Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 22 - Dec 2014
Volume 15, Issue 21 - Nov 2014
Volume 15, Issue 20 - Nov 2014
Volume 15, Issue 19 - Oct 2014
Volume 15, Issue 18 - Oct 2014
Volume 15, Issue 17 - Sep 2014
Volume 15, Issue 16 - Aug 2014
Volume 15, Issue 15 - Aug 2014
Volume 15, Issue 14 - Jul 2014
Volume 15, Issue 13 - Jul 2014
Volume 15, Issue 12 - Jun 2014
Volume 15, Issue 11 - Jun 2014
Volume 15, Issue 10 - May 2014
Volume 15, Issue 9 - May 2014
Volume 15, Issue 8 - Apr 2014
Volume 15, Issue 7 - Apr 2014
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Mar 2014
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Mar 2014
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Feb 2014
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Feb 2014
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jan 2014
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
Breast Cancer in Morocco: A Literature Review
Slaoui, Meriem ; Razine, Rachid ; Ibrahimi, Azeddine ; Attaleb, Mohammed ; El Mzibri, Mohammed ; Amrani, Mariam ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1067~1074
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1067
In Morocco, breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women and a major public health problem. Several Moroccan studies have focused on studying this disease, but more are needed, especially at the genetic and molecular levels. It is therefore interesting to establish the genetic and molecular profile of Moroccan patients with breast cancer. In this paper, we will highlight some pertinent hypotheses that may enhance breast cancer care in Moroccan patients. This review will give a precise description of breast cancer in Morocco and propose some new markers for detection and prediction of breast cancer prognosis.
The Research Progress of the Interactions between miRNA and Wnt/beta-catenin Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer of Human and Mice
Ye, Ni ; Wang, Bin ; Quan, Zi-Fang ; Pan, Hai-Bo ; Zhang, Man-Li ; Yan, Qi-Gui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1075~1079
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1075
MicroRNA expression is a research focus in studies of tumors. This article concentrates attention on potential links between tumors caused by mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) and human breast cancer, in order to provide theoretical basis for using mouse model to search for miRNA effects mediated by Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in human breast cancer. By analyzing interactions between miRNAs and the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway in breast cancer, we hope to casts light on more biological functions of miRNAs in the process of tumor formation and growth and to explore their potential value in cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Our endeavor aimed at providing theoretical basis for finding safer, more effective methods for treatment of human breast cancer at the miRNA molecular level.
Robotic Surgery in Cancer Care: Opportunities and Challenges
Mohammadzadeh, Niloofar ; Safdari, Reza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1081~1083
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1081
Malignancy-associated mortality, decreased productivity, and spiritual, social and physical burden in cancer patients and their families impose heavy costs on communities. Therefore cancer prevention, early detection, rapid diagnosis and timely treatment are very important. Use of modern methods based on information technology in cancer can improve patient survival and increase patient and health care provider satisfaction. Robot technology is used in different areas of health care and applications in surgery have emerged affecting the cancer treatment domain. Computerized and robotic devices can offer enhanced dexterity by tremor abolition, motion scaling, high quality 3D vision for surgeons and decreased blood loss, significant reduction in narcotic use, and reduced hospital stay for patients. However, there are many challenges like lack of surgical community support, large size, high costs and absence of tactile and haptic feedback. A comprehensive view to identify all factors in different aspects such as technical, legal and ethical items that prevent robotic surgery adoption is thus very necessary. Also evidence must be presented to surgeons to achieve appropriate support from physicians. The aim of this review article is to survey applications, opportunities and barriers to this advanced technology in patients and surgeons as an approach to improve cancer care.
Matrix Metalloproteinases and Cancer - Roles in Threat and Therapy
Yadav, Lalita ; Puri, Naveen ; Rastogi, Varun ; Satpute, Pranali ; Ahmad, Riyaz ; Kaur, Geetpriya ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1085~1091
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1085
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc dependent extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling endopeptidases having the ability to degrade almost all components of extracellular matrix and implicated in various physiological as well as pathological processes. Carcinogenesis is a multistage process in which alteration of the microenvironment is required for conversion of normal tissue to a tumour. Extracellular matrix remodelling proteinases such as MMPs are principal mediators of alterations observed in the microenvironment during carcinogenesis and according to recent concepts not only have roles in invasion or late stages of cancer but also in regulating initial steps of carcinogenesis in a favourable or unfavourable manner. Establishment of relationships between MMP overproduction and cancer progression has stimulated the development of inhibitors that block proteolytic activity of these enzymes. In this review we discuss the MMP general structure, classification, regulation roles in relation to hallmarks of cancer and as targets for therapeutic intervention.
Awareness and Practices Regarding Breast and Cervical Cancer among Turkish Women in Gazientep
Karadag, Gulendam ; Gungormus, Zeynep ; Surucu, Ramazan ; Savas, Esen ; Bicer, Fulya ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1093~1098
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1093
Background: Cancer is a major public health problem both in our country and worldwide due to its disease burden, fatality and tendency for increased incidence. In Turkey, breast cancer ranks first with an incidence of 41.6% and cervical cancer is the tenth most common cancer with an incidence of 4.4%. Objectives and Design: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted with 240 women aged from 15 to 65 years admitted to a gynecology-obstetrics outpatient clinic of a private hospital in Gaziantep. Study data were collected by the investigators through a 36-item questionnaire form which was generated using information gathered from similar surveys in the literature. Results: It was determined that 34.6% of women were high-school graduates, and 64.2% had a medium income level. The majority (79.2%) stated that they never performed BSE and 49.5% of them said that they did not know how to do it. Some 79.2% did not know what a Pap smear was and 73.3% had not experienced a smear test ever. Conclusions: In this study, we found that most of the women had insufficient knowledge of breast and cervical cancer, while knowledge and practices increased with the education level. Based on these findings, we suggest that there is a need for planning, implementation and assessment of health policies and healthcare services at the national and regional level and we believe that nurses working in the field of protective health services should develop educational programmes for women with a primary focus on cancer in order to increase awareness among the female population in Turkey.
Down-regulation of Phosphoglucose Isomerase/Autocrine Motility Factor Enhances Gensenoside Rh2 Pharmacological Action on Leukemia KG1α Cells
You, Zhi-Mei ; Zhao, Liang ; Xia, Jing ; Wei, Qiang ; Liu, Yu-Min ; Liu, Xiao-Yan ; Chen, Di-Long ; Li, Jing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1099~1104
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1099
Aims and Background: Ginsenoside Rh2, which exerts the potent anticancer action both in vitro and in vivo, is one of the most well characterized ginsenosides extracted from ginseng. Although its effects on cancer are significant, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we sought to elucidate possible links between ginsenoside Rh2 and phosphoglucose isomerase/autocrine motility factor (PGI/AMF). Methods:
, a leukemia cell line highly expressing PGI/AMF was assessed by western blot analysis and reverse transcription- PCR (RT-PCR) assay after transfection of a small interfering (si)-RNA to silence PGI/AMF. The effect of PGI/AMF on proliferation was measured by typan blue assay and antibody array. A cell counting kit (CCK)-8 and flow cytometry (FCM) were adopted to investigate the effects of Rh2 on PGI/AMF. The relationships between PGI/AMF and Rh2 associated with Akt, mTOR, Raptor, Rag were detected by western blot analysis. Results: KG1
cells expressed PGI/AMF and its down-regulation significantly inhibited proliferation. The antibody array indicated that the probable mechanism was reduced expression of PARP, State1, SAPK/JNK and Erk1/2, while those of PRAS40 and p38 were up-regulated. Silencing of PGI/AMF enhanced the sensibility of
to Rh2 by suppressing the expression of mTOR, Raptor and Akt. Conclusion: These results suggested that ginsenoside Rh2 suppressed the proliferation of
, the same as down-regulation of PGI/AMF. Down-regulation of PGI/AMF enhanced the pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Rh2 on KG1
by reducing Akt/mTOR signaling.
Momordica cochinchinensis Seed Extracts Suppress Migration and Invasion of Human Breast Cancer ZR-75-30 Cells Via Down-regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9
Zheng, Lei ; Zhang, Yan-Min ; Zhan, Ying-Zhuan ; Liu, Chang-Xiao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1105~1110
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1105
Objective: Metastases and invasion are the main reasons for oncotherapy failure. Momordica cochinchinensis (Mu Bie Zi in Chinese) had been used for a variety of purposes, and shown anti-cancer action. In this article, we focused on effects on regulation of breast cancer cell ZR-75-30 metastases and invasion by extracts of Momordica cochinchinensis seeds (ESMCs). Methods: Effect of ESMCs on ZR-75-30 human breast cancer cells proliferation were evaluated by MTT assay and on invasion and migration by wound-healing and matrigel invasion chamber assays. Expression and protease activity of two matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-2 and MMP-9, were analyzed by Western blotting and gelatin zymography, respectively. Results: ESMC revealed strong growth inhibitory effects on ZR-75-30 cells, and effectively inhibited ZR-75-30 cell invasion in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot and gelatin zymography analysis showed that ESMC significantly inhibited the expression and secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in ZR-75-30 cells. Conclusions: ESMC has the potential to suppress the migration and invasion of ZR-75-30 cancer cells, and it might prove to of interest in the development of novel inhibitors for breast cancer.
Modeling of Influential Predictors of Gastric Cancer Incidence Rates in Golestan Province, North Iran
Behnampour, Nasser ; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim ; Zayeri, Farid ; Semnani, Shahriar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1111~1117
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1111
Golestan province has a reputation for relatively high incidence rates of gastric cancer in Iran. Along with dietary, lifestyle and environmental influential factors, soil selenium and high levels of pesticide used may exert influence in this region. The present study was designed for modeling the influential predictors on incidence of gastric cancer in Golestan. All registered cases of gastric cancer from March 2009 to March 2010 (49 females and 107 males) were investigated. Data were gathered by both check list and researcher made questionnaire (demographic, clinical and lifestyle characteristics) and analysed using logistic regression. Mean (
) age at diagnosis was
years. CIR and ASR of gastric cancer showed 9.16 and 13.9 per 100,000 people, respectively. Based on univariate logistic regression, a history of smoking (OR= 2.076), unwashed hands after defecation (OR= 2.612), history of cancer in relatives (OR= 2.473), history of gastric cancer in first-degree relatives (OR= 2.278), numbers of gastric cancers in first-degree relatives (OR= 2.078), history of X-ray and dye exposure (OR= 2.395), history of CT scan encounter (OR= 2.915), improper food habits (OR= 3.320), specific eating behavior (OR= 0.740), consumption of probable high risk foods (OR= 2.942), charred flesh (OR= 1.945), and animal fat (OR= 2.716) were confirmed as a risk factors. Changes in lifestyle may be expected to increase gastric cancer incidence dramatically in the near future. Therefore, appropriate educational interventions should be designed and implemented by competent authorities.
Nuclear Anomalies, Chromosomal Aberrations and Proliferation Rates in Cultured Lymphocytes of Head and Neck Cancer Patients
George, Alex ; Dey, Rupraj ; Bhuria, Vikas ; Banerjee, Shouvik ; Ethirajan, Sivakumar ; Siluvaimuthu, Ashok ; Saraswathy, Radha ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1119~1123
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1119
Head and neck cancers (HNC) are extremely complex disease types and it is likely that chromosomal instability is involved in the genetic mechanisms of its genesis. However, there is little information regarding the background levels of chromosome instability in these patients. In this pilot study, we examined spontaneous chromosome instability in short-term lymphocyte cultures (72 hours) from 72 study subjects - 36 newly diagnosed HNC squamous cell carcinoma patients and 36 healthy ethnic controls. We estimated chromosome instability (CIN) using chromosomal aberration (CA) analysis and nuclear level anomalies using the Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus Cytome Assay (CBMN Cyt Assay). The proliferation rates in cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were assessed by calculating the Cytokinesis Block Proliferation Index (CBPI). Our results showed a significantly higher mean level of spontaneous chromosome type aberrations (CSAs), chromatid type aberration (CTAs) dicentric chromosomes (DIC) and chromosome aneuploidy (CANE UP) in patients (CSAs,
; and CANE UPs,
) compared to controls (CSAs,
; and CANEUPs,
) where p<0.001l. Similarly, spontaneous nuclear anomalies showed significantly higher mean level of micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) among cases (MNi,
) compared with controls (MNi,
).The evaluation of CBPI supported genomic instability in the peripheral blood lymphocytes showing a significantly lower proliferation rate in HNC patients (
) compared to healthy subjects (
) (p<0.0001). In conclusion, our preliminary results showed that visible spontaneous genomic instability and low rate proliferation in the cultured peripheral lymphocytes of solid tumors could be biomarkers to predict malignancy in early stages.
Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and L-Fucose as Indispensable Participants in Schistosomiasis-Associated Colonic Dysplasia
Soliman, Nema Ali ; Keshk, Walaa Arafa ; Shoheib, Zeinab Salah ; Ashour, Dalia Salah ; Shamloula, Maha Moustafa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1125~1131
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1125
Background: Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease causing chronic ill health in humans with a serious consequences for socio-economic development in tropical and subtropical regions. There is also evidence linking Schistosoma mansoni to colonic carcinoma occurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate some inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, as well as L-fucose as linkers between intestinal schistosomiasis and colonic dysplasia development in mice. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted upon 80 mice that were divided the control group (10 non infected mice) and infected group which was subdivided into 7 sub-groups (10 mice each) according to the time of sacrifaction in the post infection (p.i.) period, 10 mice being sacrificed every two weeks from 6 weeks p.i. to 18 weeks p.i. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-
), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) levels were estimated by immunoassay. The L-fucose level, and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were also evaluated in colonic tissue. Results: The current study revealed statistically significant elevation in the studied biochemical markers especially at 16 and 18 weeks p.i. The results were confirmed by histopathological examination that revealed atypical architectural and cytological changes in the form of epithelial surface serration and nuclear hyper-chromatizia at 14, 16 and 18 weeks p.i. Conclusions: inflammation, oxidative stress and L-fucose together may form an important link between Schistosomal mansoni infection and colonic dysplasia and they can be new tools for prediction of colonic dysplasia development in experimental schistosomiasis.
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of DNA Base-excision Repair Genes (APE1, OGG1 and XRCC1) Associated with Breast Cancer Risk in a Chinese Population
Luo, Hao ; Li, Zheng ; Qing, Yi ; Zhang, Shi-Heng ; Peng, Yu ; Li, Qing ; Wang, Dong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1133~1140
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1133
Altered DNA repair capacity can result in increased susceptibility to cancer. The base excision repair (BER) pathway effectively removes DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation and reactive oxidative species (ROS). In the current study, we analyzed the possible relation of polymorphisms in BER genes, including 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 protein (XRCC1), with breast cancer risk in Chinese Han women. This case-control study examined 194 patients with breast cancer and 245 cancer-free hospitalized control subjects. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of OGG1 (Ser326Cys), XRCC1 (Arg399Gln), and APE1 (Asp148Glu and -141T/G) were genotyped and analyzed for their association with breast cancer risk using multivariate logistic regression models. We found that XRCC1 Arg399Gln was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Similarly, the XRCC1 Gln allele was significantly associated with an elevated risk in postmenopausal women and women with a high BMI (
). The OGG1 Cys allele provided a significant protective effect against developing cancer in women with a low BMI (<
). When analyzing the combined effects of these alleles on the risk of breast cancer, we found that individuals with
adverse genotypes (XRCC1 399Gln, APE1 148Asp, and OGG1 326Ser) were at a 2.18-fold increased risk of breast cancer (P = 0.027). In conclusion, our data indicate that Chinese women with the 399Gln allele of XRCC1 have an increased risk of breast cancer, and the combined effects of polymorphisms of BER genes may contribute to tumorigenesis.
Effect of Low-fat Diet on Breast Cancer Survival: a Meta-analysis
Xing, Mei-Yuan ; Xu, Su-Zhen ; Shen, Peng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1141~1144
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1141
Background: Even though many studies have examined the possible effect of low-fat diet on breast cancer survival, the relationship remains unclear. Objectives: To summarize the current evidence about the effect of post-diagnostic low-fat diet on recurrence and all-cause mortality of breast cancer. Methods: We conducted a search of Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library and as a result two randomized controlled trials (RCT) and one large multi-center prospective cohort study with 9,966 breast cancer patients were included in this report. Results: Post-diagnostic low-fat diet reduced risk of recurrence of breast cancer by 23% (HR=0.77, 95%CI 0.63 to 0.94, P=0.009) and all cause mortality of breast cancer by 17% (HR=0.83, 95%CI 0.69 to 1.00, P=0.05). Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggested the post-diagnostic low-fat diet can improve breast cancer survival by reducing risk of recurrence. However, more trials of the relationship between low-fat diet and allcause mortality of breast cancer are still needed.
Outcomes with Single Agent LIPO-DOX in Platinum-Resistant Ovarian and Fallopian Tube Cancers and Primary Peritoneal Adenocarcinoma - Chiang Mai University Hospital Experience
Suprasert, Prapaporn ; Manopunya, Manatsawee ; Cheewakriangkrai, Chalong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1145~1148
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1145
Background: Single pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) is commonly used as a salvage treatment in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma (PPA) with a satisfactory outcome. However, the data for second generation PLD administered in this setting are still limited. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the outcome of patients who received single-agent second generation PLD (LIPO-DOX) after the development of clinical platinum resistance. The study period was between March 2008 and March 2013. LIPO-DOX was administered intravenously 40
every 28 days until disease progression, but for not more than six cycles. The response rate was evaluated using the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) criteria while the toxicity was evaluated according to WHO criteria. Twenty-nine patients met the inclusion criteria in the study period with an overall response rate of 13.8%. The median progression free survival and overall survival were three and eleven months, respectively. With the total of 96 cycles of chemotherapy, the patients developed grades 3 and 4 hematologic toxicity as follows: anemia, 0%, leukopenia, 9.6%, neutropenia, 32.3% and thrombocytopenia, 0%. In conclusion, the single agent second generation PLD demonstrated modest efficacy in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and PPA without serious toxicity.
Spatial Analysis of Colorectal Cancer Cases in Kuala Lumpur
Shah, Shamsul Azhar ; Neoh, Hui-Min ; Syed Abdul Rahim, Syed Sharizman ; Azhar, Zahir Izuan ; Hassan, Mohd Rohaizat ; Safian, Nazarudin ; Jamal, Rahman ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1149~1154
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1149
Background: In Malaysia, data from the Malaysian Health Ministry showed colorectal cancer (CRC) to be the second most common type of cancer in 2007-2009, after breast cancer. The same was apparent after looking at males and females cases separately. In the present study, the Geographic Information System (GIS) was employed to describe the distribution of CRC cases in Kuala Lumpur (KL), Malaysia, according to socio-demographic factors (age, gender, ethnicity and district). Materials and Methods: This retrospective review concerned data for patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer in the years 1995 to 2011 collected from the Wilayah Persekutuan Health Office, taken from the cancer notification form (NCR-2), and patient medical records from the Surgical Department, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). A total of 146 cases were analyzed. All the data collected were analysed using ArcGIS version 10.0 and SPSS version 19.0. Results: Patients aged 60 to 69 years accounted for the highest proportion of cases (34.2%) and males slightly predominated 76 (52.1%), Chinese had the highest number of registered cases at 108 (74.0%) and staging revealed most cases in the 3rd and 4th stages. Kernel density analysis showed more cases are concentrated up in the northern area of Petaling and Kuala Lumpur subdistricts. Spatial global pattern analysis by average nearest neighbour resulted in nearest neighbour ratio of 0.75, with Z-score of -5.59, p value of <0.01 and the z-score of -5.59. Spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I) showed clustering significant with p<0.01, Z score 3.14 and Moran's Index of 0.007. When mapping clusters with hotspot analysis (Getis-Ord Gi), hot and cold spots were identified. Hot spot areas fell on the northeast side of KL. Conclusions: This study demonstrated significant spatial patterns of cancer incidence in KL. Knowledge about these spatial patterns can provide useful information to policymakers in the planning of screening of CRC in the targeted population and improvement of healthcare facilities to provide better treatment for CRC patients.
Improved Long-term Survival with Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy among Young Women
Zeichner, Simon Blechman ; Ruiz, Ana Lourdes ; Markward, Nathan Joseph ; Rodriguez, Estelamari ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1155~1162
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1155
Background: Despite mixed survival data, the utilization of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) for the prevention of a contralateral breast cancer (CBC) has increased significantly over the last 15 years, especially among women less than 40. We set out to look at our own experience with CPM, focusing on outcomes in women less than 40, the sub-population with the highest cumulative lifetime risk of developing CBC. With an extended follow-up, we hoped to demonstrate differences in the long-term disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) among groups who underwent the procedure (CPM) versus those that did not (NCPM). Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all breast cancer patients less than age 40 diagnosed at Mount Sinai Medical Center between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2010 (n=481). Among these patients, 42 were identified as having undergone CPM, while 195 were confirmed as being CPM-free during the observation period. A univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: The CPM group had a significantly higher percentage of patients who were diagnosed between 2000 and 2010 (95.2% vs 40%, p=0.0001). The CPM group had significantly smaller tumors (0-2cm.: 41.7% vs 24.8%, p=0.04). Among the entire group of patients, the overall five- and 10-year DFS were 81.3% and 73.3%, respectively. CPM was significantly associated [HR 2.35 (1.02, 5.41); p=0.046] with 10-year OS, although a similar effect was not observed for five-year OS. Conclusions: We found that CPM has increased dramatically over the last 15 years, especially among white women with locally advanced disease. In patients less than 40, who are thought to be at greatest cumulative risk of secondary breast cancer, CPM provided an OS advantage, regardless of genetics, tumor or patient characteristics, and which was only seen after 10 years of follow-up.
Enhanced Antitumor Efficacy with Combined Administration of Astragalus and Pterostilbene for Melanoma
Huang, Xin-Yan ; Zhang, Song-Zhao ; Wang, Wen-Xi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1163~1169
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1163
Astragalus, a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, has exhibited antitumor actions in patients. In this study, in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of astragalus and synergistic antitumor efficacy in combination with pterostilbene were investigated. Melanoma cells were treated with pterostilbene (Pt), graduated doses of astragalus injection (AI), or these in combination. Cell viability was measured using a MTT assay. Released nucleosomes and caspase activity were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo was also assessed. Analysis of variance and t tests were used for statistical analysis. Significant reduction (p<0.05) in cellular proliferation were observed with AI and AI-Pt in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Apoptosis and caspase-3/7 activity were significantly increased by AI and AI-Pt treatment (p<0.05). In vivo, AI inhibited melanoma tumor growth, with inhibition rates ranging from 36.5 to 62.3%, by inducing apoptosis via up-regulation Bax expression and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and down-regulating Bcl-2 expression. AI significantly inhibits the growth of melanoma in vitro and in vivo by inducing apoptosis. These data suggest that combined treatment of astragalus with pterostilbene enhances antitumor efficacy.
Aberrant Methylation of RASSF2A in Tumors and Plasma of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
Wu, Yu ; Zhang, Xian ; Lin, Li ; Ma, Xiao-Ping ; Ma, Ying-Chun ; Liu, Pei-Shu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1171~1176
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1171
Objective: The tumor suppressor gene, Ras-association domain family (RASSF)2A, is inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in many cancers. The current study was performed to evaluate the methylation status of RASSF2A in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) tissues and plasma, and correlations with gene expression and clinicopathologic characteristics. Method: We detected methylation of the RASSF2A gene in tissues and corresponding plasma samples from 47 EOC patients and 14 patients with benign ovarian tumors and 10 with normal ovarian tissues. The methylation status was determined by methylation-specific PCR while gene expression of mRNA was examined by RT-PCR. The EOC cell line, SKOV3, was treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-azadC). Results: RASSF2A mRNA expression was significantly low in EOC tissues. The frequency of aberrant methylation of RASSF2A was 51.1% in EOC tissues and 36.2% in corresponding plasma samples, whereas such hypermethylation was not detected in the benign ovarial tumors and normal ovarian samples. The expression of RASSF2A mRNA was significantly down-regulated or lost in the methylated group compared to the unmethylated group (p<0.05). After treatment with 5-aza-dC, RASSF2A mRNA expression was significantly restored in the Skov3 cell line. Conclusion: Epigenetic inactivation of RASSF2A through aberrant promoter methylation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of EOC. Methylation of the RASSF2A gene in plasma may be a valuable molecular marker for the early detection of EOC.
Number of External Anogenital Warts is Associated with the Occurrence of Abnormal Cervical Cytology
Chayachinda, Chenchit ; Boriboonhirunsarn, Dittakarn ; Thamkhantho, Manopchai ; Nuengton, Chanon ; Chalermchockcharoenkit, Amphan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1177~1180
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1177
Background: Anogenital warts (AGWs) are common results of sexually transmitted infection (STI). Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11, which are non-oncogenic types, account for 90% of the clinical manifestations. Although the quadrivalent HPV vaccine has been launched, AGW remains prevalent in some countries and shows association with abnormal cervical cytology. Objectives: To study the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology (low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse; LSIL+) in immunocompetent Thai women newly presenting with external AGWs. Materials and Methods: Medical charts of all women attending Siriraj STI clinic during 2007-2011 were reviewed. Only women presenting with external AGWs who were not immunocompromised (pregnant, human immunodeficiency virus positive or being on immunosuppressant drugs) and had not been diagnosed with cervical cancer were included into the study. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the association between the characteristics of the patients and those of AGWs and LSIL+. Results: A total of 191 women were eligible, with a mean age of
years; and a mean body mass index of
. Half of them finished university. The most common type of AGWs was exophytic (80.1%). The posterior fourchette appeared to be the most common affected site of the warts (31.9%), followed by labia minora (26.6%) and mons pubis (19.9%). The median number of lesions was 3 (range 1-20). Around 40% of them had recurrent warts within 6 months after completing the treatment. The prevalence of LSIL+ at the first visit was 16.3% (LSIL 12.6%, ASC-H 1.1%, HSIL 2.6%). After adjusting for age, parity and miscarriage, number of warts
was the only factor associated with LSIL+(aOR 2.65, 95%CI 1.11-6.29, p 0.027). Conclusions: LSIL+ is prevalent among immunocompetent Thai women presenting with external AGWs, especially those with multiple lesions.
Promoter Polymorphisms of ST3GAL4 and ST6GAL1 Genes and Associations with Risk of Premalignant and Malignant Lesions of the Cervix
de los Angeles Rivera-Juarez, Maria ; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora Hilda ; Mendieta-Carmona, Victoriano ; Hernandez-Pacheco, Raquel Esneidy ; Zamora-Ginez, Irma ; Rodea-Avila, Carlos ; Apresa-Garcia, Teresa ; Garay-Villar, Onix ; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana ; Jave-Suarez, Luis Felipe ; Diaz-Orea, Maria Alicia ; Milflores-Flores, Lorena ; Reyes-Salinas, Juan Salvador ; Ceja-Utrera, Francisco Javier ; Vazquez-Zamora, Victor Javier ; Vargas-Maldonado, Tomas ; Reyes-Carmona, Sandra ; Sosa-Jurado, Francisca ; Santos-Lopez, Gerardo ; Reyes-Leyva, Julio ; Vallejo-Ruiz, Veronica ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1181~1186
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1181
Sialyltransferase gene expression is altered in several cancers, including examples in the cervix. Transcriptional regulation of the responsible genes depends on different promoters. We aimed to determine the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the B3 promoter of the ST3GAL4 gene and the P1 promoter of the ST6GAL1 gene with cervical premalignant lesions or cervical cancer. A blood sample and/or cervical scrapes were obtained from 104 women with normal cytology, 154 with premalignant lesions and 100 with cervical cancer. We also included 119 blood samples of random donors. The polymorphisms were identified by sequencing from PCR products. For the B3 promoter, a fragment of 506 bp (from nucleotide -408 to +98) was analyzed, and for the P1 promoter a 490 bp (-326 to +164) fragment. The polymorphism analysis showed that at SNP rs10893506, genotypes CC and CT of the ST3GAL4 B3 promoter were associated with the presence of premalignant lesions (OR=2.89; 95%CI 1.72-4.85) and cervical cancer (OR=2.23; 95%CI 1.27-3.91). We detected only one allele of each polymorphism in the ST6GAL1 P1 promoter. We did not detect any genetic variability in the P1 promoter region in our study population. Our results suggest that the rs10893506 polymorphism -22C/T may increase susceptibility to premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix.
Clinicopathologic Features of Breast Carcinomas Classified by Biomarkers and Correlation with Microvessel Density and VEGF Expression: A Study from Thailand
Chuangsuwanich, Tuenjai ; Pongpruttipan, Tawatchai ; O-charoenrat, Pornchai ; Komoltri, Chulaluk ; Watcharahirun, Suwapee ; Sa-nguanraksa, Doonyapat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1187~1192
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1187
Background: To correlate breast cancer subtypes with prognostic factors, microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and clinical features. Materials and Methods: One hundred cases of primary breast carcinoma were classified using biomarkers on tissue microarray as: luminal A [estrogen receptor (ER)+, HER2-,
], luminal B [ER+, HER2+ or ER+, HER2-, Ki-67>14%], HER2, triple negative basal-like (TNB) [any basal cytokeratins (CKs, 5, 14, 17) and/or endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression], and TN without such markers [TNN, null], and assessed for p53, vimentin, VEGF and CD31 immunoperoxidase. Results: Of the 100 cases (mean age, 51 years; mean tumor size, 3.2cm; 56% with nodal metastasis; 89 invasive ductal carcinomas, not otherwise specified, 4 invasive lobular carcinomas, 3 metaplastic carcinomas, and 4 other types) there were 39 luminal A, 18 luminal B, 18 HER2, 15 TNB and 10 TNN. The positivities of basal-like markers in the basal-like subtype were 78.3% for CK5, 40% for CK14, 20% for CK17, 46.7% for EGFR. There was no significant difference in age distribution, tumor size, degree of tubular formation, pleomorphism, lymphovascular invasion, nodal metastasis, MVD, VEGF expression and survival among subgroups. TNs demonstrated significantly higher tumor grade, mitotic count, Ki-67 index, p53 and vimentin and decreased overall survival compared with nonTN. Conclusions: The distribution of breast cancer subtypes in this study was similar to other Asian countries with a high prevalence of TN. The high grade character of TN was confirmed and CK5 expression was found to be common in our basal-like subtype. No significant elevation of MVD or VEGF expression was apparent.
Inhibition of SMP30 Gene Expression Influences the Biological Characteristics of Human Hep G2 Cells
Zhang, Sheng-Chang ; Liang, Ming-Kang ; Huang, Guang-Lin ; Jiang, Kui ; Zhou, Su-Fang ; Zhao, Shuang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1193~1196
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1193
Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30), a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCe) associated antigen had been identified by our research group. To study its mechanisms of regulation and associations with the occurrence and development of HCe, we inhibited expression by RNAi technique, and observed effects on the biological characteristics of Hep G2 cells. In cell viability assays, cell growth in the experimental group (with siRNA transfection) was elevated. In Transwell invasion assays, compared with blank and control groups, numbers of invading cells in the experimental group were significantly increased, whereas in apoptosis assays, the percentage apoptosis demonstrated no differences, but after UV irradiation, that in the experimental group was higher than the other two groups. In a word, SMP30 can inhibit the proliferation and invasion of human hepatoma cells and thus can be regarded as a cancer suppressive factor.
Prognostic Implications for High Expression of MiR-25 in Lung Adenocarcinomas of Female Non-smokers
Xu, Fang-Xiu ; Su, Yu-Liang ; Zhang, Huan ; Kong, Jin-Yu ; Yu, Herbert ; Qian, Bi-Yun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1197~1203
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1197
Background: Adenocarcinoma (ADC) is the most common histological type of lung cancer and its proportion is rising, especially in Asian non-smoking women. Recent studies suggest miR-25 may have diverse effects on the pathogenesis of different types of cancer. However, the role of miR-25 in lung cancer is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential clinical value of miR-25 in non-smoking women with lung ADC. Patients and Methods: Quantitative RT-PCR was performed to evaluate the expression of miR-25 in 100 lung ADC tumor tissues and matched plasma samples and Pearson correlation tests were used to analyze the relationship between values. Associations of miR-25 expression with clinicopathological features were determined using the Student's t-test. To determine prognostic value, overall survival (OS) was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Expression of miR-25 in tissue was found to be associated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.021) and disease stage (P=0.012). Moreover, high miR-25 expression was also associated with poorer overall survival of women with lung ADC (P=0.008). Conclusion: Tissue miR-25 expression may be associated with tumor progression and have prognostic implications in female lung ADC patients.
Association of Oral Contraceptives Use and Lung Cancer Risk among Women: an Updated Meta-analysis Based on Cohort and Case-control Studies
Wu, Wei ; Yin, Zhi-Hua ; Guan, Peng ; Ren, Yang-Wu ; Zhou, Bao-Sen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1205~1210
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1205
Background: Previous studies on the association of oral contraceptives (OC) use and lung cancer generated inconsistent findings. The aim of this study was to confirm any definite correlation between OC use and lung cancer risk. Methods: Publications were reviewed and obtained through PubMed and EMBASE databases literature search up to November, 2013. Reference lists from retrieved articles were also reviewed. The language of publication was restricted to English. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association by calculating pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: A total of 14 studies consisting of 9 case-control studies and 5 cohort studies were finally included in this meta-analysis. There was no significant association observed between OC use and lung cancer risk in the overall analysis (OR=0.91; 95% CI=0.81-1.03). There was a significant protective effect in Europe (OR=0.74; 95% CI=0.60-0.91) and a borderline significant protective effect with an adenocarcinoma histology (OR=0.90; 95% CI=0.80-1.01) in subgroup analyses. No association was observed for methodological quality of study, study design, smoking status and case number of study. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that OC use is not likely to be associated with the risk of lung cancer at all. While a significant protective effect of OC use on lung cancer was observed in Europe, interpretation should be cautious because of the potential biases of low-quality studies. At the same time, more attention should be paid to the possible association of OC use with adenocarcinoma of lung. Our findings require further research, with well-conducted and large-scale epidemiological studies to confirm effects of OC use on lung cancer.
Epidemiologic Survey of Infantile Cancer in Iran based on the Data of the Largest Pediatric Cancer Referral Center (Ali-Asghar Children Hospital), 1996-2005
Bahoush-Mehdiabadi, Gholamreza ; Habibi, Roshanak ; Shariftabrizi, Ahmad ; Vossough, Parvaneh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1211~1217
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1211
Background: Cancer in infants younger than one year of age represents a unique problem with distinct epidemiological, clinical and genetic characteristics compared with older age groups. No report is yet available from Iran regarding epidemiological and survival rate of cancers diagnosed in this age group. Materials and Methods: The population under study comprised of patients which were diagnosed and admitted to Ali-Asghar hospital between years 1996-2005. In total, 287 infants were included in the retrospective descriptive survey. Patient files were evaluated for age of patient at the time of diagnosis, sex, geographical residence, consanguinity of parents, histological diagnosis, site of cancer involvement, type of therapy, date of last follow-up and cause of death (if applicable). Results: The average age at the time of diagnosis was 7.2 months old. The most frequent malignancy was retinoblastoma (44%), followed by leukemia (19%) and neuroblastoma (10%), with five-year overall survival rates of 77.7%, 41% and 90%, respectively Parents of 40 infants (13.9%) had consanguinity relationships. Conclusions: Although we cannot make any conclusions regarding the incidence of infant cancer subtypes based on this study, survival rates for major types were similar to the developed countries, which signifies strict adherence to standards of care in Ali-Asghar hospital, the main infant cancer care centre in Iran. A Childhood Cancer Registry with high-resolution data collection and also advanced genetic testing is advocated for in-depth analysis of variation in incidence and survival.
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Inhibits Tax-dependent Activation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B and of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 in Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus-1 Positive Leukemia Cells
Harakeh, Steve ; Diab-Assaf, Mona ; Azar, Rania ; Hassan, Hani Mutlak Abdulla ; Tayeb, Safwan ; Abou-El-Ardat, Khalil ; Damanhouri, Ghazi Abdullah ; Qadri, Ishtiaq ; Abuzenadah, Adel ; Chaudhary, Adeel ; Kumosani, Taha ; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra ; Rath, Mathias ; Yacoub, Haitham ; Azhar, Esam ; Barbour, Elie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1219~1225
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1219
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant polyphenol molecule from green tea and is known to exhibit antioxidative as well as tumor suppressing activity. In order to examine EGCG tumor invasion and suppressing activity against adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), two HTLV-1 positive leukemia cells (HuT-102 and C91-PL) were treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations of EGCG for 2 and 4 days. Proliferation was significantly inhibited by 100
at 4 days, with low cell lysis or cytotoxicity. HTLV-1 oncoprotein (Tax) expression in HuT-102 and C91-PL cells was inhibited by 25
respectively. The same concentrations of EGCG inhibited NF-kB nuclearization and stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in both cell lines. These results indicate that EGCG can inhibit proliferation and reduce the invasive potential of HTLV-1-positive leukemia cells. It apparently exerted its effects by suppressing Tax expression, manifested by inhibiting the activation of NF-kB pathway and induction of MMP-9 transcription in HTLV-1 positive cells.
Development of an Instrument based on the Protection Motivation Theory to Measure Factors Influencing Women's Intention to First Pap Test Practice
Hassani, Laleh ; Dehdari, Tahereh ; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim ; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud ; Abedini, Mehrandokht ; Nedjat, Saharnaz ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1227~1232
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1227
Background: Given that there are many Iranian women who have never had a Pap smear, this study was designed to develop and validate a measurement tool based on the Protection Motivation Theory to assess factors influencing the Iranian women's intention to perform first Pap testing. Materials and Methods: In this psychometric research, to determine the Content Validity Index (CVI) and the Content Validity Ratio (CVR), a panel of experts (n=10) reviewed scale items. Reliability was estimated through the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (n=30) and internal consistency (n=240). Also, factor analysis (exploratory and conformity) was performed on the data of the sample women who had never had a Pap smear test (n=240). Results: A 26-item questionnaire was developed. The CVI and CVR scores of the scale were 0.89 and 0.90, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis loaded a 26-item with seven factors questionnaire (perceived vulnerability and severity, fear, response costs, response efficacy, self-efficacy, and protection motivation (or intention)) that jointly accounted for 72.76% of the observed variance. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit for the data. Internal consistency (range 0.70-0.93) and test-retest reliability (range 0.72-0.96) of sub-scales were acceptable. Conclusions: This study showed that the designed instrument was a valid and reliable tool for measuring the factors influencing the women's intention to perform their first Pap testing.
A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Brain Metastases and Value of Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Sun, Dian-Shui ; Hu, Li-Kuan ; Cai, Ying ; Li, Xiao-Mei ; Ye, Lan ; Hou, Hua-Ying ; Wang, Cui-Hong ; Jiang, Yu-Hua ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1233~1239
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1233
Background: The incidence of brain metastases (BM) varies in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), calls into question the value of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). It is possible that clinicopathologic characteristics are associated with the development of BM, but these have yet to be identified in detail. Thus, we conducted the present meta-analysis on risk factors for BM and the value of PCI in patients with NSCLC. Methods: Eligible data were extracted and the risk factors for BM and the value of PCI in patients with NSCLC were analyzed by calculating the pooled odds ratio (OR). Heterogeneity was detected using Q and I-squared statistics, and publication bias was tested by funnel plots and Egger's test. Results: Six randomized controlled trials with a focus on the value of PCI and 13 eligible studies with a focus on risk factors for BM were included. PCI significantly reduced the incidence of BM in patients with NSCLC (p=0.000, pooled OR=0.34, 95% confidence interval = 0.37-0.59). Compared with non-squamous cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma was associated with a low incidence of BM in patients with NSCLC (p=0.000, pooled OR=0.47, 95% confidence interval =0.34-0.65). The funnel plot and Egger's test suggested that there was no publication bias in the current meta-analysis. Conclusions: This meta-analysis provides statistical evidence that compared with non-squamous cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma can be used as a predictor for BM in patients with NSCLC, and PCI might reduce the incidence of BM in patients with NSCLC, but does not provide a survival benefit.
Cinobufacin Suppresses Cell Proliferation via miR-494 in BGC-823 Gastric Cancer Cells
Zhou, Rong-Ping ; Chen, Gang ; Shen, Zhi-Li ; Pan, Li-Qun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1241~1245
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1241
Cinobufacin is used clinically to treat patients with many solid malignant tumors. However, the mechanisms underlying action remain to be detailed. Our study focused on miRNAs involved in cinobufacin inhibition of GC cell proliferation. miRNA microarray analysis and real time PCR identified miR-494 as a significant cinobufacin-associated miRNA. In vivo, ectopic expression of miR-494 inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis of BGC-823 cells on CCK-8 and flow cytometry analysis. Further study verified BAG-1 (anti-apoptosis gene) to bea target of miR-494 by luciferase reporter assay and Western blotting. In summary, our study demonstrated that cinobufacin may inhibit the proliferation and promote the apoptosis of BGC-823 cells. Cinobufacin-associated miR-494 may indirectly be involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis by targeting BAG-1, pointing to use as a potential molecular target of cinobufacin in gastric cancer therapy.
Molecular Evaluation of DNMT3A and IDH1/2 Gene Mutation: Frequency, Distribution Pattern and Associations with Additional Molecular Markers in Normal Karyotype Indian Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients
Ahmad, Firoz ; Mohota, Rupali ; Sanap, Savita ; Mandava, Swarna ; Das, Bibhu Ranjan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1247~1253
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1247
Mutations in the DNMT3A and IDH genes represent the most common genetic alteration after FLT3/NPM1 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We here analyzed the frequency and distribution pattern of DNMT3A and IDH mutations and their associations with other molecular markers in normal karyotype AML patients. Fortyfive patients were screened for mutations in DNMT3A (R882), IDH1 (R132) and IDH2 (R140 and R172) genes by direct sequencing. Of the 45 patients screened, DNMT3A and IDH mutations were observed in 6 (13.3%) and 7 (15.4%), respectively. Patients with isolated DNMT3A mutations were seen in 4 cases (9%), isolated IDH mutations in 5 (11.1%), while interestingly, two cases showed both DNMT3A and IDH mutations (4.3%). Nucleotide sequencing of DNMT3A revealed missense mutations (R882H and R882C), while that of IDH revealed R172K, R140Q, R132H and R132S. Both DNMT3A and IDH mutations were observed only in adults, with a higher frequency in males. DNMT3A and IDH mutations were significantly associated with NPM1, while trends towards higher coexistence with FLT3 mutations were observed. This is the first study to evaluate DNMT3A/IDH mutations in Indian patients. Significant associations among the various molecular markers was observed, that highlights cooperation between them and possible roles in improved risk stratification.
Association of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia with Polymorphisms in VDR, CYP17, and SRD5A2 Genes among Lebanese Men
El Ezzi, Asmahan Ali ; Zaidan, Wissam Rateeb ; El-Saidi, Mohammed Ahmed ; Al-Ahmadieh, Nabil ; Mortenson, Jeffrey Benjamin ; Kuddus, Ruhul Haque ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1255~1262
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1255
Background: The aim of the study was to investigate any associations between benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VDR gene (FokI, BsmI, ApaI and Taq
I loci) and the CYP17 gene (MspA1I locus), as well as TA repeat polymorphism in SRD5A2 gene among Lebanese men. Materials and Methods: DNA extracted from blood of 68 subjects with confirmed BPH and 79 age-matched controls was subjected to PCR/PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The odds ra=tio (OR) of having a genotype and the relative risk (RR) of developing BPH for having the genotype were calculated and the alleles were designated risk-bearing or protective. Results: Our data indicated that the A and B alleles of the VDR ApaI and BsmI SNPs were highly associated with increased risk of BPH (p=0.0168 and 0.0002, respectively). Moreover, 63% of the controls compared to 43% of the subjects with BPH were homozygous for none of the risk-bearing alleles (p=0.0123) whereas 60% of the controls and 28% of the subjects with BPH were homozygous for two or more protective alleles (p<0.0001). Conclusions: For the first time, our study demonstrated that ApaI and BsmI of the VDR gene are associated with risk of BPH among Lebanese men. Our study also indicated that overall polymorphism profile of all the genes involved in prostate physiology could be a better predictor of BPH risk.
Meta-analysis of Associations Between four Polymorphisms in the Matrix Metalloproteinases Gene and Gastric Cancer Risk
Yang, Teng-Fei ; Guo, Lin ; Wang, Qiang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1263~1267
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1263
Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play important roles in pathogenesis and development of cancer. Recently, many studies have show associations between polymorphisms in the promoter regions of MMPs and risk of gastric cancer. The present meta-analysis was conducted in order to investigate the potential association between four polymorphisms in the MMP gene and gastric cancer risk. Methods: A computerized literature search was conducted in databases of Med-line, Embase, Science Citation Index and PubMed till June 2013 for any MMP genetic association study of gastric cancer. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for each gene under dominant and recessive models, and heterogeneity between studies was assessed using the Q test and
value. Overall and subgroup analyses according to ethnicity were carried out with Stata 12.0. Results: 14 reports covering 8,146 patients (2,980 in the case group and 5,166 in the control group) were included in the present meta-analysis. We found that the MMP-7 (-181A>G) polymorphism increased the gastric cancer risk in therecessive model (GG vs. AA/AG, OR=1.768, 95% CI =1.153-2.712). For MMP2 -1306 C>T, MMP1-1607 1G/2G, and MMP9-1 562 C>T, there were no associations between these polymorphisms and the risk of gastric cancer under dominant or recessive models. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggested that the MMP7-181 A>G polymorphism may contribute to gastric cancer susceptibility. More studies are needed, especially in Europeans, in the future.
Can Ultrasound be Used to Differentiate Tubular Adenomas of Breast from Fibroadenomas or Carcinoma?
Fu, Ying ; Miao, Li-Ying ; Ge, Hui-Yu ; Mei, Fang ; Wang, Jin-Rui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1269~1274
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1269
Breast tubular adenomas are rare benign breast tumors and detailed descriptions of their sonographic appearance are necessary for differential diagnosis from fibroadenomas or breast cancers. This study investigated twenty-one histology-proved tubular adenomas in 17 patients and also included 48 fibroadenomas in 35 patients as a control group. There was no significant difference between the two groups with clinical presentation, which was age, tumor location, tumor number (p>0.05). Statistic analysis showed three significant factors in the differential diagnosis of tubular adenomas and fibroadenomas, including macro-lobulation (p=0.01), "tiny branch like" patterns (p=0.001) and vascularity (p=0.02). Other ultrasonographic features such as echogenicity, border, uniformity of echotexture, posterior acoustic enhancement, lateral wall shadowing were of no clinical significance (p>0.05). Calcifications were seen in three tubular adenomas which were different from those of carcinomas. Although tubular adenomas have some typical characteristics on sonography, surgery and core needle biopsy are still needed for complex cases to exclude progress to malignancy.
Determining the Factors that Affect Breast Cancer and Self Breast Examination Beliefs of Turkish Nurses in Academia
Yucel, Sebnem Cinar ; Orgun, Fatma ; Tokem, Yasemin ; Avdal, Elif Unsal ; Demir, Muzeyyen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1275~1280
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1275
Purpose: To define factors that affect the performance status of BSE and confidence of student nurses. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in the academic year 2010-2011 in a nursing faculty in
zmir, Turkey. "Informative data form" and "Champion's Revised Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS)" were used as data collection forms. Results: The mean age of the participant nurses was
. The mean CHMS scores of the student nurses were as follows: perceived susceptibility regarding breast cancer,
; perceived seriousness regarding breast cancer,
; perceived benefit regarding BSE application,
; perceived barriers regarding BSE application,
; perceived confidence regarding BSE application,
; the mean score of health motivation sub-scale,
; and mean of the total score of the scale,
. Conclusions: The outcomes obtained in this study indicated the importance of better education to student nurses, who have a key role in teaching preventive health behaviour including BSE to society and other university students as colleagues.
Comparison of Clinical Outcomes of Incidental and Non-Incidental Gallbladder Cancers: A Single-Center Cross-Sectional Study
Cha, Byung Hyo ; Bae, Jong-Myun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1281~1283
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1281
Background: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a rare malignancy characterized by high invasiveness and poor survival. In a nation-wide cancer survey, the age-standardized incidence rate of GBC was the highest in Jeju Island compared to 15 other provinces in Korea. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of GBC according to the nature of diagnosis, that is, incidental versus non-incidental. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients who were newly diagnosed with GBC at the Digestive Disease Center and Department of Internal Medicine, Cheju Halla General Hospital, between November 2008 and November 2011, were enrolled and divided into 2 groups: incidental gallbladder cancer (IGBC) and non-incidental gallbladder cancer (NIGBC). Clinical outcomes were retrospectively compared between the two groups. Results: Seventy-nine patients were enrolled and analyzed in our study. Thirty-three (41.8%) and 46 (58.2%) were identified as IGBC and NIGBC, respectively. The proportions of patients with gallstone disease, gallbladder polyp, and cholecystectomy were significantly different between the two groups. Additionally, the median survival rate was significantly higher for patients with IGBC than for those with NIGBC (11.4, 95% confidence interval, 5.6-13.7 vs 4.0, 95% confidence interval 3.03-5.96 months; p=0.01) during a median follow-up period of 5.7 months. Conclusions: Patients with IGBC showed better clinical prognosis than those with NIGBC. Therefore, patients with gallstone disease or gallbladder polyps, major predictive risk factors for IGBC, should undergo advanced work-up for chelecystectomy.
Ultrasound Targeted Microbubble Destruction for Novel Dual Targeting of HSP72 and HSC70 in Prostate Cancer
Wang, Hang-Hui ; Song, Yi-Xin ; Bai, Min ; Jin, Li-Fang ; Gu, Ji-Ying ; Su, Yi-Jin ; Liu, Long ; Jia, Chao ; Du, Lian-Fang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1285~1290
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1285
The aim was to determine whether ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) promotes dual targeting of HSP72 and HSC70 for therapy of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), to improve the specific and efficient delivery of siRNA, to induce tumor cell specific apoptosis, and to find new therapeutic targets specific of CRPC.VCaP cells were transfected with siRNA oligonucleotides. HSP70, HSP90 and cleaved caspase-3 expression were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Apoptosis and transfection efficiency were assessed by flow cytometry. Cell viability assays were used to evaluate safety. We found HSP72, HSC70 and HSP90 expression to be absent or weak in normal prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1), but uniformly strong in prostate cancerous cells (VCaP). UTMD combined with dual targeting of HSP72 and HSC70 siRNA improve the efficiency of transfection, cell uptake of siRNA, downregulation of HSP70 and HSP90 expression in VCaP cells at the mRNA and protein level, and induction of extensive tumor-specific apoptosis. Cell counting kit-8 assays showed decreased cellular viability in the HSP72/HSC70-siRNA silenced group. These results suggest that the combination of UTMD with dual targeting HSP70 therapy for PCa may be most efficacious, providng a novel, reliable, non-invasive, safe targeted approach to improve the specific and efficient delivery of siRNA, and achieve maximal effects.
Association between Dietary Factors and Breast Cancer Risk among Chinese Females: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Liu, Xue-Ou ; Huang, Yu-Bei ; Gao, Ying ; Chen, Chuan ; Yan, Ye ; Dai, Hong-Ji ; Song, Feng-Ju ; Wang, Yao-Gang ; Wang, Pei-Shan ; Chen, Ke-Xin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1291~1298
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1291
Background: Evidence for associations between dietary factors and breast cancer risk is inconclusive among Chinese females. To evaluate this question, we conducted a systematic review of relevant case-control and cohort studies. Methods: Studies were systematically searched among 5 English databases (PudMed, ScienceDirect, Wiley, Clinicaltrials.gov, and Cochrane) and 3 Chinese databases (CNKI, WanFang, and VIP) until November 2012. Random effects models were used to estimate summary odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Thirty one case-control studies and two cohort studies involving 9,299 cases and 11,413 controls were included. Consumption of both soy and fruit was significantly associated with decreased risk of breast cancer, with summary ORs of 0.65 (95% CIs: 0.43-0.99; I2=88.9%, P<0.001; N=13) and 0.66 (95% CIs: 0.47-0.91;
=76.7%, P<0.001; N=7), respectively. Consumption of fat was significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer (OR=1.36; 95% CIs: 1.13-1.63;
=47.9%, P=0.088; N=6). There was nonsignificant association between consumption of vegetables and breast cancer risk (OR=0.72; 95% CIs: 0.51-1.02;
= 74.4%, P<0.001; N=9). However, sensitivity analysis based on adjusted ORs showed decreased risk of breast cancer was also associated with consumption of vegetables (OR=0.49; 95% CIs: 0.30-0.67). Conclusion: Both soy food and fruit are significantly associated with decreased risk of breast cancer among Chinese females, and vegetables also seems to be protective while dietary fatexerts a promoting influence.
Bactericidal Application and Cytotoxic Activity of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles with an Extract of the Red Seaweed Pterocladiella capillacea on the HepG
El Kassas, Hala Yassin ; Attia, Azza Ahmed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1299~1306
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1299
Background: Nano-biotechnology is recognized as offering revolutionary changes in various fields of medicine. Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles have a wide range of applications. Materials and Methods: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized with an aqueous extract of Pterocladiella (Pterocladia) capillacea, used as a reducing and stabilizing agent, and characterized using UV-VIS spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive analysis (EDX). The biosynthesized AgNPs were tested for cytotoxic activity in a human hepatocellular carcinoma (
) cell line cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 1% antibiotic and antimycotic solution and 2 mM glutamine. Bacterial susceptibility to AgNPs was assessed with Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis [Gram+ve] and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli [Gram-ve]. The agar well diffusion technique was adopted to evaluate the bactericidal activity of the biosynthesized AgNPs using Ampicillin and Gentamicin as gram+ve and gram-ve antibacterial standard drugs, respectively. Results: The biosynthesized AgNPs were
nm in diameter. FT-IR analysis showed that carbonyl groups from the amino acid residues and proteins could assist in formation and stabilization of AgNPs. The AgNPs showed potent cytotoxic activity against the human hepatocellular carcinoma (
) cell line at higher concentrations. The results also showed that the biosynthesized AgNPs inhibited the entire panel of tested bacteria with a marked specificity towards Bacillus subtillus. Conclusions: Cytotoxic activity of the biosynthesized AgNPs may be due to the presence of alkaloids present in the algal extract. Our AgNPs appear more bactericidal against gram-positive bacteria (B. subtillus).
Effects of Self-Concept Levels and Perceived Academic Achievements of Turkish Students on Smoking Perceptions
Sert, Hilal Parlak ; Bektas, Murat ; Ozturk, Candan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1307~1312
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1307
Background: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of self-concept levels and perceived academic achievements of sixth, seventh and eighth grade primary school students upon their perceptions about smoking. Method: The data were collected with the Socio-Demographic Data Collection Form, Pier-Herris Self-Concept scale and Children's Decision Balance Scale. The study sample consisted of 374 students receiving education in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades of three primary schools, which were selected among primary schools of Izmir Provincial Directorate for National Education representing three socio-economic groups with a simple random sampling method. The data were collected in December 2012-January 2013. Percentages and the t test were used in the evaluation of the data. Results: While students with a positive self-concept had score averages of
regarding the lower dimension of smoking pros and
regarding the lower dimension of smoking cons, their counterparts with a negative self-concept had score averages of
(p=0.004), respectively. According to self-perception, there was statistical difference between perceptions of students regarding smoking (p<0.01). While students perceiving themselves successful had score averages of
regarding the lower dimension of smoking benefit and harm, students perceiving themselves unsuccessful had score averages of
(p=0.235), with no difference determined. Conclusion: Students with a positive self-perception had a low perception of smoking pros and a high perception of smoking cons. Perception of academic achievement did not affect the pros and cons perceptions of children regarding smoking.
Abiraterone for Treatment of Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Zhou, Zhi-Rui ; Liu, Shi-Xin ; Zhang, Tian-Song ; Xia, Jun ; Li, Bo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1313~1320
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1313
Introduction: Although most prostate cancers initially respond to castration with luteinizing hormonereleasing analogues or bilateral orchiectomy, progression eventually occurs. Based on the exciting results of several randomized controlled trials (RCTs), it seems that patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) might benefit more from treatment withabiraterone. Therefore we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of abiraterone in the treatment of mCRPC. Methods: Literature was searched from Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library up to July, 2013. Quality of the study was evaluated according to the Cochrane's risk of bias of randomized controlled trial (RCT) tool, then the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) System was used to rate the level of evidence. Stata 12.0 was used for statistical analysis. Summary data from RCTs comparing abiraterone plus prednisone versus placebo plus prednisone for mCRPC were meta-analyzed. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS), radiographic progression-free survival (RPFS) and time to PSA progression (TTPP); Pooled risk ratios (RR) for PSA response rate, objective response rate and adverse event were calculated. Results: Ten trials were included in the systematic review; Data of 2,283 patients (1,343 abiraterone; 940 placebo) from two phase 3 trials: COU-AA-301 and COU-AA-302 were meta-analyzed. Compared with placebo, abiraterone significantly prolonged OS (HR, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.84), RPFS (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.74) and time to PSA progression (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.70); it also significantly increased PSA response rate (RR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.72 to 7.65) and objective response rate (RR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.51 to 6.15). This meta-analysis suggested that the adverse events caused by abiraterone are acceptable and can be controlled. Conclutios: Abiraterone significantly prolonged OS, RPFS and time to progression patients with mCRPC, regardless of prior chemotherapy or whether chemotherapy-na
ve, and no unexpected toxicity was evident. Abiraterone can serve as a new standard therapy for mCRPC.
Effect of TLR4 and B7-H1 on Immune Escape of Urothelial Bladder Cancer and its Clinical Significance
Wang, Yong-Hua ; Cao, Yan-Wei ; Yang, Xue-Cheng ; Niu, Hai-Tao ; Sun, Li-Jiang ; Wang, Xin-Sheng ; Liu, Jing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1321~1326
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1321
Background/Aim: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and B7-H1, both normally expressed restricted to immune cells, are found to be aberrantly expressed in a majority of human tumors and may play important roles in regulation of tumor immunity. It has been shown that urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) patients can manifest tumoral immune escape which may be a potential critical factor in tumor pathogenesis and progression. However, so far, the mechanisms of UBC-related immune escape have not been clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TLR4 and B7-H1 on immune escape of UBC. Methods: Bladder cancer T24 cells were pre-incubated with LPS and co-cultured with tumor specific CTLs. CTL cytotoxicity and apoptosis rates were measured by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The effects of an ERK inhibitor on B7-H1 expression and CTL cytotoxicity against T24 cells were also evaluated. In addition, TLR4, B7-H1 and PD-1 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 60 UBC specimens and 10 normal urothelia. Results: TLR4 activation protected T24 cells from CTL killing via B7-H1 overexpression. However PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK, enhanced CTL killing of T24 cells by reducing B7-H1 expression. TLR4 expression was generally decreased in UBC specimens, while B7-H1 and PD-1 were greatly overexpressed. Moreover, expression of both B7-H1 and PD-1 was significantly associated with UICC stage and WHO grade classification. Conclusions: TLR4 and B7-H1 may contribute to immune escape of UBC. Targeting B7-H1 or the ERK pathway may offer new immunotherapy strategies for bladder cancer.
Breast Imaging Using Electrical Impedance Tomography: Correlation of Quantitative Assessment with Visual Interpretation
Zain, Norhayati Mohd ; Chelliah, Kanaga Kumari ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1327~1331
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1327
Background: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a new non-invasive, mobile screening method which does not use ionizing radiation to the human breast; allows conducting quantitative assessment of the images besides the visual interpretation. The aim of this study was to correlate the quantitative assessment and visual interpretation of breast electrical impedance tomographs and associated factors. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty mammography patients above 40 years and undergoing EIT were chosen using convenient sampling. Visual interpretation of the images was carried out by a radiologist with minimum of three years experience using the breast imaging - electrical impedance (BI-EIM) classification for detection of abnormalities. A set of thirty blinded EIT images were reinterpreted to determine the intra-rater reliability using kappa. Quantitative assessment was by comparison of the breast average electric conductivity with the norm and correlations with visual interpretation of the images were determined using Chi-square. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the mean electrical conductivity between groups and t-test was used for comparisons with pre-existing Caucasians statistics. Independent t-tests were applied to compare the mean electrical conductivity of women with factors like exogenous hormone use and family history of breast cancer. Results: The mean electrical conductivity of Malaysian women was significantly lower than that of Caucasians (p<0.05). Quantitative assessment of electrical impedance tomography was significantly related with visual interpretation of images of the breast (p<0.05). Conclusions: Quantitative assessment of electrical impedance tomography images was significantly related with visual interpretation.
Lack of Prognostic Significance of C-erbB-2 Expression in Low- and High- grade Astrocytomas
Muallaoglu, Sadik ; Besen, Ali Ayberk ; Ata, Alper ; Mertsoylu, Huseyin ; Arican, Ali ; Kayaselcuk, Fazilet ; Ozyilkan, Ozgur ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1333~1337
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1333
Background: Astrocytic tumors, the most common primary glial tumors of the central nervous system, are classified from low to high grade according to the degree of anaplasia and presence of necrosis. Despite advances in therapeutic management of high grade astrocytic tumors, prognosis remains poor. In the present study, the frequency and prognostic significance of c-erb-B2 in astrocytic tumors was investigated. Materials and Methods: Records of 72 patients with low- and high-grade astrocytic tumors were evaluated. The expression of C-erbB-2 was determined immunohistochemically and intensity was recorded as 0 to 3+. Tumors with weak staining (1+) or no staining (0) were considered Her-2 negative, while tumors with moderate (2+) and strong (3+) staining were considered Her-2 positive. Results: Of the 72 patients, 41 (56.9%) had glioblastoma (GBM), 10 (13.9%) had diffuse astrocytoma, 15 (20.8%) had anaplastic astrocytoma, 6 (8.3%) had pilocytic astrocytoma. C-erbB-2 overexpression was detected in the tumor specimens of 17 patients (23.6%). Six (8.3%) tumors, all GBMs, exhibited strong staining, 2 (2.7%) specimens, both GBMs, exhibited moderate staining, and 9 specimens, 5 of them GBMs (12.5%), exhibited weak staining. No staining was observed in diffuse astrocytoma and pilocytic astrocytoma specimens. Median overall survival of patients with C-erbB-2 negative and C-erbB-2 positive tumors were 30 months (95%CI: 22.5-37.4 months) and 16.9 months (95%CI: 4.3-29.5 months), respectively (p=0.244). Conclusions: Although there was no difference in survival, C-erbB-2 overexpression was observed only in the GBM subtype.
Mitochondrial DNA Levels in Blood and Tissue Samples from Breast Cancer Patients of Different Stages
Xia, Peng ; Wang, Hui-Juan ; Geng, Ting-Ting ; Xun, Xiao-Jie ; Zhou, Wen-Jing ; Jin, Tian-Bo ; Chen, Chao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1339~1344
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1339
Aims: Alterations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been implicated in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. We here evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic potential of mtDNA as a biomarker for breast cancer. Methods: Using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction, nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mtDNA levels in serum, buffy coat, tumor, and tumor-adjacent tissue samples from 50 breast cancer patients were determined and assessed for associations with clinicopathological features. To evaluate mtDNA as a biomarker for distinguishing between the four sample types, we created receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: The mtDNA levels in buffy coat were significantly lower than in other sample types. Relative to tumor-adjacent tissue, reduced levels of mtDNA were identified in buffy coat and tumor tissue but not in serum. According to ROC curve analysis, mtDNA levels could be used to distinguish between buffy coat and tumor-adjacent tissue samples with good sensitivity (77%) and specificity (83%). Moreover, mtDNA levels in serum and tumor tissue were positively associated with cancer TMN stage. Conclusions: The mtDNA levels in blood samples may represent a promising, non-invasive biomarker in breast cancer patients. Additional, large-scale validation studies are required to establish the potential use of mtDNA levels in the early diagnosis and monitoring of breast cancer.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Esophageal Cancer in Chinese Populations: a Meta-analysis
Yang, Yong-Bin ; Shang, Yan-Hong ; Tan, Yan-Li ; Kang, Xian-Jiang ; Meng, Ming ; Zhao, Zhan-Xue ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1345~1349
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1345
Although many epidemiologic studies investigated the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and their associations with esophageal cancer, definite conclusions could not be drawn. To clarify the effects of MTHFR polymorphisms on the risk of esophageal cancer, a meta-analysis was here performed in Chinese populations. A total of 16 studies including 3,040 cases and 4,127 controls were involved in this metaanalysis. Overall, significant associations were found between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and esophageal cancer risk when all studies in Chinese populations were pooled into the meta-analysis (T vs. C, OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.06-1.34; TT vs. CC, OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.07-1.70; TT+ CT vs. CC, OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.08-1.54; TT vs. CC + CT, OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.03-1.37). In subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity and source of controls, the same results were found in Kazakh (TT vs. CC, OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.02-1.87; TT + CT vs. CC, OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.03-2.18), in not stated populations (T vs. C, OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.08-1.42; TT vs. CC, OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.10-1.96; TT + CT vs. CC, OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.05-1.60; TT vs. CC + CT, OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.12-1.56), and in hospital-based studies (T vs. C, OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.19-1.51; TT vs. CC, OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.37-2.39; TT + CT vs. CC, OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.26-1.83; and TT vs. CC + CT, OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.13-1.70). In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides evidence that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism contributes to esophageal cancer development in Chinese populations.
Ovarian Sex Cord Stromal Tumours in Children and Young Girls - A More Than Two Decade Clinicopathological Experience in a Developing Country, Pakistan
Haroon, Saroona ; Idrees, Romana ; Zia, Aleena ; Memon, Aisha ; Fatima, Saira ; Kayani, Naila ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1351~1355
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1351
Background: Ovarian sex-cord stromal tumours (SCST) are rare, and relatively infrequent in children. These have to be distinguished from more common germ cell tumors in children and also from benign epithelial neoplasms. Objectives: The purpose of our study was to report the clinical and pathological findings in young patients with these tumours in our population. Material and Methods: The present observational cross-sectional study included all subjects <21 years of age diagnosed with ovarian SCST, in Aga Khan University Hospital Histopathology Laboratory, Karachi, Pakistan, from January 1992 till July 2013. Results: Of the total of 513 SCSTs presented during the study period, 39 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were assessed. The age range was 4-250 months. Most of the tumours presented at stage-1 and an abdominal mass was the most common presenting symptom, along with menstrual disturbance. The left side ovary was slightly more affected (53.5%). Of the total, 15 were juvenile granulosa cell tumours (JGCT), 11 sclerosing stromal tumours (SST), 10 of the fibrothecomas spectrum, 2 Sertoli leydig cell tumours (SLCT) and one a sex cord tumour with annular tubules (SCTAT). Detailed immunohistochemical analyses were performed in 33 cases. Recurrence/metastasis was noted in 4/21 cases with follow-up data. Conclusions: Ovarian sex cord stromal tumours are very rare in young age in our population, and usually present at an early stage. Most common among these are juvenile granulosa cell tumours, although surprisingly sclerosing stromal tumours were also common. Clinical symptoms due to hormone secretion in premenstrual girls and menstrual disturbance in menstruating girls are common presenting features.
Vitamin D Levels in Patients with Breast Cancer: Importance of Dressing Style
Alco, Gul ; Igdem, Sefik ; Dincer, Maktav ; Ozmen, Vahit ; Saglam, Sezer ; Selamoglu, Derya ; Erdogan, Zeynep ; Ordu, Cetin ; Pilanci, Kezban Nur ; Bozdogan, Atilla ; Yenice, Sedef ; Tecimer, Coskun ; Demir, Gokhan ; Koksal, Gulistan ; Okkan, Sait ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1357~1362
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1357
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a potentially modifiable risk factor that may be targeted for breast cancer (BC) prevention. It may also be related to prognosis after diagnosis and treatment. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency as measured by serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) levels in patients with BC and to evaluate its correlations with life-style and treatments. Materials and Methods: This study included 186 patients with stage 0-III BC treated in our breast center between 2010-2013. The correlation between serum baseline 25-OHD levels and supplement usage, age, menopausal status, diabetes mellitus, usage of bisphosphonates, body-mass index (BMI), season, dressing style, administration of systemic treatments and radiotherapy were investigated. The distribution of serum 25-OHD levels was categorized as deficient (<10ng/ml), insufficient (10-24 ng/ml), and sufficient (25-80 ng/ml). Results: The median age of the patients was 51 years (range: 27-79 years) and 70% of them had deficient/insufficient 25-OHD levels. On univariate analysis, vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was more common in patients with none or low dose vitamin D supplementation at the baseline, high BMI (
), no bisphosphonate usage, and a conservative dressing style. On multivariate analysis, none or low dose vitamin D supplementation, and decreased sun-exposure due to a conservative dressing style were found as independent factors increasing risk of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency 28.7 (p=0.002) and 13.4 (p=0.003) fold, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of serum 25-OHD deficiency/insufficiency is high in our BC survivors. Vitamin D status should be routinely evaluated for all women, especially those with a conservative dressing style, as part of regular preventive care, and they should take supplemental vitamin D.
Clinical Significance of Detecting Lymphatic and Blood Vessel Invasion in Stage II Colon Cancer Using Markers D2-40 and CD34 in Combination
Lai, Jin-Huo ; Zhou, Yong-Jian ; Bin, Du ; Qiangchen, Qiangchen ; Wang, Shao-Yuan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1363~1367
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1363
This research was conducted to compare differences in colon cancer lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) with D2-40 antibody labeling and regular HE staining, blood vessel invasion (BVI) with CD34 antibody labeling and HE staining and to assess the possibility of using D2-40-LVI/CD34-BVI in combination for predicting stage II colon cancer prognosis and guiding adjuvant chemotherapy.Anti-D2-40 and anti-CD34 antibodies were applied to tissue samples of 220 cases of stage II colon cancer to label lymphatic vessels and small blood vessels, respectively. LVI and BVI were assessed and multivariate COX regression analysis was performed for associations with colon cancer prognosis. Regular HE staining proved unable to differentiate lymphatic vessels from blood vessels, while D2-40 selectively labeled lymphatic endothelial cell cytosol and CD34 was widely expressed in large and small blood vessels of tumors as well as normal tissues. Compared to regular HE staining, D2-40-labeling for LVI and CD34-labeling for BVI significantly increased positive rate (22.3% vs 10.0% for LVI, and 19.1% vs 9.1% for BVI). Multivariate analysis indicated that TNM stage, pathology tissue type, post-surgery adjuvant chemotherapy, D2-40-LVI, and CD34-BVI were independent factors affecting whole group colon cancer prognosis, while HE staining-BVI, HE staining-LVI were not significantly related. When CD34-BVI/D2-40-LVI were used in combination for detection, the risk of death for patients with two or one positive results was 5.003 times that in the LVI(-)&BVI(-) group (95% CI 2.365 - 9.679). D2-40 antibody LVI labeling and CD34 antibody BVI labeling have higher specificity and accuracy than regular HE staining and can be used as molecular biological indicators for prognosis prediction and guidance of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer.
Pre-treatment Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis are Useful Prognostic Factors for Esophageal Squamous Cell Cancer Patients
Li, Yi-Min ; Lin, Qin ; Zhao, Long ; Wang, Li-Chen ; Sun, Long ; Dai, Ming-Ming ; Luo, Zuo-Ming ; Zheng, Hua ; Wu, Hua ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1369~1373
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1369
Objectives: To study application of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) with
-FDG PET/CT for predicting prognosis of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESC) patients. Methods: Eighty-six patients with ESC staged from I to IV were prospectively enrolled. Cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) or palliative chemoradiotherapy were the main treatment methods and none received surgery.
-FDG PET/CT scans were performed before the treatment. SUVmax, MTV, and TLG were measured for the primary esophageal lesion and regional lymph nodes. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs) were generated to calculate the P value of the predictive ability and the optimal threshold. Results: MTV and TLG proved to be good indexes in the prediction of outcome for the ESC patients. An MTV value of 15.6 ml and a TLG value of 183.5 were optimal threshold to predict the overall survival (OS). The areas under the curve (AUC) for MTV and TLG were 0.74 and 0.70, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed an MTV less than 15.6 ml and a TLG less than 183.5 to indicate good media survival time (p value <0.05). In the stage III-IV patient group, MTV could better predict the OS (P < 0.001), with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.80 and 0.67, respectively. Conclusions: Pre-treatment MTV and TLG are useful prognostic factors in nonsurgical ESC.
Clinicopathological and p53 Gene Alteration Comparison between Young and Older Patients with Gastric Cancer
Karim, Sajjad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1375~1379
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1375
Background: Differences in clinicopathological characteristics of gastric cancer (GC) between young and older patients are controversial and a matter of debate. Determining the statistical significance of clinicopathological information with respect to age might provide clues for better management and treatment ofGC. Materials and Methods: A total ofl03 Indiao GC patients were enrolled for study and specimens were classified according to the AjCC-TNM system. Patients were grouped into two age-wise categories, young patients (<40 years; n=13) and older patients (
years, n=90). The clinicopathological features of both groups were retrospectively examined and compared. p53 alterations were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism and immunohistochemistry methods at gene and protein levels respectively. The cases were considered p53 over-expressed if it was present in more than 25% of the tumor cells and p53 alterations was correlated with the clinicopathological characteristics of the patients as well as etiological factors for GC in both groups. Results: We found significant association of young patients with cancer stage (p=0.01), and very strong association with histology grade (p=0.064) and poorly differentiated (p=0.051) state of GC. However, neither young nor elderly patients showed associations with location, gender, etiological factors and p53 expression and alteration. Overall the male-to-female ratio of GC patients was 3.12 and the value was higher in the young (5.5) than in the older group (2.91). Conclusions: Clinicopathological features of GC like caocer stage, cell differentiation and histological grades were significantly different among young and old age cohorts. We observed a male predominance among the young group that decreased significantly with advancing age. More awareness of GC onset is required to detect cancer at an early stage for successful treatment.
Higher Ki67 Expression is Associates With Unfavorable Prognostic Factors and Shorter Survival in Breast Cancer
Kilickap, Saadettin ; Kaya, Yalcin ; Yucel, Birsen ; Tuncer, Ersin ; Babacan, Nalan Akgul ; Elagoz, Sahande ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1381~1385
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1381
Background: The prognostic value of the Ki67 expression level is yet unclear in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Ki67 expression levels and prognostic factors such as grade, Her2 and hormone receptor expression status in breast cancers. Materials and Methods: Clinical and pathological features of the patients with breast cancer were retreived from the hospital records. Results: In this study, 163 patients with breast cancer were analyzed, with a mean age of
years. Median Ki67 positivity was 20% and Ki67-high tumors were significantly associated with high grade (p<0.001), lymphovascular invasion (p=0.001), estrogen receptor (ER) negativity (p=0.035), Her2 positivity (p=0.001), advanced stage (p<0.001) and lymph node positivity (p<0.003). Lower Ki67 levels were significantly associated with longer median relapse-free and overall survival compared to those of higher Ki67 levels. Conclusions: High Ki67 expression is associated with ER negativity, Her2 positivity, higher grade and axillary lymph node involvement in breast cancers. The level of Ki67 expression is a prognostic factor predicting relapse-free and overall survival in breast cancer patients.
Trends in Incidence of Breast Cancer among Women under 40 in Asia
Keramatinia, Aliasghar ; Mousavi-Jarrahi, Seyed-Houssein ; Hiteh, Mohsen ; Mosavi-Jarrahi, Alireza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1387~1390
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1387
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in incidence of breast cancer in women less than 40 years in Asia. Materials and Methods: Registered cases of female breast cancer age less than 40 years and corresponding person years were ascertained from the CI5plus for 10 registries in Asia for the duration of 1970- 2002. Cases were categorized into three age groups: 16-40, 16-29, and 30-40. The 16-40 age group was adjusted to world age population structure. Joinpoint regression analysis was conducted to determine the annual percent of change (APC) and the average annual percent of change (AAPC) for each age group. Results: A total of 23,661 cases of breast cancer occurred in the 10 registries during the 32 years (1970-2002) of follow-up. The overall age adjusted (16-40 group) breast cancer incidence rate increased from 2.28-4.26 cases per 100,000 population corresponding to an AAPC of 2.6% (95%CI 2.1, 3.0). The trend in incidence for the age group 16-29 increased from 0.45-1.07 corresponding to an AAPC of 2.8% (95%CI 1.9, 3.7). In age group 30 to 40, the incidence ranged from 13.3 in year 1970 to 24.8 in year 2002 corresponding to an AAPC of 2.7% (95% CI 2.3, 3.1). There were two statistically significant changing points in the regression line for the age groups 30-40 and 16-40: one point in the year 1975 with an APC of 6.1 (5.1, 7.1), and the other in 1985 with an APC of 0.4% (0.01, 0.8). Conclusions: Our study proved that: 1) the incidence of breast cancer in young women has increased in Asian population during the study period; 2) the rate of increase was very high during the period of 1980-1990.
MiR-130a Overcomes Gefitinib Resistance by Targeting Met in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines
Zhou, Yong-Ming ; Liu, Juan ; Sun, Wei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1391~1396
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1391
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer and the most common cause of lung cancer death. Currently, the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor gefitinib is used for its treatment; however, drug resistance is a major obstacle. Expression of Met has been associated with both primary and acquired resistance to gefitinib, but the mechanisms regulating its expression are not fully understood. Recently, miRNAs such as miR-130a have been shown to play a role in gefitinib resistance, but importance in NSCLC and relationships with Met have not been fully explored. Here we show that miR-130a is over-expressed in gefitinibsensitive NSCLC cell lines, but is low in gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines. Moreover, miR-130a expression was negatively correlated with that of Met. Further analysis revealed that over-expression of miR-130a increased cell apoptosis and inhibited proliferation of NSCLC cells treated with gefitinib, whereas lowering the expression of miR-130a decreased cell apoptosis and promoted cell proliferation after treatment with gefitinib in both gefitinib-sensitive and -resistant NSCLC cell lines, suggesting that miR-130a overcomes gefitinib resistance. We also demonstrated that miR-130a binds to the 3'-UTR of Met and significantly suppresses its expression. Finally, our results showed that over-expressing Met could "rescue" the functions of miR-130a regarding cell apoptosis and proliferation after cells are treated with gefitinib. These findings indicate that the miR-130a/Met axis plays an important role in gefitinib resistance in NSCLC. Thus, the miR-130a/Met axis may be an effective therapeutic target in gefitinib-resistant lung cancer patients.
Expression of bcl-2 and p53 in Induction of Esophageal Cancer Cell Apoptosis by ECRG2 in Combination with Cisplatin
Song, Hai-Yan ; Deng, Xiao-Hui ; Yuan, Guo-Yan ; Hou, Xin-Fang ; Zhu, Zhen-Dong ; Zhou, Li ; Ren, Ming-Xin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1397~1401
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1397
Aim: To investigate the mechanisms of induction of apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells by esophageal cancer-related gene 2 (ECRG2) in combination with cisplatin (DDP). Methods: Hoechest staining was performed to analyze the effects of single ECRG2 and ECRG2 in combination with DDP on apoptosis of EC9706 cells. The expression levels of p53 and bcl-2 mRNA and protein were determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results: The number of apoptotic cells after the treatment with ECRG2 in combination with DDP for 24 hours was more than that after the treatment with single ECRG2. RT-PCR and Western blotting showed that the expression levels of bcl-2 mRNA and protein were both down-regulated, while p53 mRNA and protein were both up-regulated in the cells treated with ECRG2 in combination with DDP compared with those given ECRG2 alone. Conclusion: ECRG2 in combination with DDP can enhance the apoptosis of EC9706 cells, possibly by down-regulating bcl-2 expression and up-regulating p53.
Reversal of Resistance towards Cisplatin by Curcumin in Cervical Cancer Cells
Roy, Madhumita ; Mukherjee, Sutapa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1403~1410
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1403
Epigenetic regulators like histone deacetylases (1 and 2), and viral onco-proteins (E6/E7) are known to be overexpressed in cervical cancer cells. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of curcumin on HDACs (1 and 2) and HPV E6/E7 in the cervical cancer cell line SiHa and a drug resistant clone
(derived from SiHa). It was further intended to investigate whether curcumin could sensitize the cells towards cisplatin induced cell killing by modulation of multi drug resistant proteins like MRP1 and Pgp1. Curcumin inhibited HDACs, HPV expression and differentially increased acetylation and up-regulation of p53 in SiHa and
, leading to cell cycle arrest at G1-S phase. Up-regulation of pRb, p21, p27 and corresponding inhibition of cyclin D1 and CDK4 were observed. Cisplatin resistance in
due to over-expression of MRP1 and Pgp1 was overcome by curcumin. Curcumin also sensitized both the cervical cancer cells towards cisplatin induced cell killing. Inhibition of HDACs and HPVs led to cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase by alteration of cell cycle regulatory proteins. Suppression of MRP1 and Pgp1 by curcumin resulted in sensitization of cervical cancer cells, lowering the chemotherapeutic dose of the drug cisplatin.
Hepatitis B and C Seroprevalence in Solid Tumors - Necessity for Screening During Chemotherapy
Oguz, Arzu ; Aykas, Fatma ; Unal, Dilek ; Karahan, Samet ; Uslu, Emine ; Basak, Mustafa ; Karaman, Ahmet ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1411~1414
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1411
Background: Hepatitis B and C are the leading causes of liver diseases worldwide. For hematological and solid malignancy patients undergoing chemotherapy, increases in HBV DNA and HCV RNA levels can be detected which may result in reactivation and hepatitis-related morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Hbs ag and Anti HCV positivity in patients with solid malignancies undergoing chemotherapy and consequences during follow-up. Materials and Methods: The files of 914 patients with solid malignancies whose hepatitis markers were determined serologically at diagnosis were reviewed retrospectively. All underwent adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy. For the cases with HBV and/or HCV positivity, HBV DNA and HCV RNA levels, liver function tests at diagnosis and during follow-up and the treatment modalities that were chosen were determined. Results: Of 914 cases, Hbs Ag, anti Hbs and anti HCV positivity were detected in 40 (4.4%), 336 (36.8%) and 26 (2.8%) of the cases respectively. All of the Hbs ag positive patients received prophylactic lamuvidine before the start of chemotherapy. In the Hbs ag and anti HCV positive cases, liver failure was not detected during chemotherapy and a delay in chemotherapy courses because of hepatitis was not encountered. Conclusions: Just as with hematological malignancies, screening for HBV and HCV should also be considered for patients with solid tumors undergoing chemotherapy. Prophylactic antiviral therapy for HBV reduces both the reactivation rates and HBV related mortality and morbidity. The clinical impact of HCV infection on patients undergoing chemotherapy is still not well characterized.
ABO Blood Groups in Oral Cancer: A First Case-Control Study in a Defined Group of Iranian Patients
Mortazavi, Hamed ; Hajian, Shima ; Fadavi, Elnaz ; Sabour, Siamak ; Baharvand, Maryam ; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1415~1418
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1415
The ABO blood group has been recently proposed to influence development of oral cancer. The aim ofthis study was to evaluate the association between the type of ABO blood group and oral cancer. In a case-control study, 104 patients with oral cancer were compared with 90 blood donors without cancer as controls. Data regarding the patient demographics, blood groups, Rh status, cancer characteristics and oral habits were also compared between two subgroups of squamous and non-squamous oral cancers. For statistical analysis, Chi-square test, t-student Test and Logistic Regression were used to analyze the relationship between ABO blood groups and oral cancer. The frequency of blood group B was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than controls (32% vs 13%) (p value=0.01), but Rh factor did not show significant difference between cases and controls. According to Logistic Regression, people with blood group B and those older than 50 had 3.5 and 19.4 times elevated risk of developing oral cancer, respectively. The frequency of squamous cell cancer was also significantly higher in men and people older than 50. On the other hand, females, people under 50, and those with blood group B were at 5.6, 2.9 and 4.3 times higher risk of developing non-squamous cell oral cancer,respectively. People with blood group B are at a greater risk of developing oral cancer, and female patients under 50 years of age with blood group B have the highest risk to develop non-squamous cell oral cancer.
Esophageal/Gastric Cancer Screening in High-risk Populations in Henan Province, China
Lu, Yu-Fei ; Liu, Zhi-Cai ; Li, Zhong-Hong ; Ma, Wen-Hao ; Wang, Fu-Rang ; Zhang, Ya-Bing ; Lu, Jian-Bang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1419~1422
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1419
Objective: To summarize the endoscopic screening findings in high-risk population of esophageal and gastric carcinoma and analyze influential factors related to screening. Methods: In seven selected cities and counties with high incidences of esophageal carcinoma, people at age of 40-69 were set as the target population. Those with gastroscopy contradictions were excluded, and all who were voluntary and willing to comply with the medical requirements were subjected to endoscopic screening and histological examination for esophageal, gastric cardia and gastric carcinoma in accordance with national technical manual for early detection and treatment of cancer. Results: In three years, 36,154 people were screened, and 16,847 (46.60%) cases were found to have precancerous lesions. A total of 875 cases were found to have cancers (2.42%), and among them 739 cases had early stage with an early diagnosis rate is 84.5%. Some 715 patients underwent prompt treatment and the success rate was 81.8%. Conclusions: In a high-risk population of esophageal and gastric carcinoma, it is feasible to implement early detection and treatment by endoscopic screening. Screening can identify potential invasive carcinoma, early stage carcinoma and precancerous lesions, improving efficacy through early detection and treatment. The exploratory analysis of related influential factors will help broad implementation of early detection and treatment for esophageal and gastric carcinoma.
Iso-suillin Isolated from Suillus luteus, Induces G
Phase Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Hepatoma SMMC-7721 Cells
Jia, Zhi-Qiang ; Chen, Ying ; Yan, Yong-Xin ; Zhao, Jun-Xia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1423~1428
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1423
Iso-suillin, a natural product isolated from Suillus luteus, has been shown to inhibit the growth of some cancer cell lines. However, the molecular mechanisms of action of this compound are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate how iso-suillin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in a human hepatoma cell line (SMMC-7721). We demonstrated the effects of iso-suillin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells, with no apparent toxicity in normal human lymphocytes, using colony formation assays and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) analysis. Western blotting was used to examine the expression of
phase-regulated and apoptosis-associated protein levels in iso-suillin treated SMMC-7721 cells. The results indicated that iso-suillin significantly decreased viability, induced
phase arrest and triggered apoptosis in SMMC-7721cells. Taken together, these results suggest the potential of iso-suillin as a candidate for liver cancer treatment.
Goseki Grade and Tumour Location Influence Survival of Patients with Gastric Cancer
Calik, Muhammet ; Calik, Ilknur ; Demirci, Elif ; Altun, Eren ; Gundogdu, Betul ; Sipal, Sare ; Gundogdu, Cemal ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1429~1434
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1429
Background: Owing to the variability of histopathological features and biological behaviour in gastric carcinoma, a great number of categorisation methods such as classical histopathologic grading, Lauren classification, the TNM staging system and the newly presented Goseki grading method are used by pathologists and other scientists. In our study, we aimed to investigate whether Goseki grade and tumour location have an effects on survival of gastric cancer cases. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four patients with gastric adenocarcinoma were covered in the investigation. The importance of Goseki grading system and tumour location were analysed in addition to the TNM staging and other conventional prognostic parameters. Results: The median survival time in our patients was 35 months (minimum: 5, maximum: 116). According to our findings, there was no relation between survival and tumour size (p=0.192) or classical histological type (p=0.270). In contrast, the Goseki grade and tumour location significantly correlated with survival (p=0.007 and p<0.001, respectively). Additionally, tumours of the intestinal type had a longer median survival time (60.0 months) than diffuse tumours (24.0 months). Conclusions: In addition to the TNM staging system, tumour location and the Goseki grading system may be used as significant prognostic parameters in patients with gastric cancer.
Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Self-Assessed Support Needs Questionnaire for Breast Cancer Cases
Ghaffari, Fatemeh ; Shali, Mahboobeh ; Shoghi, Mahnaz ; Joolaee, Soodabeh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1435~1440
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1435
Background: It has been found that support given to women with breast cancer has a positive effect upon their reactions to the illness and may even prolong their survival. Perceived support needs assessment in breast cancer women could be considered as a necessary part of nursing function. Aim: The purpose of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the self-assessed support needs (SASN) questionnaire into Persian language and to investigate its psychometric properties. Materials and Methods: After forward-backward translation of the questionnaire and making appropriate changes, we selected 160 women with breast cancer as our study sample. The psychometric properties of the SASN, including its internal consistency, test retest reliability, and construct validity were evaluated through the known-groups technique. Results: The calculated Kaiser Meyer Olkin was 0.756, indicating that the sample was sufficiently large to perform a satisfactory factor analysis. The six factors all together explained 50.7% of the variance; the first factor (diagnosing) explaining the biggest part of variance (10.9). Internal consistency reliability was 0.83 for the whole scale and the stability of test was 0.78. For the first factor, Cronbach's alpha was 0.90 and factor loadings of scale's items were found to deal with diagnosis subscale. The domains described patients' diagnosis, treatment, support, femininity and body image, family and friends and information. Conclusions: The reliability and validity of the adapted version of the SASN was shown to be satisfactory. Thus, it can be used to investigate self-assessed support needs of Iranian women suffering from breast cancer since the SASN is a multi-domain scale.
EphB1 and Ephrin-B, New Potential Biomarkers for Squamous Cell/adenosquamous Carcinomas and Adenocarcinomas of the Gallbladder
Yuan, Yuan ; Yang, Zhu-Lin ; Miao, Xiong-Ying ; Liu, Zi-Ru ; Li, Dai-Qiang ; Zou, Qiong ; Li, Jing-He ; Liang, Lu-Feng ; Zeng, Gui-Xiang ; Chen, Sen-Lin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1441~1446
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1441
Squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinoma (SC/ASC) of the gallbladder are rare tumors and there are few clinical reports in the literature. Herein we report our clinical experience with 46 patients with SC/ASC and 80 with adenocarcinoma (AC). Expression of EphB1 and Ephrin-B in each tumor was determined using immunohistochemical methods for determination of correlations with prognosis. There was no difference in EphB1 and Ephrin-B expression between SC/ASC and AC tumors (P>0.05), but greater expression in those less than 3 cm in diameter, stage I or II (TNM stage), with no lymph node metastases, with no local invasion and treated with radical resection was apparent. Expression of EphB1 (P<0.05) and Ephrin-B (P<0.01) was higher in well differentiated than in poorly differentiated AC tumors. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that degree of differentiation, tumor diameter, lymph node metastases, local invasion, surgical approach and expression rate of EphB1 and Ephrin-B were closely related to the survival of SC/ASC (P<0.05) and AC patients (P<0.01). Patients with tumors that positive expressed EphB1 and Ephrin-B, whether it is SC/ASC (
=0.000) or AC (
=0.002) had longer survival than those negative expression. Cox multivariate analysis indicated a negative correlation between expression of EphB1 or Ephrin-B and overall survival. Hence, EphB1 and Ephrin-B could be regarded as independent good prognostic factorsand important biological markers for SC/ASC and AC of gallbladder.
Association between the Metabolic Syndrome and High Tumor Grade and Stage of Primary Urothelial Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder
Ozbek, Emin ; Otunctemur, Alper ; Dursun, Murat ; Koklu, Ismail ; Sahin, Suleyman ; Besiroglu, Huseyin ; Erkoc, Mustafa ; Danis, Eyyup ; Bozkurt, Muammer ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1447~1451
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1447
Purpose: To compare histopathologic findings of patients who underwent transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TUR-B) between groups with and without the metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data of 535 patients who underwent TUR-B in our department between October 2005 and March 2011. All patients had primary urethelial cell carcinoma (UCB). Histologic stage, grade, the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, HDL and trigliseride levels were evaluated. The TNM classification was used, with Ta tumor accepted as lower stage and T1 and T2 tumors as higher stage bladder cancers. Also, the pathological grading adopted by the 2004 World Health Organization grading system were applied. Non-invasive papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential were regarded as low grade. Results: Among the total of 509 patients analyzed in our study, there were 439 males (86.2%) and 70 females (13.8%). Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with high histologic grade, and high pathologic stage (p<0.001). Conclusions: The patients with metabolic syndrome were found to have statistically significant higher T stage and grade of bladder cancer. Further studies with more patients are needed to confirm our study.
Detection of Human Cytomegalovirus in patients with Colorectal Cancer by Nested-PCR
Tafvizi, Farzaneh ; Fard, Zahra Tahmasebi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1453~1457
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1453
Background: The association of colorectal cancer with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a controversial issue in cancer research. This study aimed to identify the HCMV virus in colorectal cancer tissues and to investigate the association of HCMV with colorectal cancer. In this study, 50 cancer tissue samples and 50 samples without colon cancer were studied in order to identify the HCMV virus through nested-polymerase chain reaction. The virus was identified in 15 cases of colorectal cancer tissues (15/50) and in 5 cases of normal tissues (5/50). Eight cases of adenocarcinoma tissues were in a moderately differentiated stage, and 7 cases had well-differentiated stage tissues that were positive for viral DNA. The findings were statistically evaluated at a significance level of p<0.05. The HCMV virus could playa role in creating malignancy and the progress of cancer through the process of oncomodulation.
Difference in the Incidences of the Most Prevalent Urologic Cancers from 2003 to 2009 in Iran
Basiri, Abbas ; Shakhssalim, Nasser ; Jalaly, Niloofar Yahyapour ; Miri, Hamid Heidarian ; Partovipour, Elham ; Panahi, Mohammad Hossein ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1459~1463
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1459
Background: Urological cancers represent a major public problem associated with high mortality and morbidity. The pattern of these cancers varies markedly according to era, region and ethnic groups, but increasing incidence trends overall makes focused epidemiological studies important. The aim of the present study was to assess the incidence of most prevalent urological cancers in Iran from 2003 to 2009. Materials and Methods: The data for this study were obtained from the population-based Cancer Registry Center of the Iran Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Differences of mean age and age distributions of each cancer were compared between 2003 and 2009 in men and women. Results: Bladder cancer was the most common urologic cancer in both genders. The rate difference of age standardized ratio (ASR) of bladder and renal cell carcinoma in women were 1.54 and 2.01 percent per 100,000 population from 2003 to the 2009, respectively. In men, the rate difference of age standardized ratio of prostate, testis, kidney and bladder cancer was also 2.23, 1.2, 1.8 and 1.5 percent per 100,000 population from 2003 to 2009, respectively. The mean ages of patients in all cancers in both genders did not differ significantly through time (p value>0.05) but the distribution of ages of patients with bladder and prostate cancer changed significantly from 2003 to 2009 (p value<0.001). Conclusions: The results of present study suggest the general pattern and incidence of urological cancers in Iran are changing, the observed increase pointing to a need for urological cancer screening programs.
Curcumin Inhibits Expression of Inhibitor of DNA Binding 1 in PC3 Cells and Xenografts
Yu, Xiao-Ling ; Jing, Tao ; Zhao, Hui ; Li, Pei-Jie ; Xu, Wen-Hua ; Shang, Fang-Fang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1465~1470
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1465
Inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (Id1) plays an important role in genesis and metastatic progression of prostate cancer. We previously reported that down regulation of Id1 by small interfering RNA could inhibit the proliferation of PC3 cells and growth of its xenografted tumors. Curcumin, the active ingredient of turmeric, has shown anti-cancer properties via modulation of a number of different molecular regulators. Here we investigated whether Id1 might be involved in the anti-cancer effects of curcumin in vivo and in vitro. We firstly confirmed that curcumin inhibited cell viability in a dose-dependent fashion, and induced apoptosis in PC3 cells, associated with significant decrease in the mRNA and protein expression of Id1. Similar effects of curcumin were observed in tumors of the PC3 xenografted mouse model with introperitoneal injection of curcumin once a day for one month. Tumor growth in mice was obviously suppressed by curcumin during the period of 24 to 30 days. Both mRNA and protein levels of Id1 were significantly down-regulated in xenografted tumors. Our findings point to a novel molecular pathway for curcumin anti-cancer effects. Curcumin may be used as an Id1 inhibitor to modulate Id1 expression.
Epidemiological Patterns of Cancer Incidence in Southern China: Based on 6 Population-based Cancer Registries
Liu, Jie ; Yang, Xu-Li ; Li, Ai ; Chen, Wan-Qing ; Ji, Lu ; Zhao, Jun ; Yan, Wei ; Chen, Yi-Ying ; Zhu, Li-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1471~1475
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1471
Background: The epidemiological patterns of cancer incidence have been investigated widely in western countries. Nevertheless, information is quite limited in Jiangxi province, southern China. Materials and Methods: All data were reported by 6 population-based cancer registries in Jiangxi Province. The results were presented as incidence rates of cases by site (ICD-10), sex, crude rate (CR), age-standardized rates (ASRs) and truncated incidence rate (TR) per 100,000 person-years, using the direct method of standardization to the world population. Results: 8,765 new cancer cases were registered in our study during the period 2009-2011. Diagnosis of cancer was based on histopathology in 61.0%, clinical or radiology findings in 4.87% and death certificate only (DCO) in 3.0% of the cases. The median age at diagnosis was 62.0 years (mean, 61; standard deviation, 15). The ASRs were 170.8 per 100,000 for men and 111.2 for women. The ASRs for all invasive cancers from the urban areas (145.7 per 100,000) was higher than that of rural areas (137.1). Incidence rates for lung cancer were higher in rural (35.8) than in urban areas (27.0). Similarly, relatively high rates were observed for stomach cancer in rural (20.1) relative to urban areas (15.5). Conclusions: Our results reveal that the most common cancers were breast and lung in women and lung and liver in men. Interestingly, this study suggested a higher incidence rates for lung and stomach cancer in rural males than in urban population, which may suggest other potential causes, such as over-consumption of smoked meats and high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection, respectively. Public education and the promotion of healthy lifestyles should be actively carried out.
Female Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Mexico, 2000-2010
Anaya-Ruiz, Maricruz ; Vallejo-Ruiz, Veronica ; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian ; Perez-Santos, Martin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1477~1479
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1477
The objective of this study was to investigate the recent incidence and mortality trends for breast cancer in Mexican females. Data between 2000 and 2010 from the Department of Epidemiology of the Ministry of Health, and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) were analyzed. Age-standardized rates (ASRs) and annual percent changes (APCs) were calculated. The absolute incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer increased: 3,726 and 4,615 in 2000 to 8,545 and 4,966 in 2010, respectively. Incidence increased over time in all age groups tested, the 60-64 age group had the highest ASR (57.4 per 100,000 women in 2010), while the 20-44 age group had the lowest ASR (12.3 in 2010). The results show that incidence of breast cancer has increased in Mexico during last one decade, especially among older women, while the downturn observed in mortality mainly reflects improved survival as a result of earlier diagnosis and better cancer treatment.
A Breast Cancer Nomogram for Prediction of Non-Sentinel Node Metastasis - Validation of Fourteen Existing Models
Koca, Bulent ; Kuru, Bekir ; Ozen, Necati ; Yoruker, Savas ; Bek, Yuksel ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1481~1488
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1481
Background: To avoid performing axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for non-sentinel lymph node (SLN)-negative patients with-SLN positive axilla, nomograms for predicting the status have been developed in many centers. We created a new nomogram predicting non-SLN metastasis in SLN-positive patients with invasive breast cancer and evaluated 14 existing breast cancer models in our patient group. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and thirty seven invasive breast cancer patients with SLN metastases who underwent ALND were included in the study. Based on independent predictive factors for non-SLN metastasis identified by logistic regression analysis, we developed a new nomogram. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for the models were created and the areas under the curves (AUC) were computed. Results: In a multivariate analysis, tumor size, presence of lymphovascular invasion, extranodal extension of SLN, large size of metastatic SLN, the number of negative SLNs, and multifocality were found to be independent predictive factors for non-SLN metastasis. The AUC was found to be 0.87, and calibration was good for the present Ondokuz Mayis nomogram. Among the 14 validated models, the MSKCC, Stanford, Turkish, MD Anderson, MOU (Masaryk), Ljubljana, and DEU models yielded excellent AUC values of > 0.80. Conclusions: We present a new model to predict the likelihood of non-SLN metastasis. Each clinic should determine and use the most suitable nomogram or should create their own nomograms for the prediction of non- SLN metastasis.
Differential Wnt11 Expression Related to Wnt5a in High- and Low-grade Serous Ovarian Cancer: Implications for Migration, Adhesion and Survival
Jannesari-Ladani, Farnaz ; Hossein, Ghamartaj ; Izadi-Mood, Narges ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1489~1495
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1489
Wnt is a powerful signaling pathway that plays a crucial role in cell fate determination, survival, proliferation and motility during development, in adult tissues and cancer. The aims of the present study were three fold: i) to assess Wnt11 immunoexpression and its possible relationship with Wnt5a in high- and low-grade human serous ovarian cancer (HGSC and LGSC) specimens; ii) to assess Wnt11 expression levels in Wnt5a overexpressing SKOV-3 cells; iii) to reveal the role of Wnt11 in viability, adhesion, migration and invasion of SKOV-3 cells using recombinant human Wnt11 (rhWnt11). Immunohistochemistry revealed a significant difference in Wnt11 expression between HGSC and LGSC groups (p=0.001). Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between Wnt5a and Wnt11 expression in the HGSC (r=0.713, p=0.001), but not the LGSC group. The expression of Wnt11 was decreased by 35% in Wnt5a overexpressing cells (SKOV-3/Wnt5a) compared to mock controls. Similarly Wnt11 expression levels were decreased by 47% in the presence of exogenous Wnt5a compared to untreated cells. In the presence of rhWnt11, 31% increased cell viability (p<0.001) and 21% increased cell adhesion to matrigel (p<0.01) were observed compared to control. Cell migration was increased by 1.6-fold with rhWnt11 as revealed by transwell migration assay (p<0.001). However, 45% decreased cell invasion was observed in the presence of rhWnt11 compared to control (p<0.01). Our results may suggest that differential Wnt11 immunoexpression in HGSC compared to LGSC could play important roles in serous ovarian cancer progression and may be modulated by Wnt5a expression levels.
Lack of Significant Effects of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection on Cervical Cancer Risk in a Nested Case-Control Study in North-East Thailand
Tungsrithong, Naowarat ; Kasinpila, Chananya ; Maneenin, Chanwit ; Namujju, Proscovia B. ; Lehtinen, Matti ; Anttila, Ahti ; Promthet, Supannee ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1497~1500
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1497
Cervical cancer continues to be an important public health problem in Thailand. While the high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types have been established as the principle causative agent of both malignancies and the precursor lesions, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), other factors may also be involved like other sexually transmitted diseases, as well as smoking. Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular Gramnegative bacterium which has a tendency to cause chronic infection featuring inflammation and therefore might be expected to increase the risk of cervical cancer. In the present nested case-control study, 61 cases of cervical cancer and 288 matched controls with original serum samples were identified from the Khon Kaen Cohort, established in the North-East of Thailand, by linkage to the Khon Kaen population based cancer registry. C. trachomatis specific IgG antibodies at recruitment were measured by microimmunofluorescence and assessed for association with cervical cancer using STATA release10. No significant link was noted either with all cancers or after removal of adenocarcinomas. The results suggest no association between Chlamydia infection and cervical cancer development in North-East Thailand, but possible influencing factors must be considered in any future research on this topic.
Natural Pro-oxidants: an Alternative Remedy to Explore as Novel Cancer Therapeutic Agents
Jothy, Subramanion Lachumy ; Oon, Chern Ein ; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 15, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1501~1501
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1501