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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 22 - Dec 2014
Volume 15, Issue 21 - Nov 2014
Volume 15, Issue 20 - Nov 2014
Volume 15, Issue 19 - Oct 2014
Volume 15, Issue 18 - Oct 2014
Volume 15, Issue 17 - Sep 2014
Volume 15, Issue 16 - Aug 2014
Volume 15, Issue 15 - Aug 2014
Volume 15, Issue 14 - Jul 2014
Volume 15, Issue 13 - Jul 2014
Volume 15, Issue 12 - Jun 2014
Volume 15, Issue 11 - Jun 2014
Volume 15, Issue 10 - May 2014
Volume 15, Issue 9 - May 2014
Volume 15, Issue 8 - Apr 2014
Volume 15, Issue 7 - Apr 2014
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Mar 2014
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Mar 2014
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Feb 2014
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Feb 2014
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jan 2014
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
Molecular Mechanisms of Casticin Action: an Update on its Antitumor Functions
Rasul, Azhar ; Zhao, Bin-Ji ; Liu, Jun ; Liu, Bao ; Sun, Jia-Xin ; Li, Jiang ; Li, Xiao-Meng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9049~9058
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9049
Casticin (3', 5-dihydroxy-3, 4', 6, 7-tetramethoxyflavone) is an active compound isolated from roots, stems, leaves, fruits and seeds of a variety of plants. It is well known for its pharmacological properties and has been utilized as an anti-hyperprolactinemia, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotetective, analgesic and immunomodulatory agent. Recently, the anticancer activity of casticin has been extensively investigated. The resulkts showed that it exerts protective potential by targeting apoptosis, considered important for cancer therapies. In this article, our aim was to review the pharmacological and therapeutic applications of casticin with specific emphasis on its anticancer functions and related molecular mechanisms. Chemotherapeutic effects are dependent on multiple molecular pathways, which may provide a new perspective of casticin as a candidate anti-neoplastic drug. This review suggests that additional studies and preclinical trials are required to determine specific intracellular sites of action and derivative targets in order to fully understand the mechanisms of its antitumor activity and validate this compound as a medicinal agent for the prevention and treatment of various cancers.
microRNA-29b: an Emerging Player in Human Cancer
Liu, Hao ; Wang, Bin ; Lin, Jie ; Zhao, Liang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9059~9064
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9059
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ubiquitously expressed small, non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at a post transcriptional/translational level. They have emerging as playing crucial roles in cancer at all stages ranging from initiation to metastasis. As a tumor suppressor miRNA, aberrant expression of microRNA-29b (miR-29b) has been detected in various types of cancer, and its disturbance is related with tumor development and progression. In this review, we summarize the latest findings with regard to the tumor suppressor signatureof miR-29b and its regulatory mechanisms. Our review highlights the diverse relationships between miR-29b and its target genes in malignant tumors.
Risk Factors for Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Japanese Population
Washio, Masakazu ; Mori, Mitsuru ; Mikami, Kazuya ; Miki, Tsuneharu ; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki ; Nakao, Masahiro ; Kubo, Tatsuhiko ; Suzuki, Koji ; Ozasa, Kotaro ; Wakai, Kenji ; Tamakoshi, Akiko ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9065~9070
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9065
The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is high in Western and Northern Europe and North America, and low in Asia. Although the incidence of RCC in Japan is lower than the rates in the other industrialized countries, there is no doubt that it is increasing. In this paper, we would like to introduce the summary of findings of JACC study, which evaluate the risk factors for RCC in a Japanese population. JACC study suggests nine risk factors (i.e., smoking, obesity, low physical activity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, kidney diseases, beef, fondness for fatty food and black tea) and one preventive factor (i.e., starchy roots such as taro, sweet potato and potato) in a Japanese population. In Japan, however, drinking black tea may be a surrogate for westernized dietary habits while eating starchy roots may be a surrogate for traditional Japanese dietary habits. Further studies may be needed to evaluate risk factors for RCC because the number of cases is small in our studies.
miR-205 in Situ Expression and Localization in Head and Neck Tumors - a Tissue Array Study
Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima ; Lee, Learn-Han ; Cheah, Yoke-Kqueen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9071~9075
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9071
Background: microRNAs are small non-coding RNA that control gene expression by mRNA degradation or translational inhibition. These molecules are known to play essential roles in many biological and physiological processes. miR-205 may be differentially expressed in head and neck cancers; however, there are conflicting data and localization of expression has yet to be determined. Materials and Methods: miR-205 expression was investigated in 48 cases of inflammatory, benign and malignant tumor tissue array of the neck, oronasopharynx, larynx and salivary glands by Locked Nucleic Acid in situ hybridization (LNA-ISH) technology. Results: miR-205 expression was significantly differentially expressed across all of the inflammatory, benign and malignant tumor tissues of the neck. A significant increase in miR-205 staining intensity (p<0.05) was observed from inflammation to benign and malignant tumors in head and neck tissue array, suggesting that miR-205 could be a biomarker to differentiate between cancer and non-cancer tissues. Conclusions: LNA-ISH revealed that miR-205 exhibited significant differential cytoplasmic and nuclear staining among inflammation, benign and malignant tumors of head and neck. miR-205 was not only exclusively expressed in squamous epithelial malignancy. This study offers information and a basis for a comprehensive study of the role of miR-205 that may be useful as a biomarker and/or therapeutic target in head and neck tumors.
Assessing the Diagnostic Value of Serum Dickkopf-related Protein 1 Levels in Cancer Detection: a Case-control Study and Meta-analysis
Jiang, Xiao-Ting ; Ma, Ying-Yu ; Guo, Kun ; Xia, Ying-Jie ; Wang, Hui-Ju ; Li, Li ; He, Xu-Jun ; Huang, Dong-Sheng ; Tao, Hou-Quan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9077~9083
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9077
Background: This study aimed to summarize the potential diagnostic value of serum DKK1 levels in cancer detection. Materials and Methods: Serum DKK1 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a case-control study. Then we performed a meta-analysis and the pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio, and summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) curves were used to evaluate the overall test performance. Results: Serum DKK1 levels were found to be significantly upregulated in gastric cancer as compared to controls. ROC curve analysis revealed an AUC of 0.636, indicating the test has the potential to diagnose cancer with poor accuracy. The summary estimates of the pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio in meta-analysis were 0.55 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.53-0.57), 0.86 (95%CI, 0.84-0.88) and 12.25 (95%CI, 5.31-28.28), respectively. The area under the sROC was 0.85. Subgroup analysis revealed that the diagnostic accuracy of serum DKK1 in lung cancer (sensitivity: 0.69 with 95%CI, 0.66-0.74; specificity: 0.95 with 95%CI, 0.92-0.97; diagnostic odds ratio: 44.93 with 95%CI, 26.19-77.08) was significantly higher than for any other cancer. Conclusions: Serum DKK1 might be useful as a noninvasive method for confirmation of cancer diagnosis, particularly in the case of lung cancer.
Phytoestrogen Intake and Risk of Ovarian Cancer: a Meta-Analysis of 10 Observational Studies
Qu, Xin-Lan ; Fang, Yuan ; Zhang, Ming ; Zhang, Yuan-Zhen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9085~9091
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9085
Background: Epidemiology studies have shown an inconclusive relationship between phytoestrogen intake and ovarian cancer risk and there have been no relevant meta-analyses directly regarding this topic. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was therefore to investigate any association between phytoestrogen intake and ovarian cancer in detail. Materials and Methods: We conducted a search of PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, the Cochrane Library, CNKI and Chinese Biomedical Database (up to April 2014) using common keywords for studies that focused on phytoestrogen and ovarian cancer risk. Study-specific risk estimates (RRs) were pooled using fixed effect or random-effect models. Results: Ten epidemiologic studies were finally included in the meta-analysis. The total results indicated higher phytoestrogen intake was associated with a reduced ovarian cancer risk (RR, 0.70; 95%CI: 0.56-0.87). The association was similar in sensitivity analysis. Meta regression analysis demonstrated sources and possibly types and regions as heterogeneous factors. Subgroup analysis of types, sources and regions showed that isoflavones (RR: 0.63; 95%CI: 0.46, 0.86), soy foods (RR: 0.51; 95%CI: 0.39, 0.68) and an Asian diet (RR: 0.48; 95%CI: 0.37, 0.63) intake could reduce the incidence of ovarian cancer. Conclusions: Our findings show possible protection by phytoestrogens against ovarian cancer. We emphasize specific phytoestrogens from soy foods, but not all could reduce the risk. The habit of plentiful phytoestrogen intake by Asians is worthy to recommendation. However, we still need additional larger well designed observational studies to fully characterize underlying associations.
Lack of Effects of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Genetic Polymorphisms on Breast Cancer Risk: a Case-Control Study and Pooled Analysis
Park, Boyoung ; Shin, Aesun ; Kim, Kyee-Zu ; Lee, Yeon-Su ; Hwang, Jung-Ah ; Kim, Yeonju ; Sung, Joohon ; Yoo, Keun-Young ; Lee, Eun-Sook ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9093~9099
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9093
A growing body of evidence suggests that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (
) gene may harbor targets for the chemoprevention of breast cancer. However, it is unclear whether polymorphisms in the
gene are associated with the susceptibility of breast cancer. We performed a candidate gene association study between
polymorphisms and breast cancer and a meta-analysis on the association of breast cancer with selected
variants. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the
gene were analyzed among 456 breast cancer patients and 461 controls from the National Cancer Center in Korea. Association between the polymorphisms and breast cancer risk were assessed using the Cochrane-Armitage test for trend and a multivariate logistic regression model. Two SNPs, rs3856806 and rs1801282, had been previously analyzed, thus enabling us to perform pooled analyses on their associations with breast cancer susceptibility. Our findings from the candidate gene association study showed no association between the
gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. A meta-analysis combining existing studies and our current study also refuted an association of the
gene with breast cancer. Our findings suggest that the
gene may not harbor variants that alter breast cancer susceptibility, although a moderate sample size might have precluded a decisive conclusion.
Comparison of Automated Breast Volume Scanning and Hand-Held Ultrasound in the Detection of Breast Cancer: an Analysis of 5,566 Patient Evaluations
Choi, Woo Jung ; Cha, Joo Hee ; Kim, Hak Hee ; Shin, Hee Jung ; Kim, Hyunji ; Chae, Eun Young ; Hong, Min Ji ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9101~9105
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9101
Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy and effectiveness of automated breast volume scanning (ABVS) and hand-held ultrasound (HHUS) in the detection of breast cancer in a large population group with a long-term follow-up, and to investigate whether different ultrasound systems may influence the estimation of cancer detection. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study, and informed consent was waived. From September 2010 to August 2011, a total of 1,866 ABVS and 3,700 HHUS participants, who underwent these procedures at our institute, were included in this study. Cancers occurring during the study and subsequent follow-up were evaluated. The reference standard was a combination of histology and follow-up imaging (
). The recall rate, cancer detection yield, diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were calculated with exact 95% confidence intervals. Results: The recall rate was 2.57 per 1,000 (48/1,866) for ABVS and 3.57 per 1,000 (132/3,700) for HHUS, with a significant difference (p=0.048). The cancer detection yield was 3.8 per 1,000 for ABVS and 2.7 per 1,000 for HHUS. The diagnostic accuracy was 97.7% for ABVS and 96.5% for HHUS with statistical significance (p=0.018). The specificity of ABVS and HHUS were 97.8%, 96.7%, respectively (p=0.022). Conclusions: ABVS shows a comparable diagnostic performance to HHUS. ABVS is an effective supplemental tool for mammography in breast cancer detection in a large population.
PLCE1 rs2274223 Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Esophageal Cancer: a Meta-analysis
Guo, Li-Yan ; Yang, Ning ; Hu, Die ; Zhao, Xia ; Feng, Bing ; Zhang, Yan ; Zhai, Min ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9107~9112
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9107
Purpose: To investigate and study the relationship between the PLCE1 rs2274223 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to esophageal cancer by meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: The literature was searched in Wanfang, CNKI, PubMed, CBM, Web of Science, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Springer, Elsevier and Cochrane databases from the date of January
2004 to April
2014 to collect case-control studies on the PLCE1 polymorphism and susceptibility to esophageal cancer. For the population genotype distributions of both esophagus cancer and control groups, their odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were taken as effect indexes. Disqualified studies were excluded. Odds ratios of PLCE1 rs2274223 genotype distributions in the group of patients with esophageal cancer and the group of healthy control were calculated. The metaanalysis software, RevMan5.0, was applied for heterogeneity test, pooled OR and 95% confidence intervals. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were also explored. Results: A total of twelve case-control studies were included, covering a total of 9, 912 esophageal cancer cases and 13, 023 controls were included. The pooled odds ratio of PLCE1 rs2274223 genotype GA vs AA was 1.29 (95%CI=1.17~1.43), p<0.01, GG vs AA was 1.65 (95%CI=1.32~2.05), p<0.01, GG/GA vs AA was 1.30 (95%CI=1.16~1.46), p<0.01 and GG vs GA/AA was 1.48 (95%CI=1.22~1.80), p<0.01. The PLCE1 rs2274223 polymorphism was thus associated with risk of esophageal cancer in all genetic models. In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, and source of controls, no significantly increased risk was observed for white persons. There was no obvious publication bias detected. Conclusions: This meta-analysis showed there was a significantly association between PLCE1 rs2274223 polymorphism and esophageal cancer in yellow race populations. Due to some minor limitations, our findings should be confirmed in further studies.
Application of Laparospic Ultrasonography in Surgery of Small Renal Cell Carcinoma
Wang, Xiang-Zhu ; Yu, Ze-Xing ; Guo, Rui-Jun ; Xing, Nian-Zeng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9113~9116
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9113
Purpose: : To assess the clinic value of application of laparospic ultrasonography (LU) in partial nephrectomy of small renal cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: From 2007 to 2011, 28 small renal cell carcinoma patients in ou clinic underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy with LU. For comparison with preoperative conventional ultrasound and CT, we collected ultrasonic performance of the affected side kidney, renal tumor location, size, echo change, blood supply situation and the relationship with the surrounding tissue. Results: LU could more clearly show the tumor interior structure and blood supply, as well as the relationship with the surrounding tissue. It also can provided doctor assistance with real-time tumor resection, reducing operative complications. Conclusions: LU can clearly show tumor internal structure and blood supply, which is helpful for explicit diagnosis. Moreover, it supplies accurate information for surgeons and assists surgery. Therefore LU has an important guiding value in partial nephrectomy for small renal cell carcinoma.
Knowledge, Perception and Attitude Towards Human Papillomavirus among Pre-university Students in Malaysia
Kwang, Ng Beng ; Yee, Choy Mun ; Shan, Lim Pei ; Teik, Chew Kah ; Chandralega, Kampan Nirmala ; Abdul Kadir, Abdul Karim ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9117~9123
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9117
Background: To evaluate the knowledge, perception and attitudes towards human papilloma virus (HPV) among pre-university students in Malaysia. Study design : In this cross sectional study, between November 2013 to March 2014, in a public university, a convenient sampling method was used. A total of 716 respondents were recruited and interviewed with a set of standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, perception and attitudes towards HPV and predictor variables associated with level of knowledge. Results: Almost half (48.9%) of the respondents scored less than 5 and were categorised as having poor knowledge. Three hundred and twelve (43.6%) respondents had moderate knowledge and only 54 (7.5%) respondents exhibited good knowledge with the score of 11 and above. Only 142 (20%) students perceived themselves to be vulnerable to HPV infection though 560 (78.2%) students thought that HPV infection is a serious disease. Perceived benefits and desire to be vaccinated were significantly associated with gender (p=0.000) and knowledge of HPV vaccine and cervical cancer (p=0.000). Conclusions: The level of knowledge regarding HPV among the pre-university students was low. However, student intention for vaccination increased with increasing level of knowledge. Thus, efforts to improve knowledge and awareness should be prioritised to increase uptake of the HPV vaccination programme and hence reduce morbidity and mortality from consequences of HPV infection, including cervical carcinoma.
Prostate Cancer Incidence in Turkey: An Epidemiological Study
Zorlu, Ferruh ; Divrik, Rauf Taner ; Eser, Sultan ; Yorukoglu, Kutsal ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9125~9130
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9125
Background: This study aimed to determine the incidence of prostate cancer in Turkey in a population-based sample, and to determine clinical and pathological characteristics of the cases. Materials and Methods: All newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients were included in this national, multi-centered, prospective and non-interventional epidemiological registry study conducted in 12 cities representing the 12 regions of Turkey from July 2008 to June 2009. The population-based sample comprised 4,150 patients with a recent prostate cancer diagnosis. Results: Age-adjusted prostate cancer incidence rate was 35 cases per 100,000 in Turkey. At the time of diagnosis, median age was 68, median PSA level was 10.0 ng/mL. Digital rectal examination was abnormal in 36.2% of 3,218 tested cases. Most patients had urologic complaints. The main diagnostic method was transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy (87.8%). Gleason score was
in 49.1%, 7 in 27.8% and >7 in 20.6% of the cases. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between serum PSA level and Gleason score (p=0.000). The majority of patients (54.4%) had clinical stage T1c. Conclusions: This is the first population-based national data of incidence with the histopathological characteristics of prostate cancer in Turkey. Prostate cancer remains an important public health concern in Turkey with continual increase in the incidence and significant burden on healthcare resources.
Analysis of the Biological Function of ELDF15 Using an Antisense Recombinant Expression Vector
Liu, Yan ; Wang, Long ; Wang, Zi-Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9131~9136
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9131
ELDF15, homologous with AT2 receptor-interaction protein 1 (ATIP1), may play an important role in cell differentiation, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. We aimed to understand the biological function of ELDF15 via construction and transfection of a recombinant expression vector containing antisense ELDF15. Recombinant expression vectors were successfully constructed and transfected into K562 cells. A stable transfectant, known as pXJ41-asELDF15, stably produced antisense ELDF15. Compared with K562 and K562-zeo cells, K562-pXJ41-asELDF15 cells showed inhibition of cell proliferation. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression and protein level of ELDF15 decreased significantly in K562 cells transfected with pXJ41-asELDF15. Expression of hemoglobin increased in K562 cells transfected with pXJ41-asELDF15 by benzidine staining. increases NBT reduction activity in K562 cells transfected with pXJ41-asELDF15.Colony forming efficiency in two-layer soft agar was clearly inhibited as assessed by electron microscopy. These results suggest that ELDF15 plays a potential role in cell differentiation, proliferation and carcinogenesis.
Overexpression and Clinicopathological Contribution of DcR3 in Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma Tissues
Jiang, Yi-Qiang ; Zhong, Teng-Fei ; Dang, Yi-Wu ; Zou, Ling-Song ; Yang, Liu ; Yang, Xia ; Chen, Gang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9137~9142
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9137
Background: To explore the expression of DcR3 protein and its clinicopathological significance in bladder urothelial carcinomas (BUC). Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of DcR3, caspase-3, Bcl-2, VEGF, Ki-67, PCNA and P53 in 166 BUC and 56 normal bladder tissues. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of DcR3 in the supernatants of cultured BUC cells. Results: Overexpression of DcR3 was found in BUC tissues and cell lines, with significant elevation as compared to normal bladder tissues (p<0.0001). Higher DcR3 expression was related to the status of invasion, lymph node metastasis and recurrence. Furthermore, DcR3 expression was negatively correlated with caspase-3 and positively associated with Bcl-2, VEGF, Ki-67 labeling index (LI), PCNA LI and P53 (all p<0.0001), respectively. Conclusions: DcR3 may play a crucial role as an oncogene in tumorigenesis, deterioration and progress of BUC via influencing related pathways of apoptosis, proliferation and angiogenesis. The detection of DcR3 protein in the formalinfixed and paraffin-embedded samples could assist to predict in prognosis of BUC patients.
Pancreatic Carcinoma, Thrombosis and Mean Platelet Volume: Single Center Experience from the Southeast Region of Turkey
Afsar, Cigdem Usul ; Gunaldi, Meral ; Kum, Pinar ; Sahin, Berksoy ; Erkisi, Melek ; Kara, Ismail Oguz ; Paydas, Semra ; Duman, Berna Bozkurt ; Ercolak, Vehbi ; Karaca, Feryal ; Uyeturk, Ummugul ; Guner, Sebnem Izmir ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9143~9146
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9143
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the general characteristics of patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pancreatic cancer as well as evaluate the relationship between mean platelet volume (MPV), DVT and survival. Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven patients with pancreatic cancer, who were admitted to Cukurova University Medical Faculty, Department of Medical Oncology, were enrolled in the study Results: The mean age was
. Forty-nine (63.6%) were men and 28 women (36.4%). Sixty-eight (88.3%) patients had adenocarcinoma and 9 (11.7%) had a malignant epithelial tumor. Thirty-six (46.7%) had liver metastasis at diagnosis. Twenty-six (33.8%) patients were alive, 20 (26%) were dead and in 31 (40.2%) the status was unknown. Only 14 (18.1%) patients had DVT. In 42 (54.5%) patients MPV values were normal, in 28 (36.4%) patients they were above normal, and in 7 (9.1%) patients they were below normal. There was no statistically significant difference between gender, tumour localization, chemotherapy and survival rates (p:0.56, p:0.11, p:0.21). There was no significant difference between DVT, gender, localisation, histological subtype, the presence of metastasis, stage and if the patient had been treated with chemotherapy (p:0.5, p:0.6, p:0.2, p:0.32, p:0.1, p:0.84). There was also no significant difference between MPV and DVT (p:0.57) but there was a significant difference between liver metastasis and DVT (p:0.02). Age, stage, the presence of metastasis and DVT were prognostic in pancreatic cancer patients. Conclusions: Cases of pancreatic cancer with liver metastasis should be studied more carefully as thrombosis is more common in these patients.
Effectiveness of Interventions to Increase Screening for Gastric and Colorectal Cancer in Korea
Hong, Nam Soo ; Kam, Sin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9147~9151
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9147
Public health centers in Korea play an important role at the community level in encouraging residents to participate in cancer screening, usually by sending reminders in the mail and by making phone calls. However, there have not been any studies on the effectiveness of these interventions by public health centers in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this question. The study was limited to male subjects aged 50-59 years living in one district of Daegu, Korea. A total of 923 subjects were selected for the study among the target population for gastric and colorectal cancer screening as part of the National Cancer Screening Program in 2012. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups: control, postal intervention, telephone intervention, and telephone and postal intervention. Three months after the interventions, the results were confirmed by the National Health Insurance Corporation. Logistic regression analyses were performed to find differences in participation rates in cancer screening for each group. Men who received telephone and postal intervention were most likely (40.5%) to undergo gastric cancer screening, in comparison to the men who received telephone intervention only (31.7%), postal intervention only (22.2%) and those in the control group (17.9%). Also, men who received telephone and postal intervention were most likely (27.8%) to participate in colorectal cancer screening, followed by the men who received telephone intervention only (24.3%), postal intervention only (16.5%), and men in the control group (13.5%). Combined telephone and postal intervention and telephone only intervention as well produced significantly increased rates of participation in cancer screening in comparison to the control group. There was no significant difference, however, between the postal intervention only and control groups for either colorectal or gastric cancer screening.
N-Butanol Extract of Capparis spinosa L. Induces Apoptosis Primarily Through a Mitochondrial Pathway Involving mPTP Open, Cytochrome C Release and Caspase Activation
Ji, Yu-Bin ; Yu, Lei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9153~9157
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9153
Background: Capparis spinosa L., a Uygur medicine, had been shown to have anti-tumor activity in our early experiments with an N-butanol extract (CSBE) as its active fraction. However, the mechanisms responsible for its effects are not clearly understood. Here, we report that treatment of SGC-7901 cells with CSBE resulted in dose-dependent reduction of cell viability and induction of apoptosis. Materials and Methods: To observe the inhibitory and killing effects of CSBE on SGC-7901, the SRB method was adopted, apoptosis being observed by electron microscopy. To clarify the mechanisms of apoptosis, Western blot and enzyme-labeled methods were used to examine the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) and the activation of the caspase cascade. Results: By electron microscopy, apoptotic morphologic changes were detectable after CSBE administration. In this study, it was also demonstrated that CSBE induced apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells by inhibiting mPTP open, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. Conclusions: The findings indicated that CSBE induces aap optosis through mitochondrial pathway.
Apoptotic Effects of Eugenol-loaded Nanoemulsions in Human Colon and Liver Cancer Cell Lines
Majeed, Hamid ; Antoniou, John ; Fang, Zhong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9159~9164
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9159
Background: In this study eugenol (EU) loaded nanoemulsions (NEs) emulsified with modified starch were prepared and their apoptotic potential against liver and colon cancer cells was examined in comparison with bulk EU. Materials and Methods: We prepared stable EU loaded NEs whcih were characterized by dynamic light scattering, centrifugation and gas chromatography. Furthermore, cell viability was determined using MTT assay, and apoptosis and cell cycle analysess by flow cytometry. Results: HB8065 (liver) and HTB37 (colon) cells when treated with EU:CA NEs demonstrated greater apoptotic cells percentages as evidenced by microscopic images and flow cytometric evaluations. It was observed that EU and EU:CA NE induced apoptosis in both cell lines via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that ROS plays a critical role in EU and EU:CA NE induced apoptosis in HB8065 and HTB37 cells. This is the first report on the antiproliferative mechanisms of EU loaded NE.
Caring for Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma in Japan: Evaluation of a Palliative Care Educational Program
Nagamatsu, Yasuko ; Nakayama, Yukiko ; Clayson, Helen ; Natori, Yuji ; Ohata, Misato ; Matsuura-Moriguchi, Shino ; Porter, Sarah E. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9165~9170
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9165
Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of an Educational Program on Palliative Care for MPM for Nurses in Japan. Program: The 5-h program consisted of lectures and care planning group work. Materials and Methods: This study used a pretest-posttest design with a single cohort of nurses and included a Difficulties in Palliative Care for Patients with MPM (DPCMPM) Scale with 15 items. The pre- and posttest scores were compared using a t-test. Results: We included 27 female nurses with a mean of 14.4 years of nursing experience. In 12 of 15 DPCMPM items, the posttest difficulty scores were lower than the pretest scores. Participants highly evaluated the program for validity, clarity, clinical usefulness, and the facilitators. The Palliative Care for MPM Handbook for Nurses was developed as an educational tool for clinical settings. Conclusions: The Educational Program on Palliative Care for MPM for Nurses was effective in reducing nursing difficulties.
Helicobacter pylori Infection and a P53 Codon 72 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism: a Reason for an Unexplained Asian Enigma
Pandey, Renu ; Misra, Vatsala ; Misra, Sri Prakash ; Dwivedi, Manisha ; Misra, Alok ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9171~9176
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9171
Aim: P53, the most commonly mutated tumor suppressor gene in all types of human cancer, is involved in cell cycle arrest and control of apoptosis. Although p53 contains several polymorphic sites, the codon 72 polymorphism is by far more common. There are divergent reports but many studies suggest p53 pro/pro SNP may be associated with susceptibility to developing various cancers in different regions of the world. The present study aimed to find any correlation between H. pylori infection and progression of carcinogenesis, by studying apoptosis and the p53 gene in gastric biopsies from north Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 921 biopsies were collected and tested for prevalence of H. pylori by rapid urease test (RUT), imprint cytology and histology. Apoptosis was studied by the TUNEL method. Analysis of p53 gene polymorphism at codon 72 was accomplished by PCR using restriction enzyme BstU1. Observation: Out of 921 samples tested 56.7% (543) were H. pylori positive by the three techniques. The mean apoptotic index (AI) in the normal group was 2.12, while gastritis had the maximum 4.24 followed by gastric ulcer 2.28, gastropathy 2.22 and duodenal ulcer 2.08. Mean AI in cases with gastric cancer (1.72) was less than the normal group. The analysis of p53 72 SNP revealed that p53 (Arg/Arg), (Pro /Arg) variant are higher (40.59% & 33.66%) as compared to p53 pro/pro variant (25.74%) inthe healthy population. Conclusions: The North Indian population harbors Arg or Pro/Arg SNP that is capable of withstanding stress conditions; this may be the reason of low incidence of gastric disease in spite of high infection with H. pylori. There was no significant association with H. pylori infection and AI. However, there is increased apoptosis in gastritis which may occur independent of H. pylori or p53 polymorphism.
Polymorphic Variation of Inflammation-related Genes and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma for Uygur and Han Chinese in Xinjiang
Gu, Xia ; Shen, Yan ; Fu, Ling ; Zuo, Hong-Yun ; Yasen, Halida ; He, Ping ; Guo, Xin-Hong ; Shi, Yu-Wei ; Yusufu, Muhabaiti ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9177~9183
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9177
Polymorphisms of inflammation-related genes have been found to be associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) or some of its subtypes, but only a few relevant data have been reported in China. In this study, the Snapshot method was used to assess genetic variation; a total of 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 6 inflammatory factors in 157 NHL cases (64 Uygur ethnic subjects, 93 Han Chinese) and 435 controls (231 Uygur and 204 Han Chinese) were studied from the Xinjiang province of China. Haplotype distribution was estimated using PHASE 2.3 software. Statistical differences in the genotype and haplotype frequencies between case and control groups were also considered and estimated. For the Han population, the geneotype distributions for TNF-
, IL-6 rs1800795, IL-6 rs1800797, NF-KB1 rs1585215 and TLR-4 rs4986790 showed significant differences between the case and control groups (p<0.05). The TNF-
gene frequencies of ACG and CCA haplotypes in the cases were higher than in the controls (OR=2.45, 95% CI: 1.55-3.89, p=0.0002, OR=2.53, 95% CI: 1.10-5.80, p=0.029, respectively), and the same findings were detected for TNF-
gene CA haplotype (OR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.21-2.90, p=0.0054). However, for the Uygur population, no such significant differences were detected within the gene-type distribution of the 14 SNPs. The TNF-
gene frequency of the CCA haplotype between the two groups (OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.11-3.51, p=0.021) revealed a statistically significant difference. Our results showed that polymorphic variations of inflammation-related genes could be important to the NHL etiology of the Han population, and that these may only have limited influence on the Uygur population.
MiR-1297 Regulates the Growth, Migration and Invasion of Colorectal Cancer Cells by Targeting Cyclo-oxygenase-2
Chen, Pu ; Wang, Bei-Li ; Pan, Bai-Shen ; Guo, Wei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9185~9190
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9185
Cyclo-oxygenase-2(Cox-2), a key regulator of inflammation-producing prostaglandins, promotes cell proliferation and growth. Therefore, a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of Cox-2 could lead to novel targeted cancer therapies. MicroRNAs are strongly implicated in colorectal cancer but their specific roles and functions have yet to be fully elucidated. MiR-1297 plays an important role in lung adenocarcinoma and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, but its significance in colorectal cancer (CRC) has yet to be reported. In our present study, we found miR-1297 to be down regulated in both CRC-derived cell lines and clinical CRC samples, when compared with normal tissues. Furthermore, miR-1297 could inhibit human colorectal cancer LOVO and HCT116 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo by targeting Cox-2. Moreover, miR-1297 directly binds to the 3'-UTR of Cox-2, and the expression level was drastically decreased in LOVO and HCT116 cells following overexpression of miR-1297. Additionally, Cox-2 expression levels are inversely correlated with miR-1297 expression in human colorectal cancer xenograft tissues. These results imply that miR-1297 has the potential to provide a new approach to colorectal cancer therapy by directly inhibiting Cox-2 expression.
Health Locus of Control in Indonesian Women with Breast Cancer: a Comparison with Healthy Women
Iskandarsyah, Aulia ; de Klerk, Cora ; Suardi, Dradjat R. ; Sadarjoen, Sawitri S. ; Passchier, Jan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9191~9197
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9191
The aims of this study were to assess whether Indonesian women with breast cancer havea higher external health locus of control (HLC) than healthy women, and to explore the association between HLC and symptoms of anxiety and depression. In this study, 120 consecutive women with breast cancer were recruited at the outpatient surgical oncology clinic at the Hasan Sadikin Hospital in Bandung. One hundred and twenty two healthy women were recruited from the Bandung area as controls. A standard demographic form, Form C of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control, as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and patients' medical records were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, Pearson's correlation, MANOVA and multiple linear regressions. Women with breast cancer had higher scores on all external HLC subscales, i.e. chance, doctor, powerful others and God, and lower internal HLC compared to healthy women. High God LHC scores were associated with a high level of anxiety (
, p<0.05), whereas none of the HLC subscales were associated with depression. Our results suggest that women with breast cancer tend to have high external HLC, while healthy women tend to have high internal HLC. A strong belief in an external source of control, i.e. God, might be negatively associated with patient emotional adjustment. Further research is needed to give an insight into the direction of this association.
Influence of Ethnicity on Survival of Breast Cancer Patients in Turkey
Kuzhan, Abdurahman ; Adli, Mustafa ; Buyukhatipoglu, Hakan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9199~9202
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9199
Background: Kurdish women with breast cancer have more unfavorable prognostic factors than their Turkish and Arab counterparts. However, the effects of these factors on breast cancer survival among these ethnic groups remain unclear. We therefore investigated the impact of ethnicity on survival in breast cancer patients in Turkey. Materials and Methods: Ethnicity, age, stage at diagnosis, tumor characteristics, treatments given (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy), and survival times were recorded. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate the overall survival times and survival plots. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival curves.Results: Of the 723 breast cancer patients included in the study, 496 (68.7%) were Turkish, 189 (26.2%) were Kurdish, 37 (5.1%) were Arabic and 1 was Armenian. Kurdish women with breast cancer had larger tumor sizes and higher rates of hormone receptor negative tumors than Turkish and Arab patients. Mean follow-up time was 118.4 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 95.4-141.3] months, and it was 129.9 (95% CI: 93.7-166.2), 124.2 (95% CI: 108.4-140.1) and 103.1 (95% CI: 85.9-120.4) months for Turkish, Arabic and Kurdish patients, respectively. Conclusions: Kurdish ethnicity is associated with higher rates of hormone receptor negative and triple-negative tumors and with worse survival. Clinical and epidemiological research is warranted to elucidate reasons underlying overall survival, variations in tumor biology, differences in treatment responsiveness, and effects of social factors among ethnic groups in Turkey.
Association of CYP2E1 and NAT2 Polymorphisms with Lung Cancer Susceptibility among Mongolian and Han Populations in the Inner Mongolian Region
Zhang, Jing-Wen ; Yu, Wan-Jia ; Sheng, Xiao-Min ; Chang, Fu-Hou ; Bai, Tu-Ya ; Lv, Xiao-Li ; Wang, Guang ; Liu, Su-Zhen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9203~9210
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9203
Purpose: To explore associations of CYP2E1 and NAT2 polymorphisms with lung cancer susceptibility among Mongolian and Han populations in the Inner Mongolian region. Materials and Methods: CYP2E1 and NAT2 polymorphisms were detected by PCR-RFLP in 930 lung cancer patients and 1000 controls. Results: (1) Disequilibrium of the distribution of NAT2 polymorphism was found in lung cancer patients among Han and Mongolian populations (p=0.031). (2) Lung cancer risk was higher in individuals with c1, D allele of CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI, DraI polymorphisms and slow acetylation of NAT2 (c1 compared with c2, OR=1.382, 95%CI: 1.178-1.587, p=0.003; D compared with C, OR=1.241, 95%CI: 1.053-1.419, P<0.001; slow acetylation compared with rapid acetylation, OR=1.359, 95%CI:1.042-1.768, p=0.056) (3) Compared with c2/c2 and rapid acetylation, c1/c1 together with slow acetylation synergetically increased risk of lung cancer 2.83 fold. (4) Smokers with CYP2E1 c1/c1, DD, and NAT2 slow acetylation have 2.365, 1.916, 1.841 fold lung cancer risk than others with c2/c2, CC and NAT2 rapid acetylation, respectively. (5) Han smokers with NAT2 slow acetylation have 1.974 fold lung cancer risk than others with rapid acetylation. Conclusions: Disequilibrium distribution of NAT2 polymorphism was found in lung cancer patients among Han and Mongolian populations. Besides, Han smokers with NAT2 slow acetylation may have higher lung cancer risk compared with rapid acetylation couterparts. CYP2E1 c1/c1, DD and NAT2 slow acetylation, especially combined with smoking, contributes to the development of lung cancer. CYP2E1 c1/c1 or DD genotype and NAT2 slow acetylation have strong synergistic action in increasing lung cancer risk.
Role of CXCR7 and Effects on CXCL12 in SiHa Cells and Upregulation in Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinomas in Uighur Women
Kurban, Shajidai ; Tursun, Mikrban ; Kurban, Gulinar ; Hasim, Ayshamgul ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9211~9216
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9211
CXCR7 is involved in tumor development and metastasis in multiple malignancies. However, the function and molecular mechanisms of action of CXCR7 in human cervical cancer are still unclear. In the present study a loss of-function approach was used to observe the effects of recombinant CXCR7 specific small interfering RNA pBSilence1.1 plasmids on biological behavior including proliferative activity and invasive potential, as indicated by MTT assays with the cervical cancer SiHa cell line in vitro. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting revealed that CXCR7 was downregulated in transfected compared with control cells, associated with inhibited cell growth, invasiveness and migration. The expression of CXCR7 and CXCL12 was also determined immunohistochemically in 152 paraffin-embedded, cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), or normal cervical epithelial to assess clinico-pathological pattern and CXCR7 status with respect to cell differentiation and lymph node metastasis in Uighur patients with CSCC. CXCR7 and CXCL12 expression was higher in cervical cancer than CIN and normal cervical mucosa, especially in those with higher stage and lymph node metastasis. CXCL12 appeared to be positively regulated by CXCR7 at the post-transcriptional level in CSCC. We propose that aberrant expression of CXCR7 plays a role in carcinogenesis, differentiation and metastasis of CSCC, implying its use as a potential target for clinical biomarkers in differentiation and lymph node metastasis.
Wilms' Tumor Gene (WT1) Expression Correlates with Vascular Epithelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in Newly Acute Leukemia Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy
Iranparast, Sara ; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali ; Heike, Yuji ; Hossienzadeh, Mehran ; Khodadadi, Ali ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9217~9223
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9217
Background: Today, leukemia is one of the biggest problems worldwide. The Wilms' tumor gene (WT1) and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene are highly expressed in patients with various cancers. This study concerned the relationship between expression of WT1 and VEGF in patients with acute leukemia. Materials and Methods: We evaluated expression of WT1 mRNA and VEGF mRNA using real-time quantitative RT-PCR in the peripheral blood (PB) of 8 newly diagnosed AML and 4 newly diagnosed ALL patients, serially monitored for 2 months. A further 12 normal PB samples served as controls. Results: In the patient group, in comparison with the normal ranges, WT1 and VEGF gene expression was increased, the average values for the expression of these two genes being
, respectively. While was no significant relevance between the two genes pre-treatment, a positive link between the two genes in 75% of patients with AML was noted during the procedure of chemotherapy, whereas in 75% of patients with ALL an antiparallel association was observed. Conclusions: Leukemia is associated with production of WT1, which may affect the expression of VEGF.
Adherence to Capecitabine Treatment and Contributing Factors among Cancer Patients in Malaysia
Zahrina, Abdul Kadir ; Norsa'adah, Bachok ; Hassan, Norul Badriah ; Norazwany, Yaacob ; Norhayati, Md Isa ; Roslan, Mohd Haron ; Wan Nazuha, Wan Rusik ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9225~9232
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9225
Ensuring adherence to chemotherapy is important to prevent disease progression, prolong survival and sustain good quality of life. Capecitabine is a complex chemotherapeutic agent with many side effects that might affect patient adherence to treatment. This cross sectional study aimed to determine adherence to capecitabine and its contributing factors among cancer outpatients in Malaysia. One hundred and thirteen patients on single regime capecitabine were recruited from Hospital Sultan Ismail and Hospital Kuala Lumpur from October 2013 to March 2014. Adherence was determined based on adherence score using validated Medication Compliance Questionnaire. Patient socio-demographics, disease, and treatment characteristics were obtained from medical records. Satisfaction score was measured using the validated Patient Satisfaction with Healthcare questionnaire. The mean adherence score was 96.1% (standard deviation: 3.29%). The significant contributing factors of adherence to capecitabine were Malay ethnicity [
; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21, 2.43; p value=0.020], being female [
; 95%CI: 0.61, 2.99; p value=0.003]), satisfaction score [
; 95%CI: 0.06, 1.46; p value=0.035], presence of nausea or vomiting [
; 95%CI: 1.12, 3.48; p value <0.001] and other side effects [
; 95%CI: 0.24, 2.65; p value=0.019]. Adherence to capecitabine was generally high in our local population. Attention should be given to non-Malay males and patients having nausea, vomiting or other side effects. Sufficient information, proactive assessment and appropriate management of side effects would improve patient satisfaction and thus create motivation to adhere to treatment plans.
Alterations in Hormonal Receptor Expression and HER2 Status between Primary Breast Tumors and Paired Nodal Metastases: Discordance Rates and Prognosis
Ba, Jin-Ling ; Liu, Cai-Gang ; Jin, Feng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9233~9239
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9233
Background: We aimed to evaluate the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression discordance in matched pairs of primary breast cancer and lymph node metastasis specimens and determine the effect of discordance on prognosis. Materials and Methods: Among all patients diagnosed with lymph node metastases from 2004 to 2007, primary tumors and paired lymph node metastases were resected from 209 patients. The status of ER, PR, and HER2 expression was analyzed immunohistochemically in 200, 194, and 193 patients, respectively. Discordance was correlated with prognosis. Results: Biomarker discordance between primary tumors and paired lymph node metastases was 25.0% (50/200) for ER status, 28.9% (56/194) for PR status, and 14.0% (27/193) for HER2 status. ER positivity was a significant independent predictor of improved survival when analyzed in primary tumors and lymph node metastases. Patients with PR-positive primary tumors and paired lymph node metastases displayed significantly enhanced survival compared to patients with PR-positive primary tumors and PR-negative lymph node metastases. Patients with ER- and PR-positive primary tumors and paired lymph node metastases who received endocrine therapy after surgery displayed significantly better survival than those not receiving endocrine therapy. Similalry treated patients with PR-negative primary tumors and PR-positive paired lymph node metastases also displayed better survival than those not receiving endocrine therapy. Conclusions: Biomarker discordance was observed in matched pairs of primary tumors and lymph node metastases. Such cases displayed poor survival. Thus, it is important to reassess receptor biomarkers used for lymph node metastases.
Genetic Variant in CLPTM1L Confers Reduced Risk of Lung Cancer: a Replication Study in Chinese and a Meta-analysis
Luo, Xia ; Lamsal, Laxmi Pangeni ; Xu, Wen-Juan ; Lu, Jie ; Lu, Yan-Jun ; Shen, Ying ; Guan, Qing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9241~9247
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9241
Background: Rs31489 in the cleft lip and palate transmembrane1-like gene (CLPTM1L) has been identified to be associated with lung cancer through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, some recent replication studies yielded inconclusive results. Thus, we undertook this study to investigate the precise effect of rs31489 on lung cancer susceptibility. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based case-control study in 1,673 Chinese subjects (611 individuals with lung cancer and 1,062 controls) and a meta-analysis among 32,199 subjects (16,364 cases and 15,835 controls) were performed in this study. Results: In our case-control study, rs31489 was inversely associated with lung cancer (AC versus CC: OR=0.68, 95%CI=0.52-0.88; additive model: OR=0.68, 95%CI=0.54-0.85; dominant model: OR=0.65, 95%CI =0.51-0.84). Stratification analysis by smoking status showed a significant association and strong genetic effect in non-smokers but not in smokers. Our meta-analysis further confirmed the association, although with significant heterogeneity contributed by study design and source of controls, as shown by stratified analysis. Sensitive and cumulative analyses both indicated robust stability of our results. In addition, there was no observable publication bias in our meta-analysis. Conclusions: Overall, the findings from our replication study and meta-analysis demonstrated that CLPTM1L gene rs31489 is significantly associated with lung cancer.
Curcumin-loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Conjugated with Anti-P-glycoprotein Antibody to Overcome Multidrug Resistance
Punfa, Wanisa ; Suzuki, Shugo ; Pitchakarn, Pornsiri ; Yodkeeree, Supachai ; Naiki, Taku ; Takahashi, Satoru ; Limtrakul, Pornngarm ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9249~9258
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9249
Background: The encapsulation of curcumin (Cur) in polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (Cur-NPs) was designed to improve its solubility and stability. Conjugation of the Cur-NPs with anti-P-glycoprotein (P-gp) antibody (Cur-NPs-APgp) may increase their targeting to P-gp, which is highly expressed in multidrugresistance (MDR) cancer cells. This study determined whether Cur-NPs-APgp could overcome MDR in a human cervical cancer model (KB-V1 cells) in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: First, we determined the MDR-reversing property of Cur in P-gp-overexpressing KB-V1 cells in vitro and in vivo. Cur-NPs and Cur-NPs-APgp, in the range 150-180 nm, were constructed and subjected to an in vivo pharmacokinetic study compared with Cur. The in vitro and in vivo MDR-reversing properties of Cur-NPs and Cur-NPs-APgp were then investigated. Moreover, the stability of the NPs was determined in various solutions. Results: The combined treatment of paclitaxel (PTX) with Cur dramatically decreased cell viability and tumor growth compared to PTX treatment alone. After intravenous injection, Cur-NPs-APgp and Cur-NPs could be detected in the serum up to 60 and 120 min later, respectively, whereas Cur was not detected after 30 min. Pretreatment with Cur-NPs-APgp, but not with NPs or Cur-NPs, could enhance PTX sensitivity both in vitro and in vivo. The constructed NPs remained a consistent size, proving their stability in various solutions. Conclusions: Our functional Cur-NPs-APgp may be a suitable candidate for application in a drug delivery system for overcoming drug resistance. The further development of Cur-NPs-APgp may be beneficial to cancer patients by leading to its use as either as a MDR modulator or as an anticancer drug.
Folate Pathway Gene MTHFR C677T Polymorphism and Risk of Lung Cancer in Asian Populations
Rai, Vandana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9259~9264
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9259
Background: Previous studies concerning the association between the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism with lung cancer in Asian populations have provided inconclusive findings. Aim: A meta-analysis was performed to investigate a more reliable association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and lung cancer in Asians. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all case-control studies of MTHFR polymorphisms and lung cancer in Asia, using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of any association. Results: Meta-analysis results suggested that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism contributed to an increased lung cancer risk in Asian populations (for T vs C: OR=1.11, 95%CI=1.0-1.23; for CT vs CC: OR= 1.1, 95%CI= 0.95-1.2 ; for TT+CT vs CC: OR=1.13, 95%CI=1.0-1.30; for TT vs CC: OR=1.25, 95%CI=1.01-1.30; for TT vs CT+CC: OR=1.16, 95%CI=1.0-1.36). Conclusions: MTHFR C677T polymorphism is significantly associated with lung cancer in Asians.
Expression and Clinical Significance of miRNA-34a in Colorectal Cancer
Ma, Zhi-Bin ; Kong, Xiao-Lin ; Cui, Gang ; Ren, Cui-Cui ; Zhang, Ying-Jie ; Fan, Sheng-Jin ; Li, Ying-Hua ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9265~9270
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9265
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate differences of miRNA-34a expression in benign and malignant colorectal lesions. Materials and Methods: Samples of cancer, paraneoplastic tissues and polyps were selected and total RNA was extracted by conventional methods for real-time PCR to detect the miRNA-34a expression. In addition, the LOVO colorectal cancer cell line was cultured, treated with the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine and screened for differentially expressed miRNA-34a. Results: After the drug treatment, the miRNA-34a expression of colorectal cancer cell line LOVO was increased and real-time PCR showed that levels of expression in both cell line and colorectal cancer tissues were low, as compared to paraneoplastic tissue (p<0.05). Polyps tissues had significantly higher expression than paraneoplastic and colorectal cancer samples (p<0.05). Conclusions: miRNA-34a-5p may play a role as a tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer, with involvement of DNA methylation.
Prognostic Analysis of Schistosomal Rectal Cancer
Wang, Meng ; Zhang, Yuan-Chuan ; Yang, Xu-Yang ; Wang, Zi-Qiang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9271~9275
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9271
Background: Schistosomiasis is an infectious disease that affects more than 230 million people worldwide, according to conservative estimates. Some studies published from China and Japan reported that schistosomiasis is a risk factor for colorectal cancer in Asia where the infective species is S. japonicum. Hoqwever, there have been only few reports of prognosis of patients with schistosomal rectal cancer SRC. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze differences in prognosis between SRC and non-schistosomal rectal cancer(NSRC) with current treatments. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 30 patients with schistosomal rectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic total mesorectal excision operation (TME) was performed. For each patient with schistosomal rectal cancer, a control group who underwent laparoscopic TME with non-schistosomal rectal cancer was matched for age, gender and tumor stage, resulting in 60 cases and controls. Results: Univariate analysis showed pathologic N stage (P=0.006) and pathologic TNM stage (P=0.047) statistically significantly correlated with disease-free survival (DFS). Pathologic N stage (P=0.014), pathologic TNM stage (P=0.002), and with/without schistosomiasis (P=0.026) were statistically significantly correlated with overall survival (OS). Schistosomiasis was the only independent prognostic factor for DFS and OS in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: The prognosis of patients with schistosomal rectal cancer is poorer than with non-schistosomal rectal cancer.
Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognosis of Patients According to Recurrence Time After Curative Resection for Colorectal Cancer
Bozkurt, Oktay ; Inanc, Mevlude ; Turkmen, Esma ; Karaca, Halit ; Berk, Veli ; Duran, Ayse Ocak ; Ozaslan, Ersin ; Ucar, Mahmut ; Hacibekiroglu, Ilhan ; Eker, Baki ; Baspinar, Osman ; Ozkan, Metin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9277~9281
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9277
Purpose: To investigate clinicopathological features in patients with recurrent colorectal cancer within 1 year and more than 1 year after curative resection. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 103 patients with disease recurrence before versus after 1 year of resection. Thirty-two patients (31%) were diagnosed with recurrence less than 1 year after curative resection for colorectal cancer (early recurrence) and 71 (69%) after more than 1 year (non-early recurrence). Results: The early recurrence group displayed a significantly lower overall survival rate for both colon cancer (p=0, 01) and rectal cancer (p<0.001). Inadequate lymph node dissection was a significant predictor for early relapse. There were no statistically significant differences in clinicopathological variables such as age, sex, primary tumor localization, stage, depth of invasion, lymphovascular invasion and perineural invasion between the early and non-early recurrence groups. However, a K-ras mutation subgroup was significantly associated with early recurrence (p<0.001). Conclusions: Poor survival is associated with early recurrence for patients undergoing resection for non-metastatic colorectal cancer, as well as K-ras mutation.
Novel Mutations in the Displacement Loop of Mitochondrial DNA are Associated with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Genetic Sequencing Study
Yacoub, Haitham Ahmed ; Mahmoud, Wael Mahmoud ; El-Baz, Hatim Alaa El-Din ; Eid, Ola Mohamed ; ELfayoumi, Refaat Ibrahim ; Elhamidy, Salem Mohamed ; Mahmoud, Maged M. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9283~9289
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9283
Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer diagnosed in children and represents approximately 25% of cancer diagnoses among those younger than 15 years of age. Materials and Methods: This study investigated alterations in the displacement loop (d-loop) region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a risk factor and diagnostic biomarker for early detection and diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Using mtDNA from 23 subjects diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the first 450 bp of the d-loop region were amplified and successfully sequenced. Results: This revealed 132 mutations at 25 positions in this region, with a mean of 6 alterations per subject. The d-loop alterations in mtDNA in subjects were all identified as single nucleotide polymorphisms in a homoplasmic distribution pattern. Mutant alleles were observed in all subjects with individual frequency rates of up to 95%. Thirteen mutant alleles in the d-loop region of mtDNA occurred with a high frequency. Novel alleles and locations were also identified in the d-loop of mtDNA as follows: 89 G insertions (40%), 95 G insertions (13%), 182 C/T substitutions (5%), 308 C insertions (19%), and 311 C insertions (80%). The findings of this study need to be replicated to be confirmed. Conclusions: Further investigation of the relationship between mutations in mitochondrial d-loop genes and incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia is recommended.
Gemcitabine in Treating Patients with Refractory or Relapsed Multiple Myeloma
Zheng, Hua ; Yang, Fan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9291~9293
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9291
Background: Patients with refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma are considered to have a very poor prognosis, and new regimens are needed to improve the outcome. Gemcitabine, a nucleoside antimetabolite, is an analog of deoxycytidine which mainly inhibits DNA synthesis through interfering with DNA chain elongation and depleting deoxynucleotide stores, resulting in gemcitabine-induced cell death. Here we performed a systemic analysis to evaluate gemcitabine based chemotherapy as salvage treatment for patients with refractory and relapsed multiple myeloma. Methods: Clinical studies evaluating the impact of gemcitabine based regimens on response and safety for patients with refractory and relapsed multiple myeloma were identified by using a predefined search strategy. Pooled response rate (RR) of treatment were calculated. Results: In gemcitabine based regimens, 3 clinical studies which including 57 patients with refractory and relapsed multiple myeloma were considered eligible for inclusion. Systemic analysis suggested that, in all patients, pooled RR was 15.7% (9/57) in gemcitabine based regimens. Major adverse effects were hematologic toxicity, including grade 3 or 4 anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia i. No treatment related death occurred with gemcitabine based treatment. Conclusion: This systemic analysis suggests that gemcitabine based regimens are associated with mild activity with good tolerability in treating patients with refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma.
Association between the Interleukin-17A -197G>A (rs2275913) Polymorphism and Risk of Digestive Cancer
Duan, Yin ; Shi, Ji-Nan ; Pan, Chi ; Chen, Hai-Long ; Zhang, Su-Zhan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9295~9300
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9295
Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is a multifunctional cytokine which plays a crucial role in the initiation and progression of cancer. To date, several studies have investigated associations between IL-17A -197G>A (rs2275913) polymorphism and digestive cancer risk, but the results remain conflicting. We here aimed to confirm the role of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in susceptibility to digestive cancer through a systemic review and meta-analysis. Ten eligible case-control studies were identified by searching electronic databases, involving 3,087 cases and 3,815 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the strength of the association. The results of overall analyses indicated that the variant A allele was associated with an increased risk of digestive cancer (AA vs GG: OR=1.51, 95%CI=1.18-1.93; AA vs GG+GA: OR=1.45, 95%CI=1.12-1.87; A vs G: OR=1.21, 95%CI=1.05-1.39). In subgroup analysis stratified by specific cancer type, elevated risk among studies of gastric cancer was found (AA vs GG: OR=1.68, 95%CI=1.24-2.28; AA vs GG+GA: OR=1.62, 95%CI=1.16-2.26; A vs G: OR=1.23, 95%CI=1.04-1.46). According to ethnicity, there was evidence in the Asian populations for an association between this polymorphism and cancer risk (GA vs GG: OR=1.19, 95%CI=1.05-1.36; AA vs GG: OR=1.56, 95%CI=1.15-2.12; AA+GA vs GG: OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.13-1.44; AA vs GG+GA: OR=1.42, 95%CI=1.01-2.00; A vs G: OR=1.24, 95%CI=1.08-1.44), while in the Caucasian populations an association was found in the recessive model (AA vs GG+GA: OR=1.62, 95%CI=1.17-2.24). In conclusion, the results of this meta-analysis suggest that the IL-17A -197G>A polymorphism contributes to an increased risk of human digestive cancer, both in the Asian and Caucasian populations and especially for gastric cancer.
Determinants of Opioid Efficiency in Cancer Pain: a Comprehensive Multivariate Analysis from a Tertiary Cancer Centre
Goksu, Sema Sezgin ; Bozcuk, Hakan ; Uysal, Mukremin ; Ulukal, Ece ; Ay, Seren ; Karasu, Gaye ; Soydas, Turker ; Coskun, Hasan Senol ; Ozdogan, Mustafa ; Savas, Burhan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9301~9305
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9301
Background: Pain is one of the most terrifying symptoms for cancer patients. Although most patients with cancer pain need opioids, complete relief of pain is hard to achieve. This study investigated the factors influencing persistent pain-free survival (PPFS) and opioid efficiency. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 100 patients with cancer pain, hospitalized at the medical oncology clinic of Akdeniz University. Patient records were collected including patient demographics, the disease, treatment characteristics, and details of opioid usage. Pain intensity was measured using a patient self-reported visual analogue scale (VAS). The area under the curve (AUC) reflecting the pain load was calculated from daily VAS tables. PPFS, the primary measure of opioid efficacy, was described as the duration for which a patient reported a greater than or equal to two-point decline in their VAS for pain. Predictors of opioid efficacy were analysed using a multivariate analysis. Results: In the multivariate analysis, PPFS was associated with the AUC for pain (Exp (B)=0.39 (0.23-0.67), P=0.001), the cumulative opioid dosage used during hospitalisation (Exp (B)=1.00(0.99-1.00), P=0.003) and changes in the opioid dosage (Exp (B)=1.01 (1.00-1.01), P=0.016). The change in VAS score over the standard dosage of opioids was strongly associated with current cancer treatment (chemotherapy vs. others) (
, T=-2.81, P=0.007) and the VAS for pain at the time of hospitalisation (
, T=-3.07, P= 0.003). Conclusions: The pain load, opioid dosage, concurrent usage of chemotherapy and initial pain intensity correlate with the benefit received from opioids in cancer patients.
The Nature of Hope among Iranian Cancer Patients
Afrooz, Rashed ; Rahmani, Azad ; Zamanzadeh, Vahid ; Abdullahzadeh, Farahnaz ; Azadi, Arman ; Faghany, Safieh ; Pirzadeh, Asgar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9307~9312
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9307
Background: Hope is an important coping resource for cancer patients. Types and sources of hope and hope-inspiring strategies are not well investigated among Iranian cancer patients. The aims of present study were therefore to investigate the nature of hope and some demographic predictors of hope among Iranian cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was undertaken among 200 cancer patients admitted to an educational center affiliated to Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Participants were selected using a convenience sampling method. The Herth Hope Index and other validated questionnaires were used to investigate level of hope and types and sources of hope, as well as hope-inspiring strategies. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. Results: The overall score for hope was 31 from total scores ranging between 12 and 48. Some 94% of patients mentioned 'return to normal life' and 'complete healing of disease by drugs and physicians' as their main hopes. The most important sources of hope reported by patients include spiritual resources, family members, healthcare workers, and medicines and treatments available for the disease. Relationship with God, praying/blessing, controlling the signs and symptoms of the disease, and family/health care workers' support were the main hope-inspiring strategies. Patients who had a history of metastasis, or who were older, illiterate, divorced/widowed and lived with their children reported lower levels of hope. On the other hand, employed patients and those with good support from their families had higher levels of hope. Conclusions: The study findings showed moderate to high levels of hope among Iranian cancer patients. Accordingly, the role of spiritual/religion, family members and health care workers should be considered in developing care plans for these patients.
Folate Deficiency and FHIT Hypermethylation and HPV 16 Infection Promote Cervical Cancerization
Bai, Li-Xia ; Wang, Jin-Tao ; Ding, Ling ; Jiang, Shi-Wen ; Kang, Hui-Jie ; Gao, Chen-Fei ; Chen, Xiao ; Chen, Chen ; Zhou, Qin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9313~9317
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9313
Fragile histidine triad (FHIT) is a suppressor gene related to cervical cancer through CpG island hypermethylation. Folate is a water-soluble B-vitamin and an important cofactor in one-carbon metabolism. It may play an essential role in cervical lesions through effects on DNA methylation. The purpose of this study was to observe effects of folate and FHIT methylation and HPV 16 on cervical cancer progression. In this study, DNA methylation of FHIT, serum folate level and HPV16 status were measured using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP), radioimmunoassay (RIA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively, in 310 women with a diagnosis of normal cervix (NC, n=109), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, n=101) and squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (SCC, n=101). There were significant differences in HPV16 status (
, P<0.001), CpG island methylation of FHIT (
, P<0.001) and serum folate level (F=4.57, P=0.011) across the cervical histologic groups. Interaction analysis showed that the ORs only with FHIT methylation (OR=11.47) or only with HPV 16 positive (OR=4.63) or with serum folate level lower than 3.19ng/ml (OR=1.68) in SCC group were all higher than the control status of HPV 16 negative and FHIT unmethylation and serum folate level more than 3.19ng/ml (OR=1). The ORs only with HPV 16 positive (OR=2.58) or with serum folate level lower than 3.19ng/ml (OR=1.28) in CIN group were all higher than the control status, but the OR only with FHIT methylation (OR=0.53) in CIN group was lower than the control status. HPV 16 positivity was associated with a 7.60-fold increased risk of SCC with folate deficiency and with a 1.84-fold increased risk of CIN. The patients with FHIT methylation and folate deficiency or with FHIT methylation and HPV 16 positive were SCC or CIN, and the patients with HPV 16 positive and FHIT methylation and folate deficiency were all SCC. In conclusion, HPV 16 infection, FHIT methylation and folate deficiency might promote cervical cancer progression. This suggests that FHIT may be an effective target for prevention and treatment of cervical cancer.
Alkaloids from Beach Spider Lily (Hymenocallis littoralis) Induce Apoptosis of HepG-2 Cells by the Fas-signaling Pathway
Ji, Yu-Bin ; Chen, Ning ; Zhu, Hong-Wei ; Ling, Na ; Li, Wen-Lan ; Song, Dong-Xue ; Gao, Shi-Yong ; Zhang, Wang-Cheng ; Ma, Nan-Nan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9319~9325
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9319
Alkaloids are the most extensively featured compounds of natural anti-tumor herbs, which have attracted much attention in pharmaceutical research. In our previous studies, a mixture of major three alkaloid components (5, 6-dihydrobicolorine, 7-deoxy-trans-dihydronarciclasine, littoraline) from Hymenocallis littoralis were extracted, analyzed and designated as AHL. In this paper, AHL extracts were added to human liver hepatocellular cells HepG-2, human gastric cancer cell SGC-7901, human breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7 and human umbilical vein endothelial cell EVC-304, to screen one or more AHL-sensitive tumor cell. Among these cells, HepG-2 was the most sensitive to AHL treatment, a very low dose (
) significantly inhibiting proliferation. The non-tumor cell EVC-304, however, was not apparently affected. Effect of AHL on HepG-2 cells was then explored. We found that the AHL could cause HepG-2 cycle arrest at G2/M checkpoint, induce apoptosis, and interrupt polymerization of microtubules. In addition, expression of two cell cycle-regulated proteins, CyclinB1 and CDK1, was up-regulated upon AHL treatment. Up-regulation of the Fas, Fas ligand, Caspase-8 and Caspase-3 was observed as well, which might imply roles for the Fas/FsaL signaling pathway in the AHL-induced apoptosis of HepG-2 cells.
Detection of PIK3CA Gene Mutations with HRM Analysis and Association with IGFBP-5 Expression Levels in Breast Cancer
Dirican, Ebubekir ; Kaya, Zehra ; Gullu, Gokce ; Peker, Irem ; Ozmen, Tolga ; Gulluoglu, Bahadir M. ; Kaya, Handan ; Ozer, Ayse ; Akkiprik, Mustafa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9327~9333
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9327
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway mutations are associated with cancer and phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) gene mutations have been observed in 25-45% of breast cancer samples. Insulin growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) can show different effects on apoptosis, cell motility and survival in breast cancer. We here aimed to determine the association between PIK3CA gene mutations and IGFBP-5 expressions for the first time in breast cancer patients. Frozen tumor samples from 101 Turkish breast cancer patients were analyzed with high resolution melting (HRM) for PIK3CA mutations (exon 9 and exon 20) and 37 HRM positive tumor samples were analyzed by DNA sequencing, mutations being found in 31. PIK3CA exon 9 mutations (Q546R, E542Q, E545K, E542K and E545D) were found in 10 tumor samples, exon 20 mutations (H1047L, H1047R, T1025T and G1049R) in 21, where only 1 tumor sample had two exon 20 mutations (T1025T and H1047R). Moreover, we detected one sample with both exon 9 (E542Q) and exon 20 (H1047R) mutations. 35% of the tumor samples with high IGFBP-5 mRNA expression and 29.4% of the tumor samples with low IGFBP-5 mRNA expression had PIK3CA mutations (p=0.9924). This is the first study of PIK3CA mutation screening results in Turkish breast cancer population using HRM analysis. This approach appears to be a very effective and reliable screening method for the PIK3CA exon 9 and 20 mutation detection. Further analysis with a greater number of samples is needed to clarify association between PIK3CA gene mutations and IGFBP-5 mRNA expression, and also clinical outcome in breast cancer patients.
Extended use of P504S Positive Primary Circulating Prostate Cell Detection to Determine the Need for Initial Prostate Biopsy in a Prostate Cancer Screening Program in Chile
Murray, Nigel P. ; Reyes, Eduardo ; Fuentealba, Cynthia ; Jacob, Omar ; Orellana, Nelson ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9335~9339
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9335
Background: To determine the frequency of primary circulating prostate cells (CPC) detection according to age and serum PSA levels in a cohort of men undergoing screening for prostate cancer and to determine the diagnostic yield in those men complying with the criteria for prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out to analyze all men evaluated in a hospital prostate cancer screening program. Primary CPCs were obtained by differential gel centrifugation and detected using standard immunocytochemistry using anti-PSA, positive samples undergoing a second process with anti-P504S. A malignant primary CPC was defined as PSA+ P504S+, and a test positive if 1 cell/4ml was detected. The frequency of primary CPC detection was compared with age and serum PSA levels. Men with a PSA >4.0ng/ml and/or abnormal rectal examination underwent 12 core prostate biopsy, and the results were registered as cancer/no-cancer and compared with the presence/absence of primary CPCs to calculate the diagnostic yield. Results: A total of 1,117 men participated; there was an association of primary CPC detection with increasing age and increasing serum PSA. Some 559 men underwent initial prostate biopsy of whom 207/559 (37.0%) were positive for primary CPCs and 183/559 (32.0%) had prostate cancer detected. The diagnostic yield of primary CPCs had a sensitivity of 88.5%, a specificity of 88.0%, and positive and negative predictive values of 78.3% and 94.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The use of primary CPCs for testing is recommended, since its high negative predictive value could be used to avoid prostate biopsy in men with an elevated PSA and/or abnormal DRE. Men positive for primary CPCs should undergo prostate biopsy. It is a test that could be implemented in the routine immunocytochemical laboratory.
Anticancer Activity of Acanthopanax trifoliatus (L) Merr Extracts is Associated with Inhibition of NF-κB Activity and Decreased Erk1/2 and Akt Phosphorylation
Wang, Hua-Qian ; Li, Dong-Li ; Lu, Yu-Jing ; Cui, Xiao-Xing ; Zhou, Xiao-Fen ; Lin, Wei-Ping ; Conney, Allan H. ; Zhang, Kun ; Du, Zhi-Yun ; Zheng, Xi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9341~9346
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9341
Acanthopanax trifoliatus (L) Merr (AT) is commonly used as an herbal medicine and edible plant in some areas of China and other Asian countries. AT is thought to have anticancer effects, but potential mechanisms remain unknown. To assess the anticancer properties of AT, we exposed prostate cancer cells to AT extracts and assessed cell proliferation and signaling pathways. An ethanol extract of AT was suspended in water followed by sequential extraction with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. PC-3 cells were treated with different concentrations of each extract and cell viability was determined by the MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays. The ethyl acetate extract of the ethanol extract had a stronger inhibitory effect on growth and a stronger stimulatory effect on apoptosis than any of the other extracts. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that the ethyl acetate extract suppressed the transcriptional activity of NF-
, increased the level of caspase-3, and decreased the levels of phospho-Erk1/2 and phospho-Akt. This is the first report on the anticancer activity of AT in cultured human prostate cancer cells. The results suggest that AT can provide a plant-based medicine for the treatment or prevention of prostate cancer.
Comprehensive Assessment of Associations between ERCC2 Lys751Gln/Asp312Asn Polymorphisms and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Zhou, Jue-Yu ; He, Li-Wen ; Liu, Jie ; Yu, Hai-Lang ; Wei, Min ; Ma, Wen-Li ; Shi, Rong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9347~9353
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9347
Background: Excision repair crossing-complementing group 2 (ERCC2), also called xeroderma pigmentosum complementary group D (XPD), plays a crucial role in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Previous epidemiological studies have reported associations between ERCC2 polymorphisms and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk, but the results have remained controversial. Materials and Methods: We conducted this meta-analysis based on eligible case-control studies to investigate the role of two ERCC2 polymorphisms (Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn) in determining susceptibility to NHL. Ten case-control studies from several electronic databases were included in our study up to August 14, 2014. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models to estimate the association strength. Results: The combined results based on all studies did not show any association between Lys751Gln/Asp312Asn polymorphisms and NHL risk for all genetic models. Stratified analyses by histological subtype and ethnicity did not indicate any significant association between Lys751Gln polymorphism and NHL risk. However, a significant reduced risk of NHL was found among population-based studies (Lys/Gln versus Lys/Lys: OR=0.87, 95% CI=0.77-0.99, P=0.037) but not hospital-based studies. As for Asp312Asn polymorphism, there was no evidence for the association between this polymorphism and the risk of NHL in all subgroup analyses. Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that there may be no association between Lys751Gln/Asp312Asn polymorphism and the risk of NHL and its two subtypes, whereas ERCC2 Lys751Gln heterozygote genotype may provide protective effects against the risk of NHL in population-based studies. Therefore, large-scale and well-designed studies are needed to clarify the effects of haplotypes, gene-gene, and gene-environment interactions on these polymorphisms and the risk of NHL and its different histological subtypes in an ethnicity specific population.
New formulated "DOX-MTX-loaded Nanoparticles" Down-regulate HER2 Gene Expression and Improve the Clinical Outcome in OSCCs Model in Rat: the Effect of IV and Oral Modalities
Abbasi, Mehran Mesgari ; Monfaredan, Amir ; Hamishehkar, Hamed ; Jahanban-Esfahlan, Rana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9355~9360
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9355
Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains as one of the most difficult malignancies to control because of its high propensity for local invasion and cervical lymph node dissemination. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of our novel pH and temperature sensitive doxorubicin-methotrexate-loaded nanoparticles (DOX-MTX NP) in affecting HER2 expression profile in OSCC model in rat. Results: DOX-MTX- nanoparticle complexes caused significant decrease in mRNA level of HER2 compared to untreated cancers (p<0.05) and this finding was more pronounced with the IV mode (p<0.000). Surprisingly, HER2 mRNA was not affected in DOX treated as compared to the control group (p>0.05). On the other hand, in the DOX-MTX NP treated group, fewer tumors characterized with advanced stage and decreased HER2 paralleled improved clinical outcome (P<0.05). Moreover, the effectiveness of the oral route in the group treated with nanodrug accounted for the enhanced bioavailability of nanoparticulated DOX-MTX compared to free DOX. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in mRNA level of HER2 (p>0.05). Conclusions: Influence of HER2 gene expression is a new feature and mechanism of action observed only in dual action DOX-MTX-NPs treated groups. Down-regulation of HER2 mRNA as a promising marker and prognosticator of OSCC adds to the cytotoxic benefits of DOX in its new formulation. Both oral and IV application of this nanodrug could be used, with no preferences in term of their safety or toxicity. As HER2 is expressed abundantly by a wide spectrum of tumors, i DOX-MTX NPs may be useful for a wide-spectrum of lesions. However, molecular mechanisms underlying HER2 down regulation induced by DOX-MTX NPs remain to be addressed.
Pre-vaccination Prevalence and Genotype Distribution of Human Papillomavirus Infection among Women from Urban Tunis: a Cross-sectional Study
Guettiti, Haifa ; Ennaifer, Emna ; Attia, Leila ; Chelly, Dalenda ; Alaya, Nissaf Ben ; Aissa, Rim Ben ; Laassili, Thalja ; Boubaker, Samir ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9361~9365
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9361
Background: To estimate the pre-vaccination distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) types among women from urban Tunis. Materials and Methods: A total of 611 women aged 18-69 years were enrolled in three local gynaecological outpatient departments. All underwent a gynaecological examination with Pap test and dry swab for HPV detection and typing performed by linear array genotyping test (Roche). Cytological examination was conducted on conventional Pap smears. Results: HPV DNA was found in 6.5% of the women; the most frequent HPV types were HPV 16 and HPV 11 at 3.27% and 1.96%, respectively. The second most frequent high risk (HR) HPV type was HPV 58 (0.82%) followed by HPV 18, HPV 31 and HPV 33 found in only 0.33% of women. Single infections with HPV types, targeted by the quadrivalent vaccine (6, 11, 16, and 18), were detected in 3.6 % of the study patients (55% of positive women). HPV infection was found in 3.83% of women with normal cytology and in 47.4% of women with cytological abnormalities. No statistically significant trend in prevalence by age group emerged for any HPV type or for high or low risk types. Conclusions: These data show a relatively low prevalence of HPV infection in women from urban Tunis with a high proportion of HPV16 and HPV58. This should be considered in the upcoming screening programs and vaccination strategy.
Prediction of Lung Cancer Based on Serum Biomarkers by Gene Expression Programming Methods
Yu, Zhuang ; Chen, Xiao-Zheng ; Cui, Lian-Hua ; Si, Hong-Zong ; Lu, Hai-Jiao ; Liu, Shi-Hai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9367~9373
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9367
In diagnosis of lung cancer, rapid distinction between small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors is very important. Serum markers, including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), neurone specific enolase (NSE) and Cyfra21-1, are reported to reflect lung cancer characteristics. In this study classification of lung tumors was made based on biomarkers (measured in 120 NSCLC and 60 SCLC patients) by setting up optimal biomarker joint models with a powerful computerized tool - gene expression programming (GEP). GEP is a learning algorithm that combines the advantages of genetic programming (GP) and genetic algorithms (GA). It specifically focuses on relationships between variables in sets of data and then builds models to explain these relationships, and has been successfully used in formula finding and function mining. As a basis for defining a GEP environment for SCLC and NSCLC prediction, three explicit predictive models were constructed. CEA and NSE are requentlyused lung cancer markers in clinical trials, CRP, LDH and Cyfra21-1 have significant meaning in lung cancer, basis on CEA and NSE we set up three GEP models-GEP 1(CEA, NSE, Cyfra21-1), GEP2 (CEA, NSE, LDH), GEP3 (CEA, NSE, CRP). The best classification result of GEP gained when CEA, NSE and Cyfra21-1 were combined: 128 of 135 subjects in the training set and 40 of 45 subjects in the test set were classified correctly, the accuracy rate is 94.8% in training set; on collection of samples for testing, the accuracy rate is 88.9%. With GEP2, the accuracy was significantly decreased by 1.5% and 6.6% in training set and test set, in GEP3 was 0.82% and 4.45% respectively. Serum Cyfra21-1 is a useful and sensitive serum biomarker in discriminating between NSCLC and SCLC. GEP modeling is a promising and excellent tool in diagnosis of lung cancer.
A Piezoelectric Immunosensor for Early Cervical Cancer Detection
Yang, Li ; Huang, Xianhe ; Sun, Liang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9375~9378
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9375
Background: A piezoelectric immunosensor for early cervical cancer detection was developed involving short analyis time and less invasive technique for
, a protein that has been linked to cervical cancer. Materials and Methods:
of 5.0 mg/mL
antibody and then supernatant from different clinical samples from West China Second University Hospital (Sichuan, China) were dripped on the center of the AT-cut crystal through a micro-injector. Absorption of the
by antibody caused a shift in the resonant frequency of the immunosensor, and the resonant frequency was correlated to the amount of the
in the supernatant. Results: The greater severity of lesion grading, the greater the expression level of
. Conclusion: Degree of cervical cancer lesion development could be determined by detected amount of
in different clinical samples.
Molecular Types and Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Breast Cancer- While Molecular Shifting is More Common in Luminal a Tumors, The Pathologic Complete Response is Most Frequently Observed in Her-2 Like Tumors
Salim, Derya Kivrak ; Mutlu, Hasan ; Eryilmaz, Melek Karakurt ; Musri, Fatma Yalcin ; Tural, Deniz ; Gunduz, Seyda ; Coskun, Hasan Senol ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9379~9383
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9379
Background: Pathologic complete response (pCR) is one of the most important target end-points of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in patients with breast cancer (BC). In present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between molecular subtypes and NACT in patients with BC. Materials and Methods: Using the Akdeniz University database, 106 patients who received NACT for operable breast cancer were retrospectively identified. Prognostic factors before and after NACT were assessed. According to the molecular subtypes, molecular shifting after NACT and tumoral and nodal response to NACT were analyzed. Results: The distribution of subtypes was: Luminal A, 28.3% (n=30); Luminal B, 31.1% (n=33); HER2-like, 24.5% (n=26); and basal like/triple negative (BL/TN), 16.0% (n=17). According to molecular subtypes, pCR rates in both breast and axillary were 0%, 21.4%, 36.4% and 27.3% for luminal A, luminal B, HER2-like and BL/TN, respectively (p=0.018). Molecular subtype shifting was mostly seen in luminal A type (28.6%) after the NACT. The pCR rate in breast and axillary was significantly higher in patients with HER2-like type BC. Conclusions: In patients with HER-2 like type BC, NACT may be offered in early stages. Additionally, due to molecular shifting, adjuvant treatment schedule should be reviewed again, especially in the luminal A group.
Association of Adiponectin Receptor (Adipo-R1/-R2) Expression and Colorectal Cancer
Ayyildiz, Talat ; Dolar, Enver ; Ugras, Nesrin ; Adim, Saduman Balaban ; Yerci, Omer ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9385~9390
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9385
Introduction: Human adiponectin (ApN) is a 30 kDa glycoprotein of 244-amino acids which is extensively produced by adipocytes. ApN acts via two receptors, namely adiponectin receptor-1 (Adipo-R1) and adiponectin receptor-2 (Adipo-R2). Studies have shown the presence of Adipo-R1 and Adipo-R2 expression immunohistochemically in human colorectal cancers (CRCs). However, only a few studies exist which investigated effects of adiponectin receptor expression on CRC characteristics. Objectives: In the present study, we aimed to explore Adipo-R1/-R2 expression in human colorectal cancers and any association with clinicopathological characteristics and survival. Materials and Methods: The study enrolled 58 colorectal cancer patients with tumor resection and a control group of 30 subjects with normal colon mucosa. Results: Positivity for Adipo-R1/-R2 expression was significantly more common in the control group in comparison to the patient group (both p<0.001). There was no significant association between Adipo-R1/-R2 expression and clinicopathological characteristics including age, sex tumor location, pTNM stage, Duke's stage, metastasis, histological differentiation, perineural invasion, venous invasion sex, lymphatic invasion, cancer-related mortality, tumor size and recurrence. Adipo- R1/-R2 positivity was also not significantly linked to progression-free or overall survival [p values (0.871, 0.758) and (0.274, 0.232), respectively]. Conclusions: Although significantly reduced Adipo-R1/-R2 expression was found in colorectal cancer patients, it had no influence on survival.
Internal-External Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage for Patients with Malignant Obstructive Jaundice
Xu, Chuan ; Lv, Peng-Hua ; Huang, Xin-En ; Sun, Ling ; Wang, Shu-Xiang ; Wang, Fu-An ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9391~9394
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9391
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of internal-external percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (IEPTBD) for patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. Methods: During the period of January 2008 and July 2013, internal-external drainage was performed in 42 patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. During the procedure, if the guide wire could pass through the occlusion and into the duodenum, IEPTBD was performed. External drainage biliary catheter was placed if the occlusion was not crossed. Newly onset of infection, degree of bilirubin decrease and the survival time of patients were selected as parameters to evaluate the effect of IEPTBD. Results: Twenty newly onset of infection were recorded after procedure and new infectious rate was 47.6%. Sixteen patients with infection (3 before, 13 after drainage) were uncontrolled after procedure, 12 of them (3 before, 9 after drainage) died within 1 month. The mean TBIL levels declined from 299.53 umol/L before drainage to 257.62 umol/L after drainage, while uninfected group decline from 274.86 umol/L to 132.34 umol/Lp (P < 0.5). The median survival time for uninfected group was 107 days, and for infection group was 43 days (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The IEPTBD drainage may increase the chance of biliary infection, reduce bile drainage efficiency and decrease the long-term prognosis, and the external drainage is a better choice for patients with malignant obstructive jaundice need to biliary drainage.
Prognosis of Eight Chinese Cases of Primary Vaginal Yolk Sac Tumor with a Review of the Literature
Tang, Qiong-Lan ; Jiang, Xue-Feng ; Yuan, Xiao-Ping ; Liu, Yong ; Zhang, Lin ; Tang, Xiao-Feng ; Zhou, Jia-Jia ; Li, Hai-Gang ; Fang, Jian-Pei ; Xue, Lin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9395~9404
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9395
Background: Primary vaginal yolk sac tumor is a rare malignancy in the pediatric population, and a diagnostic challenge and appropriate initial treatment remains unsolved. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic features, treatment and prognosis of this tumor. Materials and Methods: Eight cases of primary vaginal yolk sac tumor were reported with a literature review. Results: There were 4 pure yolk sac tumor cases and four mixed germ cell tumors containing yolk sac tumor element, including two cases with embryonal carcinoma and two cases with embryonal carcinoma and dysgerminoma. Partial vaginectomy was performed in four cases and all patients received chemotherapy. 85 cases in literatures were reviewed and 9 cases were misdiagnosed. Follow-up data was available in 77 cases and 5-year overall survival rate was 87.6%. 5-year survival rate of biopsy with chemotherapy, conservative surgery with chemotherapy and radical surgery with chemotherapy was 91.1%, 100% and 28.6%, respectively (p<0.001). Compared to cases without relapse or metastasis after initial treatment, patients with relapse or metastasis had a shorter overall survival (35.6% vs 96.6%, p<0.001). Conclusions: Mixed germ cell tumor containing yolk sac tumor element was not uncommon and partial vaginectomy may be a good choice for primary vaginal mixed yolk sac tumor type to eradicate local tumor cells and provide complete information for pathological diagnosis and postoperative adjuvant therapy.
Prognostic Value of Peritoneal Washing Cytology in Gynecologic Malignancies: a Controversial Issue
Binesh, Fariba ; Akhavan, Ali ; Behniafard, Nasim ; Zabihi, Somayeh ; Hosseinizadeh, Elhamsadat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9405~9410
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9405
Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic impact of peritoneal washing cytology in patients with endometrial and ovarian cancers. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified 86 individuals with ovarian carcinomas, ovarian borderline tumors and endometrial adenocarcinomas. The patients had been treated at Shahid Sadoughi Hospital and Ramazanzadeh Radiotherapy Center, Yazd, Iran between 2004 and 2012. Survival differences were determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox regression method. A p<0.05 value was considered statistically significant. Results: There were 36 patients with ovarian carcinomas, 4 with borderline ovarian tumors and 46 with endometrial carcinomas. The mean age of the patients was
. In patients with ovarian carcinoma the overall survival in the negative cytology group was better than the patients with positive cytology although this difference failed to reach statistical significance (p=0.30). At 0 to 50 months the overall survival was better in patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma and negative cytology than the patients with positive cytology but then it decreased (p=0.85). At 15 to 60 months patients with FIGO 2009 stage IA-II endometrial andocarcinoma and negative peritoneal cytology had a superior survival rate compared to 1988 IIIA and positive cytology only, although this difference failed to reach statistical significance(p=0.94). Multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards model showed that stage and peritoneal cytology were predictors of death. Conclusions: Our results show good correlation of peritoneal cytology with prognosis in patients with ovarian carcinoma. In endometrial carcinoma it had prognostic importance. Additional research is warranted.
Implementation Plans for the Korean Certified Tumor Registrar Qualification System
Boo, Yoo-Kyung ; Lim, Hyun-Sook ; Won, Young-Joo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9411~9416
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9411
Background: Cancer registration data is used to understand the nation's cancer burden, and to provide significant baseline data for cancer control efforts, as well as, research on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and prevalence. A system that approves, assesses, and manages the qualification of specialists, responsible for performing cancer registration, has not been developed in Korea. This study presents ways to implement a certification system designed for the qualification of tumor registrars in Korea. Materials and Methods: Requirements for implementing a certified tumor registrar qualification system were determined by reviewing the system for establishing qualifications in Korea and the American qualification system via the National Cancer Registrars Association (NCRA). Moreover, a survey was conducted on Korean medical records administrators, who had taken the U.S. Certified Tumor Registrar (CTR) examination, in order to review their opinions regarding these requirements. Results: This study verified the feasibility of a qualification examination based on the opinions of CTR specialists by determining the following: items, and the associated ratings, of the qualifications necessary to register individuals as certified tumor registrars in a private qualification system; status of human resources required for the examination or training processes; plans regarding the organization needed for management, and operation of qualifications, examination standards, subject areas, examination methods, examination qualifications, or education and training programs. Conclusions: The implementation of a certified tumor registrar qualification system will lead to enhanced job competency for specialists and a qualitative improvement of cancer registration data. It will also reliably foster human resources that will lay the groundwork needed to establish scientific and reasonable national cancer management policies.
Overexpression of Phospholipase A
Group IIA in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Association with Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression
Zhai, Yan-Chun ; Dong, Bin ; Wei, Wen-Qiang ; He, Yan ; Li, Xin-Qing ; Cormier, Robert T. ; Wang, Wei ; Liu, Fen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9417~9421
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9417
Background: Esophageal cancer is one of the most frequently occurring malignancies and the seventh leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. The esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common histological type of esophageal cancer worldwide. Materials and Methods: Our goal in this study was to detect phospholipase A2 Group IIA (PLA2G2A) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) immuno-expression in ESCC in a high-risk population in China. Results: Positive expression of PLA2G2A protein was observed in 57.2% (166/290) of the cases, while COX-2 was found in 257 of 290 samples (88.6%), both PLA2G2A and COX-2 being expressed in 153 cases (52.8%), with a significant agreement (Kappa=0.091, p=0.031).Overexpression of PLA2G2A was significantly correlated with the depth of invasion (p=0.001). Co-expression of PLA2G2A and COX-2 not only significantly correlated with the depth of invasion (p=0.004) but also with TNM stage (p=0.04). Conclusions: Our results showed that in patients with ESCC, PLA2G2A overexpression and PLA2G2A co-expression with COX-2 is significantly correlated with advanced stage. The biological role and pathophysiologic regulation of PLA2G2A and COX-2 overexpression in ESCC deserve further investigation.
Influence of Chongcao Yigan Capsule on Function of Intestinal Flora and Chemoprevention for Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B-Induced Liver Fibrosis
Zhao, Xiao-Hu ; Cao, Zheng-Yu ; Shen, Yang ; Lv, Yu-Feng ; Tao, Guang-Rong ; Chen, Sheng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9423~9426
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9423
Objective: Hapatitis B visus (CHB)-induced fibrosis is a precancerous condition of liver. To explore the influence of Chongcao Preparation (Chongcao Yigan Capsule) on the function of intestinal flora and chemoprevention for patients with CHB-induced liver fibrosis. Methods: A total of 136 patients with CHB-induced liver fibrosis were randomly divided into control group treated with lamivudine (LAM) and research group added with Chongcao Yigan Capsule for totally 48 weeks. The changes of intestinal flora, secretory immunoglobin A (SIgA), serum albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PALB), IgA and IgG at different time points in both groups were observed. Results: Before treatment, there was no significant difference between two groups in each index (P>0.05). After treatment, the intestinal flora were evidently optimized in research group than treatment before (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and were apparently better than those in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01); SIgA was obviously increased and ALB, PALB, IgA and IgG were markedly improved in research group than treatment before (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and were significantly better than those in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusions: Chongcao Yigan Capsule could regulate the intestinal flora, increase SIgA, serum ALB and PALB concentrations and significantly improve serum IgA and IgG as well as strengthen the immunological function and autologous repair capacity of patients with CHB-induced liver fibrosis.
Delayed Presentation of Self-discovered Breast Cancer Symptoms in Iranian Women: A Qualitative Study
Khakbazan, Zohreh ; Taghipour, Ali ; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad ; Mohammadi, Eesa ; Omranipour, Ramesh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9427~9432
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9427
Background: Delayed presentation of symptomatic breast cancer is a public health issue in Iran, making a major contribution to low survival. Despite the importance of this problem, current knowledge is insufficient to inform interventions to shorten patient delay. The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing patient delay in Iranian women with self-discovered breast cancer symptom. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted during 2012-2013. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit 20 Iranian women with self-discovered symptoms of breast cancer who attended the Cancer Institute of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Data were collected through semi-structured in-depth audiotaped interviews, which were transcribed and analyzed using conventional content analysis with MAXqda software version 10. Findings: Content analysis of the data revealed four main themes related to the delay in seeking medical help including: 1) attributing symptoms to the benign conditions; 2) conditional health behavior; 3) inhibiting emotional expression; and 4) barriers to access to health care systems. Conclusions: These results suggest that patient delay is influenced by complex and multiple factors. Effective intervention to reduce patient delay for breast cancer should be developed by focusing on improvement of women's medical knowledge, managing patients' emotional expression and reform of the referral system.
A Systematic Review of Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Pacific Region
Obel, J. ; Souares, Y. ; Hoy, D. ; Baravilala, W. ; Garland, S.M. ; Kjaer, S.K. ; Roth, A. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9433~9437
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9433
This study provides the first systematic literature review of cervical cancer incidence and mortality as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype prevalence among women with cervical cancer in the Pacific Island countries and territories. The cervical cancer burden in the Pacific Region is substantial, with age standardized incidence rates ranging from 8.2 to 50.7 and age standardized mortality rate from 2.7 to 23.9 per 100,000 women per year. The HPV genotype distribution suggests that 70-80% of these cancers could be preventable by the currently available bi- or quadrivalent HPV vaccines. There are only few comprehensive studies examining the epidemiology of cervical cancer in this region and no published data have hitherto described the current cervical cancer prevention initiatives in this region.
Identification of Prostate Cancer LncRNAs by RNA-Seq
Hu, Cheng-Cheng ; Gan, Ping ; Zhang, Rui-Ying ; Xue, Jin-Xia ; Ran, Long-Ke ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9439~9444
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9439
Purpose: To identify prostate cancer lncRNAs using a pipeline proposed in this study, which is applicable for the identification of lncRNAs that are differentially expressed in prostate cancer tissues but have a negligible potential to encode proteins. Materials and Methods: We used two publicly available RNA-Seq datasets from normal prostate tissue and prostate cancer. Putative lncRNAs were predicted using the biological technology, then specific lncRNAs of prostate cancer were found by differential expression analysis and co-expression network was constructed by the weighted gene co-expression network analysis. Results: A total of 1,080 lncRNA transcripts were obtained in the RNA-Seq datasets. Three genes (PCA3, C20orf166-AS1 and RP11-267A15.1) showed a significant differential expression in the prostate cancer tissues, and were thus identified as prostate cancer specific lncRNAs. Brown and black modules had significant negative and positive correlations with prostate cancer, respectively. Conclusions: The pipeline proposed in this study is useful for the prediction of prostate cancer specific lncRNAs. Three genes (PCA3, C20orf166-AS1, and RP11-267A15.1) were identified to have a significant differential expression in prostate cancer tissues. However, there have been no published studies to demonstrate the specificity of RP11-267A15.1 in prostate cancer tissues. Thus, the results of this study can provide a new theoretic insight into the identification of prostate cancer specific genes.
Promoting Effects of Sanguinarine on Apoptotic Gene Expression in Human Neuroblastoma Cells
Cecen, Emre ; Altun, Zekiye ; Ercetin, Pinar ; Aktas, Safiye ; Olgun, Nur ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9445~9451
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9445
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. Approximately half of the affected patients are diagnosed with high-risk poor prognosis disease, and novel therapies are needed. Sanguinarine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid which has anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study is whether sanguinarine has in vitro apoptotic effects and which apoptotic genes might be affected in the human neuroblastoma cell lines SH-SY5Y (N-myc negative), Kelly (N-myc positive, ALK positive), and SK-N-BE(2). Cell viability was analysed with WST-1 and apoptotic cell death rates were determined using TUNEL. After RNA isolation and cDNA conversion, expression of 84 custom array genes of apoptosis was determined. Sanguinarine caused cell death in a dose dependent manner in all neuroblastoma cell lines except SK-N-BE(2) with rates of 18% in SH-SY5Y and 21% in Kelly human neuroblastoma cells. Cisplatin caused similar apoptotic cell death rates of 16% in SH-SY5Y and 23% in Kelly cells and sanguinarine-cisplatin combinations caused the same rates (18% and 20%). Sanguinarine treatment did not affect apoptototic gene expression but decreased levels of anti-apoptotic genes NOL3 and BCL2L2 in SH-SY5Y cells. Caspase and TNF related gene expression was affected by the sanguinarine-cisplatin combination in SH-SY5Y cells. The expression of regulation of apoptotic genes were increased with sanguinarine treatment in Kelly cells. From these results, we conclude that sanguinarine is a candidate agent against neuroblastoma.
Black Hispanic and Black Non-Hispanic Breast Cancer Survival Data Analysis with Half-normal Model Application
Khan, Hafiz Mohammad Rafiqullah ; Saxena, Anshul ; Vera, Veronica ; Abdool-Ghany, Faheema ; Gabbidon, Kemesha ; Perea, Nancy ; Stewart, Tiffanie Shauna-Jeanne ; Ramamoorthy, Venkataraghavan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9453~9458
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9453
Background: Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death for women in the United States. Differences in survival of breast cancer have been noted among racial and ethnic groups, but the reasons for these disparities remain unclear. This study presents the characteristics and the survival curve of two racial and ethnic groups and evaluates the effects of race on survival times by measuring the lifetime data-based half-normal model. Materials and Methods: The distributions among racial and ethnic groups are compared using female breast cancer patients from nine states in the country all taken from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry. The main end points observed are: age at diagnosis, survival time in months, and marital status. The right skewed half-normal statistical probability model is used to show the differences in the survival times between black Hispanic (BH) and black non-Hispanic (BNH) female breast cancer patients. The Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard ratio are used to estimate and compare the relative risk of death in two minority groups, BH and BNH. Results: A probability random sample method was used to select representative samples from BNH and BH female breast cancer patients, who were diagnosed during the years of 1973-2009 in the United States. The sample contained 1,000 BNH and 298 BH female breast cancer patients. The median age at diagnosis was 57.75 years among BNH and 54.11 years among BH. The results of the half-normal model showed that the survival times formed positive skewed models with higher variability in BNH compared with BH. The Kaplan-Meir estimate was used to plot the survival curves for cancer patients; this test was positively skewed. The Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard ratio for survival analysis showed that BNH had a significantly longer survival time as compared to BH which is consistent with the results of the half-normal model. Conclusions: The findings with the proposed model strategy will assist in the healthcare field to measure future outcomes for BH and BNH, given their past history and conditions. These findings may provide an enhanced and improved outlook for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer patients in the United States.
Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes 4 is a Predictor of Survival and a Novel Therapeutic Target in Colorectal Cancer
Feng, Xiao-Dong ; Song, Qi ; Li, Chuan-Wei ; Chen, Jian ; Tang, Hua-Mei ; Peng, Zhi-Hai ; Wang, Xue-Chun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9459~9465
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9459
Background: Structural maintenance of chromosomes 4 (SMC-4) is a chromosomal ATPase which plays an important role in regulate chromosome assembly and segregation. However, the role of SMC-4 in the incidence of malignancies, especially colorectal cancer is still poorly understood. Materials and Methods: We here used quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis to examine SMC-4 mRNA and protein levels in primary colorectal cancer and paired normal colonic mucosa. SMC-4 clinicopathological significance was assessed by immunohistochemical staining in a tissue microarray (TMA) in which 118 cases of primary colorectal cancer were paired with noncancerous tissue. The biological function of SMC-4 knockdown was measured by CCK8 and plate colony formation assays. Fluorescence detection has been used to detect cell cycling and apoptosis. Results: SMC-4 expression was significantly higher in colorectal cancer and associated with T stage, N stage, AJCC stage and differentiation. Knockdown of SMC-4 expression significantly suppressed the proliferation of cancer cells and degraded its malignant degree. Conclusions: Our clinical and experimental data suggest that SMC-4 may contribute to the progression of colorectal carcinogenesis. Our study provides a new therapeutic target for colorectal cancer treatment.
Status of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Levels in Smokers with Breast Cancer from Western Nepal
Nagamma, T. ; Baxi, Jalaj ; Singh, P.P. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9467~9470
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9467
Background: Research indicates that oxidative stress induced by smoking plays a role in breast cancer. In view of these reports, we aimed to study th relationship between smoking and oxidative stress in breast cancer patients from the western region of Nepal. Materials and Methods: The study included a control group of 42 females (non-smoking healthy women) and a test group sudivided into Group I consisting of 46 female breast cancer patients who were smokers and Group II consisting of 42 non-smoking breast cancer patients. Detailed history of the patients was collected with the help of pre-test proforma. Plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant activity (TAA) which represents total dietary antioxidants, vitamin C and
- tocopherol were estimated by standard methods. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results: The plasma MDA, TAA, vitamin C and
- tocopherol were
in Group-I and
in Group- II, respectively. Vitamin C,
- tocopherol and TAA (p=0.001) were significantly reduced whereas MDA (p=0.001) was significantly raised in Group-I when compared to controls and Group-II. Conclusions: We observed a significant rise in oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants in breast cancer patients with smoking habit. It is well known that free radicals facilitate the progression of breast cancer, possibly increasing the risk of progression to the next stage.
Outcome of Breast Cancer Screening: A Lebanese Single Institution Experience
Kourie, Hampig Raphael ; Daher, Alain ; Matar, Dany ; Antoun, Joelle ; Salloum, Lony ; Kattan, Joseph ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9471~9473
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9471
Background: Since 2002, from October till December of each year, the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health conducts a mammogram based breast cancer screening campaign in the whole country for women over 40 years of age. These mammograms are performed free of charge in governmental hospitals or for reduced fees in private hospitals. The aim of this study is to analyze the direct impact of this campaign on cancer detection and subsequent treatment. Materials and Methods: Radiologic records of women screened with a mammogram during the campaign period from October till December 2012 at Saint Joseph Hospital, Baouchrieh, Beirut, were reviewed. Results of mammograms were reported using the ACR score. Women with ACR score
were tracked and investigated. Results: 900 screening mammograms were performed; median age was 55.2 years (range:31-81 years). Some 826 (91.8%) had an ACR score of
; 66 (7.3%) an ACR =3 and only 8 (0.89%) an ACR=4. Thus, less than 1% (8/900) of all screened women were considered at high risk and needed a close follow-up. Among these 8 women, 4 underwent surgery for an early breast cancer, one had synchronous metastatic breast cancer and two were lost to follow-up. Conclusions: To coclude, Among 900-screened women for BC, less than 1 % (8 out of 900) were at high risk of hiding a BC (ACR=4), half of them benefited from early therapy (4 women out of 900) and one was a false positive. Larger studies on national level should be accomplished to have a complete data on breast cancer screening in Lebanon. The results of these studies can affect the Lebanese health policy regarding BC.
Common Cancers in Khuzestan Province, South West of Iran, during 2005-2011
Karami, Kh ; Cheraghi, M. ; Amori, N. ; Pedram, M. ; Sobhani, A. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9475~9478
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9475
Cancer is the third highest cause of premature mortality in Iran. We aimed to determine trend of common cancers in Khuzestan province, Iran. Methods: It was a hospital based survey on 4065 subjects from their hospital files, those had registered as cancer case in Shafa hospital which has known as a biggest center of cancer in khuzestan province, Iran during 2005-2011.All data has entered by SPSS (version 19), descriptive statistic and adjusted odds ratio of common cancers for age and sex were calculated from multiple logistic regression model. Results: From all subjects; (51% & 49%) were male and female respectively. The most frequent age group was 60-50 years and common cancers were breast 16%, colorectal 6.3%, blood 2%, lung 8% and stomach 8%. Conclusion: Prevalence of cancers has increased markedly with age in Khuzestan Providence. Therefore, it is essential to prevent through early prevention, using screening and identifying cases in initial stages.
Methylation Status and Immunohistochemistry of BRCA1 in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
Pradjatmo, Heru ; Dasuki, Djaswadi ; Anwar, Mohammad ; Mubarika, Sofia ; Harijadi, Harijadi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9479~9485
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9479
Background: Cancer initiation and progression are controlled by genetic and epigenetic events. One epigenetic process which is widely known is DNA methylation, a cause of gene silencing. If a gene is silenced the protein which it encodes will not expressed. Objectives: 1. Identify the methylation status of BRCA1 in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC)and assess BRCA1 protein expression in tumor tissue. 2. Examine whether BRCA1 gene methylation and BRCA1 protein are associated with survival of epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Methods: The study design was a prospective-cohort study, conducted at Sardjito hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Results: A total of 69 cases were analyzed in this study. The data showed that the methylation status of BRCA1 in EOC was positive in 89.9%, with clear protein expression of BRCA1 in 31.9%. Methylation status and expression of BRCA1 were not prognosticators of EOC patients. Menarche, CA125 level, clinical stage and residual tumor were independent factors for prognosis.
Retrospective Evaluation of Discrepancies between Radiological and Pathological Size of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Masses
Tian, Fei ; Wu, Jian-Xiong ; Rong, Wei-Qi ; Wang, Li-Ming ; Wu, Fan ; Yu, Wei-Bo ; An, Song-Lin ; Liu, Fa-Qiang ; Feng, Li ; Liu, Yun-He ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9487~9494
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9487
Background: The size of a hepatic neoplasm is critical for staging, prognosis and selection of appropriate treatment. Our study aimed to compare the radiological size of solid hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) masses on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the pathological size in a Chinese population, and to elucidate discrepancies. Materials and Methods: A total of 178 consecutive patients diagnosed with HCC who underwent curative hepatic resection after enhanced MRI between July 2010 and October 2013 were retrospectively identified and analyzed. Pathological data of the whole removed tumors wereassessed and differences between radiological and pathological tumor size were identified. All patients were restaged using a modified Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) staging system postoperatively according to the maximum diameter alteration. The lesions were classified as hypo-staged, iso-staged or hyper-staged for qualitative assessment. In the quantitative analysis, the relative pre and postoperative tumor size contrast ratio (
) was also computed according to size intervals. In addition, the relationship between radiological and pathological tumor diameter variation and histologic grade was analyzed. Results: Pathological examination showed 85 (47.8%) patients were overestimated, 82 (46.1%) patients underestimated, while accurate measurement by MRI was found in 11 (6.2%) patients. Among the total subjects, 14 (7.9%) patients were hypo-staged and 15 (8.4%) were hyper-staged post-operatively. Accuracy of MRI for calculation and characterized staging was related to the lesion size, ranging from 83.1% to 87.4% (<2cm to
, p=0.328) and from 62.5% to 89.1% (cT1 to cT4, p=0.006), respectively. Overall, MRI misjudged pathological size by 6.0 mm (p=0.588 ), and the greatest difference was observed in tumors <2cm (3.6 mm,
, p=0.028). No statistically significant difference was observed for moderately differentiated HCC (5.5mm, p=0.781). However, for well differentiated and poorly differentiated cases, radiographic tumor maximum diameter was significantly larger than the pathological maximum diameter by 3.15 mm and underestimated by 4.51 mm, respectively (p=0.034 and 0.020). Conclusions: A preoperative HCC tumor size measurement using MRI can provide relatively acceptable accuracy but may give rise to discrepancy in tumors in a certain size range or histologic grade. In pathological well differentiated subjects, the pathological tumor size was significantly overestimated, but underestimated in poorly differentiated HCC. The difference between radiological and pathological tumor size was greatest for tumors <2 cm. For some HCC patients, the size difference may have implications for the decision of resection, transplantation, ablation, or arterially directed therapy, and should be considered in staging or selecting the appropriate treatment tactics.
Frequency of Chromosomal Abnormalities in Pakistani Adults with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Shaikh, Muhammad Shariq ; Adil, Salman Naseem ; Shaikh, Mohammad Usman ; Khurshid, Mohammad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9495~9498
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9495
Background: The difference in prognosis of adult and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) can be attributed largely to variation in cytogenetic abnormalities with age groups. Cytogenetic analysis in acute leukemia is now routinely used to assist patient management, particularly in terms of diagnosis, disease monitoring, prognosis and risk stratification. Knowing about cytogenetic profile at the time of diagnosis is important in order to take critical decisions in management of the patients. Aim and Objectives: To determine the frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities in Pakistani adult patients with ALL in order to have insights regarding behavior of the disease. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of all the cases of ALL (
years old) diagnosed at Aga Khan University from January 2006 to June 2014 was performed. Phenotype (B/T lineage) was confirmed in all cases by flow cytometry. Cytogenetic analysis was made for all cases using the trypsin-Giemsa banding technique. Karyotypes were interpreted using the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN) criteria. Results: A total of 166 patients were diagnosed as ALL during the study period, of which 151 samples successfully yielded metaphase chromosomes. The male to female ratio was 3.4:1. The majority (n=120, 72.3%) had a B-cell phenotype. A normal karyotype was present in 51% (n=77) of the cases whereas 49% (n=74) had an abnormal karyotype. Of the abnormal cases, 10% showed Philadelphia chromosome; t(9;22)(q34;q11.2). Other poor prognostic cytogenetic subgroups were t(4;11)(q21;q23), hypodiploidy (35-45 chromosomes) and complex karyotype. Hyperdiploidy (47-57 chromosomes) occurred in 6.6%; all of whom were younger than 30 years. Conclusions: This study showed a relatively low prevalence of Philadelphia chromosome in Pakistani adults with ALL with an increase in frequency with age (p=0.003). The cumulative prevalence of Philadelphianegative poor cytogenetic aberrations in different age groups was not significant (p=0.6).
Relationship between Body Image and Breast Self-examination Intentions and Behaviors among Female University Students in Malaysia
Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu ; Ahmadian, Maryam ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9499~9503
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9499
This study aimed to examine the relationship between body image satisfaction and breast self-screening behaviors and intentions. The sample for this cross-sectional study consisted of 842 female university students who were recruited from a number of public and private universities. Data were obtained between the months of November and December, 2013, using multistage random cluster sampling. Main research variables were breast cancer screening behavior and intentions, demographic factors, and the total scores on each of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ-Appearance Scales) subscales. Results of multivariate analysis showed that having higher satisfaction and more positive evaluation of appearance were related to having performed breast self-examination more frequently in the last year and intending to perform breast self-examination more frequently in the next year. Longitudinal research can potentially provide detailed information about overall body image satisfaction and breast cancer screening behavior among various communities.
Effects of Stellate Ganglion Block on the Peri-operative Vasomotor Cytokine Content and Intrapulmonary Shunt in Patients with Esophagus Cancer
Guo, Wei ; Jin, Xiao-Ju ; Yu, Jun ; Liu, Yang ; Zhang, Jian-Ping ; Yang, Da-Wei ; Zhang, Lei ; Guo, Jiang-Rong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9505~9509
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9505
Objective: To investigate the effects of stellate ganglion block (SGB) on the peri-operative vasomotor cytokine content and intrapulmonary shunt in patients with esophagus cancer who underwent thoracotomy. Materials and Methods: Forty patients undergoing elective resection of esophageal cancer patients who had I~II American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) were randomly divided into total intravenous anesthesia group (group N, n=20) and total intravenous anesthesia combined with SGB group (group S, n=20, 0.12 mL/kg 1% lidocaine was used for SGB 10 min before induction). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) and continuous cardiac output (CCO) were continuously monitored. The blood from internal jugular vein was drawn respectively before induction (
), and 30 min (
), 60 min (
) and 120 min (
) after one-lung ventilation (OLV), and 30 min (T4) after two-lung ventilation. The contents of plasma endothelin (ET), nitric oxide (NO) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Meanwhile, arterial and mixed venous blood samples were collected for determination of blood gas and calculation of intrapulmonary shunt fraction (Qs/Qt). Results: During OLV, ET contents were increased significantly in two groups (P<0.05), and no significant difference was presented (P>0.05). NO content in group S was obviously higher than in group N at T3 (P<0.05), whereas CGRP content in group N was markedly lower than in group S at each time point (P<0.05). Qs/Qt was significantly increased in both groups after OLV, but there was no statistical significant regarding the Qs/Qt at each time point between two groups. Conclusions: Total intravenous anesthesia combined with SGB is conducive to regulation of perioperative vasomotor cytokines in thoracotomy, and has little effect on intrapulmonary shunt at the time of OLV.
Serum Cathepsin B to Cystatin C Ratio as a Potential Marker for the Diagnosis of Cholangiocarcinoma
Monsouvanh, Ammala ; Proungvitaya, Tanakorn ; Limpaiboon, Temduang ; Wongkham, Chaisiri ; Wongkham, Sopit ; Luvira, Vor ; Proungvitaya, Siriporn ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9511~9515
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9511
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a cancer of the bile duct epithelial cells. The highest incidence rate of CCA with a poor prognosis and poor response to chemotherapy is found in Southeast Asian countries, especially in northeastern Thailand and Lao PDR. Cathepsin B is a lysosomal cysteine protease which is regulated by cysteine proteinase inhibitors such as cystatin C. Elevation of cathepsin B levels in biological fluid has been observed in patients with inflammatory diseases and many cancers. We aimed to investigate the serum cathepsin B and cystatin C levels of CCA patients to evaluate the feasibility of using cathepsin B and cystatin C as markers for the diagnosis of CCA. Fifty-six sera from CCA patients, 17 with benign biliary diseases (BBD) and 13 from controls were collected and the cathepsin B and cystatin C levels were determined. In addition, cathepsin B expression was investigated immunohistochemically for 9 matched-pairs of cancerous and adjacent tissues of CCA patients. Serum cathepsin B, but not cystatin C, was significantly higher in CCA and BBD patient groups compared to that in the control group. Consistently, all cancerous tissues strongly expressed cathepsin B while adjacent tissues were negative in 7 out of 9 cases. In contrast, serum cystatin C levels were comparable between CCA and control groups, although serum cystatin C levels in the BBD group was higher than that in the control or CCA groups. When the serum cathepsin B to cystatin C ratio was calculated, that of the CCA group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and, although statistically not significant, the ratio of CCA group showed a trend to be higher than that of the BBD group. Thus, the cathepsin B to cystatin C ratio might be used as an alternative marker for aiding diagnosis of CCA.
Mutagenicity and Antimutagenicity of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Extracts of Thai Northern Purple Rice
Punvittayagul, Charatda ; Sringarm, Korawan ; Chaiyasut, Chaiyawat ; Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9517~9522
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9517
Purple rice (Oryza sativa L. var. indica) cv. Kum Doisaket is cultivated in northern Thailand. This study evaluated the mutagenic and antimutagenic properties of hydrophilic and lipophilic components of purple rice using the Ames test. The seed and hull of purple rice were extracted with hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water. The methanol extracts had the highest amounts of phenolic acids and flavonoids, while the hexane extracts contained large amount of tocols and
-oryzanol. None of the extracts were mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. The hexane extract of rice hull and the methanol extract of rice seed were strongly effective against aflatoxin B1- and 2-amino-3, 4 dimethylimidazo (4, 5-f) quinoline-induced mutagenesis, while aqueous extracts showed weakly antimutagenic properties. All extracts with the exception of aqueous extracts enhanced the number of revertant colonies from benzo (a) pyrene induced-mutagenesis. None of the extracts inhibited mutagenesis induced by the direct mutagens 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-acrylamide and sodium azide. The hull extracts showed more potent antimutagenicity than the seed extracts. Based on a chemical analysis,
-tocotrienol in the hull and cyanidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-glucoside in the seed are candidate antimutagens in purple rice. The antimutagenic mechanisms of purple rice might be related to either modulation of mutagen metabolizing enzymes or direct attack on electrophiles. These findings supported the use of Thai purple rice as a cancer chemopreventive agent.
Expression and Clinical Significance of MicroRNA-376a in Colorectal Cancer
Mo, Zhan-Hao ; Wu, Xiao-Dong ; Li, Shuo ; Fei, Bing-Yuan ; Zhang, Bin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9523~9527
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9523
The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in many Asian countries and microRNAs have already been proven to be associated with tumorigenesis. Currently, microRNA-376a (miR-376a) expression and association with clinical factors in CRC remains unclear. In this study, real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was carried out on 53 matched pairs of CRC and adjacent normal mucosa to investigate the expression levels of miR-376a. According to the high or low expression of miR-376a, patients were divided into two groups. The relationship between miR-376a expression and clinicopathological factors of 53 patients was evaluated. Survival analysis of 53 CRC patients was performed with clinical follow-up information and survival curves were assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was performed on sections of paraffin-embedded tissue to investigate the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. MiR-376a showed low expression in cancer tissues compared to the adjacent normal tissues and altered high miR-376a expression tended to be positively correlated with advanced lymph node metastasis and shorter patient survival. VEGF IHC positivity was significantly more common in patients with high expression levels of miR-376a.Those results demonstrated that miR-376a may be a meaningful prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in colorectal cancer.
Improving Accuracy and Completeness in the Collaborative Staging System for Stomach Cancer in South Korea
Lim, Hyun-Sook ; Won, Young-Joo ; Boo, Yoo-Kyung ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9529~9534
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9529
Background: Cancer staging enables planning for the best treatments, evaluation of prognosis, and predictions for survival. The Collaborative Stage (CS) system makes it possible to significantly reduce the proportion of patients labeled at an "unknown" stage as well as discrepancies among different staging systems. This study aims to analyze the factors that influence the accuracy and validity of CS data. Materials and Methods: Data were randomly selected (233 cases) from stomach cancer cases enrolled for CS survey at the Korea Central Cancer Registry. Two questionnaires were used to assess CS values for each case and to review the cancer registration environment for each hospital. Data were analyzed in terms of the relationships between the time spent for acquisition and registration of CS information, environments relating to cancer registration in the hospitals, and document sources of CS information for each item. Results: The time for extracting and registering data was found to be shorter when the hospitals had prior experience gained from participating in a CS pilot study and when they were equipped with full-time cancer registrars. Evaluation of the CS information according to medical record sources found that the percentage of items missing for Site Specific Factor (SSF) was 30% higher than for other CS variables. Errors in CS coding were found in variables such as "CS Extension," "CS Lymph Nodes," "CS Metastasis at Diagnosis," and "SSF25 Involvement of Cardia and Distance from Esophagogastric Junction (EGJ)." Conclusions: To build CS system data that are reliable for cancer registration and clinical research, the following components are required: 1) training programs for medical records administrators; 2) supporting materials to promote active participation; and 3) format development to improve registration validity.
Risk Factors of Breast Cancer in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Namiranian, Nasim ; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar ; Razavi-Ratki, Seid Kazem ; Doayie, Mahdyie ; Nojomi, Marzieh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9535~9541
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9535
Background: Identifying risk factors of breast cancer is a key point for preventive strategies to reduce the incidence. The aim of current study was to determine most important risk factors for breast cancer in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) using a systematic review. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science till August 24, 2012 and the reference lists of all included studies were searched. Analytic studies which had reported odds ratios (OR), relative risk (RR) or required data to calculate them were included. A total of 343 studies were critically appraised and finally 30 studies were meta-analyzed. Heterogeneity between the studies was assessed by
and Cochran's Q. Egger's test was used to assess publication bias. Results: Twenty five casecontrol studies, one nested case-control and four cohort studies were included. The largest ORs were obtained for history of no live birth (2.25; 95%CI: 1.58-3.18), body mass index (BMI) more than 30 (2.21; 95%CI: 1.71-2.36), age at first pregnancy more than 30 years old (1.52; 95%CI: 1.30-1.77) and meat consumption more than three times per week (1.39; 95%CI: 1.03-1.87). The other important predictors were higher education and smoking as risk factors, physical activity and ovulatory stimulating medication as protective factors. Conclusions: The most important predictors of breast cancer in EMR were history of no live birth, BMI more than 30, age at first pregnancy more than 30 years old, physical inactivity and smoking. Almost all these risk factors are consistent with known risk factors for this cancer in other parts of the world.
Dietary Habits Contributing to Breast Cancer Risk Among Iranian Women
Mobarakeh, Zahra Sheikhi ; Mirzaei, Khadijeh ; Hatmi, Nadia ; Ebrahimi, Mandana ; Dabiran, Sohaila ; Sotoudeh, Gity ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9543~9547
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9543
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate demographic features, dietary habits, and some possible risk factors for being susceptible to breast cancer in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: A study of dietary habits and breast cancer was conducted among 53 Iranian women with histological confirmed disease and 40 matched controls. A dietary habits questionnaire was used to evaluate the pattern of selected food intakes. The risk of cancer was analyzed after adjustment for confounding factors. Age, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, educational status, parity, lactation, marital status, menopause, history of estrogen therapy, and family history of breast disease or cancer were assessed among participants. Special attention was given to the relationship between consumption of high fat meat, milk, yogurt and cheese as well use of frying oils for frying foods, use of olive/liquid oils for cooking, removing fat from meat and poultry, removing chicken skin and not use of mayonnaise as salad dressing and the risk of breast cancer. Moreover, salad, vegetable and fruit consumption, and eating outdoors owere investigated. Results: Our results revealed significant lower education and higher BMI and waist circumference levels in patients with breast cancer. There was significantly increased breast cancer risk in overweight women in comparison with normal weight (OR=2.91, 95%CI 1.24 to 6.82). High intake of fat dairy products including milk and cheese was found to be a statistically significant factor for increasing breast cancer risk in models adjusting for age, BMI and education. Use of olive/liquid oils for cooking and avoidance of mayonnaise as salad dressing are related to lower risk of breast cancer. The frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption was significantly lower in patients with breast cancer compared to healthy women. Conclusions: Dietary habits might be risk factors for breast cancer among Iranian women. Adoption of a prudent diet could be an appropriate strategy for preventing breast cancer.
Does the Impairment of Functional Life Increase the Probability of Suicide in Cancer Patients?
Tanriverdi, Derya ; Cuhadar, Dondu ; Ciftci, Serpil ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9549~9553
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9549
Background: Cancer affects patients in many ways including physical, social, emotional, psychological and economic and restricts the functional lives. Psychiatric problems seen among cancer patients may increase the suicide probability and patients perceive suicide as a peaceful death type. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between functional life and suicide probability among cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with 105 cancer patients as descriptive. The Functional Living Index_Cancer (FLIC)," suicide probability scale" (SPS) and personal information form were used as data collecting tools. Data were evaluated by descriptive analysis, and Pearson's correlation. Results: It was determined that 34.3% of patients thought of suicide. Significant negative correlation was found between functional life and suicide probability (r=-.641, p=0.000), increase being evident in those with poor functional life. Conclusions: It is recommended that cancer patients should be supported for improving their functional lives with help in coping processes for illness and treatment symptoms. Evaluation of the patient mental status to prevent the suicide among this group is an important role for nurses.
Absence of the TP53 Poly-A Signal Sequence Variant rs78378222 in Oral, Cervical and Breast Cancers in South India
Rao, Arunagiri Kuha Deva Magendhra ; Vinothkumar, Vilvanathan ; Revathidevi, Sundaramoorthy ; Arunkumar, Ganesan ; Manikandan, Mayakannan ; Arun, Kanagaraj ; Rajkumar, Kottayasamy Seenivasagam ; Ramani, Rajendran ; Ramamurthy, Rajaraman ; Munirajan, Arasambattu Kannan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 21, 2014, Pages 9555~9556
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.21.9555