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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 22 - Dec 2014
Volume 15, Issue 21 - Nov 2014
Volume 15, Issue 20 - Nov 2014
Volume 15, Issue 19 - Oct 2014
Volume 15, Issue 18 - Oct 2014
Volume 15, Issue 17 - Sep 2014
Volume 15, Issue 16 - Aug 2014
Volume 15, Issue 15 - Aug 2014
Volume 15, Issue 14 - Jul 2014
Volume 15, Issue 13 - Jul 2014
Volume 15, Issue 12 - Jun 2014
Volume 15, Issue 11 - Jun 2014
Volume 15, Issue 10 - May 2014
Volume 15, Issue 9 - May 2014
Volume 15, Issue 8 - Apr 2014
Volume 15, Issue 7 - Apr 2014
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Mar 2014
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Mar 2014
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Feb 2014
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Feb 2014
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jan 2014
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
MiRNA Molecular Profiles in Human Medical Conditions: Connecting Lung Cancer and Lung Development Phenomena
Aghanoori, Mohamad-Reza ; Mirzaei, Behnaz ; Tavallaei, Mahmood ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9557~9565
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9557
MiRNAs are endogenous, single stranded ~22-nucleotide non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) which are transcribed by RNA polymerase II and mediate negative post-transcriptional gene regulation through binding to 3'untranslated regions (UTR), possibly open reading frames (ORFs) or 5'UTRs of target mRNAs. MiRNAs are involved in the normal physiology of eukaryotic cells, so dysregulation may be associated with diseases like cancer, and neurodegenerative, heart and other disorders. Among all cancers, lung cancer, with high incidence and mortality worldwide, is classified into two main groups: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Recent promising studies suggest that gene expression profiles and miRNA signatures could be a useful step in a noninvasive, low-cost and repeatable screening process of lung cancer. Similarly, every stage of lung development during fetal life is associated with specific miRNAs. Since lung development and lung cancer phenomena share the same physiological, biological and molecular processes like cell proliferation, development and shared mRNA or expression regulation pathways, and according to data adopted from various studies, they may have partially shared miRNA signature. Thus, focusing on lung cancer in relation to lung development in miRNA studies might provide clues for lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis.
Are Beta Blockers New Potential Anticancer Agents?
Akbar, Shahid ; Alsharidah, Mansour Saleh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9567~9574
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9567
-Blockers have been one of the most widely used and versatile drugs for the past half a century. A new potential for their use as anti-cancer drugs has emerged in the past few years. Various retrospective case control studies have been suggestive that use of
-blockers before the diagnosis of cancer could have preventive and protective effects against non-small cell lung carcinoma, melanoma, and breast, pancreatic and prostate cancers. Experimental and clinical observations are still inconclusive with some inconsistent findings. However, indications are pointing toward a positive role of some
-blockers against certain forms of cancers. This mini review is an effort to present the up to date published results of case-control studies and experimental findings.
Epidemiology, Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment of Prostate Cancer
Daniyal, Muhammad ; Siddiqui, Zamir Ali ; Akram, Muhammad ; Asif, H.M. ; Sultana, Sabira ; Khan, Asmatullah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9575~9578
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9575
Prostate cancer is more common in men over the age of 65 years. There are 15% cases with positive family history of prostate cancer Worldwide. Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death among the U.S. men. Prostate cancer incidence is strongly related to age with the highest rates in older man. Globally millions of people are suffering from this disease. This study aims to provide awareness about prostate cancer as well as an updated knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.
Overweight, Obesity, Oxidative Stress and the Risk of Breast Cancer
Kruk, Joanna ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9579~9586
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9579
There is growing scientific evidence linking excess body weight to breast cancer risk. However, there is no common consensus on this relation due partly to methodologies used, populations studied and the cancer subtype. We report here a summary of the present state of knowledge on the role of overweight and obesity in pathogenesis of breast cancer and possible mechanisms through which excess body weight might influence the risk, focusing on the role of oxidative stress in breast cancer etiology. The findings demonstrate duality of excess body weight action in dependence on menopausal status: a statistically significant increased risk in postmenopausal overweight/ obese women and non-significant preventive effect among premenopausal women. Due to several gaps in the literature on this topic, additional studies are needed. Future research should address factors influencing the excess body weight - breast cancer relationship, such as race/ethnicity, tumor subtype, receptor status, the most appropriate measure of adiposity, reproductive characteristics, and lifestyle components.
Olanzapine for Preventing Nausea and Vomiting Induced by Moderately and Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy
Wang, Shi-Yong ; Yang, Zhen-Jun ; Zhang, Lu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9587~9592
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9587
Nausea and vomiting are common adverse events in chemotherapy. In spite of the serious effects on the quality of life and further treatment, they remain overlooked by physicians, and no standard treatment has been developed. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists and palonosetron are the major agents in the standard regimen for treating moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). However, NK-1 receptor antagonists first became commercially available at the end of 2013 and palonosetron has not been extensively applied in China. Olanzapine was recommended as a therapy for moderate and severe CINV in antiemesis-clinical practice guidelines in oncology in 2014 for the first time. It is an atypical antipsychotic agent, which can block multiple receptors on neurotransmitters. During more than 10 years, olanzapine has demonstrated significant effects in preventing CINV and treating breakthrough and refractor CINV, which was observed in case reports, precise retrospective studies, and phase I, II and III clinical trials, with no grade 3 to 4 adverse events. In particular, it is superior to aprepitant and dexamethasone in delayed nausea and vomiting. Therefore, this compound is worthy of further investigation.
Ursolic Acid Promotes Apoptosis of SGC-7901 Gastric Cancer Cells through ROCK/PTEN Mediated Mitochondrial Translocation of Cofilin-1
Li, Rui ; Wang, Xia ; Zhang, Xiao-Hong ; Chen, Hong-Hai ; Liu, Yan-Dong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9593~9597
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9593
Ursolic acid, extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine bearberry, can induce apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. However, its pro-apoptotic mechanism still needs further investigation. More and more evidence demonstrates that mitochondrial translocation of cofilin-1 appears necessary for the regulation of apoptosis. Here, we report that ursolic acid (UA) potently induces the apoptosis of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Further mechanistic studies revealed that the ROCK1/PTEN signaling pathway plays a critical role in UA-mediated mitochondrial translocation of cofilin-1 and apoptosis. These findings imply that induction of apoptosis by ursolic acid stems primarily from the activation of ROCK1 and PTEN, resulting in the translocation of cofilin-1 from cytoplasm to mitochondria, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and finally inducing apoptosis of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells.
Evaluation of Treatment Outcomes of Early-Stage Endometrial Cancer Radiotherapy: A Single Center Experience
Demiral, S. ; Beyzadeoglu, M. ; Sager, O. ; Dincoglan, F. ; Uysal, B. ; Gamsiz, H. ; Akin, M. ; Turker, T. ; Dirican, B. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9599~9602
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9599
Background: Postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in the management of early stage endometrial cancer (EC) is still controversial. Here we report our institutional experience with patients who received postoperative RT for stage I-II EC over a period of 35 years and assess potential predictors of local recurrence (LR), distant metastasis (DM), and overall survival (OS). Materials and Methods: A total of 188 patients undergoing postoperative RT for stage IA-II EC between 1977 and 2012 were evaluated. Some 96 received median 46 Gy whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) (range: 40-60 Gy), 37 were given WPRT with vaginal cuff therapy (VCT), and 55 received only VCT either with brachytherapy (BT) or stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Chemotherapy was given to 5 patients with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC). Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect of clinicopathological factors on LR, DM, and OS. Results: Median follow-up time was 11 years (range: 1-35 years). At the time of analysis, 34 patients were not alive. Of the 15 patients with LR, 7 (46.7%) recurred in the vaginal stump, 5 (33.3%) in the pelvic region, and 3 (20%) in the paraaortic nodal region, while 12 had distant metastasis. UPSC histology (p=0.027), sole VCT (p=0.041), high histologic grade (p=0.034), and age
(p=0.04) were poor prognostic factors on univariate analysis. Conclusions: In our patients receiving radiotherapy for early-stage EC, grade III disease and age
were associated with shorter OS whereas UPSC histology was an independent predictor for both LR and DM.
Polymorphism of p53 Gene Codon 72 in Endometrial Cancer: Correlation with Tumor Grade and Histological Type
Kafshdooz, Taiebeh ; Tabrizi, Ali Dastranj ; Ardabili, Seyyed Mojtaba Mohaddes ; Kafshdooz, Leila ; Ghojazadeh, Morteza ; Gharesouran, Jalal ; Abdii, Ali ; Alizadeh, Hamideh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9603~9606
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9603
Background: Endometrial cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women in developed countries. Patients with endometrial cancer may benefit from systemic chemotherapy alone or in combination with targeted therapies if the disease is clinically diagnosed prior to spread and metastasis to other organs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic role of p53 polymorphism and its correlation with tumor grade in human uterine endometrial carcinomas. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 patients with endometrial carcinomas were studied for possible mutations in exon 4 of the p53 gene using polymerase chain reaction and restricting fragment length polymorphism techniques and sequencing. Results: In recent study, The rate of homozygote genotype of pro/pro or Arg/Arg in high grade group was higher than in comparison with low grade one. In addition samples that were undigested in RFLP, showed mutation in exone 4. Conclusions: Our findings showed that high grade endometrial carcinomas are highly associated with TP53 polymorphisms in comparison with low grades.
BRCA1 Promoter Hypermethylation Signature for Early Detection of Breast Cancer in the Vietnamese Population
Truong, Phuong Kim ; Lao, Thuan Duc ; Doan, Thao Phuong Thi ; Huyen, Thuy Ai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9607~9610
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9607
Breast cancer, a leading cause of death among women in most countries worldwide, is rapidly increasing in incidence in Vietnam. One of biomarkers is the disruption of the genetic material including epigenetic changes like DNA methylation. With the aim of finding hypermethylation at CpG islands of promoter of BRCA1 gene, belonged to the tumor suppressor gene family, as the biomarker for breast cancer in Vietnamese population, sensitive methyl specific PCR (MSP) was carried out on 115 samples including 95 breast cancer specimens and 20 normal breast tissues with other diseases which were obtained from Ho Chi Minh City Medical Hospital, Vietnam. The result indicated that the frequency of BRCA1 hypermethylation reached 82.1% in the cases (p<0.001). In addition, the DNA hypermethylation of this candidate gene increased the possibility to be breast cancer with high incidence via calculated odd ratios (p<0.05). In conclusion, hypermethylation of this candidate gene could be used as the promising biomarker application with Vietnamese breast cancer patients.
Clinical Utility of Haptoglobin in Combination with CEA, NSE and CYFRA21-1 for Diagnosis of Lung Cancer
Wang, Bing ; He, Yu-Jie ; Tian, Ying-Xing ; Yang, Rui-Ning ; Zhu, Yue-Rong ; Qiu, Hong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9611~9614
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9611
Purpose: To investigate the clinical value in lung cancer of a combination of four serum tumor markers, haptoglobin (Hp), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), neuron specific enolase (NSE) as well as the cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1). Materials and Methods: Serum Hp (with immune-turbidimetric method), CEA, NSE, CYFRA21-1 (with chemiluminescence method) level were assessed in 193 patients with lung cancer, 87 patients with benign lung disease and 150 healthy controls. Differences of expression were compared among groups, and joint effects of these tumor markers for the diagnosis of lung cancer were analyzed. Results: Serum tumor marker levels in patients with lung cancer were obviously higher than those with benign lung disease and normal controls (p<0.01). The sensitivities of Hp, CEA, NSE and CYFRA21-1 were 43.5%, 40.9%, 23.3% and 41.5%, with specificities of 90.7%, 99.2%, 97.9% and 97.9%. Four tumor markers combined together could produce a positive detection rate of 85.0%, significantly higher than that of any single test. With squamous carcinomas, the positive detection rates with Hp and CYFRA21-1 were higher than that of other markers. In the adenocarcinoma case, the positive detection rate of CEA was higher than that of other markers. For small cell carcinomas, the positive detection rate of NSE was highest. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (
) of Hp in squamous carcinoma (0.805) was higher than in adenocarcinoma (0.664) and small cell carcinoma (0.665). Conclusions: Hp can be used as a new serum tumor marker for lung cancer. Combination detection of Hp, CEA, NSE and CYFRA21-1 could significantly improve the sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis of lung cancer, and could be useful for pathological typing.
Lack of Prognostic Value of Human Epidermal Growth Factor- Like Receptor 2 Status in Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC): a Meta-analysis
Li, Xiu-Juan ; Zha, Quan-Bin ; Xu, Xin-Yu ; Xia, Lei ; Zhang, Zhe ; Ren, Zhao-Jun ; Tang, Jin-Hai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9615~9619
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9615
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare, aggressive form of breast cancer which is more likely to be her-2/neu amplified. While the her-2/neu status has been utilised to predict prognosis, the published data are inconsistent. The present meta-analysis was conducted to determine whether the her-2/neu status predicts outcomes. Papers were selected from the PubMed database based on defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Parameters such as total patients, follow-up time and outcome statistics (i.e. overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS) were collected. The analysis included 6 studies with 2,838 IBC patients. The summary hazards ratio (HR) estimating the association of OS with HER-2-positive disease was 0.96 (95% confidence interval (95%CI: 0.85-1.10)), with similar findings for RFS (HR=0.81, 95%CI: 0.61-1.09). No obvious statistical heterogeneity was detected. This meta-analysis suggests that HER-2-positive status is not an independent adverse prognostic factor for survival among IBC patient cases.
XRCC3 Thr241Met Gene Polymorphism and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Kashmir: a Case Control Study
Nissar, Saniya ; Sameer, Aga Syed ; Lone, Tufail A. ; Chowdri, Nissar A. ; Rasool, Roohi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9621~9625
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9621
XRCC (X-ray cross-complementing group) genes contribute to important DNA repair mechanisms that play roles in the repair of single strand breaks (SSBs) induced by a variety of external and internal factors, including ionizing radiation, alkylating agents and reactive oxygen species. These repair genes have a pivotal role in maintaining genomic stability through different pathways of base excision repair (BER). The aim of this study was to investigate the XRCC3 Thr241Met gene polymorphism in colorectal cancer (CRC) in Kashmir. We investigated the genotype distribution of XRCC3 gene in 120 CRC cases in comparison with 150 healthy subjects and found a significant association between XRCC3 genotypes and CRC (
). Both heterozygous genotype (Thr/Met) as well as homozygous variant genotype (Met/Met) were moderately associated with elevated risk of CRC [OR=2.53; OR=2.29 respectively]. Also, Thr/Met and Met/Met genotypes demonstrated a significant association with the risk of CRC (p = 0.003). This study displayed a significantly elevated risk for CRC in individuals with XRCC3 Thr/Met and Met/Met Genotype of about 2.5 times that with the Thr/Thr wild genotype.
Efficacy of Aprepitant for Nausea in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer Receiving Daily Cisplatin Therapy
Ishimaru, Kotaro ; Takano, Atsushi ; Katsura, Motoyasu ; Yamaguchi, Nimpei ; Kaneko, Ken-ichi ; Takahashi, Haruo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9627~9630
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9627
Background: Although efficacy of aprepitant for suppressing emesis associated with single-dose cisplatin has been demonstrated, there are limited data on the antiemetic effect of this oral neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist during daily administration of cisplatin. Accordingly, we investigated the efficacy and safety of aprepitant in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) receiving combination therapy with cisplatin and 5-FU (FP therapy). Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with HNC were prospectively studied who received a triple antiemetic regimen comprising granisetron (
on Days 1-4), dexamethasone (8 mg on Days 1-4), and aprepitant (125 mg on day 1 and 80mg on days 2-5) with FP therapy (cisplatin
on days 1-4; 5-FU
on days 1-5) (aprepitant group). We also retrospectively studied another 20 HNC patients who received the same regimen except for aprepitant (control group). Results: For efficacy endpoints based on nausea, the aprepitant group showed significantly better results, including a higher rate of complete response (no vomiting and no salvage therapy) for the acute phase (p=0.0342), although there was no marked difference between the two groups with regard to percentage of patients in whom vomiting was suppressed. There were no clinically relevant adverse reactions to aprepitant. Conclusions: This study suggested that a triple antiemetic regimen containing aprepitant is safe and effective for HNC patients receiving daily cisplatin therapy.
Variables that Affect the Satisfaction of Brazilian Women with External Breast Prostheses after Mastectomy
Borghesan, Deise Helena Pelloso ; Gravena, Angela Andreia Franca ; Lopes, Tiara Cristina Romeiro ; Brischiliari, Sheila Cristina Rocha ; Demitto, Marcela de Oliveira ; Agnolo, Catia Millene Dell ; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros ; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9631~9634
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9631
Background: : In 2012, the breast cancer estimate worldwide stood at 1.67 million new cases, these accounting for 25% of all types of cancer diagnosed in women. For 2014, 57,120 new cases are expected, with a risk estimated at 56.1 cases for every 100,000 women. The objective of this study was to analyze the satisfaction regarding the use of external breast prostheses by women undergoing mastectomy. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 76 women who used an external breast prosthesis (EBP), registered in the services of the Cuiaba Center for Comprehensive Rehabilitation, Mato Grosso, Brazil, from 2009 to 2012. Data were collected from the records of women who had requested the opening of a process of external breast prosthesis concession. Results: Satisfaction with the EBP was identified in 56.6% of the women. Those satisfied with the EBP reported that its weight was not annoying (p<0.01). Although the women felt body sensations of stitches, pains, pulling, dormancy and phantom limb, they are satisfied with the EBP. The variable related to the displacement of the breast prosthesis during activity of everyday life has demonstrated that even though the women have reported the possibility of displacements, they are satisfied with the EBP. The satisfaction with the use of external breast prosthesis did not affect the sexuality of the women with mastectomy. Conclusions: Learning the specificities of the EBP, taking into consideration the satisfaction of its use, allows the rehabilitation team, by listening to their clientele more attentively, following up this woman throughout her life journey, supporting and guiding the best way of use, with an eye to her personal, emotional and social life, as well as to her self-esteem.
Hepatitis B Virus DNA Negativity Acts as a Favorable Prognostic Factor in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients
Li, Xing ; Zhong, Xiang ; Chen, Zhan-Hong ; Xing, Yan-Fang ; Wu, Dong-Hao ; Chen, Jie ; Ma, Xiao-Kun ; Lin, Qu ; Wen, Jing-Yun ; Wei, Li ; Wang, Tian-Tian ; Ruan, Dan-Yun ; Lin, Ze-Xiao ; Wu, Xiang-Yuan ; Dong, Min ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9635~9641
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9635
Background: This retrospective study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of prophylactic agents in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients receiving TACE and compare the difference between lamivudine and entecavir. Materials and Methods: A consecutive series of 203 HBV-related HCC patients receiving TACE were analyzed including 91 patients given prophylactic agents. Virologic events, defined as an increase in serum HBV DNA level to more than 1 log10 IU/ml higher than the nadir level, hepatitis flares due to HBV reactivation and progression free survival (PFS) were the main endpoints. Results: Some 48 (69.6%) reached virologic response. Prophylaxis significantly reduced virologic events (8.8% vs 58.0%, p=0.000) and hepatitis flares (1.1% vs 13.4%, p=0.001). Patients presenting undetectable HBV DNA levels displayed a significantly improved PFS as compared to those who never achieved undetectable HBV DNA. Prophylaxis and e-antigen positivity were the only significant variables associated with virologic events. In addition, prophylaxis was the only independent protective factor for hepatitis flares. Liver cirrhosis, more cycles of TACE, HBV DNA negativity, a lower Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score, non-metastasis and no hepatitis flares were protective factors for PFS. Prophylactic lamivudine demonstrated similar efficacy as entecavir. Conclusions: Prophylactic agents are efficacious for prevention of HBV reactivation in HCC patients receiving TACE. Achievement of undetectable HBV DNA levels displayed a significant capability in improving PFS. Moreover, persistent tumor residual lesions, positive HBV DNA and hepatitis B flares might be causes of tumor progression in these patients.
Updated Meta-analysis on HER2 Polymorphisms and Risk of Breast Cancer: Evidence from 32 Studies
Chen, Wei ; Yang, Heng ; Tang, Wen-Ru ; Feng, Shi-Jun ; Wei, Yun-Lin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9643~9647
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9643
Background: Several studies have been performed to investigate the association of the HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism and breast cancer risk. However, the results were inconsistent. To understand the precise relationship, a meta-analysis was here conducted. Materials and Methods: A search of PubMed conducted to investigate links between the HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism and breast cancer, identified a total of 32 studies, of which 29, including 14,926 cases and 15,768 controls, with odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were used to assess any association. Results: In the overall analysis, the HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism was associated with breast cancer in an additive genetic model (OR=1.136, 95% CI 1.043-1.239, p=0.004) and in a dominant genetic (OR=1.118, 95% CI 1.020-1.227, p=0.018), while no association was found in a recessive genetic model. On subgroup analysis, an association with breast cancer was noted in the additive genetic model (OR=1.111, 95% CI: 1.004-1.230, p=0.042) for the Caucasian subgroup. No significant associations were observed in Asians and Africans in any of the genetic models. Conclusions: In summary, our meta-analysis findings suggest that the HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism is marginally associated with breast cancer susceptibility in worldwide populations with additive and dominant models, but not a recessive model.
High Rate of Advanced Colorectal Polyps in a 10-Year-Long Retrospective Study in Qazvin, Iran
Hajmanoochehri, Fatemeh ; Mohammadi, Navid ; Rasoli, Bashir ; Ebtehaj, Mehdi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9649~9654
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9649
Background: Polyps are common lesions in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Colon cancer is mostly a result of progression from polyps. The present study aimed to evaluate demographic, clinical, and histological characteristics of colorectal polyps in Iran, particularly neoplastic and advanced types. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 10 years, specimens of all colorectal polyps obtained from colonoscopy were studied. The variables subjected to statistical analysis were age, sex, and the chief clinical complaint of the patients who underwent colonoscopy, their motivation, and the site, size, and histological types of detected polyps. The level of significance was set at p value <0.05. Results: Data were obtained from a total of 352 patients. No difference was seen between male and female patients regarding histological types. Only in nine patients was screening the reason for colonoscopy. Almost two-thirds (66.2%) of the polyps were neoplastic. Familial polyposis syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease were seen in 4.3% and 3.0% of the patients with neoplastic polyps, respectively. Sites of polyps were the sigmoid, rectum, and descending colon in 40.1%, 34.5%, and 17% of the cases, respectively. The advanced type made up 58.8% of neoplastic polyps. Only 3.6% of the patients undergoing colonoscopy in the study period had biopsied polyps. Discussion: No difference was observed between male and female patients in terms of overall incidence of polyps, histological and anatomical profiles, and mean age distribution. Anatomical and histological profiles agreed with the studies performed in areas with a low risk of colon cancer. The findings show that colonoscopy was not performed when it was necessary. A meaningful increase in the number polyp biopsy cases and a corresponding decrease in polyp size in the last few years of the study can be associated with the presence of more GI specialist clinicians in hospital centers, and this holds out much hope for the further improvement of the situation in the future.
Roles of p53 and Caspases in Induction of Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells Treated with a Methanolic Extract of Nigella Sativa Seeds
Alhazmi, Mohammed I. ; Hasan, Tarique N. ; Shafi, Gowhar ; Al-Assaf, Abdullah H. ; Alfawaz, Mohammed A. ; Alshatwi, Ali A. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9655~9660
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9655
Background: Nigella Sativa (NS) is an herb from the Ranunculaceae family that exhibits numerous medicinal properties and has been used as important constituent of many complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs). The ability of NS to kill cancer cells such as PC3, HeLa and hepatoma cells is well established. However, our understanding of the mode of death caused by NS remains nebulous. The objective of this study was to gain further insight into the mode and mechanism of death caused by NS in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Materials and Methods: Human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were treated with a methanolic extract of NS, and a dose- and time-dependent study was performed. The
was calculated using a Cell Titer
viability assay assay, and evidence for DNA fragmentation was obtained by fluorescence microscopy TUNEL assay. Gene expression was also profiled for a number of apoptosis-related genes (Caspase-3, -8, -9 and p53 genes) through qPCR. Results: The
of MCF-7 cells was
. When MCF-7 cells were exposed to
NS for 24h, 48h and 72h, microscopic examination (TUNEL assay) revealed a dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptosis. Similarly, the expression of the Caspase-3, -8, -9 and p53 genes increased significantly according to the dose and time. Conclusions: NS induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through both the p53 and caspase pathways. NS could potentially represent an alternative source of medicine for breast cancer therapy.
Prognostic Value of PLCE1 Expression in Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Cui, Xiao-Bin ; Peng, Hao ; Li, Su ; Li, Ting-Ting ; Liu, Chun-Xia ; Zhang, Shu-Mao ; Jin, Ting-Ting ; Hu, Jian-Ming ; Jiang, Jin-Fang ; Liang, Wei-Hua ; Li, Na ; Li, Li ; Chen, Yun-Zhao ; Li, Feng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9661~9666
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9661
Background: A number of studies have identified a shared susceptibility locus in phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and gastric cardia adenocarcinomas (GCA). However, the results of PLCE1 expression in esophageal and gastric cancer remain inconsistent and controversial. Moreover, the effects on clinicopathological features remain undetermined. This study aimed to provide a precise quantification of the association between PLCE1 expression and the risk of ESCC and GCA through meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Eligible studies were identified from PubMed, Wanfang Data, ISI Web of Science, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Using RevMan5.2 software, pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were employed to assess the association of PLCE1 expression with clinicopathological features relative to ESCC or GCA. Results: Seven articles were identified, including 761 esophageal and gastric cancer cases and 457 controls. Overall, we determined that PLCE1 expression was associated with tumor progression in both esophageal cancers (pooled OR=5.93; 95%CI=3.86 to 9.11) and gastric cancers (pooled OR=9.73; 95%CI=6.46 to 14.7). Moreover, invasion depth (pooled OR=3.62; 95%CI=2.30 to 5.70) and lymph node metastasis (pooled OR=4.21; 95%CI=2.69 to 6.59) were linked with PLCE1 expression in gastric cancer. However, no significant associations were determined between PLCE1 overexpression and the histologic grade, invasion depth, and lymph node metastasis in esophageal cancer. Conclusions: Our metaanalysis results indicated that upregulated PLCE1 is significantly associated with an increased risk of tumor progression in ESCC and GCA. Therefore, PLCE1 expression can be appropriately regarded as a promising biomarker for ESCC and GCA patients.
Combination Doxorubicin and Interferon-α Therapy Stimulates Immunogenicity of Murine Pancreatic Cancer Panc02 Cells via Up-regulation of NKG2D ligands and MHC Class I
Wang, Wen-Jia ; Qin, Si-Hao ; Zhang, Ji-Wei ; Jiang, Yue-Yao ; Zhang, Jin-Nan ; Zhao, Lei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9667~9672
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9667
Background: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a malignant gastrointestinal cancer with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite severe side effects of chemotherapy, the use of immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy has emerged as a common clinical treatment. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of the combined doxorubicin and interferon-
) therapy on murine pancreatic cancer Panc02 cells in vitro and in vivo and underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods: A Panc02-bearing mouse model was established to determine whether doxorubicin and interferon-
) could effectively inhibit tumor growth in vivo. Cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was evaluated using a standard LDH release assay. To evaluate the relevance of NK cells and CD8 T cells to the combination therapy-mediated anti-tumor effects, they were depleted in tumor-bearing mice by injecting anti-asialo-GM-1 antibodies or anti-CD8 antibodies, respectively. Finally, the influence of doxorubicin+interferon-
) on the ligands of NK and T cells was assessed by flow cytometry. Results: The combination therapy group demonstrated a significant inhibition of growth of Panc02 in vivo, resulting from activated cytotoxicity of NK cells and CTLs. Depleting CD8 T cells or NK cells reduced the anticancer effects mediated by immunochemotherapy. Furthermore, the doxorubicin+IFN-a treatment increased the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) and NKG2D ligands on Panc02 cells, suggesting that the combined therapy may be a potential strategy for enhancing immunogenicity of tumors. All these data indicate that the combination therapy using doxorubicin and interferon-
) may be a potential strategy for treating pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Exploring Factors Related to Metastasis Free Survival in Breast Cancer Patients Using Bayesian Cure Models
Jafari-Koshki, Tohid ; Mansourian, Marjan ; Mokarian, Fariborz ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9673~9678
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9673
Background: Breast cancer is a fatal disease and the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women with an increasing pattern worldwide. The burden is mostly attributed to metastatic cancers that occur in one-third of patients and the treatments are palliative. It is of great interest to determine factors affecting time from cancer diagnosis to secondary metastasis. Materials and Methods: Cure rate models assume a Poisson distribution for the number of unobservable metastatic-component cells that are completely deleted from the non-metastasis patient body but some may remain and result in metastasis. Time to metastasis is defined as a function of the number of these cells and the time for each cell to develop a detectable sign of metastasis. Covariates are introduced to the model via the rate of metastatic-component cells. We used non-mixture cure rate models with Weibull and log-logistic distributions in a Bayesian setting to assess the relationship between metastasis free survival and covariates. Results: The median of metastasis free survival was 76.9 months. Various models showed that from covariates in the study, lymph node involvement ratio and being progesterone receptor positive were significant, with an adverse and a beneficial effect on metastasis free survival, respectively. The estimated fraction of patients cured from metastasis was almost 48%. The Weibull model had a slightly better performance than log-logistic. Conclusions: Cure rate models are popular in survival studies and outperform other models under certain conditions. We explored the prognostic factors of metastatic breast cancer from a different viewpoint. In this study, metastasis sites were analyzed all together. Conducting similar studies in a larger sample of cancer patients as well as evaluating the prognostic value of covariates in metastasis to each site separately are recommended.
Evaluation of Health-related Quality of Life for Hypothesized Medical States Associated with Cervical Cancer
Murasawa, Hideki ; Konno, Ryo ; Okubo, Ichiro ; Arakawa, Ichiro ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9679~9685
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9679
Background: When evaluating health-economics for cervical cancer prevention policies in Japan, it is important to use Japanese value settings. This study aimed to obtain preference-based measures (preference measures) for hypothesized health states among healthy Japanese women, and to examine differences between the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and standard gamble (SG) instruments. Materials and Methods: The investigation was performed among female students at a nursing university. We used written hypothetical scenarios describing three grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and eight stages of cervical cancer, both at diagnosis and after medical intervention. Preference measures were evaluated using both EQ-5D and SG. Results: We received responses from 136 women. The mean number of respondents per stage was 24.6 (SD: 2.7). At diagnosis, average EQ-5D scores for CIN1, CIN2, CIN3, IA1, IA2, IB1, IB2, IIA, IIB, III, and IV stages were 0.84 (0.14), 0.78 (0.12), 0.73 (0.10), 0.78 (0.12), 0.72 (0.12), 0.63 (0.13), 0.64 (0.12), 0.68 (0.08), 0.62 (0.13), 0.55 (0.21), and 0.18 (0.24), respectively. Using one-way analysis of variance with the Tukey-Kramer method for multiple comparisons (each stage vs. CIN1), we found significant differences for IB1 and more advanced stages (p<0.05). After medical intervention, corresponding EQ-5D scores were 0.84 (0.12), 0.81 (0.12), 0.84 (0.12), 0.80 (0.15), 0.78 (0.11), 0.64 (0.15), 0.63 (0.15), 0.71 (0.15), 0.50 (0.17), 0.52 (0.17), 0.21 (0.28). The multiple comparisons identified significant differences for IB1 and more advanced stages, excepting IIA (p<0.05). SG evaluations were more variable and relatively higher than EQ-5D evaluations. Conclusions: We obtained preference measures for three grades of CIN1-3 and eight stages of cervical cancer. In combination with appropriate sensitivity analyses, these preference measures will provide a basis for an economic evaluation of cervical cancer prevention in Japan. We suggest that EQ-5D is appropriate for cost-utility analysis of this topic.
Prognostic Factors and Adjuvant Treatments for Surgically Treated Cancers of the Biliary Tract: A Multicentre Study of the Anatolian Society of Medical Oncology (ASMO)
Unal, Olcun Umit ; Oztop, Ilhan ; Assoc, Tugba Kos ; Turan, Nedim ; Kucukoner, Mehmet ; Helvaci, Kaan ; Berk, Veli ; Sevinc, Alper ; Yildiz, Ramazan ; Cinkir, Havva yesil ; Tonyali, Onder ; Demirci, Umut ; Aktas, Bilge ; Balakan, Ozan ; Yilmaz, Ahmet Ugur ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9687~9692
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9687
Background: Biliary tract cancers are rare, and surgical resection is the standard treatment at early stages. However, reports on the benefits of adjuvant treatment following surgical resection are conflicting. This study aimed to evaluate the factors affecting survival and adjuvant treatments in patients with surgically treated biliary tract cancers. Materials and Methods: Patient clinical features, adjuvant treatments, and efficacy and prognostic factor data were evaluated. Survival analyses were performed using SPSS 15.0. Results: The median overall survival was 30.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.4-42.9 months). Median survival was 19 months (95% CI, 6-33) for patients treated with fluorouracil based chemotherapy and 53 months (95% CI, 33.2-78.8) with gemcitabine based chemotherapy(p=0.033). On univariate analysis, poor prognostic factors for survival were galbladder localization, perineural invasion, hepatic invasion, a lack of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy treatment, and a lack of lymph node dissection. On multivariate analysis, perineural invasion was a poor prognostic factor (p=0.008). Conclusions: Biliary tract cancers generally have poor prognoses. The main factors affecting survival are tumour localization, perineural invasion, hepatic invasion, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, and lymph node dissection. Gemcitabine-based adjuvant chemotherapy is more effective than 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy.
Lack of Association of the Cyclooxygenase-2 Gene 8473T>C Polymorphism with Breast Cancer Risk: a Meta-analysis
Yang, Xi ; Zhao, Fen ; Li, Yue-Hua ; Huang, Min ; Huang, Ying ; Yi, Cheng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9693~9698
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9693
Background: Associations between the 8473T>C polymorphism (rs5275) in the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene and breast cancer (BC) risk are still inconclusive and ambiguous. The aim of this meta-analysis was to comprehensively estimate the genetic risk of 8473T>C polymorphism in the COX-2 gene for BC. Materials and Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Chinese biomedical (CBM), Weipu, China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang databases, covering all publications (last search was updated on Aug 17, 2014). Statistical analyses were performed using Revman 5.3 and STATA 10.0 software. Results: A total of 6,720 cases and 9,794 controls in 12 studies were included in this study. The results indicated no significant associations between the 8473T>C polymorphism of the COX-2 gene and BC risk for the CC+TC vs TT model (pooled odds ratio (OR)=0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.90-1.03, and p=0.29). On subgroup analysis, we also found that subdivision on ethnicity among Caucasians, Asians and others also revealed no relationship with BC susceptibility. With the study design (CC+TC vs TT), no significant associations were found in either population-based case-control studies (PCC), or hospital-based case-control studies (HCC). Conclusions: This present meta-analysis suggests that the 8473T>C polymorphism in the COX-2 gene is not a conspicuous low-penetrant risk factor for developing BC.
The XPD Lys751Gln Polymorphism has Predictive Value in Colorectal Cancer Patients Receiving Oxaliplatin-Based Chemotherapy: a Systemic Review and Meta-analysis
Qian, Ying-Ying ; Liu, Xin-You ; Pei, Dong ; Xu, Jia-Li ; Shen, Hua ; Chen, Xiao-Feng ; Liu, Yi-Qian ; Shen, Li-Zong ; Shu, Yong-Qian ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9699~9706
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9699
Background: The predictive value of the xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) Lys751Gln polymorphism regarding clinical outcomes of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) receiving oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy has been evaluated in numerous published studies, but the results remain inconclusive. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to determine the precise role of the XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism in this clinical situation and optimize individual chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: A multiple search strategy was used to identify eligible studies. Pooled odds ratios (ORs), generalized odds ratio (ORG) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the objective response, while hazard ratios (HRs) with 95%CIs were used for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: A total of 17 studies including 2,286 patients met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the XPD 751Gln allele was associated with a non-significant reduced objective response to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in all patients or in the Asian and Caucasian subgroups. However, poor PFS and OS of CRC patients treated with oxaliplatin-based regimens were significantly related to the XPD 751Gln allele in the dominant model (PFS: HR=2.10, 95%CI: 1.65-2.67; OS: HR=3.18, 95%CI: 1.57-6.47). On stratified analysis by ethnicity, these relationships were more pronounced in Asians (PFS: HR=2.49, 95%CI: 1.79-3.47; OS: HR=5.25, 95%CI: 3.46-7.94) than in Caucasians (PFS: HR=1.73, 95%CI: 1.22-2.46; OS: HR=1.78, 95%CI: 1.06-2.99). Conclusions: The XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism may have prognostic value in patients with CRC undergoing oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy.
Lack of Association between Polymorphisms in Genes MTHFR and MDR1 with Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Kreile, Madara ; Rots, Dmitrijs ; Piekuse, Linda ; Cebura, Elizabete ; Grutupa, Marika ; Kovalova, Zhanna ; Lace, Baiba ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9707~9711
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9707
Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a complex disease caused by interactions between hazardous exogenous or/and endogenous agents and many mild effect inherited susceptibility mutations. Some of them are known, but their functional roles still requireinvestigation. Age is a recognized risk factor; children with disease onset after the age of ten have worse prognosis, presumably also triggered by inherited factors. Materials and Methods: The MDR1 gene polymorphisms rs1045642, rs2032582 and MTHFR gene polymorphisms rs1801131 and rs1801133 were genotyped in 68 ALL patients in remission and 102 age and gender matched controls; parental DNA samples were also available for 42 probands. Results: No case control association was found between analyzed polymorphisms and a risk of childhood ALL development. Linkage disequilibrium was not observed in a family-based association study either. Only marginal association was observed between genetic marker rs2032582A and later disease onset (p=0.04). Conclusions: Our data suggest that late age of ALL onset could be triggered by mild effect common alleles.
Clinical Significance of Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Complement 3a Levels in Patients with Colorectal Cancer in Southern Iran
Mehrabani, Davood ; Shamsdin, Seyedeh Azra ; Dehghan, Alireza ; Safarpour, Alireza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9713~9717
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9713
Background: Colon cancer (CRC) is perhaps the second most common cause of cancer mortality. This study determined the clinical significance of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and serum complement 3a (C3a) levels in patients with CRC in Fars province, southern Iran. Materials and Methods: Between June 2010 and June 2012, 110 patients with CRC of both genders and different age groups were divided into 3 groups. Group A included patients who had just undergone surgery; Group B had undergone chemotherapy after surgery; and Group C had undergone chemotherapy and radiotherapy after surgery. Twenty one healthy subjects with normal colonoscopy were considered as a control group. ELISA was undertaken to determine VEGF and C3a levels before and after treatment measures. Results: The mean age of patients was
years. Considering VEGF level, a significant decrease was visible after treatment measures in groups A and B, but not Group C. For VEGF level, the difference was not statistically significant between two genders and various age groups before and after treatment. No significant difference was found for VEGF level between patients and normal group before any treatment. Regarding C3a levels in 101 subjects, they significantly decreased after treatment measures. Before and after treatment, the difference was statistically significant between two genders, but was not statistically significant among various age groups. Conclusions: As VEGF and C3a levels were significantly lower in patients after treatment, these may be beneficial markers in assessment of CRC therapy especially in early stages.
Health Disparities between Black Hispanic and Black Non-Hispanic Cervical Cancer Cases in the USA
Khan, Hafiz Mohammad Rafiqullah ; Gabbidon, Kemesha ; Abdool-Ghany, Faheema ; Saxena, Anshul ; Gomez, Esneider ; Stewart, Tiffanie Shauna-Jeanne ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9719~9723
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9719
Background: Globally, cervical cancer is a major public health concern. Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women, resulting in approximately 500,000 cases per year. The purpose of this study is to compare disease characteristics between Black Hispanic (BH) and Black non-Hispanic (BNH) women in the US. Materials and Methods: We used stratified random sampling to select cervical cancer patient records from the SEER database (1973-2009). We used Chi-square and independent samples t-test to examine differences in proportions and means. Results: The sample included 2,000 cervical cancer cases of Black non-Hispanic and 91 Black Hispanic women. There were statistically significant differences between black Hispanic and black non- Hispanics in mean age at diagnosis (p<0.001), mean survival time (p<0.001), marital status (p<0.001), primary site of cancer (p<0.001); lymph node involvement (p<0.001); grading and differentiation (p<0.0001); and tumor behavior (p<0.001). Black women were more likely to develop cervical cancer and to have the highest mortality rates from the disease. Conclusions: Findings from this study show clear racial and ethnic disparities in cervical cancer incidence and prognosis that should be addressed.
Increased Sister Chromatid Exchange in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes from Humans Exposed to Pesticide: Evidence Based on a Meta-analysis
Yang, Hai-Yan ; Liu, Jing ; Yang, Si-Yu ; Wang, Hai-Yu ; Wang, Ya-Dong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9725~9730
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9725
Background: Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes is one of the most extensively studied biomarkers employed to evaluate genetic damage subsequent to pesticide exposure. Objective: To estimate the pooled levels of SCE in human peripheral blood lymphocytes among population exposed to pesticide. Materials and Methods: Meta-analysis on the association between SCE frequency and pesticide exposure was performed with STATA 10.0 software package and Review Manager 5.0.24 in this study. Results: The overall means of SCE were 7.88 [95% confidence intervals (95%CI): 6.71-9.04] for exposure group and 6.05 (95%CI: 5.13-6.95) for controls, respectively. There was statistically significant difference in the SCE frequency in human peripheral blood lymphocytes between pesticide-exposed groups and control groups, and the summary estimate of weighted mean difference was 1.69 (95%CI: 1.01-2.38). We also observed that pesticide-exposed population had significantly higher SCE frequency than control groups among smokers, nonsmokers, pesticide applicator, pesticide producer, other exposure population and Asian population in stratified analyses. Conclusions: Data indicate that the SCE frequency in human peripheral blood lymphocytes might be an indicator of early genetic esffects for pesticide-exposed populations.
Modeling Age-specific Cancer Incidences Using Logistic Growth Equations: Implications for Data Collection
Shen, Xing-Rong ; Feng, Rui ; Chai, Jing ; Cheng, Jing ; Wang, De-Bin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9731~9737
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9731
Large scale secular registry or surveillance systems have been accumulating vast data that allow mathematical modeling of cancer incidence and mortality rates. Most contemporary models in this regard use time series and APC (age-period-cohort) methods and focus primarily on predicting or analyzing cancer epidemiology with little attention being paid to implications for designing cancer registry, surveillance or evaluation initiatives. This research models age-specific cancer incidence rates using logistic growth equations and explores their performance under different scenarios of data completeness in the hope of deriving clues for reshaping relevant data collection. The study used China Cancer Registry Report 2012 as the data source. It employed 3-parameter logistic growth equations and modeled the age-specific incidence rates of all and the top 10 cancers presented in the registry report. The study performed 3 types of modeling, namely full age-span by fitting, multiple 5-year-segment fitting and single-segment fitting. Measurement of model performance adopted adjusted goodness of fit that combines sum of squred residuals and relative errors. Both model simulation and performance evalation utilized self-developed algorithms programed using C# languade and MS Visual Studio 2008. For models built upon full age-span data, predicted age-specific cancer incidence rates fitted very well with observed values for most (except cervical and breast) cancers with estimated goodness of fit (Rs) being over 0.96. When a given cancer is concerned, the R valuae of the logistic growth model derived using observed data from urban residents was greater than or at least equal to that of the same model built on data from rural people. For models based on multiple-5-year-segment data, the Rs remained fairly high (over 0.89) until 3-fourths of the data segments were excluded. For models using a fixed length single-segment of observed data, the older the age covered by the corresponding data segment, the higher the resulting Rs. Logistic growth models describe age-specific incidence rates perfectly for most cancers and may be used to inform data collection for purposes of monitoring and analyzing cancer epidemic. Helped by appropriate logistic growth equations, the work vomume of contemporary data collection, e.g., cancer registry and surveilance systems, may be reduced substantially.
Hormone Receptor, HER2/NEU and EGFR Expression in Ovarian Carcinoma - is here a Prognostic Phenotype?
Demir, Lutfiye ; Yigit, Seyran ; Sadullahoglu, Canan ; Akyol, Murat ; Cokmert, Suna ; Kucukzeybek, Yuksel ; Alacacioglu, Ahmet ; Cakalagaoglu, Fulya ; Tarhan, Mustafa Oktay ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9739~9745
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9739
Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the effects of hormone receptor, HER2, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) prognosis and investigate whether or not phenotypic subtypes might exist. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 82 patients who were diagnosed with EOC between 2003 and 2012 and treated by platinum-based chemotherapy were retrospectively evaluated. Expression of EGFR, oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and cerbB2 (HER2) receptors were assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded tissues of these patients. Three phenotypic subtypes were defined according to ER, PR, and HER2 expression and associations of these with EGFR expression, clinicopathologic features, platinum sensitivity, and survival were investigated. Results: When we classified EOC patients into three subtypes, 63.4% had hormone receptor positive (HR(+)) (considering breast cancer subtypes, luminal A), 18.3% had triple negative, and 18.3% had HER2(+) disease. EGFR positivity was observed in 37 patients (45.1%) and was significantly more frequent with advanced disease (p=0.013). However, no significant association with other clinicopathologic features and platinum sensitivity was observed. HER2(+) patients had significantly poorer outcomes than HER2(-) counterparts (triple negative and HR positive patients) (p=0.019). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the strongest risk factor for death was residual disease after primary surgery. Conclusions: Triple negative EOC may not be an aggressive phenotype as in breast cancer. The HER2 positive EOC has more aggressive behaviour compared to triple negative and HR(+) phenotypes. EGFR expression is more frequent in advanced tumours, but is not related with poorer outcome. Additional ovarian cancer molecular subtyping using gene expression analysis may provide more reliable data.
Epidemiology and Prevention of Prostate Cancer in Vietnam
Dong, Hoang Van ; Lee, Andy H. ; Nga, Nguyen Hoai ; Quang, Nguyen ; Chuyen, Vu Le ; Binns, Colin W. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9747~9751
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9747
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide and a leading cause of mortality. Incidences continues to rise and vary substantially between populations. Although the prevalence of prostate cancer is relatively low in Vietnam, some hospital-based reports have shown an upward trend in recent years. While certain non-modifiable factors such as age, race and genetics are known to be mainly responsible, the literature has also suggested that environmental exposures can delay the onset of this disease. The present study provides a review of the epidemiology of prostate cancer in Vietnam by systematically searching several electronic databases. The results confirm an increasing trend of prostate cancer over the past decade, with age-standardised rate more than doubled from 2.2 per 100,000 men in 2000 to 4.7 per 100,000 men in 2010. However, no study has been found on modifiable risk factors, with the exception of one in vitro experiment that showed the inhibitory effect of garlic on the growth of prostate cancer cells. The lack of epidemiological information poses a difficulty to develop public health interventions to prevent this emerging malignant disease in Vietnam.
Quality of Life among Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Treatment in National Cancer Centers in Nepal
Manandhar, Sajani ; Shrestha, Deepak Sundar ; Taechaboonsermsk, Pimsurang ; Siri, Sukhontha ; Suparp, Jarueyporn ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9753~9757
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9753
Purpose: To study the quality of life and to identify associated factors among breast cancer patients undergoing treatment in national cancer centers in Nepal. Materials and Methods: One hundred breast cancer patients were selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer EORTC-QLQ-C30 and EORTC-QLQ-BR23 were used to assess quality of life and modified Medical Outcome Study -Social Support survey(mMOS-SS) was used to assess social support. Only multi-item scales of EORTC C30 and BR23 were analyzed for relationships. Independent sample T-tests and ANOVA were applied to analyze differences in mean scores. Results: The score of global health status/quality of life (GHS/GQoL) was marginally above average (mean=52.8). The worst performed scales in C-30 were emotional and social function while best performed scales were physical and role function. In BR-23, most of the patients fell into the problematic group regarding sexual function and enjoyment. Almost 90% had financial difficulties. Symptom scales did not demonstrate many problems. Older individuals, patients with stage I breast cancer and thosewith good social support were found to have good GHS/GQoL. Of all the influencing factors, social support was established to have strong statistical associations with most of the functional scales: GHS/GQoL (0.003), emotional function (<0.001), cognitive function (0.020), social function (<0.001) and body image function (0.011). Body image was significantly associated with most of the influencing factors: monthly family income (0.003), type of treatment (<0.001), type of surgery (<0.001), stage of cancer (0.017) and social support (0.011). Conclusions: Strategies to improve social support of the patients undergoing treatment should be given priority and financial difficulties faced by breast cancer patients should be well addressed from a policy making level by initiating health financing system.
Comparison of Primary Breast Cancer Size by Mammography and Sonography
Wang, Jian-Tao ; Chang, Li-Ming ; Song, Xin ; Zhao, Li-Xin ; Li, Jun-Tao ; Zhang, Wei-Guo ; Ji, Ying-Bin ; Cai, Li-Na ; Di, Wei ; Yang, Xin-Yu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9759~9761
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9759
Purpose: To compare tumor size by mammography and sonography and align with pathological results in primary breast cancer cases. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 95 primary breast cancer patients who underwent mammography and sonography from January 2011 to June 2012. The largest tumor diameter was chosen as sizing reference for each imaging modality. The measurements of mammography and sonography were considered concordant if they were within the measurement of pathological results
. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated for imaging results. Results: The range of the maximum diameter was 0.6cm-10.5cm and mean value was
by pathological results, 0.7cm-12.4 cm and
by mammography, and 0.9cm-11.0cm and
by sonography, respectively. Sonography (R: 0.754), underestimated tumor size, but had a better correlation with pathological tumor size compared to mammography (R: 0.676), which overestimated tumor size. Conclusions: Sonography is superior to mammography in assessment of primary breast cancer.
Ifosfamide-containing Regimens for Treating Patients with Osteosarcomas
Li, Yan-Yan ; Jiang, Xiao-Ming ; Dong, Yi-Guo ; Xu, Gang ; Ma, Yu-Bo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9763~9766
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9763
Background: This systemic analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of an ifosfamide-containing regimen in treating patients with osteosarcoma. Methods: Clinical studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of Ifosfamide-containing regimen on response and safety for patients with osteosarcoma were identified by using a predefined search strategy. Pooled response rate (RR) of treatment were calculated. Results: When ifosfamide-containing regimens were evaluated, 4 clinical studies which including 134 patients with osteosarcoma were considered eligible for inclusion. Systemic analysis suggested that, in all patients, pooled RR was 44.8% (60/134) in ifosfamide-containing regimens. Major adverse effects were neutropenia, leukopenia, and fatigue inIfosfamide-containing regimens; No treatment related death occurred in cantharidin combined regimens. Conclusion: This systemic analysis suggests that ifosfamide-containing regimens are associated with good response rate and acceptable toxicity in treating patients with osteosarcoma, but this result should be confirmed by randomized clinical trials.
Social Support and its Predictors Among Iranian Cancer Survivors
Faghani, Safieh ; Rahmani, Azad ; Parizad, Naser ; Mohajjel-Aghdam, Ali-Reza ; Hassankhani, Hadi ; Mohammadpoorasl, Asghar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9767~9771
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9767
Background: Social support is an important factor in psycho-social well-being of cancer survivors. There is little information about level of social support and its predictors among cancer survivors in Iran or other Middle Eastern countries. The aims of present study were to determine the social support and its prediction factors among Iranian cancer survivors. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study 187 cancer patients in one educational center and one private oncology office in northwest of Iran participated using a convenient sampling method. The data collection tool consisted of a researcher-prepared checklist and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Assessment (MSPSS). Data analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software with descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression analysis. Results: The total score of MSPSS was 68 from a possible score between 7 and 84. Participants believed that they received a high level of support from their family members and significant others. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that single and depressed cancer survivors and participants with lower levels of physical activity believed that they received lower levels of social support. Conclusions: Iranian cancer survivors receive high levels of social support and family members are the most important source of this support. In planning any supportive care program for Iranian cancer survivors this strength should be considered. Especially, single and depressed and patients with lower levels of physical activity need more attention.
Prevalence of Colorectal Polyps in a Group of Subjects at Average-risk of Colorectal Cancer Undergoing Colonoscopic Screening in Tehran, Iran between 2008 and 2013
Sohrabi, Masoudreza ; Zamani, Farhad ; Ajdarkosh, Hossien ; Rakhshani, Naser ; Ameli, Mitra ; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi ; Kabir, Ali ; Hemmasi, Gholamreza ; Khonsari, Mahmoudreza ; Motamed, Nima ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9773~9779
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9773
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the prime causes of mortality around the globe, with a significantly rising incidence in the Middle East region in recent decades. Since detection of CRC in the early stages is an important issue, and also since to date there are no comprehensive epidemiologic studies depicting the Middle East region with special attention to the average risk group, further investigation is of significant necessity in this regard. Aim: Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the colon in an average risk population. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,208 eligible asymptomatic, average- risk adults older than 40 years of age, referred to Firuzgar Hospotal in the years 2008-2012, were enrolled. They underwent colonoscopy screening and all polypoid lesions were removed and examined by an expert gastrointestinal pathologist. The lesions were classified by size, location, numbers and pathologic findings. Size of lesions was measured objectively by endoscopists. Results: The mean age of participants was
and 51.6% were male. The overall polyp detection rate was 199/1208 (16.5 %), 26 subjects having non-neoplastic polyps, including hyperplastic lesions, and 173/1208 (14.3%) having neoplastic polyps, of which 26 (2.15%) were advanced neoplasms. The prevalence of colorectal neoplasia was more common among the 50-59 age group. Advanced adenoma was more frequent among the 60-69 age group. The majority of adenomas were detected in the distal colon, but a quarter of advanced adenomas were found in the proximal colon; advance age and male gender was associated with the presence of adenoma. Conclusions: It seems that CRC screening among average-risk population might be recommended in countries such as Iran. However, sigmioidoscopy alone would miss many colorectal adenomas. Furthermore, the 50-59 age group could be considered as an appropriate target population for this purpose in Iran.
May the Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio be a Prognostic Factor for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer?
Kokcu, Arif ; Kurtoglu, Emel ; Celik, Handan ; Tosun, Migraci ; Malatyalıoglu, Erdal ; Ozdemir, Ayse Zehra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9781~9784
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9781
Background: The study aimed to evaluate changes in hematologic parameters, including white blood cell, platelet count, platelet indices, the platelet to lymphocyte and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios in patients with early and advanced stages of epithelial ovarian cancers. Materials and Methods: The study included 100 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer who underwent primary staging exploratory laparotomy. Preoperative hematologic parameters, tumor histopathologic type, grade, stage and serum CA-125 levels were retrospectively analyzed. These parameters were compared between the patients with early (stage I-II) and advanced (stage III-IV) ovarian cancer. Results: White blood cell count and platelet indices, including mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and platelet crit did not show a statistically significant difference between groups with early and advanced ovarian cancer. However, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, platelet count, the platelet to lymphocyte ratio and CA-125 level showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001, p<0.01 respectively). Conclusions: It was found that the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, platelet count and the platelet to lymphocyte ratio increased with the increasing stage of ovarian cancer. Furthermore, it was seen that the platelet to lymphocyte ratio is an independent prognostic factor related to the stage of epithelial ovarian cancer.
Association of Urinary Cesium with Breast Cancer Risk
Qin, Ya-Chao ; Tang, Lu-Ying ; Su, Yi ; Chen, Li-Juan ; Su, Feng-Xi ; Lin, Ying ; Zhang, Ai-Hua ; Ren, Ze-Fang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9785~9790
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9785
Background: The aim of this study is to examine the association of urinary cesium with breast cancer risk. Materials and Methods: We collected survey data and urine specimens from 240 women with incident invasive breast cancer before their treatment and 246 age-matched female controls between October 2009 and July 2010. Urinary concentrations of cesium were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Interviews were conducted by face-to-face to obtain information on potential breast cancer risk factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the associations. Results: Creatinine-adjusted levels [median (
) ug/g] of cesium in cases and controls were 17.6 (13.1, 24.0) and 19.3 (15.3, 25.7), respectively. After adjustment for potential risk factors, women in the second and highest tertile of cesium showed a decreased risk of breast cancer in a dose-dependent manner as compared with those in the lowest tertile [ORs and 95% CIs: 0.75 (0.46-1.22) and 0.50 (0.30-0.82), respectively]. This decrease was more evident in women with ER positive or localized clinical stage in an exploratory stratification analysis. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cesium may have anticancer efficacy and urinary cesium has potential as a biomarker for breast cancer risk assessment.
Gene Microarray Assessment of Multiple Genes and Signal Pathways Involved in Androgen-dependent Prostate Cancer Becoming Androgen Independent
Liu, Jun-Bao ; Dai, Chun-Mei ; Su, Xiao-Yun ; Cao, Lu ; Qin, Rui ; Kong, Qing-Bo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9791~9795
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9791
To study the gene expression change and possible signal pathway during androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC) becoming androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC), an LNCaP cell model of AIPC was established using flutamide in combination with androgen-free environment inducement, and differential expression genes were screened by microarray. Then the biological process, molecular function and KEGG pathway of differential expression genes are analyzed by Molecule Annotation System (MAS). By comparison of 12,207 expression genes, 347 expression genes were acquired, of which 156 were up-ragulated and 191 down-regulated. After analyzing the biological process and molecule function of differential expression genes, these genes are found to play crucial roles in cell proliferation, differntiation, cell cycle control, protein metabolism and modification and other biological process, serve as signal molecules, enzymes, peptide hormones, cytokines, cytoskeletal proteins and adhesion molecules. The analysis of KEGG show that the relevant genes of AIPC transformation participate in glutathione metabolism, cell cycle, P53 signal pathway, cytochrome P450 metabolism, Hedgehog signal pathway, MAPK signal pathway, adipocytokines signal pathway, PPAR signal pathway, TGF-
signal pathway and JAK-STAT signal pathway. In conclusion, during the process of ADPC becoming AIPC, it is not only one specific gene or pathway, but multiple genes and pathways that change. The findings above lay the foundation for study of AIPC mechanism and development of AIPC targeting drugs.
Alu Methylation in Serum from Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Tiwawech, Danai ; Srisuttee, Ratakorn ; Rattanatanyong, Prakasit ; Puttipanyalears, Charoenchai ; Kitkumthorn, Nakarin ; Mutirangura, Apiwat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9797~9800
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9797
Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer in Southern China and Southeast Asia. Alu elements are among the most prevalent repetitive sequences and constitute 11% of the human genome. Although Alu methylation has been evaluated in many types of cancer, few studies have examined the levels of this modification in serum from NPC patients. Objective: To compare the Alu methylation levels and patterns between serum from NPC patients and normal controls. Materials and Methods: Sera from 50 NPC patients and 140 controls were examined. Quantitative combined bisulfite restriction analysis-Alu (qCOBRA-Alu) was applied to measure Alu methylation levels and characterize Alu methylation patterns. Amplified products were classified into four patterns according to the methylation status of 2 CpG sites: hypermethylated (methylation at both loci), partially methylated (methylation of either of the two loci), and hypomethylated (unmethylated at both loci). Results: A comparison of normal control sera with NPC sera revealed that the latter presented a significantly lower methylation level (p=0.0002) and a significantly higher percentage of hypomethylated loci (p=0.0002). The sensitivity of the higher percentage of Alu hypomethyted loci for distinguishing NPC patients from normal controls was 96%. Conclusions: Alu elements in the circulating DNA of NPC patients are hypomethylated. Moreover, Alu hypomethylated loci may represent a potential biomarker for NPC screening.
Detection Rate of Colorectal Adenoma or Cancer in Unselected Colonoscopy Patients: Indonesian Experience in a Private Hospital
Sudoyo, Aru W. ; Lesmana, C. Rinaldi A. ; Krisnuhoni, Ening ; Pakasi, Levina S. ; Cahyadinata, Lidwina ; Lesmana, Laurentius A. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9801~9804
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9801
Background: Colorectal cancer is currently the third most common cancer in Indonesia, yet colonoscopy - the most accepted mode of screening to date - is not done routinely and national data are still lacking. Objective: To determine the detection rate of colorectal cancers and adenomas in unselected patients undergoing colonoscopy for various large bowel symptoms at the Digestive Disease and GI Oncology Centre, Medistra Hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: Colonoscopy data from January 2009 to December 2012 were reviewed. New patients referred for colonoscopy were included. Data collected were patient demographic and significant colonoscopy findings such as the presence of hemorrhoids, colonic polyps, colonic diverticula, inflammation, and tumor mass. Histopathological data were obtained for specimens taken by biopsy. Associations between categorical variables were analyzed using chi-square test, while mean differences were tested using the t-test. Results: A total of, 1659 cases were included in this study, 889 (53.6%) of them being men. Polyps or masses were found in 495 (29.8%) patients while malignancy was confirmed in 74 (4.5%). Patients with a polyp or mass were significantly older (60.2 vs 50.8 years; p<0.001; t-test) and their presence was significantly associated with male gender (35.0% vs 23.9%; prevalent ratio [PR] 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38-2.12; p<0.001) and age >50 years (39.6% vs 16.6%; PR 3.29; 95% CI 2.59-4.12; p<0.001). Neoplastic lesions was found in 257 (16.1%), comprising 180 (11.3%) adenomas, 10 (0.6%) in situ carcinomas, and 67 (4.2%) carcinomas. Conclusions: Polyps or masses were found in 30% of colonoscopy patients and malignancies in 16.1%. These figures do not represent the nation-wide demographic status of colorectal cancer, but may reflect a potentially increasing major health problem with colorectal cancer in Indonesia.
Radixin Knockdown by RNA Interference Suppresses Human Glioblastoma Cell Growth in Vitro and in Vivo
Qin, Jun-Jie ; Wang, Jun-Mei ; Du, Jiang ; Zeng, Chun ; Han, Wu ; Li, Zhi-Dong ; Xie, Jian ; Li, Gui-Lin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9805~9812
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9805
Radixin, a member of the ERM (ezrin-radixin-moesin) family, plays important roles in cell motility, invasion and tumor progression. It is expressed in a variety of normal and neoplastic cells, including many types of epithelial and lymphoid examples. However, its function in glioblastomas remains elusive. Thus, in this study, radixin gene expression was first examined in the glioblastoma cells, then suppressed with a lentivirus-mediated short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) method.We found that there were high levels of radixin expression in glioblastoma U251cells. Radixin shRNA caused down-regulation of radixin gene expression and when radixin-silenced cells were implanted into nude mice, tumor growth was significantly inhibited as compared to blank control cells or nonsense shRNA cells. In addition, microvessel density in the tumors was significantly reduced. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and E-cadherin were up-regulated in radixin- suppressed glioblastoma U251 cells. In contrast, MMP9 was down-regulated. Taken together, our findings suggest that radixin is involved in GBM cell migration and invasion, and implicate TSP-1, E-cadherin and MMP9 as metastasis-inducing factors.
Evidence Based Analysis of Cisplatin for Treating Patients with Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Shao, Xiao-Hong ; Xu, Yun-Sheng ; Zhang, Xue-Qi ; Li, Wen-Feng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9813~9815
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9813
Background: This analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cisplatin based chemotherapy for treating patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: Clinical studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of cisplatin based regimens on response and safety for patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma were identified using a predefined search strategy. Pooled response rates (RR) of treatment were calculated. Results: In cisplatin based regimens, 4 clinical studies which including 50 patients with advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma were considered eligible for inclusion. Regimens included cisplatin, doxorubicin, or vindesine. Pooled analysis suggested that, in all patients, the pooled RR was 60% (30/50) in cisplatin based regimens. Nausea and vomiting were the main side effects. No grade III or IV renal or liver toxicity were observed. No treatment related death occurred with the cisplatin based treatments. Conclusion: Evidence based analysis suggests that cisplatin based regimens are associated with a good response rate and acceptable toxicity for treating patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
Health Beliefs and Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors among Iranian Female Health Workers
Shiryazdi, Seyed Mostafa ; Kholasehzadeh, Golrasteh ; Neamatzadeh, Hossein ; Kargar, Saeed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9817~9822
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9817
Background: Breast cancer is a serious health problem. Early detection is crucial for optimal treatment and reducing mortality. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate health beliefs concerning performance of breast self- examination (BSE) and mammography in a sample of Iranian female health workers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed among 441 female health care workers (physicians=88, nurses=163, midwives=38, officers=68, and others=84) in 3 different health centers in Yazd, Iran. Data were collected using a self administered questionnaire which included demographic characteristics and thenPersian version of the Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). Results: The mean age of the participants was
. It was found that 41.9% of the workers performed BSE in the past and 14.9% of them regularly, but only 10.6% of them had undergone a mammogram. Perceived barriers to BSE (F=6.351, P=0.021) and mammography (F=5.214, p=0.022) were significantly higher in officers than physicians, nurses or midwives. Perceived barriers were lower among those who had performed BSE and mammography, but not significant (p=0.34 and p=0.56, respectively). Furthermore, perceived susceptibility and perceived benefits of the workers who had BSE and mammography were significantly higher than who did not (p<0.05). Perceived seriousness was not a significant variable in BSE and mammography (p=0.71 and p=0.43, respectively). Conclusions: The health beliefs of health workers concerning the perceived susceptibility of breast cancer and the perceived benefits BSE and mammography significantly impact their screening practices.
Comparative Outcome of Thai Pediatric Osteosarcoma Treated with Two Protocols: the Role of High-Dose Methotrexate (HDMTX) in a Single Institute Experience
Choeyprasert, Worawut ; Pakakasama, Samart ; Sirachainan, Nongnuch ; Songdej, Duantida ; Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan ; Anurathapan, Usanarat ; Hongeng, Suradej ; Nartthanarung, Adisak ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9823~9829
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9823
Background: High-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) is recognized as an efficient component of therapy against pediatric osteosarcoma in combination with other drugs such as cisplatin (CDP), carboplatin (CBDCA), doxorubicin (ADM), etoposide (VP-16) and ifosfamide (IFO). Objectives: To demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the HD-MTX/CDP/DOX/VP-16/IFO [MTX(+)] protocol comparable to CDP/ADM/CBDCA/IFO [MTX(-)] for treating childhood osteosarcoma at Ramathibodi Hospital (1999-2014). Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of osteosarcoma patients aged less than 18 years treated with two chemotherapeutic regimens between 1999 and 2014. A total of 45 patients received the MTX(-) and 21 the MTX(+) protocol. Results: Overall limb-salvage and amputation rate were 12.9% and 77.7%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis results for 3-year disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) regardless of treatment regimens were
respectively. The 3-year DFS and OS were improved significantly with the MTX(+) protocol compared to MTX(-) protocol (p=0.010 and p=0.009, log rank test) [
for MTX(+) and
for MTX(-) protocol, respectively]. Patients with metastatic osteosarcoma treated with the MTX(+) protocol had statistically significant higher 3-year DFS and OS than those treated with the MTX(-) protocol (
for 3-year DFS, p=0.010,
for 3-year OS, p=0.006, respectively). The independent risk factors for having inferior 3-year DFS and OS were poor histological response (tumor necrosis <90%) and treatment with the MTX(-) protocol. The multivariate analysis identified only the treatment with the MTX(-) protocol as an independent predictor of inferior OS with a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.53 (95% confidence interval of 1.2-10.41, p=0.022). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated the tolerability, feasibility and efficacy of the HDMTX-based regimen improving the survival rate in pediatric osteosarcoma cases, in line with reports from developed countries.
Clinical Features of Patients with Esophageal and Second Primary Cancers
Tsai, Huang-Wen ; Chang, Chih-Chun ; Sun, Jen-Tang ; Liou, Ching-Biau ; Lin, Hsiu-Chen ; Lin, I-Hsin ; Yu, Yun-Chieh ; Weng, Wei-Ling ; Leong, Ka-I ; Yen, Tzung-Hai ; Wu, Jiann-Ming ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9831~9834
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9831
Background: The prevalence of esophageal cancer (EC) with second primary cancers (SPC) is increasing worldwide. This study was aimed to understand the clinical features of EC patients with SPC in the Taiwanese population. Materials and Methods: Clinical and laboratory data for 180 EC patients with or without SPC were collected between January 2009 and December 2013. Information on treatment approaches, location of SPCs and ABO blood type were also collected and stratified. Results: The most common SPC in EC patients was hypopharyngeal cancer, followed by laryngeal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma in our study. Malignancies of colon, prostate and lung were also found. There was a significant higher portion of blood type A in the EC patients with SPC compared with those without (42.4% vs 19.5%, P=0.006). Conclusions: The frequency and SPC site distribution and blood type A should be considered in clinical evaluation of EC patients with a high risk of developing SPC in the Taiwanese population.
Interference of Fisetin with Targets of the Nuclear Factor-κB Signal Transduction Pathway Activated by Epstein-Barr Virus Encoded Latent Membrane Protein 1
Li, Rong ; Liang, Hong-Ying ; Li, Ming-Yong ; Lin, Chun-Yan ; Shi, Meng-Jie ; Zhang, Xiu-Juan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9835~9839
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9835
Fisetin is an effective compound extracted from lacquer which has been used in the treatment of various diseases. Preliminary data indicate that it also exerts specific anti-cancer effects. However, the manner in which fisetin regulates cancer growth remains unknown. In this study, we elucidated interference of fisetin with targets of the nuclear factor
signal transduction pathway activated by Epstein-Barr virus encoding latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1)in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells, Results showed that fisetin inhibited the survival rate of CNE-LMP1 cells and NF-
activation caused by LMP1. Fisetin also suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-
phosphorylation, while inhibiting CyclinD1, all key targets of the NF-
signal transduction pathway. It was suggested that interference effects of fisetin with signal transduction activated by LMP1 encoded by the Epstein-Barr virus may play an important role in its anticancer potential.
Significant Association of Metabolic Indices, Lipid Profile, and Androgen Levels with Prostate Cancer
Tewari, Reshu ; Chhabra, Mohini ; Natu, Shankar Madhavan ; Goel, Apul ; Dalela, Divakar ; Goel, Madhu Mati ; Rajender, Singh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9841~9846
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9841
Objectives: To compare the metabolic indices, lipid profile, androgens, and prostate specific antigen between prostate cancer and BPH and between grades of prostate cancer in a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study enrolled 95 cases of prostate cancer and 95 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Prostate gland volume was measured using transrectal ultrasound. We compared insulin, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, prostate specific antigen levels and lipid profile between prostate cancer of different grades and BPH. Further, prostate cancer patients were classified into low grade and high grade. Unpaired t-test for normally distributed variables and Man-Whitney U test for non-normal variables were used to assess differences. Results: We found that prostate cancer patients had significantly higher levels of insulin, testosterone, PSA, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in comparison to their BPH counterparts. Higher levels of these parameters also correlated with a higher grade of the disease. Conclusions: We conclude that higher levels of insulin, testosterone, PSA, and cholesterol correlate with a higher risk of prostate cancer, and also with a higher grade of the disease.
Decreased HDL-Dependent Paraoxonase and Arylesterase Enzyme Activity May Indicate a Worse Prognosis in Multiple Myeloma
Ellidag, Hamit Yasar ; Aydin, Ozgur ; Eren, Esin ; Yilmaz, Necat ; Ergin, Merve ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9847~9851
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9847
Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a haematological cancer characterized by clonal proliferation of plasma cells.The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and arylesterase (ARE) in multiple myeloma with and without free light chain excretion(FLCe-MM and NFLCe-MM); as well as to investigate possible alterations in oxidative stress parameters. Materials and Methods: Total thiol (T.thl), oxidative stress index (OSI), total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were examined in addition to the PON1 and ARE enzyme activities in twenty one FLCe-MM and nineteen NFLCe-MM subjects. Routine parameters like lipid panel, serum total protein, albumin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid and hemoglobin levels were compared with the oxidative stress markers. Results: Serum total protein, BUN, creatinin, and uric acid levels were significantly higher (p=0.04, p=0.001, p=0.001 and p=0.0022, respectively), while hemoglobin and albumin levels were significantly lower in FLCe-MM patients (p=0.009 and p=0.04,respectively). PON1 and ARE activities were significantly lower in patients with FLCe-MM compared to those with NFLCe-MM (p=0.001 and p=0.008, respectively). Conclusions: Depending on our results of prognostic markers of MM such as age, hemoglobin, albumin, and creatinine we feel confident to presume FLCe-MM as a subgroup with a worse prognosis. A decrease in PON1 and ARE activities may contribute to the prognosis and may be used as a prognostic tool in MM.
Drug Resistance Effects of Ribosomal Protein L24 Overexpression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells
Guo, Yong-Li ; Kong, Qing-Sheng ; Liu, Hong-Sheng ; Tan, Wen-Bin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9853~9857
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9853
Background: The morbidity and mortality rate of liver cancer continues to rise in China and advanced cases respond poorly to chemotherapy. Ribosomal protein L24 has been reported to be a potential therapeutic target whose depletion or acetylation inhibits polysome assembly and cell growth of cancer. Materials and Methods: Total RNA of cultured amycin-resistant and susceptible HepG2 cells was isolated, and real time quantitative RT-PCR were used to indicate differences between amycin-resistant and susceptible strains of HepG2 cells. Viability assays were used to determine amycin resistance in RPL24 transfected and control vector and null-transfected HepG2 cell lines. Results: The ribosomal protein L24 transcription level was 7.7 times higher in the drug-resistant HepG2 cells as compared to susceptible cells on quantitative RT-PCR analysis. This was associated with enhanced drug resistance as determined by methyl tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR) incorporation. Conclusions: The ribosomal protein L24 gene may have effects on drug resistance mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.
Genetic Epidemiological Analysis of Esophageal Cancer in High-incidence Areas of China
Wang, Kai-Juan ; Yang, Jun-Xia ; Shi, Jia-Chen ; Deng, Song-Yuan ; Cao, Xiao-Qin ; Song, Chun-Hua ; Wang, Peng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9859~9863
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9859
Genetic epidemiological studies have shown that genetic susceptibility to esophageal cancer (EC) is an important cause of its high incidence within families in some areas of China. The purpose of this study was to obtain evidence of a genetic basis of EC in Xin-an and Xin-xiang counties in China. Familial aggregation and complex segregation analyses were performed of 79 EC families in these counties. The heritability of EC was examined using Falconer's method and complex segregation analysis was conducted with the SEGREG program in Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology (SAGE version 5.3.1). The results showed that the distribution of EC in families did not fit well into a binomial distribution. The heritability of EC among first-degree and second-degree relatives was
, respectively, and the summing up powered heritability was
. The segregation ratio was 0.045. Complex segregation analysis showed that the genetic model of EC was additive. The current results provide evidence for an inherited propensity to EC in certain high-risk groups in China, and support efforts to identify the genes that confer susceptibility to this disease.
Diagnostic Aspects of Fine Needle Aspiration for Lung Lesions: Series of 245 Cases
Kravtsov, Vladimir ; Sukmanov, Inna ; Yaffe, Dani ; Shitrit, David ; Gottfried, Maya ; Cioca, Andreea ; Kidron, Debora ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9865~9869
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9865
Background: Transthoracic fine needle aspiration (FNA) is one of several methods for establishing tissue diagnosis of lung lesions. Other tissue or cell sources for diagnosis include sputum, endobronchial biopsy, washing and brushing, endobronchial FNA, transthoracic core needle biopsy, biopsy from thoracoscopy or thoracotomy. The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of FNA and other diagnostic tests in diagnosing lung lesions. Materials and Methods: The population included all patients undergoing FNA for lung lesions at Meir Medical Center from 2006 through 2010. Information regarding additional tissue tests was derived from the electronic archives of the Department of Pathology, patient records and files from the Department of Oncology. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for each test. Results: FNA was carried out in 245 patients. Malignant tumors were diagnosed in 190 cases (78%). They included adenocarcinoma (43%), squamous cell carcinoma (15%), non-small cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified (19%), neurondocrine tumors (7%), metastases (9%) and lymphoma (3%). The specificity of FNA for lung neoplasms was 100%; sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy were 87%. Conclusions: FNA is the most sensitive procedure for establishing tissue diagnoses of lung cancer. Combination with core needle biopsy increases the sensitivity. Factors related to the lesion (nature, degenerative changes, location) and to performance of all stages of test affect the ability to establish a diagnosis.
Brief Descriptive Epidemiology of Primary Malignant Brain Tumors from North-East India
Krishnatreya, Manigreeva ; Kataki, Amal Chandra ; Sharma, Jagannath Dev ; Bhattacharyya, Mouchumee ; Nandy, Pintu ; Hazarika, Munlima ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9871~9873
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9871
Brain tumors are a mixed group of neoplasms that originate from the intracranial tissues and the meninges with degrees of malignancy varying greatly from benign to aggressive. Not much is known about the epidemiology of primary malignant brain tumors (PMBTs) in our population in North-East India. In this analysis, an attempt was made to identify the age groups, gender distribution, topography and different histological types of PMBT with data from a hospital cancer registry. A total of 231 cases of PMBT were identified and included for the present analysis. Our analysis has shown that most of PMBT occur at 20-60 years of age, with a male to female ratio of 2.3:1. Some 70.5% of cases occurred in cerebral lobes except for the occipital lobe, and astrocytic tumors were the most common broad histological type. In our population the prevalence of PMBT is 1% of all cancers, mostly affecting young and middle aged patients. As brain tumors are rare, so case-control analytic epidemiological studies will be required to establish the risk factors prevalent in our population.
Clinical Safety of Chemotherapy for Elderly Cancer Patients Complicated with Hypertension
Qian, Ya-Dong ; Xu, Xu ; Wang, Lin ; Huang, Xin-En ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9875~9877
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9875
Objective: To access the safety of chemotherapy for elderly cancer patients complicated with hypertension. Methods: Elderly cancer patients who were complicated with hypertension and treated by chemotherapy were recruited. All patients were treated by chemotherapy after an intervention on hypertension by psychotherapy, exercise guidance, salt regulation and nutrition support, therapy on hypertension, as well as prevention on hypertension associated complications. Results: In 68 eligible patients, two suspended chemotherapy because of adverse reactions and 4 because of disease progression. The remaining 62 patients completed chemotherapy smoothly based on good hypertension control. Conclusion: With effective control of blood pressure, chemotherapy for elderly cancer patients complicated with hypertension is generally safe.
A Systematic Review of MRI, Scintigraphy, FDG-PET and PET/CT for Diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma Related Bone Disease - Which is Best?
Weng, Wan-Wen ; Dong, Meng-Jie ; Zhang, Jun ; Yang, Jun ; Xu, Qin ; Zhu, Yang-Jun ; Liu, Ning-Hu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9879~9884
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9879
Aim: The purpose of the current study was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET, PTE/CT, MRI and scintigraphy for multiple myeloma related bone disease. Methods: Through a search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of each study. We estimated pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR), and two sample Z-tests were conducted to evaluate for differences in sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and the
index between any two diagnostic modalities. Results: A total of 17 studies were reviewed. The MRI had a pooled sensitivity of 0.88, specificity of 0.68, AUC of 0.897, and
index of 0.828, whereas for MIBI, the corresponding values were 0.98, 0.90, 0.991, and 0.962, respectively, and for bone scan, they were 066, 0.83, 0.805, and 0.740, respectively. The corresponding values of MIBI were 0.98, 0.90, 0.991, and 0.962, respectively. For PET and PET/CT, the values were 0.91, 0.69, 0.927 and 0.861, respectively. Statistically significant differences were not found in the sensitivity, specificity, AUC, and
index between MRI, scintigraphy, FDG-PET and PET/CT. Conclusions: On the condition that X ray is taken as a reference in our study, we suggested that FDG-PET, PTE/CT, MRI and scintigraphy are all associated with high detection rate of bone disease in patients with MM. Thus, in clinical practice, it is recommended that we could choose these tests according to the condition of the patient.
Effects of TNF Secreting HEK Cells on B Lymphocytes' Apoptosis in Human Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemias
Valizadeh, Armita ; Ahmadzadeh, Ahmad ; Teimoori, Ali ; Khodadadi, Ali ; Saki, Ghasem ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9885~9889
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9885
Background: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an antitumor candidate in cancer therapy. This study focused on effects of TRAIL, as a proapototic ligand that causes apoptosis, in B-CELL chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells (B-CLL). Materials and Methods: A population of HEK 293 cells was transducted by lentivirus that these achieved ability for producing the TRAIL protein and then HEK 293 cells transducted were placed in the vicinity of CLL cells. After 24 hours of co-culture, apoptosis of CLL cells was assessed by annexin V staining. Results: The amount of Apoptosis was examined separately in four groups: 293 HEK TRAIL (
); 293 HEK GFP (
); WT 293 HEK (
); and CLL cells (
). Among the groups studied, the maximum amount of apoptosis was in the group that the vector encoding TRAIL was transducted. In this group, the mean level of soluble TRAIL in the culture medium was 253pg/ml; also flow cytometry analyzes showed that proapotosis in this group was
, which was higher than the other groups. Conclusions: In this study, we have demonstrated that TNF secreted from HEK 293 cells are effective in death of CLL cells.
Developing Scales for the Assessment of Fatigue in Turkish Pediatric Oncology Patients Aged 13-18 and their Parents
Bektas, Murat ; Kudubes, Asli Akdeniz ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9891~9898
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9891
Background: This study was planned in an attempt to develop scales for the assessment of fatigue in pediatric oncology patients aged 13-18 and also for their parents. Materials and Methods: In collecting the study data, we used the Child and Parent Information Form, Visual Fatigue Scale, Scale for the Assessment of Fatigue in Pediatric Oncology Patients Aged 13-18 and the Scale for the Assessment of Fatigue in Pediatric Oncology Patients Aged 13-18 for Parents. We also used Pearson correlation analysis, Cronbach alpha coefficient, factor analysis and ROC analysis for the study data. Results: In this study, the total Cronbach alpha value of the parent form was 0.99, the total factor load was 0.72-0.94 with 95% the total variance being explained. The cutoff point of the parent form is 73 points. The total Cronbach alpha value of the child form was 0.99, the total factor load was 0.82-0.95, with 89.4% of the total variance being explained. The cutoff point of the child form was 75.5 points. Conclusions: This study suggests that the Scale for the Assessment of Fatigue in Pediatric Oncology Patients Aged 13-18 and the Scale for the Assessment of Fatigue in Pediatric Oncology Patients Aged 13-18 for Parents are valid and reliable instruments in assessing the fatigue symptoms of children in Turkey.
Time Trends of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Urban Guangzhou over a 12-Year Period (2000-2011): Declines in Both Incidence and Mortality
Li, Ke ; Lin, Guo-Zhen ; Shen, Ji-Chuan ; Zhou, Qin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9899~9903
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9899
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an uncommon disease in most countries but occurs with much greater frequency in southern China. This study aimed to examine the secular trends of NPC in urban Guangzhou over the time period of 2000-2011 using data from the Guangzhou Cancer Registry. Age-adjusted annual incidence rates of NPC were calculated by the direct method using the WHO World Standard Population (1960) as the reference. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) was used as an estimate of the trend. A total of 7,532 new cases of NPC and 3,449 related deaths were registered. In both genders, the peak incidence occurred in the 50- to 59-year age group, and this age distribution pattern remained similar throughout. The AAPC in NPC incidence rates was -3.26% (95% CI: -5.4%--1.1) for males and -5.74% (95% CI: -8.9%--2.5) for females, resulting in a total decrease of 39.3% (from 22.14 to 13.44 per 100,000 population) for males and 48.6% (from 10.1 to 5.18 per 100,000 population) for females over this 12-year period. The AAPCs in NPC mortality rates were -4.62% (95%CI: -3.5%--5.7) for males and -6.75% (95% CI: -5.2%--8.3) for females, resulting in a total decrease of -46.1% (from 12.1 to 6.54 per 100,000 population) for males and 51.7% (from 4.14 to 2.00 per 100,000 population) for females. The age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates of NPC declined during 2000-2011 in urban Guangzhou but remained high. Future efforts to improve prevention, early detection and treatment strategies are needed.
Risk of Gastric Cancer in Children with Helicobacter pylori Infection
Cam, Sebahat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9905~9908
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9905
Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common chronic infectious agent in the stomach. Most importantly, it may lead to atrophy, metaplasia and cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of H. pylori infection and to detect early mucosal changes that may lead to malignant degeneration in children. Materials and Methods: Children who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were included. Familial history of gastric cancer was noted. Endoscopic examinations were performed by a single pediatric gastroenterologist. A minimum of three biopsy samples were collected during endoscopy. The patients were accepted as H. pylori infected if results of biopsies and rapid urease test were both positive. Biopsies were evaluated for the presence and degree of chronic inflammation, the activity and severity of gastritis, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. Results: A total of 750 children (388 boys, 362 girls) were evaluated in our study, with a mean age of 10.1 years. A total of 390 patients (52%) were found to be infected with H. pylori. Among the H. pylori infected patients, 289 (74%) were diagnosed to have chronic superficial gastritis, 24 (6.2%) had gastric atrophy. Most strikingly, intestinal metaplasia was observed in 11 children, all were in the H. pylori positive group. There was no difference in the mean of age, gender and socioeconomic class between H. pylori infected and non-infected groups. The frequency of gastric cancer in family members (4 in number) was higher in patients with H. pylori infection. No gastric cancer case was reported from the parents of non-infected children. The worst biopsy parameters (atropy and metaplasia) were improved after H. pylori eradication on control endoscopy. Conclusions: The current study shows a higher prevalence of familial history of gastric cancer in H. pylori infected children. Intestinal metaplasia was also higher in the infected children. Eradication of H. pylori infection for this risk group may prevent subsequent development of gastric cancer.
Improved Eradication Rate of Standard Triple Therapy by Adding Bismuth and Probiotic Supplement for Helicobacter pylori Treatment in Thailand
Srinarong, Chanagune ; Siramolpiwat, Sith ; Wongcha-um, Arti ; Mahachai, Varocha ; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9909~9913
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9909
Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) remains an important cause of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease worldwide. Treatment of H. pylori infection is one of the effective ways to prevent gastric cancer. However, standard triple therapy for H. pylori eradication is no longer effective in many countries, including Thailand. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding bismuth and probiotic to standard triple therapy for H. pylori eradication. Materials and Methods: In this prospective single center study, H. pylori infected gastritis patients were randomized to receive 7- or 14-day standard triple therapy plus bismuth with probiotic or placebo. Treatment regimen consisted of 30 mg lansoprazole twice daily, 1 g amoxicillin twice daily, 1 g clarithromycin MR once daily and 1,048mg bismuth subsalicylate twice daily. Probiotic bacteria composed of Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus paracasei. Placebo was conventional drinking yogurt without probiotic. CYP2C19 genotyping and antibiotic susceptibility tests were also done. H pylori eradication was defined as a negative
-urea breath test at least 2 weeks after completion of treatment. Results: One hundred subjects were enrolled (25 each to 7- and 14-day regimens with probiotic or placebo). Antibiotic susceptibility tests showed 36.7% metronidazole and 1.1% clarithromycin resistance. CYP2C19 genotyping revealed 40.8%, 49% and 10.2% were rapid, intermediate and poor metabolizers, respectively. The eradication rates of 7- or 14 regimens with probiotics were 100%. Regarding adverse events, the incidence of bitter taste was significantly lower in the 7- day regimen with the probiotic group compared with 7- day regimen with placebo (40% vs. 64%; p=0.04). Conclusions: The 7-day standard triple therapy plus bismuth and probiotic can provide an excellent cure rate of H. pylori (100%) in areas with low clarithromycin resistance such as Thailand, regardless of CYP2C19 genotype. Adding a probiotic also reduced treatment-related adverse events.
Inhibition Effects of Lamellarin D on Human Leukemia K562 Cell Proliferation and Underlying Mechanisms
Zhang, Nan ; Wang, Dong ; Zhu, Yu ; Wang, Jian ; Lin, Hong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9915~9919
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9915
Lamellarin D (LamD) is a marine alkaloid with a pronounced cytotoxicity against a large panel of cancer cells, affecting cell growth and inducing apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms of action of this compound are poorly understood. In this study, the anticancer efficacy of LamD was investigated in human leukemia K562 cells. The results showed suppressed cell proliferation and induction of G0/G1-phase arrest,while expression of CDK1, and activity of smad3 and smad5 were reduced, but that of p27, p53 and STGC3 was increased. LamD induced cell apoptosis through activation of caspases-8/-3, inhibition of survivin and Bcl-2, suggesting that this compound may also act through a caspase-independent pathway. Moreover, LamD inhibited the secretion of TGF-
, IL-6, IL-8 and other inflammatory cytokines and the transcriptional activity of transcription factor NF-
in human leukemia K562 cells.Taken together, our results suggest that LamD-mediated inhibition of leukemia cell proliferation may be related to the induction of apoptosis and the regulation of cell cycle, tumor-related gene expression and cytokine expression, which may provide a new way of thinking for the treatment leukemia.
Annexin A2 and CD105 Expression in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma is Associated with Tumor Recurrence and Prognosis
Huang, Ya-Kai ; Liu, Hong ; Wang, Xin-Zheng ; Zhu, Shan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9921~9926
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9921
To investigate the value of expression of annexin A2, microvessel density (MVD) and CD105 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues and adjacent normal tissues, immunohistochemical staining was used. The positive expression rate of Annexin A2 and the MVD in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tissues was higher than that in in adjacent normal tissues (p<0.005). Expression of Annexin A2 and MVD correlated with histological grade (p<0.05). MVD of cancers in TNM stage IIb was higher than that in TNM stageI~IIa (p<0.026). Cancerous tissues with Annexin A2 staining grade 3+ had lower MVD than the tissues with the other Annexin A2 staining grade (p<0.05). Patients with high MVD had worse prognosis. However, our study did not confirm Annexin A2 was an independent risk factor for patients with PDAC. We confirmed MVD labeled by CD105 was an independent risk factor for patients with PDAC and had moderate predictive value of prognosis.
Serum Periplakin as a Potential Biomarker for Urothelial Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder
Matsumoto, Kazumasa ; Ikeda, Masaomi ; Matsumoto, Toshihide ; Nagashio, Ryo ; Nishimori, Takanori ; Tomonaga, Takeshi ; Nomura, Fumio ; Sato, Yuichi ; Kitasato, Hidero ; Iwamura, Masatsugu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9927~9931
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9927
The objectives of this study were to examine serum periplakin expression in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder and in normal controls, and to examine relationships with clinicopathological findings. Detection of serum periplakin was performed in 50 patients and 30 normal controls with anti-periplakin antibodies using the automatic dot blot system, and a micro-dot blot array with a 256 solid-pin system. Levels in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder were significantly lower than those in normal controls (0.31 and 5.68, respectively; p<0.0001). The area under the receiver-operator curve level for urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder was 0.845. The sensitivity and specificity, using a cut-off point of 4.045, were 83.7% and 73.3%, respectively. In addition, serum periplakin levels were significantly higher in patients with muscle-invasive cancer than in those with nonmuscle-invasive cancer (P = 0.03). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, none of the clinicopathological factors was associated with an increased risk for progression and cancer-specific survival. Examination of the serum periplakin level may play a role as a non-invasive diagnostic modality to aid urine cytology and cystoscopy.
Prevalence and Characteristics of Colorectal Polyps in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Iranian Patients Undergoing Colonoscopy from 2009-2013
Iravani, Shahrokh ; Kashfi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein ; Azimzadeh, Pedram ; Lashkari, Mohammad Hossein ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9933~9937
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9933
Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer in males and the second in females in Iran. Males are more likely to develop CRC than women and age is considered as a main risk factor for colorectal cancer. Prevalence of colorectal cancer has been increasing in Asian countries. Aim: The object of this study was to determine the clinical and pathology characteristics of colorectal polyps in Iranian patients and to investigate the variation between our populations with other populations. Materials and Methods: A total of 167 patients with colorectal polyps were included in our study. All underwent colonoscopy during 2009-2013 and specimens were taken through polypectomy and transferred to pathology. All data in patient files including pathology reports were collected and analyzed by SPSS 16 software. A two-tailed test was used and a P-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Mean age of participants was
. Some 84 were females (50.3%) and 83 males (49.7%). Total of 225 polyps were detected which 119 (52.9%) were in males and 106 (47.1%) were in females. Solitary polyps were observed in 124 patients (74%), 26 (15.6%) had two polyps and 17 (10.1%) with more than two polyps (three to five). Rectosigmoid was the site of most of the polyps (63.1%), followed by 19.6% in the descending colon, 7.6% in the transverse, 5.8% in the ascending, and 3.1% in the cecum, data being missing in two cases. Conclusions: Recto sigmoid was site of most of the polyps. The most prevalent type of lesion was adenomatous polyps detected in 78 (34.7%). Mixed hyperplastic adenomatous type observed in 70 (31.1%). This high prevalence of adenomatous polyps in Iranian patients implies the urgent need for screening plans to prevent further healthcare problems with colorectal cancer in the Iranian population.
Preclinical Activity of Lobaplatin as a Single Agent and in Combination with Taxanes for Ovarian Carcinoma Cells
Sun, Xu ; Lou, Li-Guang ; Sui, Dong-Hu ; Wu, Xiao-Hua ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9939~9943
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9939
Lobaplatin, one of the third - generation platinum compounds, has shown encouraging anticancer activity in a variety of tumor types. However, the efficacy of lobaplatin in ovarian cancer has not been systemically evaluated. In this study, lobaplatin as a single agent and in combination with taxanes was investigated in - vitro and in an in vitro model of ovarian carcinoma. Using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, the cytotoxic effects of lobaplatin alone and in combination with taxanes were compared with cisplatin and carboplatin in seven ovarian cancer cell lines. In addition, in - vitro antitumor activities were evaluated with cisplatin - sensitive and cisplatin - resistant human ovarian cancer xenografts in nude mice. The cytotoxicity of lobaplatin was similar to or higher than that of cisplatin and carboplatin, with
values from 0.9 to
in a variety of ovarian cancer cells. The combination of lobaplatin with docetaxel yielded enhanced cytotoxic activity in vitro. In addition, in platinum - sensitive ovarian cancer xenografts, lobaplatin alone showed similar antitumor activity to cisplatin and carboplatin. Furthermore, lobaplatin alone or in combination with docetaxel exhibited significant activity in platinum - resistant ovarian cancer xenografts. These results indicate that the use of lobaplatin alone or in combination with docetaxel might be a rational and novel therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer. Further clinical development of lobaplatin is clearly warranted.
Tim-3 Expression by Peripheral Natural Killer Cells and Natural Killer T Cells Increases in Patients with Lung Cancer - Reduction after Surgical Resection
Xu, Li-Yun ; Chen, Dong-Dong ; He, Jian-Ying ; Lu, Chang-Chang ; Liu, Xiao-Guang ; Le, Han-Bo ; Wang, Chao-Ye ; Zhang, Yong-Kui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9945~9948
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9945
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate Tim-3 expression on peripheral CD3-CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells and CD3+CD56+ natural killer T (NKT) cells in lung cancer patients. Materials and Methods: We analyzed Tim-3+CD3-CD56+ cells, Tim-3+CD3-
cells, and Tim-3+CD3+CD56+ cells in fresh peripheral blood from 79 lung cancer cases preoperatively and 53 healthy controls by flow cytometry. Postoperative blood samples were also analyzed from 21 members of the lung cancer patient cohort. Results: It was showed that expression of Tim-3 was significantly increased on CD3-CD56+ cells, CD3-
cells and CD3+CD56+ cells in lung cancer patients as compared to healthy controls (p=0.03, p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively). When analyzing Tim-3 expression with cancer progression, results revealed more elevated Tim-3 expression in CD3-CD56+ cells, CD3-
cells and CD3+CD56+ cells in cases with advanced stages (III/IV) than those with stage I and II (p=0.02, p=0.04 and p=0.01, respectively). In addition, Tim-3 expression was significantly reduced on after surgical resection of the primary tumor (p<0.01). Conclusions: Tim-3 expression in natural killer cells from fresh peripheral blood may provide a useful indicator of disease progression of lung cancer. Furthermore, it was indicated that Tim-3 might be as a therapeutic target.
Long-Term Treatment Results in Soft Tissue Sarcomas of the Thoracic Wall Treated with Pre-or-Postoperative Radiotherapy - a Single Institution Experience
Oksuz, Didem Colpan ; Ozdemir, Sevim ; Kaydihan, Nuri ; Dervisoglu, Sergulen ; Hiz, Murat ; Tuzun, Hasan ; Mandel, Nil Molinas ; Koca, Sedat ; Dincbas, Fazilet Oner ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9949~9953
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9949
Objective: To evaluate the long term results among patients with soft tissue sarcoma of the thoracic wall. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six patients who were treated with pre-or postoperative radiotherapy between December 1980-December 2007, with a diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma of the thoracic wall were retrospectively evaluated. Results: The median age was 44 years (14-85 years) and 15 of them were male. A total of 50% of patients were grade 3. The most common histologic type of tumor was undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (26.9%). Tumor size varied between 2-25 cm (median 6.5 cm). Seventeen of the cases had marginal and 9 had wide local resection. Four cases received preoperative radiotherapy and 22 postoperative radiotherapy. Six of the patients with large and high grade tumors received chemotherapy. Median follow-up time was 82 months (9-309 months). Local recurrence and metastasis was detected in 34.6% and 42.3% of patients, respectively. Five-year local control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) were 62%, 38%, 69%, and 76% respectively. On univariate analysis, the patients with positive surgical margins had a markedly lower 5-year LC rate than patients with negative surgical margin, but the difference was not significant (43% vs 78%, p=0.1). Five-year DFS (66% vs 17%) and DSS (92% vs 60%) rates were significantly worse for the patients who had high grade tumors (p=0.01, p=0.008 respectively). Conclusions: Tumor grade and surgical margin are essential parameters for determining the prognosis of thoracic wall soft tissue sarcoma both in our series and the literature.
Promoter Methylation of MGMT Gene in Serum of Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in North East India
Das, Mandakini ; Sharma, Santanu Kumar ; Sekhon, Gaganpreet Singh ; Saikia, Bhaskar Jyoti ; Mahanta, Jagadish ; Phukan, Rup Kumar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9955~9960
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9955
Background: Promoter hypermethylation is a common event in human cancer. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a gene involved in DNA repair, which is methylated in a variety of cancers. We aimed to explore the methylation status of MGMT gene among the North Eastern population where esophageal cancer incidence and exposure to carcinogens like nitrosamines is high. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 newly diagnosed esophageal cancer cases along with equal number of age, sex and ethnicity matched controls were included in this study. Methylation specific PCR was used to determine the MGMT methylation status in serum samples. Results: Aberrant promoter methylation of the MGMT gene was detected in 70% of esophageal cancer cases. Hypermethylation of MGMT gene was found to be influenced by environmental factors like betel quid and tobacco which contain potent carcinogens like nitrosamines. Tobacco chewing and tobacco smoking habit synergistically with MGMT methylation elevated the risk for esophageal cancer development [adjusted OR=5.02, 95% CI=1.35-18.74; p=0.010 for tobacco chewing and Adjusted OR=3.00, 95% CI=1.22-7.36; p=0.014 for tobacco smoking]. Conclusions: Results suggest that the DNA hypermethylation of MGMT is an important mechanism for MGMT gene silencing resulting in esophageal cancer development and is influenced by the environmental factors. Thus MGMT hypermethylation can be used as a biomarker for esophageal cancer in high incidence region of North East India.
Clinical Significance of BCR-ABL Fusion Gene Subtypes in Chronic Myelogenous and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemias
Ye, Yuan-Xin ; Zhou, Juan ; Zhou, Yan-Hong ; Zhou, Yi ; Song, Xing-Bo ; Wang, Jun ; Lin, Li ; Ying, Bin-Wu ; Lu, Xiao-Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9961~9966
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9961
Background: Some reports have suggested that chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients have a higher prevalence of M-bcr than acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients, which show a higher prevalence of m-bcr. However, the relationship between BCR-ABL subtypes and progression of CML and ALL remains unclear. Materials and Methods: 354 CML chronic phase (CML-CP) patients, 26 CML blastic phase (CML-BP) patients and 72 ALL patients before treatment with BCR-ABL positive were recruited for blood routine examination and bone marrow smear cytology. Some 80 CML-CP and 32 ALL patients after imatinib (IM) treatment were followed-up for BCR-ABL relative concentrations detected after treatment for 3, 6 and 9 months and 1 year. Results: Before treatment, CML-CP patients showed lower BCR-ABL relative concentrations with a higher proportion of M-bcr (42.7%) compared to CML-BP and ALL patients while ALL patients had a higher BCR-ABL relative concentration with high expression of m-bcr (51.4%). Patients with M-bcr demonstrated higher WBC counts than those with m-bcr and the mixed group and higher PLT counts were noted in the CML-CP and ALL groups. After imatinib (IM) treatment, patients with m-bcr showed higher BCR-ABL relative concentrations in both CML-CP and ALL groups. Conclusions: This study identified the BCR-ABL gene as an important factor in CML and ALL cases. The M-bcr subtype was associated more with CML while the m-bcr subtype was associated more with ALL. Patients with m-bcr seem to have a poorer response to IM in either CML or ALL patients compared to M-bcr patients.
Silencing of COX-2 by RNAi Modulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer Cells Partially Dependent on the PGE
Cao, Juan ; Yang, Xiao ; Li, Wen-Tong ; Zhao, Chun-Ling ; Lv, Shi-Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9967~9972
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9967
In order to prove whether downregulation of COX-2 (Cyclooxygenase-2) could modulate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of breast cancer, celecoxib and siRNA were respectively used to inhibit COX-2 function and expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. The EMT reversal effect in the RNAi treated group was better than that of the celecoxib group while there were no obvious differences in the medium
levels between the two groups. The results show that COX-2 pathways may contribute considerably to EMT of breast cancer cells, partially dependent on the PGE2 cascade. Akt2, ZEB2 and Snail were measured to clarify the underlying mechanisms of COX-2 on EMT; COX-2 may modulate EMT of breast cancer by regulating these factors. This finding may be helpful to elucidate the mechanisms of selective COX-2 inhibitor action in EMT modulation in breast cancer.
No Association of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Gene Polymorphisms with Breast Cancer in North-West Indians
Sharma, Sarika ; Kapahi, Ruhi ; Sambyal, Vasudha ; Guleria, Kamlesh ; Manjari, Mridu ; Sudan, Meena ; Uppal, Manjit Singh ; Singh, Neeti Rajan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9973~9978
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9973
Background: Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-
) is the key regulator of cellular responses to hypoxia and plays a central role in tumour growth. Presence of Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the critical regulatory domains of HIF-
may result in the overexpression of the protein and subsequent changes in the expression of the downstream target genes. The aim of study was to investigate the association of three SNPs (g.C111A, g.C1772T and g.G1790A) of HIF-
with the risk of breast cancer in North Indian sporadic breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 subjects, including 200 healthy controls and 200 patients with breast cancer were recruited in this study. Genotypes were determined using polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results: The CC and CA genotype frequency of HIF-
g.C111A polymorphism was 100 vs 99% and 0 vs 1% in breast cancer patients and healthy controls respectively. The frequencies of CC, CT and TT genotype of g.C1772T polymorphism were 76 vs 74.5%, 19 vs 21% and 5 vs 4.5% in breast cancer patients and control individuals respectively. There was no significant difference in genotype and allele frequencies of HIF-
g.C1772T polymorphism between cases and control individuals (p>0.05). For g.G1790A genotypes, all patients and controls had only GG genotype. Conclusions: The three HIF-
polymorphisms (g.C111A, g.C1772T and g.G1790A) are not associated with breast cancer risk in North-West Indian patients.
Differences in Cancer Incidence among Predominantly Muslim and Buddhist Subpopulations in Songkhla
Sriplung, Hutcha ; Bilheem, Surichai ; Kuntipundee, Tirada ; Geater, Sarayut Lucian ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9979~9983
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9979
Background: The population of Songkhla, a province in Southern Thailand, can be divided into a predominantly Muslim subpopulation (PMSP, approximately 70% Muslim) and a predominantly Buddhist subpopulation (PBSP, around 14% Muslim). Objectives: This study was conducted to 1) describe the incidence of various cancers in both PMSP and PBSP, and 2) compare the incidence of various cancers between the two subpopulations. Materials and Methods: Cancer cases diagnosed between 1990 and 2010 were drawn from the database of Songkhla Cancer Registry. Population denominators were estimated from the 3 population censuses surveyed by the National Statistical Office of Thailand in 1990, 2000, and 2010. Results: The age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) of the 5 commonest male cancers among both subpopulations were calculated. In females, a lower incidence of cancers of the cervix and breast in PMSP compared to PBSP, with odds ratios of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.45-0.64) and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.43-0.60) respectively, was observed. In males, the incidence of cancers of the lung, liver, colon-rectum, and some other cancers were significantly different between the two populations in the past, but only prostate cancer showed a lower incidence among males in PMSP in recent years. Independent of sex and year of diagnosis, the incidence of lung, liver, NHL, and colorectal cancers was lower in MPSP compared to BPSP, with odds ratios of 0.75 (95% CI: 0.65-0.85), 0.74 (95% CI: 0.62-0.88), 0.74 (95% CI: 0.60-0.91), and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.56-0.78) respectively. Conclusions: The differences in incidence of some cancers and religionrelated culture between the two subpopulations need 2 sets of cancer-control plans and goals to fit the unique population context in deep Southern Thailand. This plan can be used in the 3 southernmost provinces of Thailand where the percentage of Muslims is over 85%.
Laparoscopic Versus Open Surgery for Rectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Zhang, Feng-Wa ; Zhou, Zhao-Yu ; Wang, Hai-Lin ; Zhang, Jv-Xia ; Di, Bao-Shan ; Huang, Wen-Hui ; Yang, Ke-Hu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9985~9996
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9985
Background and Aim: Laparoscopic and open rectum surgery for rectal cancer remains controversial. This systematic review compared the short-term and long-term efficiency and complications associated with laparoscopic and open resection for rectal cancer. Materials and Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Knowledge and the China Biology Medicine Database to identify potential randomized controlled trials from their inception to March 31, 2014 without language restriction. Additional articles were identified from searching bibliographies of retrieved articles. Two reviewers independently assessed the full-text articles according to the pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as the methodological quality of included trials. The meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2. Results: A total of 16 randomized controlled trials involving 3,045 participants (laparoscopic group, 1,804 cases; open group, 1,241 cases) were reviewed. Laparoscopic surgery was associated with significantly lower intraoperative blood loss, earlier return of bowel movement and reduced length of hospital stay as compared to open surgery, although with increased operative time. It also showed an obvious advantage for minimizing late complications of adhesion-related bowel obstruction. Importantly, there were no significant differences in other postoperative complications, oncological clearance, 3-year and 5-year or 10 year recurrence and survival rates between two procedures. Conclusions: On the basis of this meta-analysis we conclude that laparoscopic surgery has advantages of earlier postoperative recovery, less blood loss and lower rates of adhesion-related bowel obstruction. In addition, oncological outcome is comparable after laparoscopic and open resection for rectal cancer.
Curdione Inhibits Proliferation of MCF-7 Cells by Inducing Apoptosis
Li, Juan ; Bian, Wei-He ; Wan, Juan ; Zhou, Jing ; Lin, Yan ; Wang, Ji-Rong ; Wang, Zhao-Xia ; Shen, Qun ; Wang, Ke-Ming ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 9997~10001
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9997
Background: Curdione, one of the major components of Curcuma zedoaria, has been reported to possess various biological activities. It thus might be a candidate anti-flammatory and cancer chemopreventive agent. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of action of curdione on cancer cells are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of curdione on breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Xenograft nude mice were used to detect the effect of curdione on breast cancer in vivo; we also tested the effect of curdione on breast cancer in vitro by MTT, Flow cytometry, JC-I assay, and western blot. Results: Firstly, we found that curdione significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft nude mouse breast tumor model in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, curdione treatment inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, after curdione treatment, increase of impaired mitochondrial membrane potential occurred in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, the expression of apoptosis-related proteins including cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9 and Bax was increased in curdione treatment groups, while the expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was decreased. Inhibitors of caspase-3 were used to confirm that curdione induced apoptosis. Conclusions: Overall, our observations first suggested that curdione inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. These results might provide some molecular basis for the anti-cancer activity of curdione.
Success of a Cervical Cancer Screening Program: Trends in Incidence in Songkhla, Southern Thailand, 1989-2010, and Prediction of Future Incidences to 2030
Sriplung, Hutcha ; Singkham, Phathai ; Iamsirithaworn, Sopon ; Jiraphongsa, Chuleeporn ; Bilheem, Surichai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 10003~10008
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.10003
Background: Cervical cancer has been a leading female cancer in Thailand for decades, and has been second to breast cancer after 2007. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) has provided opportunistic screening with Pap smears for more than 30 years. In 2002, the MoPH and the National Health Security Office provided countrywide systematic screening of cervical cancer to all Thai women aged 35-60 years under universal health care coverage insurance scheme at 5-year intervals. Objectives: This study characterized the cervical cancer incidence trends in Songkhla in southern Thailand using joinpoint and age period cohort (APC) analysis to observe the effect of cervical cancer screening activities in the past decades, and to project cervical cancer rates in the province, to 2030. Materials and Methods: Invasive and in situ cervical cancer cases were extracted from the Songkhla Cancer Registry from 1990 through 2010. Age standardized incidence rates were estimated. Trends in incidences were evaluated by joinpoint and APC regression models. The Norpred package was modified for R and was used to project the future trends to 2030 using the power of 5 function and cut trend method. Results: Cervical cancer incidence in Songkhla peaked around 1998-2000 and then dropped by -4.7% per year. APC analysis demonstrated that in situ tumors caused an increase in incidence in early ages, younger cohorts, and in later years of diagnosis. Conclusions: Both joinpoint and APC analysis give the same conclusion in continuation of a declining trend of cervical cancer to 2030 but with different rates and the predicted goal of ASR below 10 or even 5 per 100,000 women by 2030 would be achieved. Thus, maintenance and improvement of the screening program should be continued. Other population based cancer registries in Thailand should analyze their data to confirm the success of cervical cancer screening policy of Thailand.
Association of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms with Prostate Cancer Risk in the Pakistani Population
Yousaf, Nageen ; Afzal, Sibtain ; Hayat, Tehreem ; Shah, Jasmin ; Ahmad, Nafees ; Abbasi, Rashda ; Ramzan, Khushnooda ; Jan, Rasul ; Khan, Imran ; Ahmed, Jawad ; Siraj, Sami ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 10009~10013
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.10009
Background: Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene has been a subject of extensive pharmacogenetic research recently. Association studies between different types of cancers including prostate cancer (PCa) and VDR gene polymorphism have also been conducted. The objective of this study was to find possible associations between PCa and VDR gene polymorphisms in the Pakistani population. Materials and Methods: A total of 162 subjects, including prostate cancer patients and controls, were genotyped for Apa I, Taq I and Fok I polymorphisms in the VDR gene using allele specific PCR, PCR-RFLP and direct DNA sequencing. Allelic frequencies were tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and associations between the genetic markers and PCa were calculated using logistic regression. Results: Apa I CC genotype was found to have strongest association with PCa risk, and "A" genotype was found to have protective effect. Fok I and Taq I did not have appreciable levels of association with PCa, although Taq I "TC" heterozygotes seemed to have some protective effect. Similarly the "C" allele of Fok I also seemed to have protective effect. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report showing association between VDR gene polymorphisms and PCa in Pakistan. Our findings may be somewhat skewed because of small sample size and tendency of consanguineous marriages in Pakistani society; nevertheless, it shows the trend of association and protective effects of certain VDR gene polymorphisms against PCa.
Fentanyl Increases Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Apoptosis by Inhibition of NF-κB in a Sirt1-dependent Manner
Zhang, Xiu-Lai ; Chen, Min-Li ; Zhou, Sheng-Li ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 10015~10020
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.10015
Background: Fentanyl is used as an analgesic to treat pain in a variety of patients with cancer and recently it has become considered to also act as an antitumor agent. The study present was designed to investigate the effects of fentanyl on colorectal cancer cell growth and plausible mechanisms. Materials and Methods: The human colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT116 was subcutaneously injected into nude mice. The viability of HCT116 was tested by MTT assay, and apoptosis by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity. The expression of Sirt1 and NF-
were evaluated by Western blotting and the levels of Sirt1 and NF-
by fluorescence method. SiRNA was used to silence and Ad-Sirt1 to overexpress Sirt1. Results: Our data showed that fentanyl could inhibit tumor growth, with increased expression of Sirt1 and down-regulation of Ac-p65 in tumors. Compared with control cells without treatment, HCT116 cells that were incubated with fentanyl had a higher apoptotic rate. Moreover, fentanyl could increase expression and activity of Sirt1 and inhibitor expression and activity of NF-
, which might be mechanisms of fentanyl action. Conclusions: Fentanyl increased colorectal carcinoma cell apoptosis by inhibition of NF-
activation in a Sirt1-dependent manner.
Age of Diagnosis of Breast Cancer in China: Almost 10 Years Earlier than in the United States and the European Union
Song, Qing-Kun ; Li, Jing ; Huang, Rong ; Fan, Jin-Hu ; Zheng, Rong-Shou ; Zhang, Bao-Ning ; Zhang, Bin ; Tang, Zhong-Hua ; Xie, Xiao-Ming ; Yang, Hong-Jian ; He, Jian-Jun ; Li, Hui ; Li, Jia-Yuan ; Qiao, You-Lin ; Chen, Wan-Qing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 10021~10025
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.10021
Background: The study aimed to describe the age distribution of breast cancer diagnosis among Chinese females for comparison with the United States and the European Union, and provide evidence for the screening target population in China. Materials and Methods: Median age was estimated from hospital databases from 7 tertiary hospitals in China. Population-based data in China, United States and European Union was extracted from the National Central Cancer Registry, SEER program and GLOBOCAN 2008, respectively. Age-standardized distribution of breast cancer at diagnosis in the 3 areas was estimated based on the World Standard Population 2000. Results: The median age of breast cancer at diagnosis was around 50 in China, nearly 10 years earlier than United States and European Union. The diagnosis age in China did not vary between subgroups of calendar year, region and pathological characteristics. With adjustment for population structure, median age of breast cancer at diagnosis was 50~54 in China, but 55~59 in United States and European Union. Conclusions: The median diagnosis age of female breast cancer is much earlier in China than in the United States and the European Union pointing to racial differences in genetics and lifestyle. Screening programs should start at an earlier age for Chinese women and age disparities between Chinese and Western women warrant further studies.
Risk of Cancer Mortality according to the Metabolic Health Status and Degree of Obesity
Oh, Chang-Mo ; Jun, Jae Kwan ; Suh, Mina ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 10027~10031
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.10027
Background: We investigated the risk of cancer mortality according to obesity status and metabolic health status using sampled cohort data from the National Health Insurance system. Materials and Methods: Data on body mass index and fasting blood glucose in the sampled cohort database (n=363,881) were used to estimate risk of cancer mortality. Data were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazard model (Model 1 was adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol level and urinary protein; Model 2 was adjusted for Model 1 plus smoking status, alcohol intake and physical activity). Results: According to the obesity status, the mean hazard ratios were 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-0.89] and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.72-0.85) for the overweight and obese groups, respectively, compared with the normal weight group. According to the metabolic health status, the mean hazard ratio was 1.26 (95% CI, 1.14-1.40) for the metabolically unhealthy group compared with the metabolically healthy group. The interaction between obesity status and metabolic health status on the risk of cancer mortality was not statistically significant (p=0.31). Conclusions: We found that the risk of cancer mortality decreased according to the obesity status and increased according to the metabolic health status. Given the rise in the rate of metabolic dysfunction, the mortality from cancer is also likely to rise. Treatment strategies targeting metabolic dysfunction may lead to reductions in the risk of death from cancer.
Tobacco Use, Beliefs and Risk Awareness in University Students from 24 Low, Middle and Emerging Economy Countries
Peltzer, Karl ; Pengpid, Supa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 10033~10038
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.10033
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco use, beliefs and risk awareness and psychosocial correlates of tobacco use among university students in 24 low, middle and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 16953 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.9, SD=2.9) from 25 universities in 24 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Results indicate that overall 13.3% of the university students were current tobacco users, 22.4% for men and 6.6% for women, ranging from 3.8% in Singapore to 32.5% in Cameroon. The risk awareness of the smoking lung cancer link was 83.6%, while the risk awareness of the smoking heart disease link was 46.5%. Multivariate logistic regression found that older age, male gender, having a wealthy family background, living in a low income country, residing off campus on their own, poor beliefs in the importance not to smoke, awareness of the smoking heart disease link, hit by a sexual partner, depressive symptoms, and substance use (binge drinking and illicit drug use) were associated with current tobacco use.
Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasonography in Differentiating Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules Using Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology as the Reference Standard
Alam, Tariq ; Khattak, Yasir Jamil ; Beg, Madiha ; Raouf, Abdul ; Azeemuddin, Muhammad ; Khan, Asif Alam ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 22, 2014, Pages 10039~10043
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.10039
Background: In Pakistan thyroid cancer is responsible for 1.2% cases of all malignant tumors. Ultrasonography (US) is helpful in detecting cancerous thyroid nodules on basis of different features like echogenicity, margins, microcalcifications, size, shape and abnormal neck lymph nodes. We therefore aimed to calculate diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in detection of carcinoma in thyroid nodules taking fine needle aspiration cytology as the reference standard. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was designed to prospectively collect data from December 2010 till December 2012 from the Department of Radiology in Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 100 patients of both genders were enrolled after informed consent via applying non-probability consecutive sampling technique. Patients referred to Radiology department of Aga Khan University to perform thyroid ultrasound followed by fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules were included. They were excluded if proven for thyroid malignancy or if their US or FNAC was conducted outside our institution. Results: The subjects comprised 76 (76%) females and 24 males. Mean age was
12.3 years. Sensitivity and specificity with 95%CI of ultrasound in differentiating malignant thyroid nodule from benign thyroid nodule calculated to be 91.7% (95%CI, 0.72-0.98) and 78.94% (0.68-0.87) respectively. Reported positive predictive value and negative PV were 57.9% (0.41-0.73) and 96.8% (0.88-0.99) and overall accuracy was 82%. Likelihood ratio (LR) positive was computed to be 4.3 and LR negative was 0.1. Conclusions: Ultrasonography has a high diagnostic accuracy in detecting malignancy in thyroid nodules on the basis of features like echogenicity, margins, micro calcifications and shape.