review is to provide an overview on recent studies about the mechanism of MAP kinases, and how it generates certain tumors, as well as related treatments.
Cancer Stem Cells and Stemness Markers in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas
Patel, Shanaya Saurin ; Shah, Kanisha Atul ; Shah, Manoj Jashwantbhai ; Kothari, Kiran Champaklal ; Rawal, Rakesh Mahesh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8549~8556
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8549
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the world top ten most common cancers with its highest occurrence in the Indian subcontinent and different aggressive and etiological behavioural patterns. The scenario is only getting worst with the 5 year survival rates dropping to 50%, persistent treatment failures and frequent cases of relapse/recurrence. One of the major reasons for these failures is the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small population of cancer cells that are highly tumourigenic, capable of self-renewal and have the ability to differentiate into cells that constitute the bulk of tumours. Notably, recent evidence suggests that cancer stem cells are especially resistant to conventional therapy and are the "drivers" of local recurrence and metastatic spread. Specific markers for this population have been investigated in HNSCC in the hope of developing a deeper understanding of their role in oral cancer pathogenesis, elucidating novel biomarkers for early diagnosis and newer therapeutic strategies. This review covers the fundamental relevance of almost all the CSC biomarkers established to date with a special emphasis on their impact in the process of oral tumourigenesis and their potential role in improving the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of OSCC patients.
Cancer Pain Prevalence and its Management
Arslan, Deniz ; Koca, Timur ; Akar, Emre ; Tural, Deniz ; Ozdogan, Mustafa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8557~8562
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8557
Pain is a public health problem affecting more than half of cancer patients. Despite the success of the protocols currently used, pain cannot still be reduced satisfactorily in the large majority of patients. In order to improve pain management, all healthcare professionals involved with pain should have sufficient knowledge on pain assessment and treatment, and should inform patients to prevent patient-related barriers. In this compilation, the prevalence values and the treatment methods of cancer pain, and the barriers to pain management have been assessed.
Self-Collection Tools for Routine Cervical Cancer Screening: A Review
Othman, Nor Hayati ; Zaki, Fatma Hariati Mohamad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8563~8569
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8563
Sub-optimal participation is a major problem with cervical cancer screening in developing countries which have no organized national screening program. There are various notable factors such as 'embarrassment', 'discomfort' and 'no time' cited by women as they are often also the bread winners for the family. Implementation of self-sampling methods may increase their participation. The aim of this article was to provide a survey of various types of self-sampling tools which are commonly used in collection of cervical cells. We reviewed currently available self-sampling devices and collated the advantages and disadvantages of each in terms of its acceptance and its accuracy in giving desired results. In general, regardless of which device is used, self-sampling for cervical scrapings is highly acceptable to women in most of the studies cited.
Health Benefits of Moringa oleifera
Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal ; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din ; Kntayya, Saie Brindha ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8571~8576
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8571
Phytomedicines are believed to have benefits over conventional drugs and are regaining interest in current research. Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose herbal plant used as human food and an alternative for medicinal purposes worldwide. It has been identified by researchers as a plant with numerous health benefits including nutritional and medicinal advantages. Moringa oleifera contains essential amino acids, carotenoids in leaves, and components with nutraceutical properties, supporting the idea of using this plant as a nutritional supplement or constituent in food preparation. Some nutritional evaluation has been carried out in leaves and stems. An important factor that accounts for the medicinal uses of Moringa oleifera is its very wide range of vital antioxidants, antibiotics and nutrients including vitamins and minerals. Almost all parts from Moringa can be used ad a source for nutrition with other useful values. This mini-review elaborates on details of its health benefits.
Research Progress on the Livin Gene and Osteosarcomas
Li, Cheng-Jun ; Cong, Yu ; Liu, Xiao-Zhou ; Zhou, Xing ; Shi, Xin ; Wu, Su-Jia ; Zhou, Guang-Xin ; Lu, Meng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8577~8579
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8577
Osteosarcoma is a common malignant tumor of bone, but mechanisms underlying its development are still unclear. At present, it is believed that the inhibition of normal apoptotic mechanisms is one of the reasons for the development of tumors, so specific stimulation of tumor cell apoptosis can be considered as an important therapeutic method. Livin, as a member of the newly discovered inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) family, has specifically high expression in tumor tissues and can inhibit tumor cell apoptosis through multiple ways, which can become a new target for malignant tumor treatment (including osteosarcoma) and might of great significance in the clinical diagnosis of tumors and the screening of anti-tumor agents and carcinoma treatment.
hARIP2 is a Putative Growth-promoting Factor Involved in Human Colon Tumorigenesis
Gao, Rui-Feng ; Li, Zhan-Dong ; Jiang, Jing ; Yang, Li-Hua ; Zhu, Ke-Tong ; Lin, Rui-Xin ; Li, Hao ; Zhao, Quan ; Zhang, Nai-Sheng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8581~8586
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8581
Activin is a multifunctional growth and differentiation factor of the growth factor-beta (TGF-
) superfamily, which inhibits the proliferation of colon cancer cells. It induces phosphorylation of intracellular signaling molecules (Smads) by interacting with its type I and type II receptors. Previous studies showed that human activin receptor-interacting protein 2 (hARIP2) can reduce activin signaling by interacting with activin type II receptors; however, the activity of hARIP2 in colon cancer has yet to be detailed. In vitro, overexpression of hARIP2 reduced activin-induced transcriptional activity and enhanced cell proliferation and colony formation in human colon cancer HCT8 cells and SW620 cells. Also, hARIP2 promoted colon cancer cell apoptosis, suggesting that a vital role in the initial stage of colon carcinogenesis. In vivo, immunohistochemistry revealed that hARIP2 was expressed more frequently and much more intensely in malignant colon tissues than in controls. These results indicate that hARIP2 is involved in human colon tumorigenesis and could be a predictive maker for colon carcinoma aggressiveness.
Prevalence of Local Recurrence of Colorectal Cancer at the Iranian Cancer Institute
Omranipour, Ramesh ; Mahmoodzadeh, Habibollah ; Safavi, Farinaz ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8587~8589
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8587
Background: Although a great deal of progress has been made in the management of colorectal cancer in terms of neoadjuvant modalities, surgical techniques and adjuvant therapies, the recurrence of tumors remains an enigmatic complication in patients. A better understanding of colorectal cancer and of factors that lead to recurrence of disease can provide helpful information for designing more effective screening and surveillance methods. Aim: To investigate the factors that may lead to local recurrence of colorectal cancers. Materials and Methods: The current retrospective case study evaluated 617 patients admitted to the Iranian Cancer Institute (the largest referral cancer center in the country) from 1995 to 2009 with confirmed colorectal cancer. Patients with distant metastasis, or with pathology other than adenocarcinoma and no follow-up, were excluded (175 patients). The remainder (442) included 294 (66.5%) with rectal cancer and 148 (33.5%) with colon cancer. The median duration of follow-up was 26 months. Results: The total rate of recurrence was 17.4%, comprising 19.6% and 16.3% recurrence rates in colon and rectal cancer, respectively. Conclusions: Recurrence of colorectal cancer was significantly correlated to tumor grade (p<0.008).
Outcome of Daily Cisplatin with Thoracic Chemoradiotherapy in Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients with Comorbid Disorders: a Pilot Study
Kiziltan, Huriye Senay ; Bayir, Ayse Gunes ; Tastekin, Didem ; Coban, Ganime ; Eris, Ali Hikmet ; Aydin, Teoman ; Mayadagli, Alparslan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8591~8594
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8591
Background: Lung cancer is the most common cancer in males worldwide. The principal mode of treatment in the early stage of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is surgery. However, five-year survival is only about 15% for all stages. The aim is to investigate the effect of daily low dose cisplatin concurrently with radiation therapy in advanced NSCLC patients with poor performance status. Materials and Methods: Ten patients diagnosed as inoperable Stage IIIB NSCLC with comorbid disease were assessed retrospectively in Bezmialem Vakif University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, between 2011 to 2013. ECOG performance status was between 3 and 4. Cisplatin was administered at
daily, for 5 days a week concurrently with radiotherapy using 160-200 cGy daily fractions, 54 Gy being the lowest and 63 Gy being the highest dose. Results: Complete response at the primary tumour site was obtained in 20% patients. Grade I esophagitis was seen 70 percent of patients, and the grade II haematological toxicity rate was 20 %. Median survival time was 7 months. Conclusions: Median survival time was reasonable, despite the patients ECOG performance status of 3-4, which is similar to groups even without comorbid disorders in comparison to other published papers in the literature. Acceptable toxicity, high response rates and quality of life of patients are the other favourable features.
miR-200a Overexpression in Advanced Ovarian Carcinomas as a Prognostic Indicator
Zhu, Cheng-Liang ; Gao, Guo-Sheng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8595~8601
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8595
Background: miR-200a expression is frequently altered in numerous cancers. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of microRNA-200a in advanced ovarian carcinomas. Materials and Methods: We measured miR-200a expression in 72 matched normal ovarian tissues and advanced ovarian carcinomas, and also two ovarian carcinoma cell lines (SKOV3 and SKOV3.ip1 - the latter being more invasive and metastatic than the parental SKOV3) by stem-loop real-time RT-PCR based on TaqMan microRNA assay using U6 as a reference. Levels of miR-200a expression were compared by disease stage, tumor grade, histology, and lymph node involvement. To evaluate the role of microRNA-200a, cell proliferation and invasion of SKOV-3 and SKOV-3.ip1 were analyzed with miR-200a inhibitor/mimic transfected cells. Results: Of 72 paired samples, 65 cancer tissues overexpressed microRNA-200a greater than two fold in comparison with matched normal epithelium. Specifically, patients with lymph node metastasis showed significant elevation. The level correlated with clinicopathological features, including high tumor grade, late disease stage, most notably with lymph node metastasis, but not with tumor histology. In addition, SKOV-3.ip1 cells also overexpressed miR-200a compared with SKOV-3, and miR-200a inhibitor transfected SKOV-3.ip1 cells showed significant reduction in cellular proliferation and invasion, while a miR-200a mimic stimulated the opposite behavior. Conclusions: We provide definitive evidence that miR-200a is up-regulated in a significant proportion of advanced ovarian carcinomas, and that elevated miR-200a expression facilitates tumor progression. Our findings support the notion that miR-200a is an onco-microRNA for ovarian cancer, and elevation is a useful potential diagnostic indicator. This study also provides a solid basis for further functional analysis of miR-200a in advanced ovarian cancer.
Safety of Brucea javanica and Cantharidin Combined with Chemotherapy for Treatment of NSCLC Patients
Ji, Zhu-Qing ; Huang, Xin-En ; Wu, Xue-Yan ; Liu, Jin ; Wang, Lin ; Tang, Jin-Hai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8603~8605
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8603
Objective: To assess the safety of Brucea javanica and Cantharidin combined with chemotherapy in treating patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Method: A consecutive cohort of patients with NSCLC were divided into four groups: experimental group A treated with Brucea javanica injection combined with chemotherapy; experimental group B with Cantharidin injection combined with chemotherapy; experimental group C treated with Brucea javanica and Cantharidin injection combined with chemotherapy; and the control group receiving only chemotherapy. After more than two courses of treatment, safety, quality of life and side effects were evaluated. Results: The incidences of myelosuppression in groups A, B and C were lower than that in Control group (p<0.05), but without significant differences among A, B and C. Adverse effects on the gastrointestinal tract also were lower than in controls (p<0.05) without variation amnog the combined treatment groups. Conclusions: Brucea javanica or Cantharidin combined with chemotherapy could in both cases improve quality of life in our cohort of NSCLC patients without any increase in toxicity. However, further clinical experiments should be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Brucea javanica and Cantharidin combined with chemotherapy for patients with NSCLC.
Association between Socioeconomic Status and Altered Appearance Distress, Body Image, and Quality of Life Among Breast Cancer Patients
Chang, Oliver ; Choi, Eun-Kyung ; Kim, Im-Ryung ; Nam, Seok-Jin ; Lee, Jeong Eon ; Lee, Se Kyung ; Im, Young-Hyuck ; Park, Yeon Hee ; Cho, Juhee ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8607~8612
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8607
Background: Breast cancer patients experience a variety of altered appearance - such as loss or disfigurement of breasts, discolored skin, and hair loss - which result in psychological distress that affect their quality of life. This study aims to evaluate the impact of socioeconomic status on the altered appearance distress, body image, and quality of life among Korean breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at advocacy events held at 16 different hospitals in Korea. Subjects were eligible to participate if they were 18 years of age or older, had a histologically confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer, had no evidence of recurrence or metastasis, and had no psychological problems at the time of the survey. Employment status, marital status, education, and income were assessed for patient socioeconomic status. Altered appearance distress was measured using the NCI's cancer treatment side effects scale; body image and quality of life were measured by the EORTC QLC-C30 and BR23. Means and standard deviations of each outcome were compared by socioeconomic status and multivariate linear regression models for evaluating the association between socioeconomic status and altered appearance distress, body image, and quality of life. Results: A total of 126 breast cancer patients participated in the study; the mean age of participants was 47.7 (SD=8.4). Of the total, 83.2% were married, 85.6% received more than high school education, 35.2% were employed, and 41% had more than $3000 in monthly household income. About 46% had mastectomy, and over 30% were receiving either chemotherapy or radiation therapy at the time of the survey. With fully adjusted models, the employed patients had significantly higher altered appearance distress (1.80 vs 1.48; p<0.05) and poorer body image (36.63 vs 51.69; p<0.05) compared to the patients who were unemployed. Higher education (10.58, standard error (SE)=7.63) and family income (12.88, SE=5.08) was positively associated with better body image after adjusting for age, disease stage at diagnosis, current treatment status, and breast surgery type. Similarly, patients who were married and who had higher education had better quality of life were statistically significant in the multivariate models. Conclusions: Socioeconomic status is significantly associated with altered appearance distress, body image, and quality of life in Korean women with breast cancer. Patients who suffer from altered appearance distress or lower body image are much more likely to experience psychosocial, physical, and functional problems than women who do not, therefore health care providers should be aware of the changes and distresses that these breast cancer patients go through and provide specific information and psychosocial support to socioeconomically more vulnerable patients.
Diagnostic Value of Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy in Malignant Thyroid Nodules: Utility for Micronodules
Unal, Betul ; Sezer, Cem ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8613~8616
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8613
Background: The diagnostic approach to thyroid nodules involves ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB). We especially aimed to evaluate the contribution and the place of US-FNAB in preoperative evaluation of the malignant cases and draw attention to discordant cases diagnosed with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). Materials and Methods: A total of 276 cases were retrospectively reviewed who were subsequently diagnosed with a malignancy and who underwent US-FNAB. Results: Some 45 were found to have previously undergone the US-FNAB procedure. Of the patients in whom the surgical specimen was diagnosed with a malignancy, 21 (46.7%) were diagnosed as malignant or suspicious for malignancy, and 24 (53.3%) were concluded as benign or insufficient for diagnosis. Patients with the diagnosis of PTMC outnumbering the others was a striking finding (11 cases, 24%). Conclusions: We suggest performing repeat aspiration biopsy considering sampling errors in cases where inconsistency exists between clinical findings and cytological results in thyroid nodules smaller than 10 mm in diameter and with suspicious findings on ultrasonography.
Roles of the Bcl-2/Bax Ratio, Caspase-8 and 9 in Resistance of Breast Cancer Cells to Paclitaxel
Sharifi, Simin ; Barar, Jaleh ; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid ; Samadi, Nasser ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8617~8622
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8617
The goal of this study was to establish paclitaxel resistant MCF-7 cells, as in vitro model, to identify the molecular mechanisms leading to acquired chemoresistance in breast cancer cells. Resistant cells were developed by stepwise increasing exposure to paclitaxel. Gene expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 along with protein levels of caspase-8 and caspase-9 were evaluated in two resistant cell lines (MCF-7/Pac64 and MCF-7/Pac5 nM). Morphological modifications in paclitaxel resistance cells were examined by light microscopy and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). As an important indicator of resistance to chemotheraputic agents, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio showed a significant increase in both MCF-7/Pac5nM and MCF-7/Pac 64nM cells (p<0.001), while caspase-9 levels were decreased (p<0.001) and caspase-8 was increased (p<0.001). FACS analysis demonstrated that MCF-7/Pac64 cells were smaller than MCF-7 cells with no difference in their granularity. Our results support the idea that paclitaxel induces apoptosis in a mitochondrial-dependent manner. Identifying breast cancer patients with a higher Bcl-2/Bax ratio and caspase 9 level and then inhibiting the activity of these proteins may improve the efficacy of chemotheraputic agents.
Silencing of NUF2 Inhibits Tumor Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinomas
Liu, Qiang ; Dai, She-Jiao ; Li, Hong ; Dong, Lei ; Peng, Yu-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8623~8629
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8623
Background: As an important component of the NDC80 kinetochore complex, NUF2 is essential for kinetochore-microtubule attachment and chromosome segregation. Previous studies also suggested its involvement in development of various kinds of human cancers, however, its expression and functions in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still unclear. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that NUF2 is aberrant in human HCCs and associated with cell growth. Results: Our results showed significantly elevated expression of NUF2 in human HCC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues, and high expression of NUF2 in HCC cell lines. Using lentivirus-mediated silencing of NUF2 in HepG2 human HCC cells, we found that NUF2 depletion markedly suppressed proliferation and colony formation capacity in vitro, and dramatically hampered tumor growth of xenografts in vivo. Moreover, NUF2 silencing could induce cell cycle arrest and trigger cell apoptosis. Additionally, altered levels of cell cycle and apoptosis related proteins including cyclin B1, Cdc25A, Cdc2, Bad and Bax were also observed. Conclusions: In conclusion, these results demonstrate that NUF2 plays a critical role in the regulation of HCC cell proliferation and apoptosis, indicating that NUF2 may serve as a potential molecular target for therapeutic approaches.
Expression and Function of GSTA1 in Lung Cancer Cells
Pan, Xue-Diao ; Yang, Zhou-Ping ; Tang, Qi-Ling ; Peng, Tong ; Zhang, Zheng-Bing ; Zhou, Si-Gui ; Wang, Gui-Xiang ; He, Bing ; Zang, Lin-Quan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8631~8635
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8631
Glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) appears to be primarily involved in detoxification processes, but possible roles in lung cancer remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and function of GSTA1 in lung cancer cells. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to assess expression in cancer cell lines and the normal lung cells, then verify the A549 cells line with stable overexpression. Localization of GSTA1 proteins was assessed by cytoimmunofluorescence. Three double-strand DNA oligoRNAs (SiRNAs) were synthesized prior to being transfected into A549 cells with Lipofectamine 2000, and then the most efficient SiRNA was selected. Expression of the GSTA1 gene in the transfected cells was determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. The viability of the transfected cells were assessed by MTT. Results showed that the mRNA and protein expression of A549 cancer cells was higher than in MRC-5 normal cells. Cytoimmunofluorescence demonstrated GSTA1 localization in the cell cytoplasm and/or membranes. Transfection into A549 cells demonstrated that down-regulated expression could inhibit cell viability. Our data indicated that GSTA1 expression may be a target molecule in early diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Breast Self-examination Among Female University Students from 24 Low, Middle Income and Emerging Economy Countries
Pengpid, Supa ; Peltzer, Karl ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8637~8640
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8637
The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice of Breast Self-Examination (BSE) among female university students from 24 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 10,810 female undergraduate university students aged 16-30 (mean age 20.7, SD=2.9) from 25 universities in 24 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 50.4% of the female students indicated that they knew how to conduct BSE. Among all women, 59.3% had never practiced BSE in the past 12 months, 21.3% 1-2 times, 10.3% 3-10 times, and 9.1% monthly. The proportion of monthly BSE was above 20% in Nigeria and Laos and below 2% in Bangladesh, India, Singapore, Russia, and South Africa. Logistic regression found that BSE importance or positive attitude was highly associated with BSE practice. BSE practices were found to be inadequate and efforts should be made to develop programmes that can increase knowledge related to breast cancer as well as the practice of breast self-examination.
Association of Breast Cancer with Sleep Pattern - A Pilot Case Control Study in a Regional Cancer Centre in South Asia
Datta, Karabi ; Roy, Asoke ; Nanda, Durgaprasad ; Das, Ila ; Guha, Subhas ; Ghosh, Dipanwita ; Sikdar, Samar ; Biswas, Jaydip ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8641~8645
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8641
The rising trend of breast cancer both in developed and developing countries is a real threat challenging all efforts to screening, prevention and treatment aspects to reduce its impact. In spite of modern preventive strategies, the upward trend of breast cancer has become a matter of great concern in both developed and developing countries. Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute is a premier regional cancer institute in eastern region of India catering to a large number of cancer patients every year. A pilot case control study of fifty breast cancer patients and 100 matched controls was conducted during 2013 to evaluate the effects of habitual factors like working in night shift, not having adequate sleep, and not sleeping in total darkness on breast cancer of women. The study revealed that not sleeping in total darkness was associated with higher odds of outcome of breast cancer of women. This positive correlation can play a vital role in formulation of preventive strategies through life style modification.
Ovarian Malignancy Probability Score (OMPS) for Appropriate Referral of Adnexal Masses
Arab, Maliheh ; Honarvar, Zahra ; Hosseini-Zijoud, Seyed-Mostafa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8647~8650
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8647
Background: Ovarian cancer is the most common cancer cause of gynecologic cancer deaths. In order to increase the likelihood of patient survival through primary operation by gyneco-oncologists, an appropriate algorithm for referral is considered here. Materials and Methods: Suspicious adnexal mass cases including ovarian malignancy probability score-1 (OMPS1) scores between 2.3-3.65 are re-evaluated by OMPS2. Sensitivity and specificity of each score were determined. Results: Sensitivity and specificity with a 3.82 score of OMPS2 in the studied subgroup (OMPS1 scores between 2.3-3.65) were 64% and 76.9% respectively. Conclusions: Management of OMPS1 scores of below 2.3 with sensitivity of 100% and above 3.65 with specificity of 72.9% is clear. In the subgroup of cases with OMPS1 score between 2.3-3.65, OMPS2 is helpful for triage with a cutoff score of 3.82.
Expression of Ang-2/Tie-2 and PI3K/AKT in Colorectal Cancer
Zhang, Ji-Hong ; Wang, Li-Hua ; Li, Xiang-Jun ; Wang, Ai-Ping ; Reng, Li-Qun ; Xia, Feng-Guo ; Yang, Zhi-Ping ; Jiang, Jing ; Wang, Xiao-Dan ; Wen, Chun-Yang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8651~8656
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8651
Purpose: To study the expression of angiogenin-2 (Ang-2) and its receptor Tie-2 in colorectal cancer and discuss the possible mechanisms behind this process. Materials and Methods: Using the streptavidin-peroxidase (SP) immunohistochemical method, paraffin sections from 100 colorectal cancer samples and 10 samples from tumor-adjacent normal tissue (> 2 cm from the edge of the gross tumor) were tested for protein expression of Ang-2, Tie-2, PI3K, and AKT. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blots were further used to measure expression of the 4 genes and proteins in 20 freshly-resected colorectal cancer samples and tumor-adjacent normal tissues. Results: In colorectal cancer tissues, the expression of the Ang-2, Tie-2, PI3K, and AKT genes and their proteins was significantly higher than in tumor-adjacent normal tissues. Protein expression in poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma was higher than that in well and moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. According to Duke's classification, the protein expression in Stages C and D was significantly higher than that in Stages A and B. In the group with lymphatic metastasis, the protein expression was higher than that without lymphatic metastasis. Conclusions: In colorectal cancer, the expression of the Ang-2, Tie-2, PI3K, and AKT genes and their proteins is markedly higher than those in tumor-adjacent normal tissues. No correlation was observed between protein expression and gender, location, or histologic type. Correlations did exist between protein expression and differentiation level, stage of Duke's classification, and lymphatic metastasis; in colorectal cancer tissues with lower differentiation levels, higher stages of Duke's classification, and lymphatic metastasis, the expression of all 4 proteins was higher. The study of their expression patterns and relationships with aggression and metastasis will provide a valuable experimental foundation for assessing prognosis and targeted therapy of colorectal cancer.
Association between Dietary Behavior and Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Yanting
Zhao, Lin ; Liu, Chun-Ling ; Song, Qing-Kun ; Deng, Ying-Mei ; Qu, Chen-Xu ; Li, Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8657~8660
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8657
Background: Yanting is one of high risk areas for esophageal cancer and the screening program was therefore initiated there. This study was aimed to investigate the dietary behaviors on the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), among the individuals with normal and abnormal esophagus mucosa. Materials and Methods: A frequency matched case-controls study was proposed to estimate the different distribution of dietary behavior between individuals of control, esophagitis and cancer groups. Cancer cases were selected from hospitals. Esophagitis cases and controls were selected from screening population for ESCC. Health workers collected data for 1 year prior to interview, in terms of length of finishing a meal, temperature of eaten food and interval between water boiling and drinking. Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis tests and unconditional logistic regression model were used to estimate differences and associations between groups. Results: Compared with controls, length of finishing a meal
was related to a reduced OR for cancer (OR=0.46, 95%CI, 0.22-0.97) and even compared with cases of esophagitis, the OR of cancer was reduced to 0.30 (95%CI, 0.13-0.72). The OR for often eating food at a high temperature was 2.48 (95%CI 1.06, 5.82) for ESCC as compared with controls. Interval between water boiling and drinking of
was associated with lower risk of cancer: the OR was 0.18 compared with controls and 0.49 with esophagitis cases (p<0.05). Conclusions: Length of eating food
and interval between water boiling and drinking
are potentially related to reduced risk of esophageal SCC, compared with individuals with normal and abnormal esophageal mucosa. Recommendations to Yanting residents to change their dietary behaviors should be made in order to reduce cancer risk.
Modified Docetaxel and Cisplatin in Combination with Capecitabine (DCX) as a First-Line Treatment in HER2-Negative Advanced Gastric Cancer
Bilici, Ahmet ; Selcukbiricik, Fatih ; Demir, Nazan ; Ustaalioglu, Bala Basak Oven ; Dikilitas, Mustafa ; Yildiz, Ozcan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8661~8666
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8661
Background: Docetaxel and cisplatin in combination with fluorouracil (DCF) regimen is accepted to be one of the standard regimens in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer. However, substantial toxicity has limited its use in daily clinical practice. Therefore, modification of DCF regimens, including introduction of capecitabine has been investigated to improve the safety profiles. In the present study, the efficacy and toxicity of a regimen with a modified dose of docetaxel and cisplatin in combination with oral capecitabine (DCX) was evaluated in untreated patients with HER2-negative advanced gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients with HER2-negative locally advanced or metastatic gastric cancer were included in this cohort. Patients received docetaxel
(day 1) combined with capecitabine
(days 1-14) every 3 weeks. Treatment response, survival, and toxicity were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The median age was 54 years (range: 24-76). The majority of patients (70%) had metastatic disease, while 11 patients (21%) had recurrent disease and underwent curative gastrectomy, and 5 patients (9%) had locally advanced disease (LAD). The median number of DCX cycles was 4. There were 28 partial responses and 11 complete responses, with an overall response rate of 72%. Curative surgery could be performed in four patients among five with LAD. At the median follow-up of 10 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of the entire cohort of patients were 7.4 and 12.1 months, respectively. Dose modification was done in 12 patients due to toxicity in 8 and noncompliance in 4 patients. The most common hematological toxicity was neutropenia, which occurred at grade 3-4 intensity in 10 of 54 patients (27.7%). Febrile neutropenia was diagnosed only in two cases. Conclusions: DCX regimen offers prominent anti-tumor activity and considered to be effective first-line treatment with manageable toxicity for patients with HER2-negative advanced gastric cancer.
Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Non-cardia Gastric Cancer Patients - Does it Improve Survival?
Saedi, Hamid Saeidi ; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz ; Joukar, Farahnaz ; Shafaghi, Afshin ; Shahidsales, Soodabeh ; Atrkar-Roushan, Zahra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8667~8671
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8667
Background: Survival rates after resection of advanced gastric cancer are extremely poor. An increasing number of patients with gastric carcinomas (GC) are therefore being treated with preoperative chemotherapy. We evaluated 36 month survival rate of GC patients that were treated by adding a neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy before gastrostomy.Materials and Methods: Patients with stage II or III gastric adenocarcinomas were enrolled. The patients divided into two groups: (A) Neoadjuvant group that received concurrent chemoradiation before surgery (4500cGy of radiation at 180cGy per day plus chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, in the first and the end four days of radiotherapy). Resection was attempted 5 to 6 weeks after end of chemoradiotherapy. (B) Adjuvant group that received concurrent chemo-radiation after surgical resection. Results: Two (16.7%) patients out of 12 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy and 5 (38.5%) out of 13 in the surgery group survived after 36 months. These rates were not significantly different with per protocol and intention-to-treat analysis. The median survival time of patients in group A and B were 13.4 and 21.6 months, respectively, again not significantly different. Survival was significantly greater in patients with well differentiated adenocarcinoma in group B than in group A (p<0.004). Conclusions: According to this study we suggest surgery then chemoradiotherapy for patients with well differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma rather than other approaches. Additional studies with greater sample size and accurate matching relying on cancer molecular behavior are recommended.
Tobacco (Kretek) Smoking, Betel Quid Chewing and Risk of Oral Cancer in a Selected Jakarta Population
Amtha, Rahmi ; Razak, Ishak Abduk ; Basuki, Bastaman ; Roeslan, Boedi Oetomo ; Gautama, Walta ; Puwanto, Denny Joko ; Ghani, Wan Maria Nabillah ; Zain, Rosnah Binti ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8673~8678
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8673
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the association between tobacco consumption (kretek) and betel quid chewing with oral cancer risk. Materials and Methods: A total of 81 cases of oral cancers were matched with 162 controls in this hospital-based study. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and details of risk habits (duration, frequency and type of tobacco consumption and betel quid chewing) were collected. Association between smoking and betel quid chewing with oral cancer were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results: Slightly more than half of the cases (55.6%) were smokers where 88.9% of them smoked kretek. After adjusting for confounders, smokers have two fold increased risk, while the risk for kretek consumers and those smoking for more than 10 years was increased to almost three-fold. Prevalence of betel quid chewing among cases and controls was low (7.4% and 1.9% respectively). Chewing of at least one quid per day, and quid combination of betel leaf, areca nut, lime and tobacco conferred a 5-6 fold increased risk. Conclusions: Smoking is positively associated with oral cancer risk. A similar direct association was also seen among betel quid chewers.
Anti-CSC Effects in Human Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Eca109/9706 Cells Induced by Nanoliposomal Quercetin Alone or Combined with CD 133 Antiserum
Zheng, Nai-Gang ; Mo, Sai-Jun ; Li, Jin-Ping ; Wu, Jing-Lan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8679~8684
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8679
CD133 was recently reported to be a cancer stem cell and prognostic marker. Quercetin is considered as a potential chemopreventive agent due to its involvement in suppression of oxidative stress, proliferation and metastasis. In this study, the expression of CD133/CD44 in esophageal carcinomas and Eca109/9706 cells was explored. In immunoflurorescence the locations of
and multidrug resistance 1
in the same E-cancer cells were coincident, mainly in cytomembranes. In esophageal squamous cell carcinomas detected by double/single immunocytochemistry, small
cells were located in the basal layer of stratified squamous epithelium, determined as CSLC (cancer stem like cells);
surrounding the cells appeared in diffuse pattern, and the larger
(hi) cells were mainly located in the prickle cell layer of the epithelium, as progenitor cells. In E-cancer cells exposed to nanoliposomal quercetin (nLQ with cytomembrane permeability), down-regulation of NF-
, histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and cyclin D1 and up-regulation of caspase-3 were shown by immunoblotting, and attenuated HDAC1 with nuclear translocation and promoted E-cadherin expression were demonstrated by immunocytochemistry. In particular, enhanced E-cadherin expression reflected the reversed epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) capacity of nLQ, acting as cancer attenuator/preventive agent. nLQ acting as an HDAC inhibitor induced apoptotic cells detected by TUNEL assay mediated via HDAC-NF-
signaling. Apoptotic effects of liposomal quercetin (LQ, with cytomembrane-philia) combined with CD133 antiserum were also detected by CD133 immunocytochemistry combined with TUNEL assay. The combination could induce greater apoptotic effects than nLQ induced alone, suggesting a novel anti-CSC treatment strategy.
Preliminary Research on the Expression, Purification and Function of the Apoptotic Fusion Protein, Sival
Zhang, Ya-Han ; Yu, Lu-Gang ; Zhu, Wan-Zhan ; Wang, Sheng-Li ; Wang, Dian-Dong ; Yang, Yan-Xin ; Yu, Xia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8685~8688
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8685
The objective of the present study was to investigate cloning, expression, and functions of the recombinant protein, Siva1. Siva1 gene was synthesized by RT-PCR from HCT116 cells. Plasmids were cleaved with the restriction endonuclease, BamH1/Sal1 and products were connected to pQE30, which underwent cleavage by BamH1/Sal1. The recombinant plasmid, pQE30-Siva1, was identified after digestion with restriction endonucleases followed by transformation into E. coli M15. Expression of Siva1 was induced by IPTG and identified by SDS-PAGE following purification with affinity chromatography. The results showed that size of Siva1 was 12 kDa, consistent with the molecular weight of the His-Siva1 fusion protein. Functional test demonstrated that Siva1 significantly inhibited the invasion and migration of HCT116 cells. It may thus find clinical application for control of cancers.
Cervical Cancer Trends in Mexico: Incidence, Mortality and Research Output
Anaya-Ruiz, Maricruz ; Vincent, Ana Karen ; Perez-Santos, Martin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8689~8692
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8689
Purpose: To evaluate the recent incidence and mortality of and scientific research trends in cervical cancer in Mexican females. Materials and Methods: Data between 2000 and 2010 from the Department of Epidemiology of the Ministry of Health, and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of World Health Organization were analyzed, and age-standardized rates (ASRs) were calculated. In addition, scientific research data were retrieved from the Web of Science database from 2003 to 2012, using different terms related to cervical cancer. Results: The incidence rate decreased during last five years, while mortality rates showed an annual decrease of 4.93%. A total of 780 articles were retrieved, and the institutions with the majority of publications were National Autonomous University of Mexico (34.87%), Social Security Mexican Institute (16.02%), and National Institute of Cancerology (15%). The main types of research were treatment, diagnosis, and prevention. Conclusions: The above results show that incidence of cervical cancer decreased over time in Mexico during last five years; similarly, the downturn observed in mortality mainly reflects improved survival as a result of earlier diagnosis and cancer treatment. Also, this article demonstrates the usefulness of bibliometrics to address key evaluation questions and to establish priorities, define future areas of research, and develop cervical cancer control strategies in Mexico.
Comparison of Inhibitory Effect of 17-DMAG Nanoparticles and Free 17-DMAG in HSP90 Gene Expression in Lung Cancer
Mellatyar, Hassan ; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl ; Rahmati, Mohammad ; Ghalhar, Masoud Gandomkar ; Etemadi, Ali ; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem ; Zarghami, Nosratallah ; Barkhordari, Amin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8693~8698
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8693
Background: Up-regulation of hsp90 gene expression occurs in numerous cancers such as lung cancer. D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid-poly ethylene glycol-17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxy geldanamycin (PLGA-PEG-17DMAG) complexes and free 17-DMAG may inhibit the expression. The purpose of this study was to examine whether nanocapsulating 17DMAG improves the anti cancer effect over free 17DMAG in the A549 lung cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: Cells were grown in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% FBS. Capsulation of 17DMAG is conducted through double emulsion, then the amount of loaded drug was calculated. Other properties of this copolymer were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Assessment of drug cytotoxicity on the grown of lung cancer cell line was carried out through MTT assay. After treatment, RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized. In order to assess the amount of hsp90 gene expression, real-time PCR was performed. Results: In regard to the amount of the drug load, IC50 was significant decreased in nanocapsulated(NC) 17DMAG in comparison with free 17DMAG. This was confirmed through decrease of HSP90 gene expression by real-time PCR. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that PLGA-PEG-17DMAG complexes can be more effective than free 17DMAG in down-regulating of hsp90 expression by enhancing uptake by cells. Therefore, PLGA-PEG could be a superior carrier for this kind of hydrophobic agent.
Incidental Abnormal FDG Uptake in the Prostate on 18-fluoro-2-Deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography Scans
Kang, Pil Moon ; Seo, Won Ik ; Lee, Sun Seong ; Bae, Sang Kyun ; Kwak, Ho Sup ; Min, Kweonsik ; Kim, Wansuk ; Kang, Dong Il ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8699~8703
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8699
18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (
-FDG PET/CT) scans are commonly used for the staging and restaging of various malignancies, such as head and neck, breast, colorectal and gynecological cancers. However, the value of FDG PET/CT for detecting prostate cancer is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of incidental prostate
-FDG uptake on PET/CT scans. We reviewed
-FDG PET/CT scan reports from September 2009 to September 2013, and selected cases that reported focal/diffuse FDG uptake in the prostate. We analyzed the correlation between
-FDG PET/CT scan findings and data collected during evaluations such as serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, digital rectal examination (DRE), transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), and/or biopsy to confirm prostate cancer. Of a total of 18,393 cases, 106 (0.6%) exhibited abnormal hypermetabolism in the prostate. Additional evaluations were performed in 66 patients. Serum PSA levels were not significantly correlated with maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) in all patients (rho 0.483, p=0.132). Prostate biopsies were performed in 15 patients, and prostate cancer was confirmed in 11. The median serum PSA level was 4.8 (0.55-7.06) ng/mL and 127.4 (1.06-495) ng/mL in the benign and prostate cancer groups, respectively. The median SUVmax was higher in the prostate cancer group (mean 10.1, range 3.8-24.5) than in the benign group (mean 4.3, range 3.1-8.8), but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.078). There was no significant correlation between SUVmax and serum PSA, prostatic volume, or Gleason score.
-FDG PET/CT scans did not reliably differentiate malignant or benign from abnormal uptake lesions in the prostate, and routine prostate biopsy was not usually recommended in patients with abnormal FDG uptake. Nevertheless, patients with incidental prostate uptake on
-FDG PET/CT scans should not be ignored and should be undergo further clinical evaluations, such as PSA and DRE.
Association between the TGFBR2 G-875A Polymorphism and Cancer Risk: Evidence from a Meta-analysis
Huang, Yong-Sheng ; Zhong, Yu ; Yu, Long ; Wang, Lin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8705~8708
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8705
Disrupted transforming growth factor-
) signaling is involved in the development of various types of cancer and the TGF-
receptor II (TGFBR2) is a key mediator of TGF-
growth inhibitory signals. It is reported that the G-875A polymorphism in TGFBR2 is implicated in risk of various cancers. However, results for the association between this polymorphism and cancer remain conflicting. To derive a more precise estimation, a meta-analysis of 3,808 cases and 4,489 controls from nine published case-control studies was performed. Our analysis indicated that G-875A is associated with a trend of decreased cancer risk for allele A versus(vs.) allele G [odds ratio (OR) =0.64, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.55-0.74], as well as for both dominant model [(A/A+G/A) vs. G/G, OR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.64-0.90] and recessive model [A/A vs. (G/G+G/A), OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.59-0.93). However, larger scale primary studies are required to further evaluate the interaction of TGFBR2 G-875A polymorphism and cancer risk in specific cancer subtypes.
Meta-analysis of Associations between Interleukin-17 Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Gastric Cancer
Yu, Hui ; Sun, Si ; Liu, Fang ; Xu, Qing-Hua ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8709~8713
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8709
Background: Previous studies have indicated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin-17 (IL-17) gene are associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. However, the findings were inconsistent. Materials and Methods: To provide a more reliable estimation of the association between SNPs in the IL-17 gene and the susceptibility to gastric cancer, we searched PubMed, CNKI, and Wan Fang databases and selected finally six studies covering 2,366 cases and 3,205 controls to perform a meta-analysis. Results: Statistical analyses showed that an rs2275913 polymorphism within the IL-17A gene was significantly associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer using a generalized odds ratio (ORG, a model-free approach). Moreover, we also found that the 'A' allele carriers of IL-17A rs2275913 had a significant link with clinicopathological features. However, no significant positive signals were observed in the association analysis of the rs3748067 and rs763780 polymorphisms with the risk of gastric cancer in IL-17A and IL-17F, respectively. Conclusions: Despite some limitations, the present meta-analysis provided a more precise estimation of the relationship between the IL-17 gene SNPs and gastric cancer risk compared with individual studies.
Efficacy and Safety of First Line Vincristine with Doxorubicin, Bleomycin and Dacarbazine (ABOD) for Hodgkin's Lymphoma: a Single Institute Experience
Ozdemir, Nuriye ; Dogan, Mutlu ; Sendur, Mehmet Ali Nahit ; Yazici, Ozan ; Abali, Huseyin ; Yazilitas, Dogan ; Akinci, Muhammed Bulent ; Aksoy, Sercan ; Zengi, Nurullah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8715~8718
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8715
Background: ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine (Vb) and dacarbazine) is the standard regimen in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL).Vincristine (O) is a mitotic spindle agent like Vb. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of O as a part of ABOD in HL. Materials and Methods: Patients who had ABOD were enrolled. Stage I-II HL were evaluated for unfavorable risk factors according to NCCN. National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria was used for toxicity. Results: Seventy-nine HL patients in our center between 2003 and 2007 were evaluated retrospectively. Median follow-up was 54 months. Most of the patients were male in their third decade. Median ABOD cycles were 6 (2-8). Primary refractory disease rate was 17.7% whereas it was 5.1% for early relapse and 5.1% for late relapse disease. Response rates were as 82.3% for complete response, 11.4% for partial response, 5.1% for stable disease and 1.3% for progressive disease. Half of relapsed patients had autologous stem cell transplantation. Estimated 5-year failure-free survival was 71% and significantly longer in early stage patients without risk factors, bulky disease or radiotherapy (RT) (p=0.05, p<0.0001, p=0.02; respectively). Estimated 5-year overall survival was 74% and significantly longer in those who had no RT (p=0.001). Dose modification rate was 5.1% and chemotherapy delay rate was 19%. There were no toxicity-related deaths. Conclusions: ABOD seems to be effective with managable toxicity in HL, even in those with poor prognostic factors.
Attitudes of South Asian Women to Breast Health and Breast Cancer Screening: Findings from a Community Based Sample in the United States
Poonawalla, Insiya B. ; Goyal, Sharad ; Mehrotra, Naveen ; Allicock, Marlyn ; Balasubramanian, Bijal A. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8719~8724
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8719
Background: Breast cancer incidence is increasing among South Asian migrants to the United States (US). However, their utilization of cancer screening services is poor. This study characterizes attitudes of South Asians towards breast health and screening in a community sample. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) was conducted among South Asians (n=124) in New Jersey and Chicago. The following beliefs and attitudes towards breast cancer screening were assessed-health motivation, breast self-examination confidence, breast cancer susceptibility and fear, and mammogram benefits and barriers. Descriptive statistics and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were computed for HBM subscales. Findings: Mean age of participants was 36 years with an average 10 years stay in the US. Most women strived to care for their health (
) and perceived high benefits of screening mammography (
). However, they perceived lower susceptibility to breast cancer in the future (
). Conclusions: Increasing awareness of breast cancer risk for South Asian women may have a beneficial effect on cancer incidence because of their positive attitudes towards health and breast cancer screening. This is especially relevant because South Asians now constitute one of the largest minority populations in the US and their incidence of breast cancer is steadily increasing.
No Association of the TGF-β1 29T/C Polymorphism with Breast Cancer Risk in Caucasian and Asian Populations: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis Involving 55, 841 Subjects
Alqumber, Mohammed A.A. ; Dar, Sajad Ahmad ; Haque, Shafiul ; Wahid, Mohd ; Singh, Rohit ; Akhter, Naseem ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8725~8734
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8725
The transforming growth factor-
) gene 29 T/C polymorphism is thought to be associated with breast cancer risk. However, reports are largely conflicting and underpowered. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of all available case-control studies relating the TGF-
29T/C polymorphism to the risk of developing breast cancer by including a total of 31 articles involving 24,021 cases and 31,820 controls. Pooled ORs were generated for the allele contrasts, with additive genetic, dominant genetic and recessive genetic models. Subgroup analysis was also performed by ethnicity for the TGF-
29T/C polymorphism. No association was found in the overall analysis (C vs T: OR=1.028, 95% CI=0.949-1.114, p-value 0.500; CC vs TC: OR= 1.022, 95% CI=0.963-1.085, p-value 0.478; CC vs TT: OR= 1.054, 95% CI=0.898-1.236, p-value 0.522; CC vs TT+ TC: OR= 1.031, 95% CI=0.946-1.124, p-value 0.482; TT vs CC+TC: OR= 0.945, 95% CI=0.827-1.080, p-value 0.403). Similarly, in the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, no association was found in Caucasian (C vs T: OR= 1.041, 95% CI=0.932-1.162, p-value 0.475; CC vs TC: OR= 1.031, 95% CI=0.951-1.118, p-value 0.464; CC vs TT: OR= 1.081, 95% CI=0.865-1.351, p-value 0.493; CC vs TT+TC: OR= 1.047, 95% CI=0.929-1.180, p-value 0.453; TT vs CC+TC: OR= 0.929, 95% CI=0.775-1.114, p-value 0.429;) and Asian populations (C vs T: OR= 1.004, 95% CI=0.908-1.111, p-value 0.931; CC vs TC: OR= 0.991, 95% CI=0.896-1.097, p-value 0.865; CC vs TT: OR= 1.015, 95% CI=0.848-1.214, p-value 0.871; CC vs TT+TC: OR= 1.000, 95% CI=0.909-1.101, p-value 0.994; TT vs CC+TC: OR= 0.967, 95% CI=0.808-1.159, p-value 0.720;). No evidence of publication bias was detected during the analysis. No significant association with breast cancer risk was demonstrated overall or on subgroup (Caucasian and Asian) analysis. It can be concluded that TGF-
29T/C polymorphism does not play a role in breast cancer susceptibility in overall or ethnicity-specific manner.
Status and Determinants of Health Literacy among Adolescents in Guangdong, China
Ye, Xiao-Hua ; Yang, Yi ; Gao, Yan-Hui ; Chen, Si-Dong ; Xu, Ya ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8735~8740
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8735
Background: Previous studies for non-communicable disease cotrol, including cancer, have mostly relied on health literacy in adults. However, limited studies are available for adolescents. This study aimed to assess the status and determinants of health literacy in in-school adolescents in Guangdong, China. Materials and Methods: A total of 3,821 students aged 13-25 years were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling. After the questionnaire of health literacy was answered, the total scores for health knowledge (18 questions), skills (5 questions) and behaviors (14 questions) were determined. The total scores for health literacy and each subscale were recoded into adequate and inadequate subgroups, and logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with each outcome variable. Results: The prevalence of adequate health literacy was 14.4%, and the prevalences for adequate knowledge, skills and behavior were 22.4%, 64.7% and 6.6%, respectively. Students coming from prestigious schools and having parents with higher education had higher odds of having adequate knowledge, skills and behaviors. Female students had higher odds of having adequate knowledge and behaviors. Students in grade 7-8 had higher odds of having adequate knowledge and skills. The health knowledge was positive associated with health skills (odds ratio [OR] =2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-2.5) and behaviors (OR=3.0, 95%CI 2.3-4.0), and health skills were positive associated with health behaviors (OR=2.6, 95%CI 1.8-3.8). Conclusions: Further efforts should be made to increase adolescents' health knowledge and behaviors, especially for low grade and male students in non-prestigious schools.
Genetic Polymorphism of Interleukin-1A (IL-1A), IL-1B, and IL-1 Receptor Antagonist (IL-1RN) and Prostate Cancer Risk
Xu, Hua ; Ding, Qiang ; Jiang, Hao-Wen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8741~8747
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8741
Purpose: We aimed to investigate the associations between polymorphisms of interleukin-1A (IL-1A), IL-1B, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search for articles of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and bibliographies of retrieved articles published up to August 3, 2014 was performed. Methodological quality assessment of the trials was based on a standard quality scoring system. The meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. Results: We included 9 studies (1 study for IL-1A, 5 studies for IL-1B, and 3 studies for IL-1RN), and significant association was found between polymorphisms of IL-1B-511 (rs16944) as well as IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) and PCa risk. IL-1B-511 (rs16944) polymorphism was significantly associated with PCa risk in homozygote and recessive models, as well as allele contrast (TT vs CC: OR, 0.74; 95%CI, 0.58-0.94; P=0.012; TT vs TC+CC; OR, 0.79; 95%CI, 0.63-0.98; P=0.033; T vs C: OR, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.77-0.96; P=0.008). The association between IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) polymorphism and PCa risk was weakly significant under a heterozygote model (OR, 1.35; 95%CI, 1.00-1.80; P=0.047). Conclusions: Sequence variants in IL-1B-511 (rs16944) and IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) are significantly associated with PCa risk, which provides additional novel evidence that proinflammatory cytokines and inflammation play an important role in the etiology of PCa.
Follow-Up Consultations for Cervical Cancer Patients in a Mexican Cancer Center. Comparison with NCCN Guidelines
Serrano-Olvera, Alberto ; Cetina, Lucely ; Coronel, Jaime ; Duenas-Gonzalez, Alfonso ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8749~8752
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8749
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the patterns of follow-up visits for cervix cancer in a national cancer center in Mexico. Materials and Methods: The National Cancer Institute of Mexico is cancer center with 119 beds that mostly cares for an underserved and socially disadvantaged population. The medical records of cases of cervical cancer that had at least one year of clinical follow-up after being in complete response at the end of primary treatment were analyzed. We recorded the numbers of total and yearly follow-up visits and these were compared with the number of follow-up visits recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network 2013, version 2 for cervical cancer. Results: Between March and June 2007, the medical records of 96 consecutive patients were reviewed. Twenty (21%) of these met inclusion criteria and were selected. In the first year the median number of visits was 11 (4-20). In the ensuing years,
, the number of analyzed patients remaining in follow-up decreased to 17, 14, 13 and 9 respectively. There were 462 follow-up visits to primary treating services (Gynecology Oncology, Radiation Oncology and Medical Oncology) as compared to 220 suggested by the NCCN guidelines (
test p<0.0001). There were 150 additional visits to other services. Conclusions: Our results suggest that in our institution there is an overuse of oncological services by cervical cancer patients once treatment is completed.
Glioma Epidemiology in the Central Tunisian Population: 1993-2012
Trabelsi, Saoussen ; Brahim, Dorra H'mida-Ben ; Ladib, Mohamed ; Mama, Nadia ; Harrabi, Imed ; Tlili, Kalthoum ; Yacoubi, Mohamed Tahar ; Krifa, Hedi ; Hmissa, Sihem ; Saad, Ali ; Mokni, Moncef ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8753~8757
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8753
Background: Glioma is a heterogeneous central nervous system (CNS) tumor group that encompasses different histological subtypes with high variability in prognosis. The lesions account for almost 80% of primary malignant brain tumors. The aim of this study is to extend our understanding of the glioma epidemiology in the central Tunisian region. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 393 gliomas recorded in cancer registry of central Tunisia from 1993 to 2012. Crude incidence rates (CR) and world age-standardized rates (ASR) were estimated using annual population data size and age structure. Statistic correlations were established using Chi-square and Kaplan-Meier test. Results: Tunisian glioma patients were identified with a mean age at diagnosis of 48 years and 1.5 sex ratio (male/female). During the 19 years period of study the highest incidence value was observed in male group between 1998 and 2002 (CR: 0.28, ASR: 0.3). Incidence results underline increasing high grade glioma occurring in the adulthood in the last period (2007-2012). Median survival was 27 months, with 1-, 2- and 5-year survival rates of 42%, 30% and 26%, respectively. Survival was greater in patients with younger age, lower tumor grade, infratentrial tumor location and undergoing a palliative treatment. Conclusions: This central Tunisia gliomas registry study provides important information that could improve glioma management and healthcare practice.
Distribution of Ki67 Proliferative Indices among WHO Subtypes of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Association with other Clinical Parameters
Hashmi, Atif Ali ; Hussain, Zubaida Fida ; Faridi, Naveen ; Khurshid, Amna ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8759~8763
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8759
Background: Non-hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a diverse group of disease encompassing divergent tumor types with contrasting clinical behaviors. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of Ki67 index in segregating indolent from aggressive NHL and its association with clinical parameters. Materials and Methods: During a study period of 4.5 years, a total of 215 cases of lymphomas were diagnosed among of which 172 cases were NHL. Ki67 immunohistochemical staining was performed by the DAKO envision method. Average proportion of tumor cells stained was calculated to determine the proliferative index. Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 46.2 years +19.8 (3-81) with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Mean Ki67 index for indolent NHL included 23% for small cell, 25% for mantle cell, 28.5% for marginal zone and 34.6% for follicular lymphoma. On the other hand, mean Ki67 index for aggressive lymphomas were 66.4%, 66.9%, 80.3%, 83.3% and 94.4% for diffuse large B cell, T cell (NOS), anaplastic large cell, lymphoblastic and burkitts lymphoma respectively. No significant correlation was found between Ki67 index and other clinical parameters like age and extra nodal involvement. Conclusions: Ki67 index is a valuable IHC marker to distinguish indolent from aggressive lymphomas especially in small needle biopsies where exact typing may not be possible.
Association of Risk of Gastric Cancer and Consumption of Tobacco, Alcohol and Tea in the Chinese Population
Tong, Gui-Xian ; Liang, Han ; Chai, Jing ; Cheng, Jing ; Feng, Rui ; Chen, Peng-Lai ; Geng, Qing-Qing ; Shen, Xing-Rong ; Wang, De-Bin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8765~8774
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8765
This study aimed at summarizing epidemiological research findings on associations between tobacco, alcohol and tea consumption and risk of gastric cancer (GC) in the Chinese population. The review searched PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases and reference lists of review papers for all studies published in English or Chinese languages. Information extracted, via two independent researchers, from retrieved articles included first author, year of publication, study design, sample size, source of controls and adjusted odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each category. Statistical analyses used software STATA version 12.0. The systematic search found 89 articles containing 25,821 GC cases and 135,298 non-cases. The overall random effects in terms of pooled OR and 95%CI for tobacco, alcohol and tea consumption were 1.62 (95%CI: 1.50-1.74), 1.57 (95%CI: 1.41-1.76) and 0.67 (95%CI: 0.59-0.76) respectively; while the heterogeneity among included studies ranged from 80.1% to 87.5%. The majority of subgroup analyses revealed consistent results with the overall analyses. All three behavioral factors showed statistically significant dose-dependent effects on GC (P<0.05). The study revealed that tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking were associated with over 1/2 added risk of GC, while tea drinking conferred about 1/3 lower risk of GC in the Chinese population. However, these results should be interpreted with caution given the fact that most of the included studies were based on a retrospective design and heterogeneity among studies was relatively high.
Association between Polymorphisms of Interleukin-17A and Interleukin-17F Genes and Silicosis Susceptibility in Chinese Han People
Chen, Ying ; Fan, Xue-Yun ; Jin, Yu-Lan ; Yao, San-Qiao ; Yun, Xiang ; Hua, Zheng-Bing ; Shen, Fu-Hai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8775~8778
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8775
Background: To explore the relationship between polymorphisms of interleukin17 (IL-17) gene(A-832G 7488A/G) and the susceptibility to silicosis, a risk factor for lung cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 113 silicosis patients and 116 workers without silicosis were enrolled in the case-control study. IL-17A A-832G and IL-17F 7488A/G polymorphisms were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results: The frequencies of AA,GG and AG of IL-17A A-832G locus in the case and control groups were 46.9%, 8.0%, 45.1%, and 49.2%, 7.6%, 43.2%, respectively, with no significant differences (p>0.05).The GG genotype in the IL-17F (7488A/G) locus was not found. The frequencies of AA and GA of IL-17F 7488A/G locus in the case and control groups were 84.1%, 15.9% and 66.4%, 33.6%, respectively (p<0.05). Analysis of combined effects showed that the individuals with GG+AG genotype of IL-17A and GG+GA genotype of IL-17F are protected against silicosis (OR=0.469). Conclusions: IL-17F 7488A/G is associated with susceptibility to silicosis, and G allele may have a protective effect. No relationship was found between IL-17A gene polymorphisms at A-832G and silicosis.
Epidemiology of Female Reproductive Cancers in Iran: Results of the Gholestan Population-Based Cancer Registry
Taheri, NegarSadat ; Fazel, Abdolreza ; Mahmoodzadeh, Habibollah ; Omranpour, Ramesh ; Roshandel, Gholamreza ; Gharahjeh, Saeedeh ; Sedaghat, Seyed Mehdi ; Poorabbasi, Mohammad ; Moghaddami, Abbas ; Semnani, Shahryar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8779~8782
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8779
Background: Malignancies of the female reproductive tract are estimated to be the third most common group of cancers in women. Objectives: We here aimed to present their epidemiological features in Golestan province located in Northeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: Data on primary female reproductive cancers diagnosed between 2004-2010 were obtained from Golestan Population-based Cancer Registry (GPCR). CanReg-4 and SPSS software were used for data entry and analysis. Age standardized incidence rates (ASR) (per 100,000 person-years) were calculated using the world standard population. Poisson regression analysis was used to compare incidence rates. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: A total of 6,064 cancer cases were registered in Golestan females in the GPCR during 2004-2010, of which 652 cases (11%) were female reproductive cancers. Cancers of the ovary (ASR=6.03) and cervix (ASR=4.97) were the most common. We found significant higher rates in females living in cities than in villages. Our results showed a rapid increase in age specific incidence rates of female reproductive cancers at the age of 30 years. Conclusions: We found significant higher rates of female reproductive cancers among residents of cities than villages. Differences in the prevalence of risk factors including reproductive behavior between the two populations may partly explain such diversity. Our results also showed a rapid increase in incidence rates of these cancers in young age females. Further studies are warranted to determine risk factors of female reproductive cancers in our population.
Factors Affecting the Quality of Life of Korean Cancer Survivors Who Return to the Workplace
Han, Kyu-Tae ; Park, Eun-Cheol ; Kim, Sun Jung ; Jang, Sung-In ; Shin, Jaeyong ; Kim, Chan Ok ; Choi, Jaw Woo ; Lee, Sang Gyu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8783~8788
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8783
Background: Although the prevalence of cancer is increasing, it is no longer synonymous with death. The number of cancer survivors is estimated to be increasing due to development in medical treatments and social programs; cancer survivors are increasingly returning to work after long-term unemployment. Thus, we examined the quality of life (QOL) and the factors associated with return of cancer survivors to the workplace. Materials and Methods: This study was performed using the 2008 Community Health Survey administered by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (N=548). We used Chi-square tests to compare demographic variables based on self-perceived health status, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare QOL scores among groups. We also performed a mixed-model analysis of the relationship between QOL and factors at the workplaces of cancer survivors. Results: Based on the results of our study, the overall QOL of cancer survivors was associated with 'mutual respect', 'free emotional expression', occupation, and age. Moreover, different trends of QOL according to self-perceived health were identified on additional analysis. In the 'bad' self-perceived health group, QOL was significantly different according to income. The QOL of cancer survivors in the low-income group was lower than in the other groups. Conversely, the 'normal' group had a lower QOL caused by 'no mutual respect' and "no free emotional expression" in the workplace. The QOL in the 'good' group based on self-perceived health was higher in the younger age group. Conclusions: There may be a significant relationship between QOL and workplace factors for cancer survivors, although further study is needed to investigate this relationship in detail. This may facilitate formulation of policy and efforts to prevent and manage the decline in the QOL of cancer survivors returning to work.
Estrogen Receptor Alpha Gene Expression in Breast Cancer Tissues from the Iranian Population - a Pilot Study
Hosseini, Arezoo ; Gopalan, Vinod ; Nassiri, Mohammadreza ; Ghaffarzadehgan, Kamran ; Aslaminejad, Ali ; Ghovvati, Shahrokh ; Smith, Robert A. ; Lam, Alfred K.Y. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8789~8791
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8789
Estrogen receptor alpha (
) is one of the major sub-types of estrogen receptors.
plays an important role in cellular proliferation and differentiation, chiefly in mammary tissues. In the present study we aimed to quantify of
mRNA and protein expression in breast tissues from the Iranian population using a real-time PCR assay. Twenty nine breast tissues including 19 adenocarcinomas and 10 normal controls were recruited from the Iranian population. mRNA extraction and cDNA synthesis were performed from these tissues using commercial kits.
mRNA and protein expression was quantified using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. The results showed high expression of
mRNA (68%) and protein (53%) in the majority of breast cancer tissues compared to normal breast tissues (p= 0.035). Also, high
mRNA was associated with tumour size of breast carcinomas. In this study, we first reported the expression of
in Iranian patients with breast cancers and demonstrated prevalence of the expression to be similar to breast cancers noted in other populations.
Influence of Serum VEGF Levels on Therapeutic Outcome and Diagnosis/Prognostic Value in Patients with Cervical Cancer
Du, Ke ; Gong, Hong-Ying ; Gong, Zhi-Min ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8793~8796
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8793
Objective: To explore the influence of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level on therapeutic outcome and diagnosis/prognostic value in patients with cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 37 patients diagnosed with cervical cancer by biopsy were selected and treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was adopted before treatment to assess VEGF levels, and its relationships with clinicopathological features and short-term therapeutic effects were analyzed. Results: The median VEGF level in 37 patients before treatment was 647.15 (393.35~1125.16) pg/mL. Serum VEGF levels in patients aged <50 years, in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIIa~IVa, with lymph node metastasis and tumor size >4 cm were significantly increased (P<0.05). The complete remission (CR) rate was 48.7% (18/37), partial remission (PR) rate was 35.1% (13/37), stable disease (SD) rate was 13.5% (5/37) and progressive disease (PD) rate was 2.70% (1/37), so the objective remission rate (ORR) after treatment was 83.8% (31/37). Logistic regression analysis showed that tumor size and serum VEGF level before treatment were independent risk factors affecting the therapeutic outcome, and the higher the level of serum VEGF, the worse the prognosis when tumor size>4 cm. Some 56.8% of patients manifested with myelosuppression, 37.8% with leucopenia, 24.3% with thrombocytopenia, 5.41% with diarrhea, 46.0% with nausea and vomiting, 21.6% with hair loss and 8.11% with hepatic and renal injury during the treatment. Conclusions: Serum VEGF level may reflect the degree of malignancy of cervical cancer and predict therapeutic effect, which is of great importance to cancer diagnosis and prognosis.
Pharmacoeconomics Evaluation of Morphine, MS Contin and Oxycodone in the Treatment of Cancer Pain
Zhang, Wen-Zhou ; Yu, Wei-Jiang ; Zhao, Xiu-Li ; He, Bao-Xia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8797~8800
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8797
Objective: To analyze cost-effectiveness of morphine, MS contin and oxycodone in the treatment of cancer pain, providing guidance for rational drug use in the clinic. Methods: Confirmed by histology, a total of 171 patients with various cancers who required analgesic treatment were selected and divided into 3 groups, 57 cases for each group, given morphine, MS contin and oxycodone, respectively. If there appeared a poor short-term effect or aggravated sudden pain during the treatment, a short-acting morphine injection was given and adverse reactions were processed by symptomatic treatment. The pain relief rate and adverse reactions of groups were observed and pharmacoeconomics evaluation was undertaken. Results: The pain relief rates with morphine, MS contin and oxycodone were 89.5%(51/57), 91.2%(52/57) and 93.0%(53/57), respectively, with no difference samong groups (
, P=0.6162). The occurrence rates of adverse reactions were 59.7%(34/57), 54.4%(31/57) and 43.9%(25/57), again with no significant variation (P>0.05). The ratios of cost-effectiveness (C/E) for the 3 groups were
. When the price of 3 kinds of analgesics was reduced by 10%, the ratios of cost-effectiveness were
but there was no differences when compared with before the price adjustment (t=1.86, P=0.0651; t=1.30, P=0.1948; t=1.17, P=0.2453). Conclusion: Morphine, MS contin and oxycodone give similar pain relief and adverse reaction rates but of all, morphine is the preferred drug for the treatment of cancer pain from the perspective of pharmacoeconomics.
Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors of Women Over 20 Years Old on Cervix Cancer in Istanbul, Turkey
Onsuz, Muhammed Fatih ; Hidiroglu, Seyhan ; Sarioz, Abdullah ; Metintas, Selma ; Karavus, Melda ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8801~8807
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8801
Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of Turkish women over 20 years old on cervix cancer. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed at a primary care center covering 246 women using a questionnaire composed of 3 sections and 38 questions. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square test in univariate analysis and multivariate hierarchical logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the 93.7% women who knew about cervical cancer, 68.0% of them had heard pap smear test and 46.1% had actually undergone a Pap smear once or more throughout their lives. According to the results of the hierarchical logistic regression analysis about factors affecting the Pap smear test; in Model 1, increase in age and education levels, in Model 2 and Model 3 increase in age and cervical cancer information points were determined. The most important information source for cervical cancer was TV-radio/media (59.9%) and health care workers (62.8%) for pap smear test. Conclusions: Although most women have heard of cervical cancer, knowledge about cervical cancer and also Pap smear screening rate are significantly lower. Having Pap smear test for women was affected by age and knowledge level about cervical cancer. Informing women about cervical cancer would be an important intervention.
Process Evaluation of the First Computer Tailored Program for Smoking Cessation among Romanian Smokers
Lotrean, Lucia Maria ; Ailoaiei, Roxana ; Popa, Monica ; De Vries, Hein ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8809~8814
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8809
The objective of this paper is to present the implementation and process evaluation of the first computer tailored program for smoking cessation among Romanian smokers. The program targeted adult smokers who declared the intention to quit smoking in the next six months. The intervention consisted of a letter tailored to several respondent characteristics: gender, cognitive variables (attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy), intention to quit smoking, goal and relapse prevention strategies (action and coping plans), and smoking behaviour. The first 80 participants entered into the program filled in a process evaluation questionnaire one month after the intervention. The results of our study confirmed that the participants had read and remembered the letter. Moreover, new for Romania, this approach was positively appreciated by the participant and the score received for the tailored letter was high. The opinions of the participants confirmed that the tailored letter provided information that was useful, trustworthy and relevant for the individual. At the same time, the participants appreciated the polite, easy to understand content of the letter. These data underlined the premises for continuing the program and for using the information and communication technologies for healthy lifestyle promotion among Romanian population.
CYP2E1 Genetic Polymorphism with Dietary, Tobacco, Alcohol Habits, H. pylori Infection Status and Susceptibility to Stomach Cancer in Mizoram, India
Malakar, Mridul ; Devi, K. Rekha ; Phukan, Rup Kumar ; Kaur, Tanvir ; Deka, Manab ; Puia, Lalhriat ; Baruah, Debajit ; Mahanta, Jagadish ; Narain, Kanwar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8815~8822
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8815
Background: The incidence of stomach cancer in India is highest in the state of Mizoram. In this population based matched case-control study, we evaluated the relationship between CYP450 2E1 RsaI polymorphism and risk of stomach cancer taking into considering various important dietary habits along with tobacco, alcohol consumption and H. pylori infection status. Materials and Methods: A total of 105 histologically confirmed stomach cancer cases and 210 matched healthy population controls were recruited. CYP2E1 RsaI genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP and H. pylori infection status by ELISA. Information on various dietary, tobacco and alcohol habits was recorded in a standard questionnaire. Results: Our study revealed no significant association between the CYP2E1 RsaI polymorphism and overall risk of stomach cancer in Mizoram. However, we observed a non-significant protective effect of the variant allele (A) of CYP2E1 against stomach cancer. Tobacco smokers carrying C/C genotype have three times more risk of stomach cancer, as compared to non-smokers carrying C/C genotype. Both Meiziol and cigarette current and past smokers who smoked for more than 10 times per day and carrying the (C/C) genotype are more prone to develop stomach cancer. Smoke dried fish and preserved meat (smoked/sun dried) consumers carrying C/C genotype possesses higher risk of stomach cancer. No significant association between H. pylori infection and CYP2E1 RsaI polymorphism in terms of stomach cancer was observed. Conclusions: Although no direct association between the CYP2E1 RsaI polymorphism and stomach cancer was observed, relations with different tobacco and dietary risk habits in terms of developing stomach cancer exist in this high risk population of north-eastern part of India. Further in-depth study recruiting larger population is required to shed more light on this important problem.
Treatment Efficacy and Prognostic Factors for Huge HCC Based on Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Staging
Zhang, Zhi-Ming ; Zhang, Yu-Mei ; Gao, Sheng ; Yuan, Wei-Ping ; Zhao, Yin-Nong ; Xiang, Bang-De ; Wu, Fei-Xiang ; Wu, Guo-Bin ; Liu, Jian-Yong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8823~8828
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8823
Objective: To explore the most appropriate treatment for patients with hepatocellular cancer (HCC) >10 cm by using the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification. Materials and Methods: A total of 124 HCC patients undergoing surgery were selected. Disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and prognostic factors were respectively assessed. Results: This study showed that the cumulative 1-, 3-, 5-year survival rates were 79.7%, 59.8% and 41.6% in BCLC-A patients, 76.2%, 9.5% and 0% in BCLC-B patients and 44.9%, 0% and 0% in BCLC-C patients, respectively. The 1-, 3-, 5-year DFS rates were 49%, 24.5% and 9.1% in BCLC-A patients, 7.5%, 0% and 0% in BCLC-B patients, respectively. No BCLC-C patients survived 1 year after surgery. Multivariate analysis indicated that hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), vascular invasion, intra-hepatic metastasis, curative resection, tumor rupture and pathologic differentiation were independent prognostic factors. Conclusions: Surgery is effective and safe for patients with HCC >10 cm with sufficient hepatic reserve.
Targeting of COX-2 Expression by Recombinant Adenovirus shRNA Attenuates the Malignant Biological Behavior of Breast Cancer Cells
Tu, Bo ; Ma, Ting-Ting ; Peng, Xiao-Qiong ; Wang, Qin ; Yang, Hong ; Huang, Xiao-Ling ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8829~8836
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8829
Background: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), considered to have tumor-promoting potential, is highly expressed in a variety of tumors, including breast cancer. Since the functions and action mechanisms of COX-2 in breast cancer have not been fully elucidated, in the present study, the effects of target inhibiting COX-2 with recombinant adenovirus Ad-COX-2-shRNA on malignant biological behavior were investigated in representative cell lines. Materials and Methods: Breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells were transfected with Ad-COX-2-shRNA and COX-2 expression was tested by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Changes in proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of breast cancer cells were detected with various assays including MTT, colony forming, flowcytometry and Transwell invasion tests. The expression of related proteins involved in the cell cycle, apoptosis, invasion and signaling pathways was assessed by Western blotting. Results: COX-2 expression was significantly reduced in both breast cancer cell lines infected with Ad-COX-2-shRNA, with obvious inhibition of proliferation, colony forming rate, G2/M phase passage and invasion, as well as induction of apoptosis, in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, respectively. At the same time, proteins related to the cell cycle, anti-apoptosis and invasion were significantly downregulated. In addition, c-myc expression and phosphorylation activation of Wnt/
-catenin and p38MAPK pathways were reduced by the Ad-COX-2-shRNA. Conclusions: COX-2 expression is associated with proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of breast cancer cells, and its mechanisms of action involve regulating expression of c-myc through the p38MAPK and Wnt/
Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in Northeastern Thai Blood Samples
Barusrux, Sahapat ; Sengthong, Chatchawan ; Urwijitaroon, Yupa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8837~8842
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8837
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important cause of liver cancer in Thailand. The highest prevalence of anti-HCV positive among Thai blood donors is found in the northeastern region. The present analysis of the genotype distribution among anti-HCV positive northeastern-Thai blood donors was conducted to provide a base for the epidemiological pattern of HCV infection in this region. Materials and Methods: A total of 112 HCV seropositive healthy blood donors were randomly selected and tested for the presence of HCV-RNA by RT-PCR. HCV-RNA positive samples were genotyped by direct sequencing at core region genomes and confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. Results: HCV viremia was found in 94.6% (106/112) of HCV seropositive blood donors. There were 3 major genotypes distributed among this population. HCV genotype 3a was the most prevalent (71.7%) followed by genotypes 1a (7.5%), 1b (7.5%), 6i (3.8%), 6f (2.8%) and 6n (1.9%). Conclusions: HCV genotype 3a in asymptomatic infections in northeastern Thailand is significantly higher than other previous reports. Subgenotype 6 prevalence is less than in neighboring countries and distribution patterns differ. The findings are relevant as predictors for using interferon therapy in this population.
Oral Cyclophosphamide and Etoposide in Treatment of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma
Gunduz, Seyda ; Mutlu, Hasan ; Goksu, Sema Sezgin ; Arslan, Deniz ; Tatli, Ali Murat ; Uysal, Mukremin ; Coskun, Hasan Senol ; Bozcuk, Hakan ; Ozdogan, Mustafa ; Savas, Burhan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8843~8846
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8843
Background: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is almost always fatal and few treatment options are available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral cyclophosphamide and etoposide for patients who underwent standard treatment for advanced MM. Materials and Methods: This study included 22 malignant pleural mesothelioma patients who were treated with oral cyclophosphamide and etoposide (EE). Results: The average follow-up period of the patients was 39.1 months. Under the treatment of oral EE, median progression-free survival was 7.7 months [95%CI HR (4.3-11.1)] and median overall survival was 28.1 months [95%CI HR (5.8-50.3)]. The treatment response rates were as follows: 4 patients (27.3%) had a partial response (PR), 12 (54.5%) had stable disease (SD), and progressive disease (PD) was observed in 6 (35.9%). Conclusions: Oral EE can be administered effectively to patients with inoperable malignant mesothelioma who had previously received standard treatments.
Immunohistochemical Assessment of E-cadherin and β-catenin in the Histological Differentiations of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Zaid, Khaled Waleed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8847~8853
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8847
The aim of this study was to establish the expression and localization of E-cadherin and
-catenin in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) so that we could correlate the findings with prognostic-relevant histopathological variables. E-cadherin and
-catenin expression in normal oral epithelia and in oral squamous cell carcinomas was examined immunohistochemically, and associations with histopathological differentiation and prognosis were then analyzed in 33 patients who had been operated on for OSCC. E-cadherin expression was found in (82%) of the squamous cells of well differentiated OSCC, (61%) of moderately differentiated and (39%) of poorly differentiated. E-cadherin expression was significantly associated with histological grade (p=0.000). No nuclear staining was detected. In (19.5%) of the cells E-cadherin localized in the cytoplasm, with no correlation to the histological grade (p=0.106).
-Catenin expression was found in 87% of the squamous cells of well differentiated OSCC, 67% of moderately differentiated and 43% of poorly differentiated, the expression was significantly associated with histological grade (p=0.000). the nuclear
-Catenin expression appeared in 3.3% of the cells and it was correlated to the histological grade (p=0.000). In (23.5%) of the cells
-Catenin localized in the cytoplasm, with correlation to the histological grade (p=0.002). According to this study the expression of
-catenin and E-cadherin were independent prognostic factors for histological grade. E-cadherin was closely linked to
-catenin expression in OSCC (p=0.000) and to tumor differentiation. That reflects a structural association and the role of both in tumor progression.
Impact of Chemotherapy-Related Hyperglycemia on Prognosis of Child Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
Zhang, Bi-Hong ; Wang, Jian ; Xue, Hong-Man ; Chen, Chun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8855~8859
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8855
Purpose: To investigate the impact of hyperglycemia during inductive treatment on the prognosis of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in children. Materials and Methods: Clinical data of 159 ALL childhood cases were reviewed. The patients were divided into the hyperglycemia group (fasting
and/or random blood
) and the euglycemia group according to the blood glucose values. The X2 test was performed to compare the complete remission rates of the two groups, and Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests were performed to compare the 5-year overall and relapse-free survival. Results: The incidence of hyperglycemia in the
group was higher than the younger-age group (P=0.009). Values in the interim- and high-risk groups were higher than the standard-risk group (P=0.028), while there was no significant difference between genders (P=0.056). The complete remission rates of the 2 groups demonstrated no significant difference (P=0.134), while the 5-year OS of the hyperglycemia group was lower than in the euglycemia group (
, P=0.014). The 5 -year RFS was significantly lower than the euglycemia group (
, P<0.001). Conclusions: Children with
old, and in the middle- and high-risk groups appear prone to complicating hyperglycemia during inductive chemotherapy, associated with lower 5-year OS and RFS.
High Expression of Bcl-2 Protein Predicts Favorable Outcome in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: Evidence from a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Zhao, Xian-Da ; He, Yu-Yu ; Gao, Jun ; Zhao, Chen ; Zhang, Ling-Lin ; Tian, Jing-Yuan ; Chen, Hong-Lei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8861~8869
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8861
Background: The prognostic value of Bcl-2 protein expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is under debate. We therefore systematically reviewed the evidence for Bcl-2 protein effects on NSCLC survival to elucidate this issue. Materials and Methods: An electronic search in Pubmed and Embase complemented by manual searches in article references were conducted to identify eligible studies to evaluate the association between Bcl-2 protein expression and overall survival (OS) as well as disease free survival (DFS) of NSCLC patients. Combined hazard ratios (HRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were pooled using the random-effects model. Results: A total of 50 trials (including 52 cohorts) encompassing 7,765 patients were pooled in the meta-analysis regarding Bcl-2 expression and OS of NSCLC patients. High expression of Bcl-2 protein had a favorable impact (HR=0.76, 95%CI=0.67-0.86). In the group of Bcl-2 expression and DFS, 11 studies including 2,634 patients were included. The synthesized result indicated high expression of Bcl-2 protein might predict good DFS (HR=0.85, 95%CI=0.75-0.95). Conclusions: Our present meta-analysis demonstrated favorable prognostic values of Bcl-2 expression in patients with NSCLC. Further prospective trails are welcomed to validate the utility of assessing Bcl-2 in NSCLC patient management.
Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Gastric Carcinoma: 10 years Follow-up of 244 cases from a Single Institution
Misirlioglu, Hasan Cem ; Coskun-Breuneval, Mehtap ; Kucukpilakci, Bulent ; Ugur, Vahide Isil ; Elgin, Yesim ; Demirkasimoglu, Taciser ; Kara, Sakire Pinar ; Ozgen, Aytul ; Sanri, Ergun ; Guney, Yildiz ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8871~8876
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8871
Background: Postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) of gastric carcinoma improves survival among high-risk patients. This study was undertaken to analyse long-term survival probability and the impact of certain covariates on the survival outcome in affected individuals. Materials and Methods: Between January 2000 and December 2005, 244 patients with gastric cancer underwent adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in our institution. Data were retrieved retrospectively from patient files and analysed with SPSS version 21.0. Results: A total of 244 cases, with a male to female ratio of 2.2:1, were enrolled in the study. The median age of the patients was 52 years (range, 20-78 years). Surgical margin status was positive or close in 72 (33%) out of 220 patients. Postoperative adjuvant RT dose was 46 Gy. Median follow-up was 99 months (range, 79-132 months) and 23 months (range, 2-155 months) for surviving patients and all patients, respectively. Actuarial overall survival (OS) probability for 1-, 3-, 5- and 10-year was 79%, 37%, 24% and 16%, respectively. Actuarial progression free survival (PFS) probability was 69%, 34%, 23% and 16% in the same consecutive order. AJCC Stage I-II disease, subtotal gastrectomy and adjuvant CRT were significantly associated with improved OS and PFS in multivariate analyses. Surgical margin status or lymph node dissection type were not prognostic for survival. Conclusions: Postoperative CRT should be considered for all patients with high risk of recurrence after gastrectomy. Beside well-known prognostic factors such as stage, lymph node status and concurrent chemotherapy, the type of gastrectomy was an important prognostic factor in our series. With our findings we add to the discussion on the definition of required surgical margin for subtotal gastrectomy. We consider that our observations in gastric cancer patients in our clinic can be useful in the future randomised trials to point the way to improved outcomes.
Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Position and Current Smoking Among Korean Adolescents
Ko, Min Jung ; Lee, Eun Young ; Kim, Kirang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8877~8881
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8877
Background: Despite social gradients in adult smoking, the effects of socioeconomic position (SEP) on adolescent smoking is not well understood. This study examined effects of subjective SEP as well as the objective SEP on smoking among Korean adolescents. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the 2012 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (38,221 boys; 35,965 girls). SEP was assessed by the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) and the self-rated household economic status. Relationships between SEP and smoking were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Results: The low perceived SEP for either the high or low FAS grade was related to an elevated likelihood of smoking in both genders. A significantly higher risk of smoking was found in boys of low perceived SEP in middle school (odds ratio [OR] 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-1.77 for high FAS, OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.21-1.98 for low FAS), and of low perceived SEP and high FAS in high school (OR 1.13; 95% CI 1.02-1.26). Among girls, an elevated risk of smoking was observed in middle school group with low perceived SEP and low FAS (OR 2.01; 95% CI 1.44-2.79) and in the high school group of low perceived SEP, regardless of FAS level (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.14-1.57 for high FAS, OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.04-1.65 for low FAS). Conclusions: The relationship of subjectively perceived SEP with smoking is as important as objective SEP and more significant in Korean high school adolescents.
Real-Time PCR Detection of 16S rRNA Novel Mutations Associated with Helicobacter pylori Tetracycline Resistance in Iran
Dadashzadeh, Kianoosh ; Milani, Morteza ; Rahmati, Mohammad ; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8883~8886
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8883
Background: Tetracycline is an antibiotic widely used for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, but its effectiveness is decreasing due to increasing bacterial resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of 16S rRNA mutations associated with resistance or reduced susceptibility to tetracycline ofHelicobacter pylori by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assays from culture. Materials and Methods: Tetracycline susceptibility and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) was determined by the Epsilometer test (Etest) method. A LightCycler assay developed to detect these mutations was applied to DNA extracted from culture. The 16S rRNA of these isolates was sequenced and resistance-associated mutations were identified. From 104 isolates of H. pylori examined, 11 showed resistance to tetracycline. Results: LightCycler assay was applied to DNA extracted from 11 tetracycline-susceptible and 11 tetracycline resistance H. pylori isolates. In our study the sequencing of the H. pylori wild types in 16 s rRNA gene were AGA 926-928 with MIC (0.016 to
), while the sequencing and MIC for resistant were GGA and AGC, (0.75 to
), respectively. Also we found a novel mutation in 2 strains with
as their melting temperatures and exhibition of an A939C mutation. Conclusions: We conclude that real-time PCR is an excellent method for determination of H. pylori tetracycline resistance related mutations that could be used directly on biopsy specimens.
Survival Analysis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Subgroup of Young Patients
Fan, Yi ; Zheng, Lei ; Mao, Ming-Hui ; Huang, Ming-Wei ; Liu, Shu-Ming ; Zhang, Jie ; Li, Sheng-Lin ; Zheng, Lei ; Zhang, Jian-Guo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8887~8891
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8887
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is predominantly a disease of middle-aged men with long-term exposure to tobacco and alcohol. An increasing trend has been reported at a younger age worldwide. Clinical records of 100 patients under the age of 45 years treated specifically for oral cavity SCC in our hospital during a 10-year period were retrospectively analyzed to calculate the survival rates. An obvious male predominance coincided with smoking trend among Chinese young individuals and female patients were more likely to have no traditional risk factors such as smoking or drinking. The 5-year overall survival rate and disease-free survival rate were 61.0% and 75.5%, respectively, consistent with other published series over the decade showing a relatively better survival among the young. No significant differences clearly correlated with outcome when comparing non-smokers non-drinkers to ever-smokers and ever drinkers (P>0.05). Overall survival rate and disease free survival rate was found to be significantly higher in patients with early-stage disease than with advanced stage disease (P=0.001, P=0.009 respectively). The strong influence of clinical stage on prognosis emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of oral malignancies for this unique clinical subgroup.
Association of miR-193b Down-regulation and miR-196a up-Regulation with Clinicopathological Features and Prognosis in Gastric Cancer
Mu, Yong-Ping ; Tang, Song ; Sun, Wen-Jie ; Gao, Wei-Min ; Wang, Mao ; Su, Xiu-Lan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8893~8900
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8893
Dysregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been shown to be closely associated with tumor development, progression, and carcinogenesis. However, their clinical implications for gastric cancer remain elusive. To investigate the hypothesis that genome-wide alternations of miRNAs differentiate gastric cancer tissues from those matched adjacent non-tumor tissues (ANTTs), miRNA arrays were employed to examine miRNA expression profiles for the 5-pair discovery stage, and the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRTPCR) was applied to validate candidate miRNAs for 48-pair validation stage. Furthermore, the relationship between altered miRNA and clinicopathological features and prognosis of gastric cancer was explored. Among a total of 1,146 miRNAs analyzed, 16 miRNAs were found to be significantly different expressed in tissues from gastric cancer compared to ANTTs (p<0.05). qRT-PCR further confirmed the variation in expression of miR-193b and miR-196a in the validation stage. Down-expression of miR-193b was significantly correlated with Lauren type, differentiation, UICC stage, invasion, and metastasis of gastric cancer (p<0.05), while over-expression of miR-196a was significantly associated with poor differentiation (p=0.022). Moreover, binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the UICC stage was a significant risk factor for down-expression of miR-193b (adjusted OR=8.69; 95%CI=1.06-56.91; p=0.043). Additionally, Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated that patients with a high fold-change of down-regulated miR-193b had a significantly shorter survival time (n=19; median survival=29 months) compared to patients with a low fold-change of down-regulated miR-193b (n=29; median survival=54 months) (p=0.001). Overall survival time of patients with a low fold-change of up-regulated miR-196a (n=27; median survival=52 months) was significantly longer than that of patients with a high fold-change of up-regulated miR-196a (n=21; median survival=46 months) (p=0.003). Hence, miR-193b and miR-196a may be applied as novel and promising prognostic markers in gastric cancer.
Genetic Variation in PSCA is Associated with Bladder Cancer Susceptibility in a Korean Population
Lee, Jun-Ho ; Song, Hye-Rim ; Kim, Hee Nam ; Kweon, Sun-Seog ; Yun, Yong-Woon ; Choi, Jin-Su ; Jung, Seung-Il ; Kwon, Dong Deuk ; Kim, Soo Hyun ; Choi, Yoo-Duk ; Shin, Min-Ho ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8901~8904
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8901
Background: Genetic factors play important roles in the pathogenesis of human cancer. A recent genome wide association study (GWAS) identified an association between the rs2294008 polymorphism of the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) gene and bladder cancer risk in Caucasians. The aim of this study was to determine whether the rs2294008 polymorphism is similarly associated with bladder cancer susceptibility in a Korean population. Materials and Methods: We conducted a case-control study of 411 bladder cancer patients and 1,700 controls. Results: The frequencies of the CC, CT, and TT genotypes of the rs2294008 polymorphism were 16.9, 54.0, and 28.8% in bladder cancer patients and 24.4, 48.1, and 27.5% in controls, respectively. We found that the combined CT/TT genotypes were associated with a significantly increased risk of bladder cancer (OR CT/TT =1.58, 95% CI= 1.15-2.17), compared with the CC genotype. Smoking habits, tumor grade and tumor stage did not modify the association between rs2294008 and the risk of bladder cancer. Conclusions: Our study showed that the rs2294008 polymorphism in the PSCA gene is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Korean population, providing evidence that it may contribute to bladder carcinogenesis regardless of ethnicity.
Association of Knowledge, Attitude and Demographic Variables with Cervical Pap Smear Practice in Nepal
Ranabhat, Sabin ; Tiwari, Mamta ; Dhungana, Govinda ; Shrestha, Reshmi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8905~8910
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8905
Background: Coverage of cervical pap smear test in Nepal is below general global values. One of the reasons may be that cervical cancer prevention policy of Nepal has 'Visual Inspection of Cervix with Acetic Acid' as the only screening tool. The focus of present study was to find out association of demographic factors, knowledge and attitude regarding cervical Pap smear test with its practice by women in Nepal. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional analytical observational study was conducted between February 1, 2013 and April 30, 2013. Participants were interviewed with the help of a structured questionnaire. Chi square and multivariate logistic regression tests were used to detect associations of variables with pap smear practice. Results: Chi square test showed that practice was significantly associated with knowledge about pap smear test and cervical cancer, having favourable attitude towards the test, urban residency and 36-50 years age-group. Pap smear utilization was not associated with age-at-marriage, parity and age-at-first-child-birth. Multivariate logistic regression showed favorable attitude towards pap smear test as the only variable which significantly influenced pap smear practice (p= 0.006, OR: 2.4). Conclusions: Pap smear coverage has been found to be 15.7% which is lower than global average and that for developing countries. Health education programs which are effective not only in increasing knowledge about cervical cancer and pap smear test but also effective in positively changing attitude towards the test should be organized to increase pap smear coverage.
Prognostic Value of SPARC Expression in Unresectable NSCLC Treated with Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy
Kurtul, Neslihan ; Eroglu, Celalettin ; Unal, Dilek ; Tasdemir, Erdem Arzu ; Orhan, Okan ; Zararsiz, Gokmen ; Baran, Munevver ; Kaplan, Bunyamin ; Kontas, Olgun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8911~8916
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8911
Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the predictive/prognostic value of the secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) in cases of unresectable, locally advanced, non-small cell lung cancer. Materials and Methods: The study included 84 patients with Stage IIIA-B non-small cell lung cancer, undergoing simultaneous chemoradiotherapy including radiotherapy at a dose of 66 Gy and weekly docataxel (
) and cisplatin (
). SPARC expression was studied in biopsy material by immunohistochemical methods and correlations with treatment responses or survival were evaluated. Results: Median overall survival was
(11.55-20.46) months for low expression vs
months (7.92-16.08) months for high expression (p=0.039), while median local control was
(8.48-17.5) months for low expression vs
(4.34-7.66) months for high expression (p=0.045) and median progression-free survival was
(5.48-14.5) months for low expression vs
(3.85-8.15) months for high expression (p=0.022). In both univariate and multivariate analyses, high SPARC expression was associated with significantly shorter overall survival (p=0.003, p=0.007, respectively), local control (p=0.008, p=0.036) and progression-free survival (p=0.004, p=0.029) when compared to low SPARC expression. No significant difference was detected between high and low SPARC expression groups regarding age, sex, T stage, N stage, histopathology and stage-related patient characteristics. Conclusions: High SPARC expression was identified as a poor prognostic factor in cases with locally advanced NSCLC treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
Effect of Route of Preoperative Biopsy on Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Patients with Early Gastric Cancer
Jiang, Hui ; Tu, Hui-Ming ; Qiao, Qiao ; Xu, Ke-Bin ; Li, Jie ; Qi, Xiao-Wei ; Ge, Xiao-Song ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8917~8921
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8917
Objective: To observe and compare the effects of multi-patch biopsy under conventional white light imaging endoscopy (C-WLI) and precise targeted biopsy under magnifying narrow-band imaging endoscopy (M-NBI) on the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of early gastric cancers and intraepithelial neoplasias. Methods: According to the way of selecting biopsy specimens, patients were divided into C-WLI and M-NBI groups, 20 cases. The ESD operations of the 2 groups were compared quantitively. Results: The mean frequency of biopsy in M-NBI group was (
), obviously lower than in the C-WLI group (
) (P<0.01).The average total number of selected biopsy specimens was also fewer (
, respectively, P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the time of determining excision extension, marking time and the time of specimen excision of 2 groups during the ESD (P>0.05), whereas submucosal injection time, mucosal dissection time, stopping bleeding time, wound processing time in the M-NBI group were significantly shorter than in the C-WLI group (P<0.01). Conclusion: Precise targeted biopsy under M-NBI can obviously shorten the time of ESD operation, with small quantity of tissues but high pathological positive rate.
High Monocarboxylate Transporter 4 Protein Expression in Stromal Cells Predicts Adverse Survival in Gastric Cancer
Yan, Ping ; Li, Yu-Hong ; Tang, Zhi-Jiao ; Shu, Xiang ; Liu, Xia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8923~8929
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8923
Background: Increasing evidence suggests that stromal monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) may play key roles in tumor development. However, their clinical value remains largely unexplored in gastric cancer (GC). The present study aimed to determine clinicopathological significance and prognostic values of stromal MCT4 and CA IX in GC. Materials and Methods: Specimens from 143 GC patients were immunohistochemically stained using polyclonal anti-MCT4 and anti-CA IX antibodies. Expression was correlated with patient clinicopathologic characteristics and survival data. Results: High stromal MCT4 expression was detected in 72 of 143 (50.3%) GCs and high CA IX in 74 (51.7%). Both high stromal MCT4 and CA IX were correlated with advanced TNM stage (p=0.000; p=0.000). High CA IX expression was positively related to depth of invasion (p=0.022) and positive lymph nodes (p=0.002) as well. Survival analysis indicated high expression of stromal MCT4 to be an independent factor in predicting poor overall survival (OS) (HR and 95%CI=1.962, 1.032-3.729, p=0.040) and disease free survival (DFS) (HR and 95%CI=2.081, 1.158-3.741, p=0.014) of GC patients. However, high CA IX expression exhibited no significant predictive value. Conclusions: These findings suggest that high expression of stromal MCT4 and CA IX proteins is significantly correlated with GC progression. High stromal MCT4 heralds worse outcome of GC patient, suggesting a novel candidate prognostic marker and therapeutic target.
Comparison between Effects of Free Curcumin and Curcumin Loaded NIPAAm-MAA Nanoparticles on Telomerase and PinX1 Gene Expression in Lung Cancer Cells
Badrzadeh, Fariba ; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl ; Zarghami, Nosratollah ; Yamchi, Mohammad Rahmati ; Zeighamian, Vahide ; Tabatabae, Fateme Sadatem ; Taheri, Morteza ; Kafil, Hossein Samadi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8931~8936
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8931
Background: Herbal compounds such as curcumin which decrease telomerase and gene expression have been considered as beneficial tools for lung cancer treatment. In this article, we compared the effects of pure curcumin and curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticles on telomerase and PinX1 gene expression in a lung cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: A tetrazolium-based assay was used for determination of cytotoxic effects of curcumin on the Calu-6 lung cancer cell line and telomerase and pinX1 gene expression was measured with real-time PCR. Results: MTT assay showed that Curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA inhibited the growth of the Calu-6 lung cancer cell line in a time and dose-dependent manner. Our q-PCR results showed that the expression of telomerase gene was effectively reduced as the concentration of curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA increased while expression of the PinX1 gene became elevated. Conclusions: The results showed that curcumin-loaded-NIPAAm-MAA exerted cytotoxic effects on the Calu-6 cell line through down-regulation of telomerase and stimulation of pinX1 gene expression. NIPPAm-MAA could be good carrier for such kinds of hydrophobic agent.
Prostate Biopsy in the Elderly: Histologic Findings and Treatment Necessity
Akman, Ramazan Yavuz ; Koseoglu, Hikmet ; Oguzulgen, Ahmet Ibrahim ; Sen, Erhan ; Yaycioglu, Ozgur ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8937~8939
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8937
The aim of this study is to determine results of high prostate specific antigen (PSA) or abnormal digital rectal examination driven prostate biopsies performed in our Department in men aged 75 or more and to show the characteristics of pathology results. The hospital records of the patients who had high PSA or abnormal digital rectal examination driven prostate biopsy in two common university based research hospitals have been reviewed retrospectively. Patients aged 75 years or older at the date of biopsy whose records provided pathology results and full medical history were evaluated for the study. A total of 103 patients were evaluated with a mean age of
. More than half of the patients (55.1%) were in their seventh decade and the rest were in the eighth decade. Median PSA value was 15.0 (range 2.1-4500) ng/ml. In most of the biopsies (67%), PSA levels were lower than 20 ng/ml. In almost half of the patients (48%), digital rectal examination was abnormal. In 68.9% of the patients, there were at least one or more associated co-morbid diseases. Gleason scores were 7 or higher in 73%, and 8 or higher in 37% of the patients with prostate cancer. Four of the 70 (6%) patients had bone metastases. Castrations were applied to most of the patients with prostate adenocarcinoma (%79). High percentage of high grade (Gleason 7 or more) prostate adenocarcinoma in the elderly refutes the perception of prostate cancer in this age group as clinically insignificant. Therefore, it is to be kept in mind that prostate cancer in the elderly an be clinically significant and prostate biopsies are to be performed when necessary.
Breast Cancer Awareness among Turkish Nursing Students
Celik, Sevim ; Tasdemir, Nurten ; Sancak, Hulya ; Demirel, Merve ; Akman, Ozlem ; Kara, Merve ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8941~8946
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8941
Background: This study conducted to determine breast cancer awareness and influencing factors among nursing students in the West Black Sea Region in Turkey. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between April-May, 2014. The sample was 270 female nursing students. Data were collected by Personal Information Form and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). Results: The students' mean age was
and 81.1% had knowledge about breast cancer from their academic education. It is found that 63.7% of the students performed Breast Self-Examination (BSE) and 11.1% had a family member diagnosed with breast cancer. The CHBMS mean score of the students was
. Conclusions: Breast cancer awareness of nursing students is on a good level and was affected by family history of breast cancer and health beliefs.
Heat-Shock Protein 70 as a Tumor Antigen for in vitro Dendritic Cell Pulsing in Renal Cell Carcinoma Cases
Meng, Fan-Dong ; Sui, Cheng-Guang ; Tian, Xin ; Li, Yan ; Yang, Chun-Ming ; Ma, Ping ; Liu, Yun-Peng ; Jiang, You-Hong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8947~8950
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8947
Immunological functions of heat shock proteins (HSPs) have long been recognized. In this study we aimed to efficiently purify HSP70 from renal cell carcinoma and test it as a tumor antigen for pulsing dendritic cells in vitro. HSP70 was purified from renal cell carcinoma specimens by serial column chromatography on Con A-sepharose, PD-10, ADP-agarose and DEAE-cellulose, and finally subjected to fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Dendritic cells derived from the adherent fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured in the presence of IL-4 and GM-CSF and exposed to tumor HSP70. After 24 hours, dendritic cells were phenotypically characterized by flow cytometry. T cells obtained from the non-adherent fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were then co-cultured with HSP70-pulsed dendritic cells and after 3 days T cell cytotoxicity towards primary cultured renal cell carcinoma cells was examined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Dendritic cells pulsed in vitro with tumor-derived HSP70 expressed higher levels of CD83, CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR maturation markers than those pulsed with tumor cell lysate and comparable to that of dendritic cells pulsed with tumor cell lysate plus TNF-
. Concomitantly, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes induced by HSP70-pulsed dendritic cells presented the highest cytotoxic activity. There were no significant differences when using homologous or autologous HSP70 as the tumor antigen. HSP70 can be efficiently purified by chromatography and induces in vitro dendritic cell maturation in the absence of TNF-
. Conspecific HSP70 may effectively be used as a tumor antigen to pulse dendritic cells in vitro.
Distribution Characteristics of 3,369 Chinese Colorectal Cancer Patients for Gender, Age, Location and Tumor Size During Colonoscopy
Cai, Bin ; Wang, Mu-Yong ; Liao, Kai ; Xu, Yan-Song ; Wei, Wei-Yuan ; Zhuang, Yuan ; Zhang, Sen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8951~8955
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8951
Background: Studies have shown the existence of gender- and age-related differences in the incidence and anatomic distribution of colorectal cancers. The purposes of this study were to analyze the distribution characteristics of colorectal cancer patients regarding gender, age, location and tumor size in the course of colonoscopy. Materials and Methods: All colorectal cancer patients who underwent colonoscopy in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University from 2003 to 2012 were included in our retrospective study. Demographic information (age and gender) and colonoscopy report information (tumor size and location) were collected and analyzed. To compare the gender differences in tumor location and tumor size, as well as the size differences in tumor location, the chi-square test was used. Results: A total of 3, 369 colorectal cancer patients (2, 007 men vs 1, 362 women) were included in our study. Statistical analysis showed there was no gender difference in the anatomic distribution of the tumors (p>0.05). However, there was a gender difference in tumor size (p<0.05). In addition, our study found there was a significant difference in tumor size between rectal and colon tumors (p<0.001). Conclusions: There was no gender difference in the anatomic distribution of colorectal tumors. In addition, tumors observed in men were larger than in women.
Screening of Differential Promoter Hypermethylated Genes in Primary Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Khor, Goot Heah ; Froemming, Gabrielle Ruth Anisah ; Zain, Rosnah Binti ; Abraham, Mannil Thomas ; Thong, Kwai Lin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8957~8961
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8957
Background: Promoter hypermethylation leads to altered gene functions and may result in malignant cellular transformation. Thus, identification of biomarkers for hypermethylated genes could be useful for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Objectives: To screen hypermethylated genes with a microarray approach and to validate selected hypermethylated genes with the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSPCR). Materials and Methods: Genome-wide analysis of normal oral mucosa and OSCC tissues was conducted using the Illumina methylation microarray. The specified differential genes were selected and hypermethylation status was further verified with an independent cohort sample of OSCC samples. Candidate genes were screened using microarray assay and run by MSPCR analysis. Results: TP73, PIK3R5, and CELSR3 demonstrated high percentages of differential hypermethylation status. Conclusions: Our microarray screening and MSPCR approaches revealed that the signature candidates of differentially hypermethylated genes may possibly become potential biomarkers which would be useful for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets of OSCC in the near future.
Association Between Survivin Gene Polymorphisms and the Susceptibility to Colon Cancer Development in the Turkish Population
Yamak, Nesibe ; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz ; Yilmaz, Umit ; Eroz, Recep ; Uzunlar, Ali Kemal ; Ankarali, Handan ; Sahiner, Cem ; Baltaci, Davut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8963~8967
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8963
Background: Colon cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Apoptosis is a necessary physiological process for cell elimination which is very important both cellular homeostasis and cell proliferation and differantiation. Dysregulation can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and tumor development. Survivin, a member of the IAP family, plays a key role in promotion of cell proliferation as well as inhibition of apoptosis in cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether specific genetic polymorphisms of survivin could be associated with colon cancer development and progression in a Turkish population. Our study is the first to our knowledge to investigate the relationship between colon cancer risk and survivin gene polymorphisms. Materials and Methods: The relation between colon cancer and survivin -31 G/C (rs9904341), -241 C/T (rs17878467) and -625 C/G (rs8073069) polymorphism in promotor site of survivin gene associated with apoptosis was investigated using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results: Individuals with -31C allele and CC genotype were found to have a higher risk of developing colon cancer (OR=13.4, p=0.01). The -241 CT genotype considerably increased the risk of colon cancer (OR=12.0, p=0.0001). However, there was no significant varaition of the survivin -625 C/G polymorphism among colon cancer patients and controls in our study. Conclusions: This study provides the first evidence that survivin -31 G/C and -241 C/T SNP significantly contribute to the risk of colon cancer in the Turkish population.
Health Promoting Lifestyle Behaviour in Medical Students: a Multicentre Study from Turkey
Nacar, Melis ; Baykan, Zeynep ; Cetinkaya, Fevziye ; Arslantas, Didem ; Ozer, Ali ; Coskun, Ozlem ; Bati, Hilal ; Karaoglu, Nazan ; Elmali, Ferhan ; Yilmaze, Gulay ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8969~8974
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8969
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of health promoting lifestyle behaviour among medical students attending seven of the medical schools in Turkey. Materials and Methods: This crosssectional descriptive study was performed during the second semester of the first and last (sixth) years of study from March to May 2011. A questionnaire with two sections was specifically designed. The first section contained questions on demographic characteristics; the second consisted of the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP) Scale. From a total of 2,309 medical students, 2,118 (response rate 91.7%) completed the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t, Anova, Tukey test and binary logistic regression analysis. The research was approved by the Ethics Committee of Erciyes University. Results: The mean age was
years and it was found that 55.1% were men, 62.3% were in the first year. The overall prevalence of smoking was 19.1%, and for drinking alcohol was 19.4%. HPLP point averages of the first year students were
, and for last year
. The overall mean score for the HPLP II was
. They scored highest on the spiritual growth subscale (
), interpersonal relations (
), health responsibility subscale (
), nutrition subscale (
), stress management subscale (
), and the lowest subscale physical activity (
). It is established that student's grade, educational level of parents, economic status of family, marital status, smoking and general health perception of the students resulted in a significant difference in HPLP Scale total score average and the mean score of majority of subscales. There was no statistically significant difference between the total HPLP when evaluated for gender, chronic disease, alcohol drinking status and BMI. Conclusions: Based on these results, particularly in the curriculum of medical students in order to increase positive health behaviours including physical activity, health promotion issues, and giving more space to aim at behaviour change in these matters is recommended.
Functional Investigation on Aromatase in Endometrial Hyperplasia in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Cases
Zhao, Pan-Lin ; Zhang, Qiu-Fang ; Yan, Li-Ying ; Huang, Shuo ; Chen, Yuan ; Qiao, Jie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8975~8979
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8975
Objective: To explore the possible significance of aromatase P450 in endometrial hyperplasia with a background of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of aromatase P450 in endometrium of PCOS patients. Semiquantitative analysis of aromatase P450 expression of mRNA and protein level wasalso carried out by real-time quantitative RT-PCR method. After endometrial cells were stimulated by testosterone and letrozole in vitro, the estradiol (
) level was determined, and the expression of cell aromatase P450 mRNA was assessed. Results: The aromatase P450 mRNA level was increased in endometria of PCOS patients. When endometrial cells were cultured with
level in the culture medium increased. An inhibitory effect on
generation and expression of aromatase P450 mRNA was observed when the endometrial cells were treated with
letrozole. Conclusions: There is an increased expression of aromatase P450 in PCOS patient endometrium. Androgen stimulation could enhance the synthesis of aromatase P450 mRNA and the production of
in endometrial cells in vitro while letrozole could do the reverse.
Preparation of Lysine-Coated Magnetic Fe
Nanoparticles and Influence on Viability of A549 Lung Cancer Cells
Ma, Yu-Hua ; Peng, Hai-Ying ; Yang, Rui-Xia ; Ni, Fang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8981~8985
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8981
Objective: To explore the effect of lysine-coated oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Lys@MNPs) on viability and apoptosis of A549 lung cancer cells. Methods: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Zeta potentiometric analyzer were employed to characterize Lys@MNPs. Then Lys@MNPs and lung cancer A549 cells were co-cultured to study the effect of Lys@MNPs on cell viability and apoptosis. The pathway of Lys@MNPs entering A549 cells was detected by TEM and cell imaging by 1.5 T MRI. Results: Lys@MNPs were 10.2 nm in grain diameter, characterized by small size, positive charge, and superparamagnetism. Under low-dose concentration of Lys@MNPs (<
), the survival rate of A549 cells was decreased but remained higher than 95% while under high-dose concentration (
), the survival ratewas still higher than 80%, which suggested Lys@MNPs had limited influence on the viability of A549 cells, with good biocompatibility and and no induction of apoptosis. Moreover, high affinity for cytomembranes, was demonstrated presenting good imaging effects. Conclusion: Lys@MNPs can be regarded as a good MRI negative contrast agents, with promising prospects in biomedicine.
Definitive Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Cervical Cancer - a University of Malaya Medical Centre Experience
Zamaniah, W.I. Wan ; Mastura, M.Y. ; Phua, C.E. ; Adlinda, A. ; Marniza, S. ; Rozita, A.M. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8987~8992
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8987
Background: The efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer is well established. We aimed to investigate the long-term efficacy of definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer in the University of Malaya Medical Centre. Materials and Methods: A cohort of 60 patients with FIGO stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer who were treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin followed by intracavitary brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) boost between November 2001 and May 2008 were analysed. Patients were initially treated with weekly intravenous cisplatin (
) concurrent with daily EBRT to pelvis of 45-50Gy followed by low dose rate brachytherapy or EBRT boost to tumour. Local control rate, progression free survival, overall survival and treatment related toxicities graded by the RTOG criteria were evaluated. Results: The mean age was 56. At the median follow-up of 72 months, the estimated 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) (median PFS 39 months) and the 5-year overall survival (OS) (median OS 51 months) were 48% and 50% respectively. The 5-year local control rate was 67.3%. Grade 3-4 late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity occurred in 9.3% of patients. Conclusions: The 5-year PFS and the 5-year OS in this cohort were lower than in other institutions. More advanced stage at presentation, longer overall treatment time (OTT) of more than fifty-six days and lower total dose to point A were the potential factors contributing to a lower survival.
Economic Evaluation and Budget Impact Analysis of the Surveillance Program for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Thai Chronic Hepatitis B Patients
Sangmala, Pannapa ; Chaikledkaew, Usa ; Tanwandee, Tawesak ; Pongchareonsuk, Petcharat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 8993~9004
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8993
Background: The incidence rate and the treatment costs of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are high, especially in Thailand. Previous studies indicated that early detection by a surveillance program could help by down-staging. This study aimed to compare the costs and health outcomes associated with the introduction of a HCC surveillance program with no program and to estimate the budget impact if the HCC surveillance program were implemented. Materials and Methods: A cost utility analysis using a decision tree and Markov models was used to compare costs and outcomes during the lifetime period based on a societal perspective between alternative HCC surveillance strategies with no program. Costs included direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect costs. Health outcomes were measured as life years (LYs), and quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The results were presented in terms of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in Thai THB per QALY gained. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were applied to investigate parameter uncertainties. Budget impact analysis (BIA) was performed based on the governmental perspective. Results: Semi-annual ultrasonography (US) and semi-annual ultrasonography plus alpha-fetoprotein (US plus AFP) as the first screening for HCC surveillance would be cost-effective options at the willingness to pay (WTP) threshold of 160,000 THB per QALY gained compared with no surveillance program (ICER=118,796 and ICER=123,451 THB/QALY), respectively. The semi-annual US plus AFP yielded more net monetary benefit, but caused a substantially higher budget (237 to 502 million THB) than semi-annual US (81 to 201 million THB) during the next ten fiscal years. Conclusions: Our results suggested that a semi-annual US program should be used as the first screening for HCC surveillance and included in the benefit package of Thai health insurance schemes for both chronic hepatitis B males and females aged between 40-50 years. In addition, policy makers considered the program could be feasible, but additional evidence is needed to support the whole prevention system before the implementation of a strategic plan.
Clinical Characteristics and Helicobacter pylori Status of Gastric Cancer in Thailand
Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn ; Panarat, Wirat ; Aekpongpaisit, Surasak ; Mahachai, Voracha ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 9005~9008
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.9005
Background: Gastric cancer is the second leading course of cancer death worldwide and H. pylori infection is an important risk factor for gastric cancer development. This study was design to evaluate the clinical, pathological features, survival rate and prevalence of H. pylori infection in gastric cancer in Thailand. Materials and Methods: Clinical information, histological features, endoscopic findings and H. pylori status were collected from gastric cancer patients from Thammasat university hospital during June 1996-December 2011. H. pylori infection was assessed by histological evaluation, rapid urease test and serological test. Clinical information, endoscopic findings and histopathology of all patients were recorded and compared between patients with active or non-active H. pylori infection. Results: A total of 100 gastric cancer patients (55 men and 45 women with mean age of
) were enrolled in this study. Common presenting symptoms were dyspepsia (74%), weight loss (66%), anemia (63%) and anorexia (38%). Mean duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis was 98 days. Overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 83% and active H. pylori infection was 40%. 1-year and 5-year survival rates were 43% and 0%. There was no significant difference between active H. pylori infection in different locations (proximal vs non-proximal: 47.1% vs 48.5%; P-value = 0.9, OR=0.9; 95%CI=0.3-3.1) and histology of gastric cancer (diffuse type vs intestinal type: 47.4% vs 50%; P-value = 0.8, OR=0.9, 95%CI=0.3-2.7). However, linitis plastica was significantly more common in non-active than active H. pylori infection (27.9% vs 0%; P-value<0.0001, OR=13.3, 95%CI=3.2-64.5). Moreover, gastric cancer stage 4 was higher in non-active than active H. pylori infection (93% vs 50%, P-value<0.001). Conclusions: Prevalence of H. pylori infection in Thai gastric cancer patients was high but active infection was low. Most gastric cancer patients presented in advance stage and had a grave prognosis. Screening for gastric cancer in high risk individuals might be an appropriate tool for early detection and improve the treatment outcome for this particular disease in Thailand.
Efficacy of Permanent Iodine-125 Seed Implants and Gemcitabine Chemotherapy in Patients with Platinum-Resistant Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma
Yang, Hui ; Liu, Yu-Hui ; Xu, Liang ; Liu, Li-Heng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 9009~9013
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.9009
Background: The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy and adverse reactions of CT-guided radioactive 125I-seed implantation treatment combined with chemotherapy for platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian carcinoma. Materials and Methods: From September 2010 to December 2012, 23 patients with platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian carcinoma were enrolled. All the patients refused, could not bear, or were not suitable for surgery. They all had no more than 3 lesions, which were detected and could also be measured by CT. All were clarified as single-lesion or multiple-lesion groups. A total of 41 lesions underwent implantation of from 8 to 106 125I seeds (median=43). Multi-plane implanting was adopted and 125I-seeds of (0.4-0.7)mCi were placed at intervals of (0.5-1.0) cm. After implantation treatment, all patients underwent 4 cycles of chemotherapy with gemcitabine
(days 1, 8 and 15). Results: The outcome was evaluated with CT 3 weeks and every 3 months after implantation treatment. After 6 months, the volume of 32 out of 41 lesions (78.0%) was reduced at least 30%, within which 9 lesions completely disappeared(22.0%). Complete response was observed in 7 cases (30.4%), with a partial response in 4 cases (17.4%), 4 cases stable(17.4%)and 8 cases showing progression (34.8%). The total clinical remission rate was 47.8% (11/23). The clinical remission rate was 77.8% (7/9) in the single-lesion group and 28.6% (4/14) in the multiple-lesion group with a significant difference between the two(P=0.036). The common side effects observed were mild gastrointestinal reactions. Conclusions: 125I-seed implantation combined with chemotherapy applies an effective way in the treatment of platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian epithelial carcinoma with the advantages of high local control rates, good short-term effects, little trauma and less side effects.
Influence of Payer Source on Treatment and Outcomes in Colorectal Cancer Patients in a University Hospital in Thailand
Sermsri, Nattapoom ; Boonpipattanapong, Teeranut ; Prechawittayakul, Paradee ; Sangkhathat, Surasak ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 9015~9019
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.9015
The study aimed to compare the 2 main types of insurance used by colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in a university hospital in Thailand: universal coverage (UC) and 'Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme' (CSMBS) in terms of hospital expenditure and survival outcomes. CRC cases in stages I-IV who were operated on and had completed their adjuvant therapy in Songklanagarind Hospital from 2004 through 2013 were retrospectively reviewed regarding their hospital expenditure, focusing on surgical and chemotherapy costs. Of 1,013 cases analyzed, 524 (51.7%) were in the UC group while 489 (48.3%) belonged to the CSMBS group. Cases with stage IV disease were significantly more frequent in the UC group. Average total treatment expenditure (TTE) was 143,780 Thai Baht (THB) (1 US$ =~ 30 THB). The TTE increased with tumor stage and the chemotherapy cost contributed the most to the TTE increment. TTE in the CSMBS group was significantly higher than in the UC group for stage II-III CRCs. The majority of cases in the UC group (65.5%) used deGramont or Mayo as their first line regimen, and the proportion of cases who started with a capecitabine-based regimen (XELOX or
) was significantly higher in the CSMBS group (61.0% compared to 24.5% in the UC group, p-value < 0.01). On survival analysis, overall survival (OS) and progress free survival in the CSMBS group were significantly better than in the UC group. The 5-year OS in the CSMBS and UC groups were 84.3% and 74.6%, respectively (p-value < 0.01). In conclusion, the study indicates that in Thailand, the type of insurance influences resource utilization, especially the choice of chemotherapy, in CRC cases. This disparity in treatment, in turn, results in a gap in treatment outcomes.
Predictors Affecting Breast Self-Examination Practice among Turkish Women
Doganer, Yusuf C. ; Aydogan, Umit ; Kilbas, Zafer ; Rohrer, James E. ; Sari, Oktay ; Usterme, Necibe ; Yuksel, Servet ; Akbulut, Halil ; Balkan, Salih M. ; Saglam, Kenan ; Tufan, Turgut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 9021~9025
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.9021
Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among females in Turkey. Predictors affecting the breast self-examination (BSE) performance vary in developing countries. Objective: To determine the frequency of BSE performance and predictors of self-reported BSEs among women in the capital city of Turkey. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 376 Turkish women using a self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic variables and BSE-related features. Results: Of the participants, 78.7% (N=296) reported practicing BSE, whereas 9.5% (N=28) were implementing BSE regularly on a monthly basis, and only 5.7% (N=17) were performing BSE regularly within a week after each menstrual cycle. Multivariate logistic regression modeling revealed that BSE performance was more likely in younger age groups [20-39 years] (p=0.018, OR=3.215) and [40-49 years] (p=0.009, OR=3.162), women having a family history of breast disease (p=0.038, OR=2.028), and housewives (p=0.013, OR=0.353). Conclusions: Although it appears that the rates of BSE performers are high, the number of women conducting appropriate BSE on a regular time interval basis is lower than expected. Younger age groups, family history of breast diseases and not being employed were identified as significant predictors of practicing BSE appropriately. Older age and employment were risk factors for not performing BSE in this sample.
Virulence Genes of Helicobacter pylori in Gastritis, Peptic Ulcer and Gastric Cancer in Laos
Vannarath, Sengdao ; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn ; Rasachak, Bouachanh ; Mairiang, Pisaln ; Yamaoka, Yoshio ; Shiota, Seiji ; Binh, Tran Thanh ; Mahachai, Varocha ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 9027~9031
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.9027
Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is an established cause of peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to identify H. pylori genotypes and to examine their associations with geographical regions and gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer in Laos. Materials and Methods: A total of 329 Lao dyspeptic patients who underwent gastroscopy at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos during December 2010 - March 2012 were enrolled. Two biopsy specimens (one each from the antrum and corpus) were obtained for CLO testing and only CLO test-positive gastric tissue were used to extract DNA. PCR and sequencing were identified for variants of the cagA and vacA genotypes. Results: Some 119 Laos patients (36.2%) were found to be infected with H. pylori including 83 with gastritis, 13 with gastric ulcers (GU), 20 with duodenal ulcers (DU) and 3 with gastric cancer. cagA was detected in 99.2%. East-Asian-type cagA (62%) and vacA s1c (64.7%) were predominant genotypes in Laos. vacA s1c-m1b was significantly higher in GU than gastritis (53.8% vs. 24.1%; P-value=0.04) whereas vacA s1a-m2 was significantly higher in DU than gastritis (40.0% vs. 16.9%; P-value=0.03). East-Asian-type cagA and vacA s1c were significantly higher in highland than lowland Lao (100% vs. 55.8%; P-value=0.001 and 88.2% vs. 61.5%, P-value=0.03 respectively). Conclusions: H. pylori is a common infection in Laos, as in other countries in Southeast Asia. The cagA gene was demonstrated in nearly all Laos patients, cagA and vacA genotypes being possible important factors in explaining H. pylori infection and disease outcomes in Laos.
Feasibility Study of Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold Based Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Locally Advanced Left Sided Breast Cancer Patients
Swamy, Shanmugam Thirumalai ; Radha, Chandrasekaran Anu ; Kathirvel, Murugesan ; Arun, Gandhi ; Subramanian, Shanmuga ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 9033~9038
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.9033
Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) based volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for locally advanced left sided breast cancer patients undergoing radical mastectomy. DIBH immobilizes the tumor bed providing dosimetric benefits over free breathing (FB). Materials and Methods: Ten left sided post mastectomy patients were immobilized in a supine position with both the arms lifted above the head on a hemi-body vaclock. Two thermoplastic masks were prepared for each patient, one for normal free breathing and a second made with breath-hold to maintain reproducibility. DIBH CT scans were performed in the prospective mode of the Varian real time position management (RPM) system. The planning target volume (PTV) included the left chest wall and supraclavicular nodes and PTV prescription dose was 5000cGy in 25 fractions. DIBH-3DCRT planning was performed with the single iso-centre technique using a 6MV photon beam and the field-in-field technique. VMAT plans for FB and DIBH contained two partial arcs (
). Dose volume histograms of PTV and OAR's were analyzed for DIBH-VMAT, FB-VMAT and DIBH-3DCRT. In DIBH mode daily orthogonal (
) KV images were taken to determine the setup variability and weekly twice CBCT to verify gating threshold level reproducibility. Results: DIBH-VMAT reduced the lung and heart dose compared to FB-VMAT, while maintaining similar PTV coverage. The mean heart
and for left lung
for DIBH-VMAT, FB-VMAT and DIBH-3DCRT respectively. Conclusions: DIBH-VMAT significantly reduced the heart and lung dose for left side chest wall patients compared to FB-VMAT. PTV conformity index, homogeneity index, ipsilateral lung dose and heart dose were better for DIBH-VMAT compared to DIBH-3DCRT. However, contralateral lung and breast volumes exposed to low doses were increased with DIBH-VMAT.
Immunopreventive Effects against Murine H22 Hepatocellular Carcinoma in vivo by a DNA Vaccine Targeting a Gastrin-Releasing Peptide
Meko'o, Jean Louis Didier ; Xing, Yun ; Zhang, Huiyong ; Lu, Yong ; Wu, Jie ; Cao, Rongyue ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 9039~9043
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.9039
There is a continuing need for innovative alternative therapies for liver cancer. DNA vaccines for hormone/growth factor immune deprivation represent a feasible and attractive approach for cancer treatment. We reported a preventive effect of a DNA vaccine based on six copies of the B cell epitope GRP18-27 with optimized adjuvants against H22 hepatocarcinoma. Vaccination with pCR3.1-VS-HSP65-TP-GRP6-M2 (vaccine) elicited much higher level of anti-GRP antibodies and proved efficacious in preventing growth of transplanted hepatocarcinoma cells. The tumor size and weight were significantly lower (p<0.05) in the vaccine subgroup than in the control pCR3.1-VS-TP-HSP65-TP-GRP6, pCR3.1-VS-TP-HSP65-TP-M2 or saline subgroups. In addition, significant reduction of tumor-induced angiogenesis associated with intradermal tumors of H22 cells was observed. These potent effects may open ways towards the development of new immunotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of liver cancer.
Drugs from Marine Sources: Modulation of TRAIL Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells
Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad ; Attar, Rukset ; Gasparri, Maria Luisa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 20, 2014, Pages 9045~9047
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.9045
There have been overwhelming advances in molecular oncology and data obtained through high-throughput technologies have started to shed light on wide ranging molecular mechanisms that underpin cancer progression. Increasingly it is being realized that marine micro-organisms and the biodiversity of plankton are rich sources of various anticancer compounds. Marine derived compounds play major roles in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. More importantly, various agents have been noted to enhance TRAIL induced apoptosis in cancer cells by functionalizing intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. In this commentary, a list of marine derived compounds reported to induce apoptosis is discussed.