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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 17 - Dec 2015
Volume 16, Issue 16 - Nov 2015
Volume 16, Issue 15 - Oct 2015
Volume 16, Issue 14 - Sep 2015
Volume 16, Issue 13 - Aug 2015
Volume 16, Issue 12 - Jul 2015
Volume 16, Issue 11 - Jun 2015
Volume 16, Issue 10 - Jun 2015
Volume 16, Issue 9 - May 2015
Volume 16, Issue 8 - Apr 2015
Volume 16, Issue 7 - Apr 2015
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Apr 2015
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Mar 2015
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Mar 2015
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Volume 15, Issue 24 - Jan 2015
Volume 15, Issue 23 - Jan 2015
Selecting the target year
Roundtable Discussion at the UICC World Cancer Congress: Looking Toward the Realization of Universal Health Coverage for Cancer in Asia
Akaza, Hideyuki ; Kawahara, Norie ; Nozaki, Shinjiro ; Sonoda, Shigeto ; Fukuda, Takashi ; Cazap, Eduardo ; Trimble, Edward L. ; Roh, Jae Kyung ; Hao, Xishan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.1
The Japan National Committee for the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) and UICC-Asia Regional Office (ARO) organized a Roundtable Discussion as part of the official program of the UICC World Cancer Congress 2014 in Melbourne, Australia. The theme for the Roundtable Discussion was "Looking Toward the Realization of Universal Health Care 'UHC' for Cancer in Asia" and it was held on December 5, 2014. The meeting was held based on the recognition that although each country may take a different path towards the realization of UHC, one point that is common to all is that cancer is projected to be the most difficult disease to address under the goals of UHC and that there is, therefore, an urgent and pressing need to come to a common understanding and awareness with regard to UHC concepts that are a priority component of a post-MDG development agenda. The presenters and participants addressed the issue of UHC for cancer in Asia from their various perspectives in academia and international organizations. Discussions covered the challenges to UHC in Asia, collaborative approaches by international organizations, the need for uniform and relevant data, ways to create an Asia Cancer Barometer that could be applied to all countries in Asia. The session concluded with the recognition that research on UHC in Asia should continue to be used as a tool for cancer cooperation in Asia and that the achievement of UHC would require research and input not only from the medical community, but from a broad sector of society in a multidisciplinary approach. Discussions on this issue will continue towards the Asia-Pacific Cancer Conference in Indonesia in August 2015.
Mechanisms of Cadmium Carcinogenicity in the Gastrointestinal Tract
Bishak, Yaser Khaje ; Payahoo, Laleh ; Osatdrahimi, Alireza ; Nourazarian, Alireza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 9~21
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.9
Cancer, a serious public health problem in worldwide, results from an excessive and uncontrolled proliferation of the body cells without obvious physiological demands of organs. The gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach and intestine, is a unique organ system. It has the highest cancer incidence and cancer-related mortality in the body and is influenceed by both genetic and environmental factors. Among the various chemical elements recognized in the nature, some of them including zinc, iron, cobalt, and copper have essential roles in the various biochemical and physiological processes, but only at low levels and others such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and nickel are considered as threats for human health especially with chronic exposure at high levels. Cadmium, an environment contaminant, cannot be destroyed in nature. Through impairment of vitamin D metabolism in the kidney it causes nephrotoxicity and subsequently bone metabolism impairment and fragility. The major mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis could be related to the suppression of gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, inhibition of apoptosis, and induction of oxidative stress. In addition, cadmium may act through aberrant DNA methylation. Cadmium affects multiple cellular processes, including signal transduction pathways, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Down-regulation of methyltransferases enzymes and reduction of DNA methylation have been stated as epigenetic effects of cadmium. Furthermore, increasing intracellular free calcium ion levels induces neuronal apoptosis in addition to other deleterious influence on the stability of the genome.
FoxM1 as a Novel Therapeutic Target for Cancer Drug Therapy
Xu, Xin-Sen ; Miao, Run-Chen ; Wan, Yong ; Zhang, Ling-Qiang ; Qu, Kai ; Liu, Chang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 23~29
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.23
Background: Current cancer therapy mainly focuses on identifying novel targets crucial for tumorigenesis. The FoxM1 is of preference as an anticancer target, due to its significance in execution of mitosis, cell cycle progression, as well as other signal pathways leading to tumorigenesis. FoxM1 is partially regulated by oncoproteins or tumor suppressors, which are often mutated, lost, or overexpressed in human cancer. Since sustaining proliferating signaling is an important hallmark of cancer, FoxM1 is overexpressed in a series of human malignancies. Alarge-scale gene expression analysis also identified FoxM1 as a differentially-expressed gene in most solid tumors. Furthermore, overexpressed FoxM1 is correlated with the prognosis of cancer patients, as verified in a series of malignancies by Cox regression analysis. Thus, extensive studies have been conducted to explore the roles of FoxM1 in tumorigenesis, making it an attractive target for anticancer therapy. Several antitumor drugs have been reported to target or inhibit FoxM1 expression in different cancers, and down-regulation of FoxM1 also abrogates drug resistance in some cancer cell lines, highlighting a promising future for FoxM1 application in the clinic.
Breast Cancer Diagnosis by Mammography in Kazakhstan - Staging Results of Breast Cancer with Double Reading
Beysebayev, Eldar ; Tulebayev, Kazbek ; Meymanalyev, Tylek ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 31~34
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.31
While mammography has been used for diagnosis of breast cancer in Kazakhstan for a long period, published data are very limited. Recently stress has been placed on increasing the accuracy by double reading of mammograms. Here we provide an overview of breast cancer screening in the different regions of Kazakhstan with data on the stages of cancers detected. A total 459,816 women aged 50, 52, 54, 56, 58 and 60 years were screened in 2012 and 379,903 in the first 9 months of 2013. Clear differences in levels of detection were noted between urban and rural residents, the latter demonstrating lower rates for both screening and cancer detection. Women aged 50 were more likely to undergo screening than their counterparts aged 60. While there were no clear relationships evident between screening rates and stage or numbers of breast cancers observed, this might be due to a number of complicating factors like geographical variation in risk factors as well as ethnicity. Future analyses should focus on the efficacy of mammography in Kazakhstan to reduce mortality.
Characteristics of Liver Cancer at Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Narin, Piseth ; Hamajima, Nobuyuki ; Kouy, Samnang ; Hirosawa, Tomoya ; Eav, Sokha ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 35~39
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.35
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent cancers in South East Asian countries including Cambodia, where prevalence of chronic carriers of hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) is reported to be very high. We reviewed HCC cases admitted to a cancer hospital in Phnom Penh, which is the only one hospital for cancer treatment and care in Cambodia during the study period. Materials and Methods: Information was collected from medical records of 281 cases (210 males and 71 females) diagnosed as primary HCC from 2006 to 2011. Results: The subjects were 7-81 years old with a median age of 53 years. Hypochondriac pain was the most common complained symptom (74%). One third of the cases presented with jaundice. Nearly half had ascites at their first visit. One third had liver cirrhosis. Nearly three fourths of the cases presented with tumor sized more than 50 mm in diameter, and in almost all cases (97.4%) the size was more than 20 mm. Among 209 subjects tested, hepatitis virus carriers were 75.6%; 46.4% for HBV only, 21.5% for HCV only, and 7.7% for both viral infections. Median age of patients with HBV was about ten years younger than those with HCV. Conclusions: This study revealed the characteristics of HCC cases in Cambodia, although there were several limitations. Most HCC cases were infected with HBV and/or HCV, and diagnosed at late stages with complications. This implicated that public health intervention to prevent HBV and HCV infection is of high priority.
Intronic Polymorphisms of the SMAD7 Gene in Association with Colorectal Cancer
Damavand, Behzad ; Derakhshani, Shaghayegh ; Saeedi, Nastaran ; Mohebbi, Seyed Reza ; Milanizadeh, Saman ; Azimzadeh, Pedram ; Aghdaie, Hamid Asadzadeh ; Zali, Mohammad Reza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 41~44
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.41
Based on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) a linkage between several variants such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in intron 3 of SMAD7 (mothers against decapentaplegic homolog7) were, rs12953717, rs4464148 and rs4939827 has been noted for susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study we investigated the relationship of rs12953717 and rs4464148 with risk of CRC among 487 Iranian individuals based on a case-control study. Genotyping of SNPs was performed by PCR-RFLP and for confirming the outcomes, 10% of genotyping cases were sequenced with RFLP. Comparing the case and control group, we have found significant association between the rs4464148 SNP and lower risk of CRC. The AG genotype showed decreased risk with and odds ratio of 0.635 (adjusted OR=0.635, 95% CI: 0.417-0.967, p=0.034). There was no significant difference in the distribution of SMAD7 gene rs12953717 TT genotype between two groups of the population evaluated (adjusted OR=1.604, 95% CI: 0.978-2.633, p=0.061). On the other hand, rs12953717 T allele showed a statistically significant association with CRC risk (adjusted OR=1.339, 95% CI: 1.017-1.764, p=0.037). In conclusion, we found a significant association between CRC risk and the rs4464148 AG genotype. Furthermore, the rs12953717 T allele may act as a risk factor. This association may be caused by alternative splicing of pre mRNA. Although we observed a strong association with rs4464148 GG genotype in affected women, we did not detect the same association in CRC male patients.
Quality of Life for Patients with Esophageal/Gastric Cardia Precursor Lesions or Cancer: A One-year Prospective Study
Wen, Ying ; Pan, Xiong-Fei ; Huang, Wen-Zhi ; Zhao, Zhi-Mei ; Wei, Wen-Qiang ; Chen, Feng ; Lan, Hui ; Huang, He ; Yang, Chun-Xia ; Qiao, You-Lin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 45~51
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.45
Background: The current study examined health-related quality of life (QoL) for patients with esophageal/gastric cardia precursor lesions or cancer before and after treatment to facilitate improved prevention and treatment. Materials and Methods: Patients with different stages of esophageal/gastric cardia lesions completed two QoL questionnaires, EORTC QLQ-C30 and supplemental QLQ-OES 18, before primary treatment, and at 1, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Results: Fifty-nine patients with precursor lesions, 57 with early stage cancer, and 43 with advanced cancer responded to our survey. Patients with precursor lesions or early stage cancer reported better QoL overall than those with advanced cancer before treatment (p<0.01). Global QoL scores before treatment and at 1 month after treatment were
(p<0.01) for three stages of lesions. At 6 months after treatment, some QoL measures recovered gradually in precursor lesion and early cancer patients, while some continuously deteriorated in advanced cancer patients. At 12 months, all QoL scores were comparable to baseline for patients with precursor lesions (p>0.01), while global QoL, social, pain, and insomnia scores for early stage and advanced cancer were inferior to corresponding baseline levels (difference between means>5, p<0.01). At this time point, compared with patients with early stage cancer, those with advanced cancer showed worse QoL with all function and most symptom measures (p<0.01). Conclusions: Patients with precursor lesions or early stage esophageal/gastric cardia cancer show better QoL than those with advanced cancer. This indicates that screening, early diagnosis and treatment may improve the QoL for esophageal/gastric cardia cancer patients. Target intervention and counseling should be given by health care providers during treatment and follow-up to facilitate QoL improvement.
Oral Glutamine Supplementation Reduces Radiotherapy-induced Esophagitis in Lung Cancer Patients
Gul, Kanyilmaz ; Muge, Akmansu ; Taner, Atasever ; Sehri, Elbag ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 53~58
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.53
Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the the efficacy of oral glutamine (GLN) in prevention of acute radiation-induced esophagitis in patients with lung cancer and determine the predictive role of clinical and dosimetric parameters. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients diagnosed with lung cancer were studied prospectively. Sixteen patients (50%) received prophylactic powdered GLN orally in doses of 10g/8h. Patients were treated 2 Gy per fraction daily, 5 days a week. We evaluated the grading of esophagitis daily at the end of each fraction of each treatment day until a cumulative dose of 50 Gy was reached. The primary end point was radiation-induced esophagitis. Results: All patients tolerated GLN well. Toxicity grade, weight loss, serum cytokine levels and esophageal transit times exhibited statistically significant improvement in the GLN receiving group. GLN suppressed the inflammation related to the disease and treatment and reduced toxicity with statistical significance. Conclusions: This study suggests a benefical role of oral GLN use in prevention and/or delay of radiation-induced esophagitis, in terms of esophageal transit time and serum immunological parameters, as well as weight loss.
Comparison of Three Different Induction Regimens for Nasopharyngeal Cancer
Kertmen, Neyran ; Aksoy, Sercan ; Cengiz, Mustafa ; Yazici, Gozde ; Keskin, Ozge ; Babacan, Taner ; Sarici, Furkan ; Akin, Serkan ; Altundag, Kadri ; Gullu, H. Ibrahim ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 59~63
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.59
Background: The standard treatment of local advanced nasopharyngeal cancer is chemoradiotherapy. There is a lack of data concerning induction therapy. In this study we retrospectively examined patients treated with induction therapy and chemoradiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer patients treated between 1996 and 2013 in our clinic were included in the study. Three different induction regimens were administered to our patients in different time periods. The regimen dosages were: CF regimen, cisplatin
1-2 days, fluorouracil
1-5 days; DC, docetaxel
1 day, cisplatin
1 day; and DCF, docetaxel
1 day, cisplatin
1 day, 5-Fu
1-5 days. Most of the patients were stage III (36.4%) and stage IV (51.7%). Results: Median follow-up time was 50 months (2-201 months). Three-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 79.3%, and 5-year PFS 72.4% in all patients. Three-year overall survival (OS) was 87.4% and 5-year OS 76% in all patients. In terms of induction therapies, 3-year OS was 96.5% in the DCF group, 86.6% in the DC group and 76.3% in the CF group (p=0.03). Conclusions: There was no significant differences in response rate and PFS between the three regimens. OS in the DCF group was significantly higher than in the other groups. However, this study was retrospective and limited toxicity data were available; the findings therefore need to be interpreted with care.
Taxane-Based Regimens as Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer: a Retrospective Study in Egyptian Cancer Patients
Azim, Hamdy Abdel ; Abdal-Kader, Yasser Salah el din ; Mousa, Mohamed Mahmoud ; Malek, Raafat Abdel ; Abdalmassih, Michael Kheir ; Ibrahim, Noha Yehia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 65~69
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.65
Background: To evaluate the impact of adding taxanes to anthracycline-based regimens in the adjuvant setting in localized young female breast cancer patients on the overall survival (OS) and the disease free survival (DFS). Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included all female breast cancer patients who were candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy presenting to Kasr Al Ainy centre of clinical oncology and Cairo oncology centre (Cairo Cure) in the period from January 2005 till December 2010. Results: Our study included 865 patients, 732 of whom received anthracycline based regimens and 133 taxane based regimens. The mean age of patients was 39 years. After a median follow up of 50 months the median DFS was 48.4 months. Survival analysis indicated that the tumor size (>5cm vs. <5cm) p=0.001), nodal involvement (Yes vs. No) p=0.0001) and pathology (invasive lobular vs. ductal) p=0.048) affected DFS. As regards hormonal status, ER, PR and HER 2neu positive patients had longer DFS (p=0.001, 0.003, 0.106). On multivariate analysis DFS was affected by tumor size and lymph node involvement (p=0.014, 0.007). Subgroup analysis showed improvement in arms treated with taxanes in terms of DFS with positive Her2neu, ER and PR, but this was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Adding adjuvant taxanes to anthracyclines is beneficial for treatment of localized breast cancer among all subgroups, especially higher risk groups. The type of adjuvant chemotherapy regimens and tumor characteristics have direct effects on DFS.
Magnesium Sulfate Induced Toxicity in Vitro in AGS Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells and in Vivo in Mouse Gastric Mucosa
Zhang, Xulong ; Bo, Agula ; Chi, Baofeng ; Xia, Yuan ; Su, Xiong ; Sun, Juan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 71~76
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.71
Magnesium sulfate is widely used as a food additive and as an orally administered medication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible cytotoxicity of magnesium sulfate on AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and gastric mucosa in mice. A trypan blue exclusion assay was used to determine the reduction in viability of AGS cells exposed to magnesium sulfate, and then effects on cell proliferation were quantified. The role of magnesium sulfate-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine production in AGS cells was also investigated. mRNA expression for IL-
, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-
was determined by RT-PCR, and secretion of these cytokines was measured by ELISA. Immunohistochemical evaluation of IL-
, IL-6, and TNF-
expression was conducted in mouse gastric mucosa. Addition of 3 to 50 mM magnesium sulfate to AGS cells inhibited both cell proliferation and cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Magnesium sulfate had little effect on production of IL-
or IL-6 but significantly inhibited production of IL-8. The animal model demonstrated that magnesium sulfate induced production of IL-
, IL-6, and TNF-
. These preliminary data suggest that magnesium sulfate had a direct effect on the stomach and initiates cytotoxicity in moderate concentrations and time periods by inhibiting viability a nd proliferation of AGS cells and by regulating expression and/or release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Is there any Potential Clinical Impact of Serum Phosphorus and Magnesium in Patients with Lung Cancer at First Diagnosis? A Multi-institutional Study
Kouloulias, Vassilis ; Tolia, Maria ; Tsoukalas, Nikolaos ; Papaloucas, Christos ; Pistevou-Gombaki, Kyriaki ; Zygogianni, Anna ; Mystakidou, Kyriaki ; Kouvaris, John ; Papaloucas, Marios ; Psyrri, Amanda ; Kyrgias, George ; Gennimata, Vasiliki ; Leventakos, Konstantinos ; Panayiotides, Ioannis ; Liakouli, Zoi ; Kelekis, Nikolaos ; Papaloucas, Aristofanis ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 77~81
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.77
Background: The aim of the study was to determine whether the expression of baseline phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) levels were prognostic in terms of stage and overall survival (OS) in newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients. Materials and Methods: Retrospectively, 130 patients were selected at the time of diagnosis oflung cancer (100 with NSCLC and 30 with SCLC), before the initialization of any chemo-radiotherapy. The median age was 67 (range 29-92). IA, IB, IIA, IIB, IIIA, IIIB and IV stages were present in 3, 4, 19, 6, 25, 8, and 65 patients, respectively. After centrifugation, the levels of serum P and Mg were measured using the nephelometric method/ photometry and evaluated before any type of treatment. Results: Higher than normal levels of P were found in 127/130 patients, while only four patients had elevated Mg serum values. In terms of Spearman test, higher P serum values correlated with either stage (rho=- 0.334, p<0.001) or OS (rho=-0.212, p=0.016). Additionally, a significant negative correlation of Mg serum levels was found with stage of disease (rho=-0.135, P=0.042). On multivariate cox-regression survival analysis, only stage (p<0.01), performance status (p<0.01) and P serum (p=0.045) showed a significant prognostic value. Conclusions: Our study indicated that pre-treatment P serum levels in lung cancer patients are higher than the normal range. Moreover, P and Mg serum levels are predictive of stage of disease. Along with stage and performance status, the P serum levels had also a significant impact on survival. This information may be important for stratifying patients to specific treatment protocols or intensifying their therapies. However, larger series are now needed to confirm our results.
Evaluation of BCL6 and MUM1 Expression in Patients with Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma and their Correlations with Staging and Prognosis in Iran
Rahimi, Hossein ; Jafarian, Amirhossein ; Samadi, Alireza ; Meamar, Bahram ; Rahmani, Shaghayegh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 83~86
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.83
Background: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common form of non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL), accounting for approximately 25% of NHL cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the BCL6 and MUM1 gene expression and patient prognosis and stage. Materials and Methods: After ethical approval, in a cross-sectional study, tissue samples of 80 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were analyzed for BCL6 and MUM1 gene expression. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with division into categories of 0-5%, 5-25%, 26-50%, 51-75% and more than 75%. Other clinical and histological information such as lymph node involvement, T-stage, B symptoms and patient outcome were also recorded. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16 and a P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The patient mean age was
for males and females, respectively). A significant association was seen between lymphoma stage and BCL6 (p=0.045) but not MUM1 expression (p=0.09). However, the latter was associated with mortality (p=0.006) as was also the BCL6 level (p=0.006). Conclusions: : Overexpression of MUM1 and BCL6 is associated with poor prognosis in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Is Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number Associated with Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis in Gastric Cancer?
Lee, Hyunsu ; Lee, Jae-Ho ; Kim, Dong-Choon ; Hwang, IlSeon ; Kang, Yu-Na ; Gwon, Gi-Jeong ; Choi, In-Jang ; Kim, Shin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 87~90
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.87
Alterations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been studied in various cancers. However, the clinical value of mtDNA copy number (mtCN) alterations in gastric cancer (GC) is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether alterations in mtCNs might be associated with clinicopathological parameters in GC cases. mtCN was measured in 109 patients with GC by quantitative real-time PCR. Then, correlations with clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. mtCN was elevated in 64.2% of GC tissues compared with paired, adjacent, non-cancerous tissue. However, the observed alterations in mtCN were not associated with any clinicopathological characteristics, including age, gender, TN stage, Lauren classification, lymph node metastasis, and depth of invasion. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that mtCN was not significantly associated with the survival of GC patients. In this study, we demonstrated that mtCN was not a significant marker for predicting clinical characteristics or prognosis in GC.
Lipopeptides Extract from Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens Induce Human Oral Squamous Cancer Cell Death
Kuo, Chen-Hui ; Lin, Yun-Wei ; Chen, Ruey-Shyang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 91~96
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.91
A lipopeptide extract of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BACY1 (BLE) was found to induce cell death in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines, SCC4 and SCC25, in this study. The results of MTT assay showed that BLE inhibited OSCC cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. BLE was also effective in increasing the sub-G1 phases. Furthermore, when membrane damage in SCC4 cells treated with BLE was monitored by LDH assay, release of LDH was significantly increased. The protein and mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic Bax, and caspase-3 were up-regulated by BLE. Taken together, these results suggest that BLE induces apoptosis and then inhibits the cell proliferation of human OSCC cells.
Role of +405C>G and +936C>T Polymorphisms of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene and Risk of Esophageal Cancer in the Kashmiri Population
Qasim, Iqbal ; Bhat, Imtiyaz Ahmad ; Masoodi, Khalid Zafar ; Shah, Zafar Amin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 97~101
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.97
Background: The gene for the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which promotes angiogenesis and permeability, is polymorphic. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between +936C>T and +404C>G polymorphism of VEGF with risk of esophageal cancer in the Kashmiri population in India. Materials and Methods: 150 esophageal cancer patients and 150 unrelated healthy controls were genotyped for two VGEF SNPs (+405C/G, and +936C/T) using DNA extracted from prospectively collected blood samples by the PCR-RFLP method. Results: For the VEGF +936C>T polymorphism a significant association of CT and combined CT+TT genotypes was observed with increased risk of esophageal cancer (p=0.021; 0.024). For the +405C>G polymorphism we observed significantly increased frequency of GG genotype in cases as compared to controls and also the +405 GG Genotype was observed to have a two fold risk(OR=2.7356; 95%CI=1.1409-6.5593; p=0.020). The combined genotypes of GG-CC and GG-CT of +405C>G and +936C>T were found to be significantly associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer (p=0.0376; 0.0099). Conclusions: From the results of the present study a significant association of +936C>T and +405C>G polymorphisms with increased esophageal cancer risk exists in the Kashmiri population.
Hepatoprotective Effects of Curcumin Against Diethyl Nitrosamine Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats
Kadasa, Naif Mohammed ; Abdallah, Haytham ; Afifi, Mohamed ; Gowayed, Salah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 103~108
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.103
Curcumin is widely used as a traditional medicine. This work was aimed to investigate its possible protective effect against chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats. Fifty male albino rats were divided into five groups (n=10, each). The control group received a single dose of normal saline, the diethylnitrosamine (DENA) group received a single intra-peritoneal dose at 200mg/kg body weight, and the 3rd, 4th and 5th groups were given DENA and daily administrated curcunine (CUR) via intra-gastric intubation in doses of 300, 200 and 100 mg/kg b.wt. respectively for 20 weeks. Serum, and liver samples were used for determination of alpha feto-protein (AFP), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukine-6 (IL-6), serum liver enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP and GGT) levels as well the activities and gene expression of glutathione peroxidise (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and super oxide dismutase (SOD). Curcumin significantly lowered the serum levels of AFP, IL-2 and IL-6, ALT, ALT, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well gene expression of IL-2 and IL-6. In contrast it increased the gene expression and activities of Gpx, GRD, CAT and SOD. The protective effect of CUR against DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in albino rats was proven.
Need to Pay More Attention to Attendance at Follow-Up Consultation after Cancer Screening in Smokers and Drinkers
Shin, Jaeyong ; Park, Eun-Cheol ; Bae, Hong-Chul ; Hong, Seri ; Jang, Suk-Yong ; Kim, Jae-Hyun ; Chang, Jee Suk ; Lee, Sang Gyu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 109~117
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.109
Background: Follow-up clinical consultations could improve overall health status as well provide knowledge and education for cancer prevention. Materials and Methods: This is the cross-sectional study using the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) 6th edition for 2012, with 115,083 respondents who underwent cancer checkups selected as subjects. Associations between the presence of consultation and the socioeconomic status were determined using statistical methods with the SAS 9.3 statistical package (Cary, NC, USA). Findings: Among the recipients, 32,179 (28.0%) received clinical consultations after cancer screenings. Those in rural areas (odds ratio, OR=0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69-0.73) visited follow-up clinics less frequently than did those in urban areas. Starting at the elementary school level, as the education level increased to middle school (OR=1.26, 95% CI: 1.19-1.34), high school (OR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.23-1.36) or college (OR=1.76, 95% CI: 1.65-1.89), the participation rates also increased. When compared with the lowest quartile group, the quartile income level showed a statistical trend and difference as follows: second lowest quartile (OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.07-1.16), third lowest (OR=1.12, 95% CI: 1.07-1.17) and highest quartile income (OR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.23-1.35). In addition, the people with economic activities (OR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.84-0.90) visited follow-up clinics less frequently than did the others. Current smokers (OR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98) and inveterate drinkers (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.85-0.94) had a tendency to visit less often than did non-smokers and other drinkers with all cancers combined. Interpretation: We suggest primary prevention through lifestyle modifications including smoking and drinking, and environmental interventions may offer the most cost-effective approach to reduce the cancer burden.
Association between the DICER rs1057035 Polymorphism and Cancer Risk: Evidence from a Meta-analysis of 1,2675 Individuals
Yu, Yan-Yan ; Kuang, Dan ; Yin, Xiao-Xv ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 119~124
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.119
Background: DICER, one of the microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis proteins, is involved in the maturation of miRNAs and is implicated in cancer development and progression. The results from previous epidemiological studies on associations between DICER rs1057035 polymorphism and cancer risk were inconsistent. Thereforewe performed this meta-analysis to summarize possible associations. Materials and Methods: We searched all relevant articles on associations between DICER rs1057035 polymorphism and cancer risk from PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure until August 2014. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess any associations. Heterogeneity tests, sensitivity analyses and publication bias assessments were also performed in this meta-analysis. All analyses were conducted using STATA software. Results: Seven case-control studies, including 4,875 cancer cases and 7,800 controls were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the results indicated that the C allele of DICER rs1057035 polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased cancer risk in allelic comparison, heterozygote and dominant genetic models (C vs T: OR=0.88, 95%CI 0.81-0.95, p=0.002; TC vs TT: OR=0.85, 95%CI 0.77-0.93, p=0.001; CC/TC vs TT: OR=0.86, 95%CI 0.78-0.94, p=0.001). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significantly decreased cancer risk was found in Asian but not Caucasian populations. Conclusions: The present meta-analysis suggests that the C allele of the DICER rs1057035 polymorphism probably decreases cancer risk. However, this association may be Asian-specific and the results should be treated with caution. Further well-designed studies based on larger sample sizes and group of populations are needed to validate these findings.
Taxol Produced from Endophytic Fungi Induces Apoptosis in Human Breast, Cervical and Ovarian Cancer Cells
Wang, Xin ; Wang, Chao ; Sun, Yu-Ting ; Sun, Chuan-Zhen ; Zhang, Yue ; Wang, Xiao-Hua ; Zhao, Kai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 125~131
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.125
Currently, taxol is mainly extracted from the bark of yews; however, this method can not meet its increasing demand on the market because yews grow very slowly and are a rare and endangered species belonging to first-level conservation plants. Recently, increasing efforts have been made to develop alternative means of taxol production; microbe fermentation would be a very promising method to increase the production scale of taxol. To determine the activities of the taxol extracted from endophytic fungus N. sylviforme HDFS4-26 in inhibiting the growth and causing the apoptosis of cancer cells, on comparison with the taxol extracted from the bark of yew, we used cellular morphology, cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay, staining (HO33258/PI and Giemsa), DNA agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry (FCM) analyses to determine the apoptosis status of breast cancer MCF-7 cells, cervical cancer HeLa cells and ovarian cancer HO8910 cells. Our results showed that the fungal taxol inhibited the growth of MCF-7, HeLa and HO8910 cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. IC50 values of fungal taxol for HeLa, MCF-7 and HO8910 cells were
, respectively. The fungal taxol induced these tumor cells to undergo apoptosis with typical apoptotic characteristics, including morphological changes for chromatin condensation, chromatin crescent formation, nucleus fragmentation, apoptotic body formation and G2/M cell cycle arrest. The fungal taxol at the
had significant effects of inducing apoptosis between 24-48 h, which was the same as that of taxol extracted from yews. This study offers important information and a new resource for the production of an important anticancer drug by endofungus fermentation.
Cancer Notification at a Referral Hospital of Kermanshah, Western Iran (2006-2009)
Rahimi, Zohreh ; Kasraei, Razieh ; Najafi, Farid ; Tanhapoor, Maryam ; Abdi, Hamed ; Rahimi, Ziba ; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad ; Aznab, Mozafar ; Moradi, Mahmoudreza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 133~137
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.133
Background: Cancer is a major public health problem and the leading cause of mortality in both males and females in developed and developing countries. The incidence of cancer is gender dependent. Among Iranians, it is the third cause of death. Materials and Methods: The information recorded in the files of all patients (7,695 individuals) pathologically diagnosed with cancer in Imam Reza referral hospital of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences during the four year period of 2006-2009 were reviewed and analyzed using SPSS statistical software package version 16.0. Results: Around 61.6% of reported cancer cases were males and 38.4% were females. The most prevalent reported malignant tumors occurred at the age group of 70-79 years in males and in females these tumors were presented in the ages of 60-69 years. The most prevalent cancers among studied patients were gastrointestinal (GI) cancers with a frequency of 22.9% [gastric 10.7%, colorectal 6.9%, and esophageal 6%]. The second, third and forth prevalent cancers were blood at 16.4%, lung 13.5% and bladder 12.8%, respectively. In males the cancers of GI (25.6%) were the most prevalent followed in order of frequency by bladder (18%), blood (17.6%), lung (17.4%) and prostate (6.8%). In females the most frequent recorded cancer was breast (24.1%) followed in order of frequency by GI (20.5%), blood (14.4%), lung (7.3%), uterus (6.2%) and ovary (5.1%). Breast cancer was the most prevalent cancer (27%) in the age group of 40-49 years. Conclusions: The present study provides frequency data for various types of cancers in both males and females from a referral hospital of Kermanshah that are comparable with some reports from other areas of the country.
Cross Sectional Survey on Association between Alcohol, Betel-Nut, Cigarette Consumption and Health Promoting Behavior of Industrial Workers in Ghaziabad
Arora, Dimple ; Marya, Charu Mohan ; Menon, Ipseeta ; Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh ; Dhingra, Chandan ; Anand, Richa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 139~144
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.139
Background: The work force in industries are at risk of developing unduly high rates of health and behaviour related problems including abuse of alcohol, betel nut and cigarette (alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption). This study describes the relationships between alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption and health promoting behaviour among industrial workers. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted on workers in various industries of Ghaziabad city with concerned authority permission. A sample size of 732 workers was calculated based on pilot study. Through Simple random sampling 732 workers in 20 to 50 years age group with informed consent were interviewed through structured, pretested, validated questionnaire in vernacular language by one calibrated investigator. Data on socio demography, alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption pattern and health behaviour were collected. The association between health promoting behaviour and alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption was analysed by Logistic regression and Chi-square test through SPSS 16 at p<0.05 and 95%CI as significant. Results: Total prevalence of alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption in study population was 88%. The prevalence of individual alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption were 82%, 68% and 79% respectively. Combined alcohol, betel nut and cigarette prevalence in study population was 58%. Alcohol and cigarette users were significantly higher (p<0.001) in 30 to 40 years age group with lower level of education having poor attitude towards health promoting behaviour, poor oral hygiene practices and rare indulgence in regular physical exercise. Conclusions: This study stimulate further research on exploring methods to prevent initiation of health risk behaviour and promote healthy behaviour with cessation help for the current alcohol, betel nut and cigarette users.
Meta-synthesis Exploring Barriers to Health Seeking Behaviour among Malaysian Breast Cancer Patients
Yu, Foo Qing ; Murugiah, Muthu Kumar ; Khan, Amer Hayat ; Mehmood, Tahir ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 145~152
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.145
Barriers to health seeking constitute a challenging issue in the treatment of breast cancer. The current meta-synthesis aimed to explore common barriers to health seeking among Malaysian breast cancer patients. From the systematic search, nine studies were found meeting the inclusion criteria. Data extraction revealed that health behavior towards breast cancer among Malaysia women was influenced by knowledge, psychological, sociocultural and medical system factors. In terms of knowledge, most of the Malaysian patients were observed to have cursory information and the reliance on the information provided by media was limiting. Among psychological factors, stress and sense of denial were some of the common factors leading to delay in treatment seeking. Family member's advice, cultural beliefs towards traditional care were some of the common sociocultural factors hindering immediate access to advanced medical diagnosis and care. Lastly, the delay in referral was one of the most common health system-related problems highlighted in most of the studies. In conclusion, there is an immediate need to improve the knowledge and understanding of Malaysian women towards breast cancer. Mass media should liaise with the cancer specialists to disseminate accurate and up-to-date information for the readers and audience, helping in modification of cultural beliefs that hinder timing health seeking. However, such intervention will not improve or rectify the health system related barriers to treatment seeking. Therefore, there is an immediate need for resource adjustment and training programs among health professional to improve their competency and professionalism required to develop an efficient health system.
Outcomes of Laparoscopic Abdominoperineal Resection in Low Rectal Cancer Using Different Pelvic Drainages
Chen, Yu-Sheng ; Bo, Xiao-Bo ; Gu, Da-Yong ; Gao, Wei-Dong ; Sheng, Wei-Zhong ; Zhang, Bo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 153~155
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.153
Background: The aim of this study was to establish the feasibility and efficiency of different pelvic drainage routes after laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (LAPR) for rectal cancer by assessing short-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: Clinicopathological data of 76 patients undergoing LAPR for very low rectal cancer were reviewed retrospectively between June 2005 and June 2014. Outcomes were evaluated considering short-term results. Results: Of 76 relevant patients at our institution in the period of study, trans-perineal drainage of the pelvic cavity was performed in 17 cases. Compared with the trans-perineal group, the length of hospital stay was shorter in the trans-abdominal group, while the duration of drainage and the infection rates of the perineal wounds between two groups showed no significant differences. Conclusions: The outcomes of this study suggest that trans-abdominal drainage of pelvic cavity is a reliable and feasible procedure, the duration of drainage, infection rates and the healing rates of the perineal wounds being acceptable. Trans-abdominal drainage has a more satisfactory effect after laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for rectal carcinoma.
Gynaecological Cancer Mortality in Serbia, 1991-2010: A Joinpoint Regression Analysis
Ilic, Milena ; Ilic, Irena ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 157~162
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.157
The descriptive epidemiological study aimed to analyse the mortality trends from gynaecological cancer in Serbia. Average annual percentage of change (AAPC) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed for trend using joinpoint regression analysis. Nearly 25,000 gynaecological cancer deaths occurred in Serbia during the 1991-2010 period, with the average annual age-standardised mortality rate being 17.2 per 100,000 women. Increase of mortality was observed for cancer of the vulva and vagina (AAPC=+1.3%, 95% CI=0.1 to 2.6), ovarian cancer (AAPC=+0.8%, 95% CI=0.4-1.3) and for cervical cancer (AAPC=+0.7%, 95% CI=0.3 to 1.1). Mortality rates for gynaecological cancer overall declined in women aged 30-39 years, but mortality was increased in middle-aged women (for cervical cancer) and in the elderly (for ovarian cancer). Improvements to and implementation of the national cervical cancer screening programme conducted in 2013 and expected to be finalised in the following years throughout Serbia should contribute to improvement.
Incidence of Cancer in Basrah: Results of a Household Survey
Hussain, Riyadh Abdul-Ameer ; Habib, Omran S. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 163~167
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.163
Background: Cancer is a major health problem at global level. It is increasingly registered in Iraq and Basrah but the epidemiological situation, though becoming better documented, is still questionable regarding the adequacy of data. Objective: The study aimed to measure the incidence of cancer in Basrah. Materials and Methods: The results presented in this paper are part of a large household survey carried out in Basrah governorate-southern Iraq over a 12 month period (January to December 2013). It involved a detailed interview with adult respondents from each and every household enrolled in the study during a three-year recall period about the incidence of cancer. A total of 6,999 households were covered yielding 40,684 persons. Results: The total number of new cancer cases reported over the three- year recall period (2010-2012) was 112. The average annual incidence rate of all cancers was 91.8 per 100,000 population with a higher rate for females (109.7) compared to males (74.3) The overall age standardized rate was 150.7 per 100,000. The highest incidence rate was recorded for the Southern part of the governorate (Abul-Khasib and Fao ) at 138.8 per 100,000 and the lowest was for East of Basrah (Shatt-Arab District) at 78.0 per 100,000. With respect to cancer types, the main cancers were those of breast, lung, larynx-pharynx, leukaemia, colon-rectum and urinary bladder. These six cancers accounted for 51.5% of all reported cases. Other important cancers were those of brain, bones, pancreas and liver, accounting for a further 17.9%. Conclusions: The pattern of cancer in Basrah is generally similar to the pattern at the national level in terms of age, sex and topography but the incidence rate according to the present household survey is higher than any previously reported figures. Household surveys for cancer seem feasible albeit difficult and costly.
Gallic Acid Enhancement of Gold Nanoparticle Anticancer Activity in Cervical Cancer Cells
Daduang, Jureerut ; Palasap, Adisak ; Daduang, Sakda ; Boonsiri, Patcharee ; Suwannalert, Prasit ; Limpaiboon, Temduang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 169~174
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.169
Cervical cancer (CxCa) is the most common cancer in women and a prominent cause of cancer mortality worldwide. The primary cause of CxCa is human papillomavirus (HPV). Radiation therapy and chemotherapy have been used as standard treatments, but they have undesirable side effects for patients. It was reported that gallic acid has antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. Gold nanoparticles are currently being used in medicine as biosensors and drug delivery agents. This study aimed to develop a drug delivery agent using gold nanoparticles conjugated with gallic acid. The study was performed in uninfected (C33A) cervical cancer cells, cervical cancer cells infected with HPV type 16 (CaSki) or 18 (HeLa), and normal Vero kidney cells. The results showed that GA inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. To enhance the efficacy of this anticancer activity, 15-nm spherical gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were used to deliver GA to cancer cells. The GNPs-GA complex had a reduced ability compared to unmodified GA to inhibit the growth of CxCa cells. It was interesting that high-concentration (
) GNPs-GA was not toxic to normal cells, whereas GA alone was cytotoxic. In conclusion, GNPs-GA could inhibit CxCa cell proliferation less efficiently than GA, but it was not cytotoxic to normal cells. Thus, gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as phytochemical delivery agents for alternative cancer treatment to reduce the side effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
Effects of Rad51 on Survival of A549 Cells
Yu, Sha-Sha ; Tu, Yi ; Xu, Lin-Lin ; Tao, Xue-Qin ; Xu, Shan ; Wang, Shan-Shan ; Xiong, Yi-Feng ; Mei, Jin-Hong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 175~179
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.175
Rad51, a key factor in the homologous recombination pathway for the DNA double-strand break repair, plays a vital role in genesis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In recent years, more and more studies indicate that high expression of Rad51 is of great relevance to resistance of NSCLC to chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of single Rad51 on cell viability in vitro. Our results show that depletion of endogenous Rad51 is sufficient to inhibit the growth of the A549 lung cancer cell line, by accumulating cells in G1 phase and inducing cell death. We conclude that independent Rad51 expression is critical to the survival of A549 cells and can be an independent prognostic factor in NSCLC patients.
Descriptive Study on Selected Risk Factors and Histopathology of Breast Carcinoma in a Tertiary Care Centre in Kerala, India with Special Reference to Women Under 40 Years Old
Varughese, Ashley Ann ; Poothiode, Usha ; Manjula, V.D. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 181~184
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.181
Background: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in Kerala, South India, with the incidence increasing in the past two decades, also in young women. However, there are limited data regarding the burden of disease, its epidemiology and histopathological characteristics in the state. Materials and Methods: This desciptive study covered 303 breast cancers evaluated during the period of December 2011 to August 2013 in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Kottayam.The patients were also interviewed regarding selected risk factors. Results: The majority of the cases were 41-60 years of age with a mean at presentation of 53 years. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most common subtype, followed by pure mucinous carcinoma and then lobular carcinoma. Of the cases, 6.6% were nullipara and 52.8% had fewer than or equal to 2 children. Median age at first child birth was 23 years (national value-19.8 years). A significant proportion (15%) had family history of breast cancer. Some 13.5%(41 cases) comprised the young breast cancer group (
years) with a mean age at first child birth in them was 27.4 years, 5 being nullipara and 6 having a positive family history. Conclusions: Breast cancer awareness, better availability of screening techniques and identification and targeting high risk groups all help to tackle the increasing load of breast carcinoma. A good proportion of cases comprised the young breast cancer group (under 40). Younger women should thus also be educated about breast carcinoma-risk factors, symptoms and diagnostic techniques to help in early detection and effective approach esto treatment.
Level and Evaluation of Tumor Marker CA-125 in Ovarian Cancer Patients in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Ahmad, Bashir ; Nawaz, Seema ; Ali, Sajid ; Bashir, Shumaila ; Mahmood, Nourin ; Gul, Bushra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 185~189
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.185
Background: Due to the increase in morbidity and mortality rate, cancer has become an alarming threat to the human population worldwide. Since cancer is a progressive disorder, timely diagnosis is necessary to prevent/stop cancer from progressing to a severe stage. In Khyber Paktunkhwa, Pakistan, many tumors are diagnosed with endoscopy and biopsy; rare studies exist regarding the diagnosis and evaluation of ovarian cancer, based on tumor markers like CA-125. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to investigate and evaluate levels of CA-125 in hospitalized ovarian cancer patients. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 63 admitted patients having ovarian cancer by biopsy were included. The level of CA-125 was determined in the blood of these patients using ELISA technique. Results: Out of 63 patients, the level of CA-125 was high in 52%. The affected individuals were more in the group of 40-60 and the level of CA-125 was comparatively higher in patients having moderately differentiated histology than those having well differentiated and poorly differentiated tumor histology. Moreover, the highest level of CA-125 was present among the patients having serous subtype of carcinoma and the common stage of carcinoma was stage II followed by stage III, I and IV. Conclusions: CA-125 level was high in more than 50% of the total patients. Moreover, CA-125 elevation was more common in serous subtype and stage II cancer patients.
Incidence Data for Breast Cancer among Yemeni Female Patients with Palpable Breast Lumps
Alsanabani, Jamila Ali ; Gilan, Waleed ; Al Saadi, Azzan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 191~194
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.191
Purpose: To estimate the incidence of breast cancer in Yemeni female patients presenting with a breast mass. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was carried out with 595 female patients with palpable breast lumps, attending to Alkuwait university hospital, Sana'a, Yemen. Triple assessment, including breast examination, mammography and biopsy (FNAC, core needle, or excision), for all patients were performed. Results: The incidences of benign and malignant lesions was calculated. Some 160 (26.9%) of 595 patients had malignancies; 213 (35.8%) were fibroadenomas; 12 (2.0%) were fibrocystic change; 143 (24.03%) were inflammatory lesions (including mastitis and ductectasia); 62 (10.4%) were simple cysts, while 5 (0.8%) were phyllodes tumors. The mean age of patients with malignant lumps was 44.3 years. Conclusions: Among Yemeni female patients with palpable breast lumps, the rate of breast cancer is high, with occurrence at an earlier age than in Western countries. Improving breast cancer awareness programs and increasing breast cancer screening centers inb different areas of Yemen are needed to establish early diagnosis and offer early and optimal treatment.
Influence of the MACC1 Gene on Sensitivity to Chemotherapy in Human U251 Glioblastoma Cells
Shang, Chao ; Hong, Yang ; Guo, Yan ; Liu, Yun-Hui ; Xue, Yi-Xue ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 195~199
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.195
Background: This study was conducted to determine the influence of MACC1 expression on chemotherapy sensitivity in human U251 glioblastoma cells. Materials and Methods: Expression of the MACC1 gene in 49 cases of human brain glioma was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Silencing effects of RNA interference on MACC1 was detected by Western-blotting. Flow cytometry methods and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay (MTT) were used to determine the apoptosis and growth inhibitory rates of the U251 cells with MACC1 silencing. before and after treatment with cisplatin (DDP). Results: MACC1 mRNA in gliomas was up-regulated remarkably, to 158.8% of that in peri-cancerous tissues (P<0.05). The siRNA-MACC1 could inhibit the expression of MACC1 protein significantly (p<0.05), associated with an increase in apoptosis rate from 2.57% to 5.39% in U251 cells and elevation of the growth inhibitory rate from 1.5% to 17.8% (p<0.05 for both). After treatment with DDP at various concentrations (1, 3,
), compared with control U251 cells, the apoptosis rate of MACC1-silenced U251 cells rose from 8.41%, 13.2% and 19.5% to 12.8%, 17.8% and 25.8%; the growth inhibitory rate increased from 16.2%, 19.3% and 24.5% to 23.7%, 28.4% and 36.3%. Conclusions: There is a notable relationship between over-expression of MACC1 and the characteristics of glioma cells. Silencing of MACC1 was found to enhance the apoptosis and growth inhibitory rates of U251 glioma cells, and thereby increase their sensitivity to DDP chemotherapy.
Comparative Assessment of the Diagnostic Value of Transbronchial Lung Biopsy and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Cytology in Lung Cancer
Binesh, Fariba ; Pirdehghan, Azar ; Mirjalili, Mohammad Reza ; Samet, Mohammad ; Majomerd, Zahra Amini ; Akhavan, Ali ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 201~204
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.201
Background: This study was designed to determine the accuracy of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology (BAL) using histopathologic examination of transbronchial biopsy specimens as the gold standard in diagnosis of lung carcinoma at our center. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to investigate a total of 388 patients who were suspected of having lung cancer and had undergone fiberoptic bronchoscopy in Shahid Sadoughi hospital from 2006 to 2011. Lung masses were proven to be malignant by histology. Results: Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) identified malignancy in 183 of the 388 cases, including 48 cases (26.2%) with adenocarcinoma, 4(2.1%) with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, 47(25.6%)with squamous cell carcinoma, 34(18.5%) with well-diffentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma, 35(19.1%) with small cell carcinoma, 14 (7.6%) with non-small cell carcinoma, and 1 (0.54%) with large cell carcinoma. A total of 205 cases were correctly classified as negative. BAL was also performed in 388 patients; 86/103 cases were consistent with the final diagnosis of lung cancer and 188/285 cases were correctly classified as negative. The sensitivity of BAL was 46.9%(CI:41.9%, 51.8%)) and its specificity was 91.6%(CI:88.8%, 94.3%). BAL had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 83.4%(CI:79.7%, 87.1%) and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 65.8%(CI:61%, 70.5%). The overall accuracy of BAL was 70.5% and the exact concordance was 39%. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that BAL cytology is not sensitive but is a specific test for diagnosis of lung carcinoma. If transbronchial lung biopsy is combined with bronchoalveolar lavage, the positive diagnostic rate will be further elevated.
Epidemiological Trends of Histopathologically WHO Classified CNS Tumors in Developing Countries: Systematic Review
Khan, Ishaq ; Bangash, Mohammed ; Baeesa, Saleh ; Jamal, Awatif ; Carracedo, Angel ; Alghamdi, Fahad ; Qashqari, Hanadi ; Abuzenadah, Adel ; AlQahtani, Mohammed ; Damanhouri, Ghazi ; Chaudhary, Adeel ; Hussein, Deema ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 205~216
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.205
Background: Many developing countries are lagging behind in reporting epidemiological data for individual central nervous system (CNS) tumors. This paper aimed to elicit patterns for the epidemiology of individual World Health Organization (WHO) classified CNS tumors in countries registered by WHO as "developing". Materials and Methods: Cyber search was carried out through 66 cancer networks/registries and 181 PubMed published papers that reported counts of CNS tumors for the period of 2009-2012. The relationship between the natural log of incidence Age Standardized Rate (ASR) reported by Globocan and Latitude/ Longitude was investigated. Results: Registries for 21 countries displayed information related to CNS tumors. In contrast tends for classified CNS tumor cases were identified for 38 countries via 181 PubMed publications. Extracted data showed a majority of unclassified reported cases [PubMed (38 countries, 45.7%), registries (21 countries, 96.1%)]. For classified tumors, astrocytic tumors were the most frequently reported type [PubMed (38 countries, 1,245 cases, 15.7%), registries (21 countries, 627 cases, 1.99%]. A significant linear regression relationship emerged between latitudes and reported cases of CNS tumors. Conclusions: Previously unreported trends of frequencies for individually classified CNS tumors were elucidated and a possible link of CNS tumors occurrence with geographical location emerged.
Effects of Progressive Relaxation Exercises on Anxiety and Comfort of Turkish Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy
Yilmaz, Seher Gurdil ; Arslan, Sevban ; Arslan, Sevban ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 217~220
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.217
Background: Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and by far the most frequent cancer among women. Objective: This study was conducted to observe the effect of progressive relaxation exercises on anxiety and comfort level of breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: A control group pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental model was applied with experimental (30) and control (30) groups, who agreed to participate in this study. Data collection was with the "Personnel Information Form, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and General Comfort Scale". Results: The average age of the patients that participated in the study was
years. Eighty-three point three percent (n=25) of the patients in the experiment group and 86.7 (n=26) percent of patients in control group were married. Patient state of anxiety post-test mean scores were
in the experimental group and
in the control group, the difference being statistically significant (p<0.05). The general comfort scale post-test mean scores were
in the experimental group and
in the control group, again statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusions: Progressive relaxation exercises positively affect patient comfort and anxiety levels in Turkey.
Metformin Down-regulates Endometrial Carcinoma Cell Secretion of IGF-1 and Expression of IGF-1R
Zhang, Yu ; Li, Meng-Xiong ; Wang, Huan ; Zeng, Zheng ; Li, Xiao-Mao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 221~225
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.221
As metformin can inhibit endometrial carcinoma (EC) cell growth and the insulin growth factor (IGF) system is active in EC, the question of whether it can regulate endometrial carcinoma cell secretion of IGF-1 or expression of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is of interest. In this study, serum IGF-1 levels in EC patients were found to be comparable with that in the non EC patients (p>0.05). However, the IGF-1 level in the medium of cultured cells after treatment with metformin was decreased (p<0.05). IGF-1R was highly expressed in human endometrial carcinoma paraffin sections, but IGF-1R and phosphor-protein kinase B/protein kinase B (p-Akt/Akt) expression was down-regulated after metformin treatment (p<0.05). In summary, metformin can reduce the secretion of IGF-1 by Ishikawa and JEC EC cell lines and their expression of IGF-1R to deactivate downstream signaling involving the PI-3K/Akt pathway to inhibit endometrial carcinoma cell growth.
Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention among Public Health Midwives on Breast Cancer Early Detection in the District of Gampaha, Sri Lanka
Vithana, P.V.S. Chiranthika ; Ariyaratne, May ; Jayawardana, Pl ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 227~232
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.227
Background: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among Sri Lankan females, accounting for 26% of the cancer incidence in women. Early detection of breast cancer is conducted by public health midwives (PHMs) in the Well Woman Clinics. The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention on improving knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) on breast cancer screening among PHMs in the district of Gampaha. Materials and Methods: Two Medical Officer of Health (MOH) areas in Gampaha district were selected using random sampling as intervention (IG) and control (CG) groups. All the PHMs in the two MOH areas participated in the study, with totals of 38 in IG and 47 in CG. They were exposed to an educational intervention with the objective of using them to subsequently conduct the same among 35-59 year women in the community. Following the intervention, post-intervention assessments were conducted at one month and six months to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Results: The overall median scores for KAP among PHMs respectively were as follows. Pre-intervention: IG:58%(IQR: 53-69%), 90%(IQR: 70-100%) and 62%(IQR: 57-70%). CG: 64%(IQR: 56-69%), 90%(IQR: 70-90%) and 62%( IQR: 50-77%). Post-intervention: one month, IG:96%(IQR: 93-96%), 100%(IQR: 100-100%), and 85%(IQR: 81-89%). CG:67%(IQR: 60- 73%), 90%(IQR: 80-100%) and 65%(IQR: 50-73%). Post-intervention: six months, IG: 93% (IQR: 91-93%), 100%(IQR: 90-100%), and 81%(IQR: 77-89%). CG: 67%(IQR: 58- 71%), 90%(IQR: 90-100%), and 62%( IQR: 58-73%). All the above post-intervention scores of PHMs in the IG were significantly higher in comparison to CG (p<0.001). Conclusions: This planned educational intervention had a significant impact on improving KAP of PHMs for early detection of breast cancer in the Gampaha district.
Overexpression of EGFR Protein in Bruneian Lung Cancer Patients
Han, Yu Hao ; Hamid, Mas R.W. Abdul ; Telisinghe, Pemasiri Upali ; Hussin, Juniadah Binti Haji ; Mabruk, Mohamed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 233~237
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.233
Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in Brunei Darussalam, accounting for almost 20% of the total. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the erbB family of tyrosine kinase receptor proteins, which includes c-erbb2(HER2/neu), erb-B3, and erb-B4. EGFR overexpression is found in a third of all epithelial cancers, often associated with a poor prognosis. Materials and Methods: Protein expression of EGFR in 27 cases of lung cancer tissue samples and 9 cases of normal lung tissue samples was evaluated using an immunohistochemical approach. Results: The results demonstrated significant increase and overexpression of EGFR in Bruneian lung cancer tissue samples in comparison to normal lung tissue. However, there was no significant relationship between clinicopathologic variables (age and sex) of patients and EGFR protein expression. Conclusions: EGFR is overexpressed in Bruneian lung cancer patient tissue samples in comparison to normal lung tissue samples. This may indicate that EGFR protein over expression plays an important role in the genesis of this type of cancer in Brunei Darussalam.
Relationship between Exposure to Pesticides and Occurrence of Acute Leukemia in Iran
Maryam, Zakerinia ; Sajad, Amirghofran ; Maral, Namdari ; Zahra, Lesan ; Sima, Pooralimohamad ; Zeinab, Attabac ; Zahra, Mehravar ; Fariba, Ebrahimi ; Sezaneh, Haghpanah ; Davood, Mehrabani ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 239~244
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.239
Background: One of the causes of acute leukemia can be exposure to certain chemicals such as pesticides. This study determined the relationship between exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of acute leukemia in Fars province, south of Iran. Materials and Methods: Between April 2011 and April 2013 in a case-control study conducted in Nemazee Hospital in Shiraz, Southern Iran; 314 subjects diagnosed with acute leukemia (94 pediatric cases and 220 adults) were enrolled to determine any correlation between exposure to pesticides and the occurrence. Controls (n=314) were matched by sex and age. Results: There was a history of exposure to pesticides among 85% of pediatric cases and 69% of their controls and 83% of adult cases and 75% of their controls while 87.5% of pediatric cases and 90% of adult cases reported exposure to intermediate and high doses of pesticides and among the controls, the exposure to low doses of pesticides was 70.5% and 65%, respectively. Exposure to indoor pesticides was seen among most of cases and controls. Being a farmer was at a significantly more increased risk of developing acute leukemia in comparison to other jobs, especially for their children. Conclusions: Exposure to pesticides was shown to be one of the most important causes of acute leukemia. It seems that there is a need to educate the people on public health importance of exposure to pesticides especially during school time to reduce the risk of malignancies during childhood.
Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization Combined with Interferon-α is Safe and Effective for Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Curative Resection
Zuo, Chaohui ; Xia, Man ; Liu, Jingshi ; Qiu, Xiaoxin ; Lei, Xiong ; Xu, Ruocai ; Liu, Hanchun ; Li, Jianliang ; Li, Yongguo ; Li, Qinglong ; Xiao, Hua ; Hong, Yuan ; Wang, Xiaohong ; Zhu, Haizhen ; Wu, Qunfeng ; Burns, Michael ; Liu, Chen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 245~251
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.245
Objectives: Intrahepatic recurrence is the major cause of death among patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative surgical resection. Several approaches have been reported to decrease the recurrence rate. The objective of our study was to compare the clinical effects of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with interferon-alpha (IFN-
) therapy on recurrence after hepatic resection in patients with HBV-related HCC with that of TACE chemotherapy alone. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data from 228 patients who were diagnosed with HBV-related HCC and underwent curative resection between January 2001 to December 2008. The patients were divided into TACE (n = 126) and TACE-IFN-
(n = 102) groups for postoperative chemotherapy. The TACE regimen consisted of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cisplatin (DDP), and the emulsion mixed with mitomycin C (MMC) and lipiodol. The recurrence rates, disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and risk of recurrence were evaluated. Results: The clinicopathological parameters and adverse effects were similar between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The median OS for the TACE-IFN-
group (36.3 months) was significantly longer than that of the TACE group (24.5 months, P < 0.05). The 3-and 5-year OS for the TACE-IFN-
group were significantly longer than those of the TACE group (P < 0.05) and the recurrence rate was significantly lower (P < 0.05). The TACE and IFN-
combination therapy, active hepatitis HBV infection, the number of tumor nodules, microvascular invasion, liver cirrhosis, and the BCLC stage were independent predictors of OS and DFS. Conclusions: The use of the TACE and IFN-
combination chemotherapy after curative hepatic resection safely and effectively improves OS and decreases recurrence in patients with HBV-related HCC who are at high risk. Our findings can serve as a guide for the selection of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with HBV-related HCC who are at high risk of recurrence.
Expression and Response to Therapy and Survival in Selected Head and Neck Cancers
Kanyilmaz, Gul ; Ekinci, Ozgur ; Muge, Akmansu ; Celik, Sevinc ; Ozturk, Furkan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 253~258
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.253
Background: Development of squamous cell cancer of head and neck (SCCHN) is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which in turn is closely related with expression of
. Loss of
expression by deletion, mutation, or hypermethylation is common in SCCHN. We here evaluated
as a prognostic marker of treatment response and survival in our SCCHN patients with laryngeal, hypopharyngeal or nasopharyngeal cancers. Materials and Methods: 131 patients diagnosed with SCCHN between January 2,2006 and July 17, 2010 were examined for
. The median age was 60 years (15-82 years). Fifty one patients were stage I-II and 80 were stage III-IV. Immunohistochemical expression of
was analyzed in pretreatment paraffin-embedded tumor blocks. The influence of
status on disease-free survival, and overall survival after treatment was evaluated. Results:
positivity was found in 58 patients (44%). Tumor-positivity for
was correlated with improved disease free survival (70.1 months vs 59 months) and improved overall survival (2, 3 and 5-year values; 77% vs 72%, 70% vs 63% and, 63% vs 55%; respectively). On multivariate analysis, stage was determined as independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival. Conclusions: Stage was the major prognostic factor on treatment response and survival in our patients.
status predicts better outcome in laryngeal, hypopharyngeal or nasopharyngeal cancer cases treated with surgery plus adjuvant radiochemotherapy as well as with definitive radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy.
Disagreement of ICD-10 Codes Between a Local Hospital Information System and a Cancer Registry
Sriplung, Hutcha ; Kantipundee, Tirada ; Tassanapitak, Cheamjit ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 259~263
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.259
Background: In the field of cancer, the ICD-10 coding convention is based on the site of a neoplasm in the body and usually ignores the morphology, thus the same code may be assigned to tumors of different morphologic types in an organ. Nowadays, all general (provincial) and center hospitals in Thailand are equipped with the hospital information system (HIS) database. Objective: This study aimed to find the characteristics and magnitude of agreement represented by the positive predictive value (PPV) of provisional cancer diagnoses in the HIS database in Pattani Hospital in Thailand in comparison with the final cancer diagnosis of the ICD-10 codes generated from a well established cancer registry in Songklanagarind Hospital, the medical school hospital of Prince of Songkla University. Materials and Methods: Data on cancer patients residing in Pattani province who visited Pattani Hospital from January 2007 to May 2011 were obtained from the HIS database. The ICD-10 codes of the HIS computer database of Pattani Hospital were compared against the ICD-10 codes of the same person recorded in the hospital-based cancer registry of Songklanagarind Hospital. The degree of agreement or positive predictive value (PPV) was calculated for each sex and for both sexes combined. Results: A total of 313 cases (15.9%) could be matched in the two databases. Some 222 cases, 109 males and 113 females, fulfilled the criteria of referral from Pattani to Songklanagarind Hospitals. Of 109 male cancer cases, 76 had the same ICD-10 codes in both hospitals, thus, the PPV was 69.7% (95%CI: 60.2-78.2%). Agreement in 76 out of 113 females gave a PPV of 67.3% (95%CI: 57.8-75.8%). The two percentages were found non-significant with Fisher's exact p-value of 0.773. The PPV for combined cases of both sexes was 68.5% (95%CI: 61.9-74.5%). Conclusions: Changes in final diagnosis in the referral system are common, thus the summary statistics of a hospital without full investigation facilities must be used with care, as the statistics are biased towards simple diseases able to be investigated by available facilities. A systematic feedback of patient information from a tertiary to a referring hospital should be considered to increase the accuracy of statistics and to improve the comprehensive care of cancer patients.
Burden of Virus-associated Liver Cancer in the Arab World, 1990-2010
Khan, Gulfaraz ; Hashim, M. Jawad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 265~270
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.265
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is amongst the top three cancer causes of death worldwide with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV) as the main etiological agents. An up-to-date descriptive epidemiology of the burden of HBV/HCV-associated HCC in the Arab world is lacking. We therefore determined the burden of HBV/HCV-associated HCC deaths in the Arab world using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 dataset. GBD 2010 provides, for the first time, deaths specifically attributable to viral-associated HCC. We analyzed the data for the 22 Arab countries by age, sex and economic status from 1990 to 2010 and compared the findings to global trends. Our analysis revealed that in 2010, an estimated 752,101 deaths occurred from HCC worldwide. Of these 537,093 (71%) were from HBV/HCV-associated HCC. In the Arab world, 17,638 deaths occurred from HCC of which 13,558 (77%) were HBV/HCV-linked. From 1990 to 2010, the burden of HBV and HCV-associated HCC deaths in the Arab world increased by 137% and 216% respectively, compared to global increases of 62% and 73%. Age-standardized death rates also increased in most of the Arab countries, with the highest rates noted in Mauritania and Egypt. Male gender and low economic status correlated with higher rates. These findings indicate that the burden of HBV/HCV-associated HCC in the Arab world is rising at a much faster rate than rest of the world and urgent public health measures are necessary to abate this trend and diminish the impact on already stretched regional healthcare systems.
VEGF-C and VEGF-D Expression and its Correlation with Lymph Node Metastasis in Esophageal Squamous Cell Cancer Tissue
Yang, Zeng ; Wang, Yong-Gang ; Su, Kai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 271~274
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.271
Background: To explore vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) and VEGF-D expression and its correlation with lymph node metastasis in esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) tissue. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical methods were applied to detect the levels of VEGF-C and VEGF-D expression in 64 surgicall removal ESCC tissues, tissues adjacent to cancer and normal tissues, and the relationship between VEGF-C and VEGF-D expression and lymph node metastasis was analyzed. Results: Both VEGF-C and VEGF-D were expressed by varying degrees in esophageal cancer tissue, the tissue adjacent to cancer and normal tissue, and the positive expression rate went down successively. The positive expression rates of VEGF-C (59.4%) and VEGF-D (43.8%) in esophageal cancer tissue were significantly higher than in the tissue adjacent to cancer (34.4%, 15.6%) and normal tissue (20.3%, 12.5%), respectively, in which significant differences were manifested (p<0.01). Positive expression rates of VEGF-C and VEGF-D in esophageal cancers with lymph node metastasis were markedly higher than without such metastasis (p<0.01), while those in the tissue with TNM staging I~II were markedly lower than that with TNM staging III~IV (p<0.01). Conclusions: Both VEGF-C and VEGF-D are highly expressed in ESCC tissue, which may be related to the lymph node metastasis of cancer cells. Hence, VEGF-C and VEGF-D can be clinically considered as important reference indexes of lymph node metastasis in esophageal cancer.
Predictors of Knowledge Level and Awareness towards Breast Cancer among Turkish Females
Aydogan, Umit ; Doganer, Yusuf C. ; Kilbas, Zafer ; Rohrer, James E. ; Sari, Oktay ; Usterme, Necibe ; Yuksel, Servet ; Akbulut, Halil ; Balkan, Salih M. ; Saglam, Kenan ; Tufan, Turgut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 275~282
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.275
Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the most-common malignancy of women worldwide. Though there are differences among developed and developing countries, BC remains the most common cancer type of women in Turkey. Objective: This study aimed to identify the level of knowledge, awareness, and their potential predictors towards BC in Ankara, Turkey. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive study was conducted on 376 females attending a breast health outpatient clinic. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to evaluate knowledge level about BC and predictors effecting its level. Data analysis was performed using the chi-square test. A value of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Mean age of the participants was
(22-75). The majority (92.6 %) were married; 41.5% were educated less than nine years. Most of the women were housewives (82.7%) and, were living in an urban region (86.4%). Predictors of effecting responses to seven knowledge and awareness questions about BC varied from demographic features including older age groups, higher educational levels, being married, living in an urban area, being employee, smoking, having greater BMI to additional attributes associated breast health such as the increased number of births, applying for the purpose of control, positive family history of breast diseases, any diagnoses of breast diseases and performing BSE practice. Conclusions: It was determined that females in Turkey have better knowledge of BC than other developing countries even though it is not at the desired level. These findings revealed that females should be more informed about BC risk factors, prognosis and treatments by primary health-care providers to counteract the ascending burden of this disease.
Is there any Relationship between Food Habits in the Last Two Decades and Gastric Cancer in North-western Iran?
Somi, Mohammad Hossein ; Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen ; Naghashi, Shahnaz ; Faramarzi, Elnaz ; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari ; Ghojazade, Morteza ; Majidi, Alireza ; Alavi, Seyed Ahmad Naseri ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 283~290
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.283
Purpose: The aims of this case-control study were to assess the correlation between some food habits in the last two decades and gastric cancer in East Azerbaijan of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this hospital based case control study, 616 patients (212 gastric cancer patients, 404 cancer free patients) were recruited. Food habits of patients over the past two decades were assessed with a structured questionnaire. We used conditional logistic regression analysis for estimating crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results: In this study, over-eating, consumption of high fat milk and yogurt and especial types of cheese increased the risk of gastric cancer (All<0.05). Consumption of such especial cheeses such as Koze and Khiki increased the risk of gastric cancer by 12.6 fold (95% CI:1.99-79.36) and 7.36 fold (95% CI:1.33-40.54), respectively. In addition, high fat food, moldy food, and pickled vegetables consumption as well as reuse of cooking oil for frying were significantly associated with gastric cancer risk. Furthermore, intake of Ghorme (deep fried meat) was positively correlated with gastric cancer risk (OR:1.31;95%CI: 0.91-1.87). Conclusions: It can be confirmed that particular food habits which have been very common in East-Azerbaijan in the last two past decades increase risk of gastric cancer. According to our results and taking into account the long latency period of gastric cancer it can be concluded that nutrition education for a healthy diet should be performed from early childhood. However, further well designed cohort studies are needed to achieve more clear results.
Association of miR-1266 with Recurrence/Metastasis Potential in Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer Patients
Sevinc, Elif Demirdogen ; Egeli, Unal ; Cecener, Gulsah ; Tezcan, Gulcin ; Tunca, Berrin ; Gokgoz, Sehsuvar ; Tasdelen, Ismet ; Tolunay, Sahsine ; Evrensel, Turkkan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 291~297
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.291
The Homeobox B13 (HOXB13):Interleukin 17 Receptor B (IL17BR) index of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer (ER (+) BC) patients may be a potential biomarker of recurrence/ metastasis. However, effects of microRNA (miRNA) binding to the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of HOXB13 and IL17BR and its function on recurrence/metastasis in ER (+) BC remains elusive. The aims of this study were to determine the expression of miRNAs that bind to 3' UTR of HOXB13 and IL17BR in ER (+) BC patients and asess the effects of these miRNAs on recurrence/metastasis. The expression profiles of HOXB13 and IL17BR were evaluated using RT-PCR in tumors and normal tissue samples from 40 ER (+) BC patients. The expression level of 4 miRNAs, which were predicted to bind the 3' UTR of HOXB13 and IL17BR using TargetScan, microRNA.org and miRDB online databases, were further evaluated with RT-PCR. Our findings demonstrated that high miR-1266 levels might be significant prognostic factor for recurrence/metastasis occurrence (3.05 fold p=0.004) and tamoxifen response (3.90 fold; p=0.2514) in ER (+) BC cases. Although we suggest that modulation of miR-1266 expression may be an important mechanism underlying the chemoresistance of ER (+) BC, advanced studies and validation are required.
Clinical Study on Safety and Efficacy of JiSaiXin (Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor Injection Manufactured in China) for Chinese Undergoing Chemotherapy
Wang, Lin ; Huang, Xin-En ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 299~301
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.299
Objectives: To assess safety and efficacy of JiSaiXin (Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor Injection manufactured in China, G-CSF) 150ug per day for three days and whether this regimen could reduce the incidence of febrile neutropenia caused by chemotherapy. Method: From July 2014 to December 2014 patients treated by chemotherapy in our hospital were randomly divided into two groups: Group A with prophylactic use of G-CSF (JiSaiXin) 24 hours after chemotherapy for consecutive 3 days; and Group B with G-CSF (JiSaiXin) after neutropenia. Routine blood tests were performed 7 days and 14 days after chemotherapy. Results: A total of 100 patients fulfilled study criteria, and the incidence of severe neutropenia (grade III/IV) and the incidence of febrile neutropenia in Group A were lower than those in Group B. Nine patients were found severe neutropenia (grade III/IV) in Group B, but one in Group A, three febrile neutropenia in Group B, but 0 in Group A. Conclusions: This study suggested that prophylactic use of G-CSF (JiSaiXin) 150ug per day 24 hours after chemotherapy for consecutive 3 days is safe and could be effective for preventing febrile neutropenia in patients with chemotherapy.
Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Using the Gail Model: a Turkish Study
Erbil, Nulufer ; Dundar, Nursel ; Inan, Cigdem ; Bolukbas, Nurgul ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 303~306
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.303
Purpose: This study was conducted to determine risk of developing of breast cancer among Turkish women. Materials and Methods: Using a descriptive and cross-sectional approach, data were collected from 231 women. Breast cancer risk was calculated using the National Cancer Institute's on-line verson of called as the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool or the Gail Risk Assesment Tool. Results: The average age of women was
years. It was revealed that 6.1% of participants reported having first degree relatives who had had breast cancer, with only four women having more than one first-degree relative affected (1.7%). The mean five-year breast cancer risk for all women was
, and 7.4% of women had a five-year breast cancer risk >1.66% in this study. Mean lifetime breast cancer risk up to age 90 years was
. Conclusions: The breast cancer risk assessment tool can help in the clinical management of patient seeking advice concerning screening and prevention. Healthcare providers in Turkey can use this approach to estimate an individual's probability of developing breast cancer.
Significance of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-3 Expression in Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma in Relation to Proinflammatory Cytokines and Tumor Histopathological Grading
Gaballah, Hanaa Hibishy ; Shafik, Noha Mohamed ; Wasfy, Rania Elsayed ; Farha, Mohamed Osama Abou ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 307~314
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.307
Background: Bladder cancer is among the five most common malignancies worldwide. Altered expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling -3 (SOCS-3) has been implicated in various types of human cancers; however, its role in bladder cancer is not well established. Aim: The present study was undertaken to investigate the mRNA expression of SOCS-3 in normal and cancerous bladder tissue and to explore its correlation with urinary levels of some proinflammatory cytokines, cytokeratin-18 (CK -18) and with tumor histopathological grading, in order to evaluate their role as potential diagnostic markers. Materials and Methods: SOCS3 mRNA expression levels were evaluated using quantitative real time PCR. Urinary levels of interleukins 6 and 8 were estimated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cytokeratin-18 expression was analyzed by immuunohistochemistry then validated by ELISA. Results: SOC3 m RNA expression levels were significantly lower in high grade urothelial carcinoma (
) compared to low grade carcinoma (
) and controls (
), (p<0.001). However, in high grade urothelial carcinoma the urinary levels of IL-6, IL-8, total CK-18(
respectively) were significantly higher than their levels in low grade carcinoma (
respectively) and controls (
respectively), (p<0.001). Conclusions: Advanced grade of urothelial bladder carcinoma is significantly associated with lowered mRNA expression of SOC3 as well as elevated urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines and CK-18. Furthermore, our results suggested that urinary IL-8, IL-6 and CK-18 may benefit as noninvasive biomarkers for early detection as well as histopathological subtyping of urothelial carcinoma.
Patients with Spontaneously Ruptured Hepatocellular Carcinoma Benefit from Staged Surgical Resection after Successful Transarterial Embolization
Zhang, Dong-Zhi ; Zhang, Ke ; Wang, Xiao-Peng ; Cai, Hui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 315~319
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.315
Background: Surgical resection of spontaneously ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after successful transarterial embolization (TAE) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate its efficacy in a series of cases. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively examined ruptured HCC cases from Jan 2000 to Dec 2008; all of these 126 cases received TAE as the initial therapy. Subsequently, 74 cases received staged surgical resection, and the remaining 52 cases underwent repeated TACE. The baseline demographic data, tumor characteristics, and long term survival were recorded and compared. Results: The demographic and baseline characteristics were comparable between the hepatic resection and TACE groups; furthermore, no significant difference in the tumor characteristics was detected between the two groups. The differences in in-hospital, 30-day and 90-day mortality between the two groups were not significant (P>0.05). However, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 85.1%, 63.5%, and 37.8%, respectively, in the hepatic resection group, which were significantly higher than those in the TACE group (69.2%, 46.2%, and 17.3%, respectively, P=0.004). Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that these patients benefitted from hepatic resection compared with TACE with respect to long-term outcomes. Conclusions: Staged hepatic resection after TAE is an effective treatment that results in superior long-term survival to repeated TACE.
Comparison of Metabolic and Anatomic Response to Chemotherapy Based on PERCIST and RECIST in Patients with Advanced Stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
Ordu, Cetin ; Selcuk, Nalan A. ; Akosman, Cengiz ; Eren, Orhan Onder ; Altunok, Elif C. ; Toklu, Turkay ; Oyan, Basak ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 321~326
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.321
Background: The aim of this study was to explore the prognostic role of metabolic response to chemotherapy, determined by FDG-PET, in patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with metastatic NSCLC were analyzed for prognostic factors related to overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). Disease evaluation was conducted with FDG-PET/CT and contrast-enhanced CT prior to and at the end of first-line chemotherapy. Response evaluation of 19 of 30 patients was also performed after 2-3 cycles of chemotherapy. Morphological and metabolic responses were assessed according to RECIST and PERCIST, respectively. Results: The median OS and PFS were 11 months and 6.2 months, respectively. At the end of first-line chemotherapy, 10 patients achieved metabolic and anatomic responses. Of the 19 patients who had an interim response analysis after 2-3 cycles of chemotherapy, 3 achieved an anatomic response, while 9 achieved a metabolic response. In univariate analyses, favorable prognostic factors for OS were number of cycles of first-line chemotherapy, and achieving a response to chemotherapy at completion of therapy according to the PERCIST and RECIST. The OS of patients with a metabolic response after 2-3 cycles of chemotherapy was also significantly extended. Anatomic response at interim analysis did not predict OS, probably due to few patients with anatomic response. In multivariate analyses, metabolic response after completion of therapy was an independent prognostic factor for OS. Conclusions: Metabolic response is at least as effective as anatomic response in predicting survival. Metabolic response may be an earlier predictive factor for treatment response and OS in NSCLC patients.
Prognostic Significance of p53 in Gastric Cancer: a Meta-Analysis
Yildirim, Mustafa ; Kaya, Vildan ; Demirpence, Ozlem ; Gunduz, Seyda ; Bozcuk, Hakan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 327~332
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.327
Background: Gastric cancer is one of the frequently seen cancers in the world and it is the second most common reason for death due to cancer. The prognostic role of expression of p53 detected by immunohistochemistry in gastric cancer remains controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to explore any association between overexpression and survival outcomes. Materials and Methods: We systematically searched for studies investigating the relationships between expression of p53 detected by immunohistochemistry and prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. After careful review, survival data were extracted from eligible studies. A meta-analysis was performed to generate combined hazard ratios for overall survival and disease-free survival. Results: A total of 4.330 patients from 21 studies were included in the analysis. Our results showed tissue p53 overexpression in patients with gastric cancer to be associated with poor prognosis in terms of overall survival (HR, 1.610; 95% CI, 1.394 -5.235; p:<0.001). Pooled hazard ratio for disease free survival showed that p53 positivity or negativity were not statitistically significant (HR, 1.219; 95%CI, 0.782-1.899; p:0.382). Conclusions: The present meta-analysis indicated overexpression of p53 detected by immunohistochemistry to be associated with a poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer.
Attitude and Practices Among Dentists and Senior Dental Students in Iran Toward Tobacco Cessation as an Effort to Prevent Oral Cancer
Razavi, Sayed Mohammad ; Zolfaghari, Behzad ; Doost, Mostafa Emami ; Tahani, Bahareh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 333~338
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.333
Background: Oral health professionals are responsible in Iran for providing a brief tobacco cessation program to smoker patients. The aim of this study was to assess Iranian dental student and dentist practice, knowledge and attitudes toward smoking cessation programs. Materials and Methods: A valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire was designed and distributed to 150 dentists working in Isfahan-Iran and 60 dental students. Some questions were developed based on the expected 5A tobacco cessation protocol. Statements on attitudes focused on professional responsibility towards smoking cessation and its effectiveness. Chi-square, ANOVA, and t test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The cessation program in dental settings covers a small group of patients (18%). Some 69.1% (n=96) of dentists reported asking their patients about tobacco use, 64% (n=83) advising their patients to quit, 33.8% (n=47) assessing their patients willingness to quit and 20% (n=28) reported helping their patients in changing their behavior. A far lower percentage reported active involvement in arranging assistance for smokers to quit (4.3%, n=5). Some 22% of students and 26% of dentists disagreed that the tobacco cessation programs should be as part of dentists' professional responsibility and 70% of them were willing to follow the protocol of tobacco cessation for patients. Conclusions: Iranian dentist performance regarding tobacco cessation is weak. Dentists and students indicated their lack of knowledge as the major reason for non-adherence to the protocol. Therefore, planning to encourage dentist to follow the protocol needs continuous educational programs.
Lack of Association between Hsa-Mir-499 rs3746444 Polymorphism and Cancer Risk: Meta-analysis Findings
Jiang, Sheng-Gao ; Chen, Lin ; Tang, Jin-Hai ; Zhao, Jian-Hua ; Zhong, Shan-Liang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 339~344
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.339
Epidemiologic findings concerning the association between the hsa-mir-499 rs3746444 A>G polymorphism and cancer risk have yielded mixed results. We aimed to investigate the association by performing a meta-analysis of all available studies. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for studies published up to November 2014, using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of any association. The Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) method was used to correct the p values for multiple comparisons. We included 39 studies, including 14,136 cases and 16,937 controls. The results of overall meta-analysis suggested a borderline association between hsa-mir-499 rs3746444 polymorphism and cancer susceptibility (AG+GG vs. AA: OR=1.15, 95% CI=1.04-1.26, corrected p value=0.04). After removing studies not conforming to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), however, this association disappeared (AG+GG vs AA: OR=1.18, 95% CI=1.03-1.34, corrected p value=0.21). When stratified analysis by ethnicity, cancer type or HWE in controls, although some associations between hsa-mir-499 rs3746444 polymorphism and cancer susceptibility were detected, these associations no longer existed after adjustment using BH method. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggests that hsa-mir-499 rs3746444 A>G polymorphism is not associated with risk of cancer based on current evidence.
Comparative Evaluation of the Risk of Malignancy Index Scoring Systems (1-4) Used in Differential Diagnosis of Adnexal Masses
Ozbay, Pelin Ozun ; Ekinci, Tekin ; Caltekin, Melike Demir ; Yilmaz, Hasan Taylan ; Temur, Muzaffer ; Yilmaz, Ozgur ; Uysal, Selda ; Demirel, Emine ; Kelekci, Sefa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 345~349
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.345
Background: To determine the cut-off values of the preoperative risk of malignancy index (RMI) used in differentiating benign or malignant adnexal masses and to determine their significance in differential diagnosis by comparison of different systems. Materials and Methods: 191 operated women were assessed retrospectively. RMI of 1, 2, 3 and 4; cut-off values for an effective benign or malignant differentiation together with sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values were calculated. Results: Cut-off value for RMI 1 was found to be 250; there was significant (p<0.001) compatibility at this level with sensitivity of 60%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 75%, specificity of 93%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 88% and an overall compliance rate of 85%. When RMI 2 and 3 was obtained with a cut-off value of 200, there was significant (p<0.001) compatibility at this level for RMI 2 with sensitivity of 67%, PPV of 67%, specificity of 89%, NPV of 89%, histopathologic correlation of 84% while RMI 3 had significant (p<0.001) compatibility at the same level with sensitivity of 63%, PPV of 69%, specificity of 91%, NPV of 88% and a histopathologic correlation of 84%. Significant (p<0.001) compatibility for RMI 4 with a sensitivity of 67%, PPV of 73%, specificity of 92%, NPV of 89% and a histopathologic correlation of 86% was obtained at the cut-off level 400. Conclusions: RMI have a significant predictability in differentiating benign and malignant adnexal masses, thus can effectively be used in clinical practice.
Neutrophil-lymphocyte Ratio Findings and Larynx Carcinoma: a Preliminary Study in Turkey
Duzlu, Mehmet ; Karamert, Recep ; Tutar, Hakan ; Karaloglu, Furkan ; Sahin, Melih ; Cevizci, Rasit ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 351~354
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.351
Background: To identify the potential prognostic role of the neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio in larynx carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Oncologic archive charts of patients with a larynx carcinoma diagnosis between the years 2010 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criterion was to be available with hemogram test prior to diagnostic procedure. Patients undergoing septorinoplasty comprised the control group. Results: There were 65 cases in the study and 42 cases in control group meeting inclusion criteria. In general a non-significant increase in N/L ratio was observed with increasing tumor size and stage (p>0.05) in larynx carcinoma. The N/L ratio was found to be significantly higher in larynx carcinoma compared to control group (p=0.004). Conclusions: In conclusion, the N/L ratio was shown to be significantly increased in larynx carcinomas compared to control group. Further studies are needed to assess any prognostic role.
Distributions of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 Null Genotypes Worldwide are Characterized by Latitudinal Clines
Saitou, Marie ; Ishida, Takafumi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 355~361
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.355
Background: Deletion types of genetic variants of glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 and T1, the GSTM1 null and GSTT1 null which are risk factors for certain cancers, have been ubiquitously found in human populations but their worldwide distribution pattern is unclear. Materials and Methods: To perform a meta-analysis, a systematic search for the literature on GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes was done to identify 63 reports for 81 human populations. Relationships between the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype frequencies and the absolute latitude of 81 populations were tested by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: A significant positive correlation was detected between the GSTM1 null genotype frequency and the absolute latitude (r=0.28, p-value <0.05), whereas the GSTT1 null genotype frequency and absolute latitude showed a significant negative correlation (r= -0.41 p-value <0.01). There was no correlation between the frequencies of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype in each population (r= -0.029, p-value=0.80). Conclusions: Latitudinal clines of the distribution of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes may be attributed to the result of gene-environmental adaptation. No functional compensation between GSTM1 and GSTT1 was suggested by the lack of correlation between the null frequencies for GSTM1 and GSTT1.
Kidney Cancer in Lebanon: a Specific Histological Distribution?
Khafaja, Sarah ; Kourie, Hampig Raphael ; Matar, Dany ; Sader-Ghorra, Claude ; Kattan, Joseph ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 363~365
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.363
Background: Kidney cancer is the third most frequent urologic cancer in Lebanon after prostate and bladder cancer, accounting for 1.5% of all diagnosed cancers. In this paper, we report the histologic characteristics and distribution of kidney cancer, never described in Lebanon or the Middle East. Materials and Methods: Pathology results of operated kidney cancer were collected during a two year period (2010-2011) from two different Lebanese hospitals (Hotel-Dieu de France University Hospital and Saint Joseph Hospital). A total of 124 reports were reviewed and analyzed according to WHO classification of 2009. Results: The 124 patients diagnosed with kidney cancer had a median age of 62.4 [18-86], 75% being men and 25% women. Some 71 % of the lesions were renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 25.8% had a urothelial histology, 1.6% were lymphomas and 1.6% were metastases to the kidney. Patients having RCC had a median age of 60.3 [18-85], 77.3% were men and 22.7% women. Of the RCCs, 59.1% were clear cell carcinoma, 22.7% papillary, 11.4% chromophobic, 3.4% rom the collecting ducts of Bellini and 3.4% were not otherwise classified. Conclusions: Histological distribution of Lebanese kidney cancer seems unusual when compared to the literature. The percentage of urothelial renal pelvis tumors is strikingly high. Moreover, clear cell carcinoma accounts for only 59.1% of RCCS in contrast to the 75% described elsewhere, while papillary carcinoma represents more than 22.7% compared to 10%.
Adipo-R1 and Adipo-R2 Expression in Colorectal Adenomas and Carcinomas
Ayyildiz, Talat ; Dolar, Enver ; Ugras, Nesrin ; Eminler, Ahmet Tarik ; Erturk, Banu ; Adim, Saduman Balaban ; Yerci, Omer ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 367~372
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.367
Background: Human adiponectin (ApN), a 30 kDa glycoprotein of 244-amino acids which is predominantly produced by adipocytes, exerts its effects via two receptors, namely adiponectin receptor-1 (adipo-R1) and adiponectin receptor-2 (adipo-R2) with differential binding affinity to globular adiponectin. Adiponectin receptor expression has been studied in several cancer tissues. However, there are no studies of colorectal adenomas which are considered to be precursors for colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Objectives: In the present study, the expression of adipo-R1 and adipo-R2 was investigated immunohistochemically in colorectal adenomas and colorectal carcinoma tissues in an attempt to determine associations with these tumors. Materials and Methods: The study enrolled 50 CRC patients with tumor resection and 82 patients who were diagnosed with adenomatous polyps, classified as negative for neoplasia, low-grade dysplasia (L-GD) or high- grade dysplasia (H-GD). Results: Expression of both adipo-R1 and adipo-R2 was found to be significantly lower in the CRCs than in colorectal adenomas (tubular and tubulovillous, p=0.009 and p<0.001, respectively). Adipo-R1 and adipo-R2 expression was also significantly lower in the CRC group when compared with the groups of patients with low grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia or no neoplasia (p=0.012 and p<0.001, respectively). In addition, it was observed that adipo-R2 expression was generally positive in the non-neoplastic group irrespective of the adipo-R2 expression. In the L-GD, H-GD and CRC groups, the adipo-R2 result was positive whenever adipo-R1 result was positive but some patients with negative adipo-R1 had positive adipo-R2 (p<0.001, p=0.004, p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions: This study indicated that ApN may play a role in the progression of colorectal adenomatous polyps to carcinoma through actions on adipo-R1 and adipo-R2 receptors.
Expression Profile and Potential Roles of EVA1A in Normal and Neoplastic Pancreatic Tissues
Tao, Ming ; Shi, Xue-Ying ; Yuan, Chun-Hui ; Hu, Jia ; Ma, Zhao-Lai ; Jiang, Bin ; Xiu, Dian-Rong ; Chen, Ying-Yu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 373~376
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.373
Background: EVA1A (eva-1 homolog A) is a novel gene that regulates programmed cell death through autophagy and apoptosis. Our objective was to investigate the expression profiles and potential role of EVA1A in normal and neoplastic human pancreatic tissues. Materials and Methods: The expression pattern of EVA1A in normal pancreatic tissue was examined by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Protein levels in paraffin-embedded specimens from normal and diseased pancreatic and matched non-tumor tissues were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results: EVA1A colocalized with glucagon but not with insulin, demonstrating production in islet alpha cells. Itwas strongly expressed in chronic pancreatitis, moderately or weakly expressed in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm in pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma, and absent in normal pancreatic acinar cells. Although the tissue architecture was deformed, EVA1A was absent in the alpha cells of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, mucinous cystadenomas, solid papillary tumors and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Conclusions: EVA1A protein is specifically expressed in islet alpha cells, suggesting it may play an important role in regulating alpha-cell function. The ectopic expression of EVA1A in pancreatic neoplasms may contribute to their pathogenesis and warrants further investigation.
Presentation Delay in Breast Cancer Patients, Identifying the Barriers in North Pakistan
Khan, Muhammad Aleem ; Shafique, Sehrish ; Khan, Muhammad Taha ; Shahzad, Muhammad Faheem ; Iqbal, Sundas ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 377~380
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.377
Background: There is strong evidence that delayed diagnosis of breast cancer is associated with poor survival. Our objectives were to determine the frequency of breast cancer patients with delayed presentation, the reasons of delay and its association with different socio-demographic variables in our North Pakistan setting. Materials and Methods: We interviewed 315 histologically confirmed breast cancer patients. Delay was defined as more than 3 months from appearance of symptoms to consultation with a doctor. Questions were asked from each patient which could reflect their understanding about the disease and which could be the likely reasons for their delayed presentation. Results: 39.0 % (n=123) of patients presented late and out of those, 40.7% wasted time using alternative medicines; 25.2 % did not having enough resources; 17.1 % presented late due to painless lump; 10.6% felt shyness and 6.5% presented late due to other reasons. Higher age, negative family history, < 8 school years of education and low to middle socio-economic status were significantly associated with delayed presentation (p< 0.05). Education and socioeconomic status were two independent variables related to the delayed presentation after adjustment for others (OR of 2.26, 2.29 and 95%CI was 1.25-4.10, 1.06-4.94 respectively). Conclusions: Significant numbers of women with breast cancer in North Pakistan experience presentation delay due to their misconceptions about the disease. Coordinated efforts with public health departments are needed to educate the focused groups and removing the barriers identified in the study. Long term impact will be reduced overall burden of the disease in the region.
Application of Data Mining Techniques to Explore Predictors of HCC in Egyptian Patients with HCV-related Chronic Liver Disease
Omran, Dalia Abd El Hamid ; Awad, AbuBakr Hussein ; Mabrouk, Mahasen Abd El Rahman ; Soliman, Ahmad Fouad ; Aziz, Ashraf Omar Abdel ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 381~385
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.381
Background:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common malignancy in Egypt. Data mining is a method of predictive analysis which can explore tremendous volumes of information to discover hidden patterns and relationships. Our aim here was to develop a non-invasive algorithm for prediction of HCC. Such an algorithm should be economical, reliable, easy to apply and acceptable by domain experts. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 315 patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) related chronic liver disease (CLD); 135 HCC, 116 cirrhotic patients without HCC and 64 patients with chronic hepatitis C. Using data mining analysis, we constructed a decision tree learning algorithm to predict HCC. Results: The decision tree algorithm was able to predict HCC with recall (sensitivity) of 83.5% and precession (specificity) of 83.3% using only routine data. The correctly classified instances were 259 (82.2%), and the incorrectly classified instances were 56 (17.8%). Out of 29 attributes, serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP), with an optimal cutoff value of
was selected as the best predictor of HCC. To a lesser extent, male sex, presence of cirrhosis, AST>64U/L, and ascites were variables associated with HCC. Conclusion: Data mining analysis allows discovery of hidden patterns and enables the development of models to predict HCC, utilizing routine data as an alternative to CT and liver biopsy. This study has highlighted a new cutoff for AFP (
). Presence of a score of >2 risk variables (out of 5) can successfully predict HCC with a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 82%.
Significance of Hormone Receptor Status in Comparison of 18F -FDG-PET/CT and 99mTc-MDP Bone Scintigraphy for Evaluating Bone Metastases in Patients with Breast Cancer: Single Center Experience
Teke, Fatma ; Teke, Memik ; Inal, Ali ; Kaplan, Muhammed Ali ; Kucukoner, Mehmet ; Aksu, Ramazan ; Urakci, Zuhat ; Tasdemir, Bekir ; Isikdogan, Abdurrahman ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 387~391
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.387
Background: Fluorine-18 deoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) and bone scintigraphy (BS) are widely used for the detection of bone involvement. The optimal imaging modality for the detection of bone metastases in hormone receptor positive (+) and negative (-) groups of breast cancer remains ambiguous. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two patients with breast cancer, who had undergone both 18F-FDG-PET/CT and BS, being eventually diagnosed as having bone metastases, were enrolled in this study. Results: 18F-FDG-PET/CT had higher sensitivity and specificity than BS. Our data showed that 18F-FDGPET/CT had a sensitivity of 93.4% and a specificity of 99.4%, whiel for BS they were 84.5%, and 89.6% in the diagnosis of bone metastases.
statistics were calculated for 18F-FDGPET/CT and BS. The
-value was 0.65 between 18F-FDG-PET/CT and BS in all patients. On the other hand, the
-values were 0.70 in the hormone receptor (+) group, and 0.51 in hormone receptor (-) group. The
-values suggested excellent agreement between all patient and hormone receptor (+) groups, while the
-values suggested good agreement in the hormone receptor (-) group. Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity for 18F-FDG-PET/CT were higher than BS in the screening of metastatic bone lesions in all patients. Similarly 18F-FDG-PET/CT had higher sensitivity and specificity in hormone receptor (+) and (-) groups.
Overall Survival in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Patients with and without Internal Tandem Duplication
Shahab, Sadaf ; Qadar, Zeeshanul ; Nadeem, Muhammad ; Zahid, Danish ; Ansari, Saqib ; Farzana, Tasneem ; Taj, Mehwesh ; Borhany, Munira ; Ahmed, Nuzhat ; Shamsi, Tahir S. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 1, 2015, Pages 393~393
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.393