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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 17 - Dec 2015
Volume 16, Issue 16 - Nov 2015
Volume 16, Issue 15 - Oct 2015
Volume 16, Issue 14 - Sep 2015
Volume 16, Issue 13 - Aug 2015
Volume 16, Issue 12 - Jul 2015
Volume 16, Issue 11 - Jun 2015
Volume 16, Issue 10 - Jun 2015
Volume 16, Issue 9 - May 2015
Volume 16, Issue 8 - Apr 2015
Volume 16, Issue 7 - Apr 2015
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Apr 2015
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Mar 2015
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Mar 2015
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Volume 15, Issue 24 - Jan 2015
Volume 15, Issue 23 - Jan 2015
Selecting the target year
Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer
Bashir, Muhammad Naeem ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5137~5141
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5137
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy among males worldwide, and is the second leading cause of cancer death among men in United States. According to GLOBOCAN (2012), an estimated 1.1 million new cases and 307,000 deaths were reported in 2012. The reasons for the increase of this disease are not known, but increasing life expectancy and modified diagnostic techniques have been suggested as causes. The established risk factors for this disease are advancing age, race, positive family history of prostate cancer and western diet (use of fat items). Several other risk factors, such as obesity, physical activity, sexual activity, smoking and occupation have been also associated with prostate cancer risk, but their roles in prostate cancer etiology remain uncertain. This mini-review aims to provide risk factors, disease knowledge, prevalence and awareness about prostate cancer.
Contradictory Relationships between Cancer and Normal Cells and Implications for Anti-cancer Therapy
Gou, Xing-Chun ; Kong, Derek ; Tang, Xu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5143~5147
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5143
Cancer treatment remains a serious problem worldwide. Analysis of the relationship between cancer cells and normal cells reveals that these two share characteristics in contradiction, thus could be analyzed by using contradictory principles. Under the theory of contradictory principles, induction of a dormant state or reversal of cancer cells is an important treatment strategy beyond traditional cytotoxic therapy. Normal cells are also the targets and under the influence of anti-cancer treatments and should be considered during therapy. Findings based on crosstalk between these two cell types may offer opportunities for the development of new biomarkers and therapies.
Expression of Cancer-Testis Antigens in Pediatric Cancers
Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5149~5152
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5149
Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) are a group of tumor-associated antigens with more than 140 members whose expression has been shown to be limited to gametogenic tissues and placenta among normal tissues. However, malignant tissues of different origins have shown aberrant and elevated expression of these antigens. Such a pattern of expression endows beneficial properties for use as cancer biomarkers as well as immunotherapeutic targets as a result of the immune-privileged status of the testes. CTAs have been shown to be expressed in pediatric brain tumors, different types of sarcomas, leukemias, and lymphomas as well as neuroblastomas. Although data regarding their expression pattern in childhood tumors are not as comprehensive as for adult tumors, it is supposed that CTA-based immunotherapeutic approaches can also be used for pediatric cancers. However, there are limited data about the objective clinical responses following immunotherapy in such patients. Here we try to review the available information.
Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution among Thai Women with High-Grade Cervical Intraepithelial Lesions and Invasive Cervical Cancer: a Literature Review
Kietpeerakool, Chumnan ; Kleebkaow, Pilaiwan ; Srisomboon, Jatupol ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5153~5158
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5153
Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is an essential cause of cervical cancer. Because of substantial geographical variation in the HPV genotype distribution, data regarding HPV type-specific prevalence for a particular country are mandatory for providing baseline information to estimate effectiveness of currently implemented HPV-based cervical cancer prevention. Accordingly, this review was conducted to evaluate the HR-HPV genotype distribution among Thai women with precancerous cervical lesions i.e. cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2-3 (CIN 2-3), adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), and invasive cervical cancer by reviewing the available literature. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection among Thai women with CIN 2-3 ranged from 64.8% to 90.1% and the three most common genotypes were HPV 16 (38.5%), HPV 58 (20.0%), and HPV 18 (5.5%). There were high squamous cell carcinoma/CIN 2-3 prevalence ratios in women with CIN 2-3 infected with HPV 33 and HPV 58 (1.40 and 1.38, respectively), emphasizing the importance of these subtypes in the risk of progression to invasive cancer among Thai women. Data regarding the prevalence and genotype distribution of HR-HPV in Thai women with AIS remain unavailable. Interesting findings about the distribution of HPV genotype in cervical cancer among Thai women include: (1) a relatively high prevalence of HPV 52 and HPV 58 in invasive squamous cell carcinoma; (2) the prevalence of HPV 18-related adenocarcinoma is almost double thepreviously reported prevalence, and (3) 75% of neuroendocrine carcinomas are HPV18-positive when taking into account both single and multiple infections.
Evaluation of Inflammation Parameters in Philadelphia Negative Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasia Patients
Hacibekiroglu, Tuba ; Akinci, Sema ; Basturk, Abdulkadir ; inal, Besime ; Guney, Tekin ; Bakanay, Sule Mine ; Dilek, Imdat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5159~5162
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5159
Background: Chronic myeloproliferative diseases are clonal stem cell diseases which occur as a result of uncontrollable growth and reproduction of hematopoietic stem cells, which are the myeloid series source in bone marrow. Recent studies have suggested that chronic inflammation can be a triggering factor in the clonal change in chronic myeloproliferative neoplasia (CMPN). In our study, we evaluated the existence of a chronic inflammation process in our Philadelphia negative (Ph-)CMPN patients using inflammation parameters in combination with demographic, laboratory and clinical characteristics of the patients. Materials and Methods: Demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratorial data, and thrombosis histories of 99 Ph-CMPN patients, who were diagnosed at our outpatient clinic of hematology in accordance with WHO 2008 criteria, were analyzed retrospectively,with 80 healthy individuals of matching gender and age included as controls. Complete blood counts, sedimentation, C reactive protein (CRP), JAK V617F gene mutations, abdomen ultrasound images and previous thrombosis histories of these patients were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Ph-CMPN and healthy control groups included 99 and 80 cases, respectively. PV, ET and MF diagnoses of patients were 43 (%43.4), 44 (44.4%) and 12 (12.1%), respectively. JAK V617F gene mutation was found to be positive in 64 (71.1%) of all cases and in 27(65.8%), 32 (82%), 5 (50%) of the cases in PV, ET and PMF groups, respectively. Thrombosis was determined as 12 (12%) in the entire group, 12.5% in the JAK V617F negative and 15.3% in the positive patients, with no statistical significance (p=0.758). No significant difference was observed between patients with and without previous thrombosis history in respect to hemogram parameters, sedimentation and CRP (p>0.05), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), erythrocyte distribution width (RDW), mean platelet volume (MPV) and sedimentation levels of the patient.
What are the Endoscopic and Pathological Characteristics of Colorectal Polyps?
Bas, Bilge ; Dinc, Bulent ; Oymaci, Erkan ; Mayir, Burhan ; Gunduz, Umut Riza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5163~5167
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5163
Background: Colon polyps need to be excised upon detection during colonoscopy due to the risk of malignancy irrespective of their size. In our study, we retrospectively evaluated the clinicopathological characteristics of polyps detected during colonoscopy. Materials and Methods: We assessed 379 patients with polyps detected during colonoscopy between January 2010 and May 2012. The demographics, complaints, colonoscopy findings (shape, place and size of the polyp) and histopathological findings were recorded. We carried out statistical analysis using PASW 18.0 for Windows. Results: There were 227 males (59.9%) and 152 females (40.1%) in the trial. The mean age was 53.8 years (32-90). The most common complaint was rectal bleeding (36.1%), followed by abdominal pain (35.4%). Polyps were detected most commonly in the rectosigmoid region (43.8%), followed by the descending colon (17.4%). Some 239 patients had a single polyp (63.1%) while 140 were found to have multiple polyps (36.9%). While tubular adenoma was the most common pathological type, occurring in 181 patients (47.8%), tubulovillous adenoma (14.2%) and hyperplastic polyp (12.7%) followed, occurring in 54 and 48 patients respectively. While 313 patients (82.6%) did not feature dysplasia, 37 patients (9.7%) exhibited low-grade dysplasia, 28 (7.7%) had high-grade dysplasia and 4 had cancer (1.1%). The rates of villous components and dysplasia were detected to be high among pedunculated polyps and polyps larger than 1 cm (p<0.001). Conclusions: Due to the fact that large-diameter polyps with malignant potential are commonly located in the left colon and have a high prevalence among the middle-aged individuals, it would be appropriate to screen this population at regular intervals via rectosigmoidoscopy.
Retrospective Study of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effects on Survival Rate after Three-Field Lymph Node Dissection for Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer
Chen, Hua-Xia ; Wang, Zhou ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5169~5173
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5169
To determine the efficacy of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel plus cisplatin (Taxol + DDP, TP therapy) for stage IIA esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to investigate the expression of RUNX3 in lymph node metastasis-negative esophageal cancer and its relationship with medical prognosis, a retrospective summary of clinical treatment of 143 cases of stage IIA esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients was made. The patients were divided into two groups, a surgery alone control group (52 patients) and a chemotherapy group that received postoperative TP therapy (91 patients). The disease-free and 5 year survival rates were compared between the groups and a multivariate analysis of prognostic factors was performed. The same analysis was performed for cases classified as RUNX3 positive and negative, with post-operative specimens assessed by immunohistochemistry. Although the disease-free and 5 year survival rates in control and chemotherapy groups did not significantly differ and there was no significance in RUNX3 negative cases, postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in the chemotherapy group was shown to improve disease-free and 5 year survival rate compared to the control group in RUNX3 positive cases. On Cox regression multivariate analysis, postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy (P<0.01) was an independent prognostic factor for RUNX3 positive cases, suggesting that postoperative TP may be effective as adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IIA esophageal cancer patients with RUNX3 positive lesions.
Early and Late Complications after Inguinofemoral Lymphadenectomy for Vulvar Cancer
Cirik, Derya Akdag ; Karalok, Alper ; Ureyen, Isin ; Tasci, Tolga ; Kalyoncu, Rukiye ; Turkmen, Osman ; Kose, M Faruk ; Tulunay, Gokhan ; Turan, Taner ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5175~5179
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5175
Background: We aimed to determine the frequency of early and late complications following groin surgery for vulvar cancer and analyze possible risk factors. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 99 women who underwent for vulvar cancer. The early (
month) complications were wound infection, breakdown and lymphocyst and late (>1 month) complications were lower limb lymphedema, incontinence and erysipelas. The risk factors for developing each of the complications were analyzed with regression analysis. Results: In the entire cohort, 29 (29.3%) women experienced early and 12 (12.1%) had late complications. Wound complications including infection and breakdown were the leading early complications (23.2%). In the multivariate analysis, both obesity (body mass index
) and advanced age (
) were found as independent predictive factors for early complications. Obese women of advanced age had 6.32 times more risk of experiencing any of the early complications, when compared to non-obese and young women (55.6% vs 8.7%). The most common late complication was lower limb lymphedema (10.1%) that was more frequently seen in young women. However, neither age nor lymph node count were significantly associated with the occurrence of lower limb lymphedema. Conclusions: More than 40% of the women suffered from postoperative complications after inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy in the current study. While advanced age and obesity were the significant predictors for any of the early complications, there was no identified risk factor for lower limb lymphedema.
Aberrant Expression of CCAT1 Regulated by c-Myc Predicts the Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Zhu, Hua-Qiang ; Zhou, Xu ; Chang, Hong ; Li, Hong-Guang ; Liu, Fang-Feng ; Ma, Chao-Qun ; Lu, Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5181~5185
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5181
Background: CCAT1 has been reported to be linked with pathogenesis of malignancies including colon cancer and gastric cancer. However, the regulatory effect of CCAT1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. The purpose of this research was to identify any role of CCAT1 in the progression of HCC. Materials and Methods: Real time-PCR was performed to test the relative expression of CCAT1 in HCC tissues. A computation screen of CCAT1 promoter was conducted to search for transcription-factor-binding sites. The association of c-Myc with CCAT1 promoter in vivo was tested by Pearson correlation analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Additionally, Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed. Results: c-Myc directly binds to the E-box element in the promoter region of CCAT, and when ectopically expressed increases promoter activity and expression of CCAT1. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the patients with low expression of CCAT1 demonstrated better overall and relapse-free survival compared with the high expression group. Cox proportional hazards analyses showed that CCAT1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for HCC patients. Conclusions: The findings demonstrated CCAT1, acting as a potential biomarker in predicting the prognosis of HCC, is regulated by c-Myc.
β-Catenin Alterations in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip
Barakat, Charif ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5187~5190
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5187
This study aimed to investigate the correlation between
-catenin immunoexpression and histopathological grades of lower lip squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC).
-Catenin abnormal expression was found in 29% of the squamous cells of well differentiated LSCC, 63% of moderately differentiated and 86% of poorly differentiated, and therefor was significantly associated with histological grade (p=0.000). Nuclear
-catenin expression appeared in 5% of the cells and was also correlated with the histological grades (p=0.000). In 14.7% of the cells it was localized in the cytoplasm, again correlating with histology (p=0.002). According to this study the expression of
-catenin is an independent prognostic factor for histological grade and to the tumor differentiation. This appears to reflect a structural association and the role of
-catenin in tumor progression.
Arsenic Trioxide Promotes Paclitaxel Cytotoxicity in Resistant Breast Cancer Cells
Bakhshaiesh, Tayebeh Oghabi ; Armat, Marzie ; Shanehbandi, Dariush ; Sharifi, Simin ; Baradaran, Behzad ; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeed ; Samadi, Nasser ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5191~5197
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5191
A partial response or resistance to chemotherapeutic agents is considered as a main obstacle in treatment of patients with cancer, including breast cancer. Refining taxane-based treatment procedures using adjuvant or combination treatment is a novel strategy to increase the efficiency of chemotherapy. PPM1D is a molecule activated by reactive oxygen species. whose expression is reported to modulate the recruitment of DNA repair molecules. In this study we examined the impact of arsenic trioxide on efficacy of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in paclitaxel-resistant MCF-7 cells. We also investigated the expression of PPM1D and TP53 genes in response to this combination treatment. Resistant cells were developed from the parent MCF-7 cell line by applying increasing concentrations of paclitaxel. MTT assays were applied to determine the rate of cell survival. DAPI staining using fluorescent microscopy was employed to study apoptotic bodies. Real-time RT-PCR analysis was also applied to determine PPM1D mRNA levels. Our results revealed that combination of arsenic trioxide and paclitaxel elevates the efficacy of the latter in induction of apoptosis in MCF-7/PAC resistant cells. Applying arsenic trioxide also caused significant decreases in PPM1D mRNA levels (p<0.05). Our findings suggest that arsenic trioxide increases paclitaxel-induced apoptosis by down regulation of PPM1D expression. PPM1D dependent signaling can be considered as a novel target to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents in resistant breast cancer cells.
Serum 8 Hydroxydeoxyguanosine and Cytotoxin Associated Gene A as Markers for Helicobacter pylori Infection
Yeniova, Abdullah Ozgur ; Uzman, Metin ; Kefeli, Ayse ; Basyigit, Sebahat ; Ata, Naim ; Dal, Kursat ; Guresci, Servet ; Nazligul, Yasar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5199~5203
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5199
Background: Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinomas and mucosa associated tissue lymphomas. Cytotoxin associated gene A (CagA) is one of the virulence factors of H.pylori. It is hypothesized that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play roles in H.pylori associated disease especially in development of gastric adenocarcinoma. Individuals infected with H.pylori bearing CagA produce more ROS than others. 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG) is an in vitro marker of DNA damage and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between 8OHdG level, H.pylori infection and CagA and alterations of serum 8OHdG level after H.pylori eradication. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted with dyspeptic complaints and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were assessed. H.pylori was determined from histopathology of specimens. Serum 8OHdG levels of three groups (H.pylori negative, H. pylori positive CagA negative and H.pylori positive CagA positive) were compared. Patients with H.pylori infection received eradication therapy. Serum 8OHdG levels pretreatment and posttreatment were also compared. Results: In total, 129 patients (M/F, 57/72) were enrolled in the study. Serum 8OHdG level of H.pylori negative, H. pylori positive CagA negative and H.pylori positive CagA positive groups were significantly different (
respectively, p=0.05). Furthermore, eradication therapy reduced serum 8OHdG level (
, p=0.05). Conclusions: Individuals infected with H.pylori bearing CagA strains have the highest serum 8OHdG level and eradication therapy decreases the serum 8OHdG level. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that evaluated the effect of CagA virulence factor on serum 8OHdG level and the effect of eradication therapy on serum 8OHdG levels together. Eradication of CagA bearing H.pylori may prevent gastric adenocarcinoma by decreasing ROS. 8OHdG level may thus be a good marker for prevention from gastric adenocarcinoma.
Effects of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia on Ceruloplasmin Oxidase, Copper and Several Markers of Oxidative Damage, in Children
Mehdi, Wesen Adel ; Yusof, Faridah ; Mehde, Atheer Awad ; Zainulabdeen, Jwan Abdulmohsin ; Raus, Raha Ahmed ; Abdulbari, Alaa Shawqi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5205~5210
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5205
Background: Acute leukaemia is characterized by fast growth of abnormal clones of haemopoietic precursor cells inside bone marrow leading to undue accumulation in the bone marrow. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common form of childhood cancer. Materials and Methods: The study concerned 50 children diagnosed with ALL (mean age,
) compared to 40 healthy controls (mean age,
). The Hb, serum copper, ceruloplasmin oxidase, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), total antioxidant activity (TAA) and protein were measured in all groups.One proteinous component was isolated by gel filtration chromatography from the precipitate produced by polyethylene glycol. Results: Significantly higher levels of AOPP, copper and decrease in total antioxidant activity were noted in the cases. Statistical analysis also showed a significant increase (p<0.01) in the activity of serum ceruloplasmin oxidase in patients with ALL compared to normal subjects .The maximum velocity (Vmax) and Michaelis constant had values of 104.2 U/L and 11.7 mM, respectively. The
values for ceruloplasmin oxidase in ALL patients were positive, confirming the reaction to be endothermic. Conclusions: The results from this study showed a significant increase in AOPP, ceruloplasmine oxidase and decrease in total antioxidant activity .These parameters may play a role in development of DNA damage in childhood patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).The
values were negative, these refer that the reaction of ES formation is spontaneous, but needs energy in a so-called endergonic reaction. Also the negative
value of ceruloplasmin oxidase indicates that the complex [
] is further modulated through increasing structure arrangement.
Targeted Resequencing of 30 Genes Improves the Detection of Deleterious Mutations in South Indian Women with Breast and/or Ovarian Cancers
Rajkumar, Thangarajan ; Meenakumari, Balaiah ; Mani, Samson ; Sridevi, Veluswami ; Sundersingh, Shirley ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5211~5217
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5211
Background: We earlier used PCR-dHPLC for mutation analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2. In this article we report application of targeted resequencing of 30 genes involved in hereditary cancers. Materials and Methods: A total of 91 patient samples were analysed using a panel of 30 genes in the Illumina HiScan SQ system. CLCBio was used for mapping reads to the reference sequences as well as for quality-based variant detection. All the deleterious mutations were then reconfirmed using Sanger sequencing. Kaplan Meier analysis was conducted to assess the effect of deleterious mutations on disease free and overall survival. Results: Seventy four of the 91 samples had been run earlier using the PCR-dHPLC and no deleterious mutations had been detected while 17 samples were tested for the first time. A total of 24 deleterious mutations were detected, 11 in BRCA1, 4 in BRCA2, 5 in p53, one each in RAD50, RAD52, ATM and TP53BP1. Some 19 deleterious mutations were seen in patients who had been tested earlier with PCR-dHPLC [19/74] and 5/17 in the samples tested for the first time, Together with our earlier detected 21 deleterious mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, we now had 45 mutations in 44 patients. BRCA1c.68_69delAG;p.Glu23ValfsX16 mutation was the most common, seen in 10/44 patients. Kaplan Meier survival analysis did not show any difference in disease free and overall survival in the patients with and without deleterious mutations. Conclusions: The NGS platform is more sensitive and cost effective in detecting mutations in genes involved in hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancers.
Genotyping of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma in Iranian Patients with Helicobacter pylori Infection
Goudarzi, Hossein ; Seyedjavadi, Sima Sadat ; Fazeli, Maryam ; Azad, Mehdi ; Goudarzi, Mehdi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5219~5223
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5219
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection as a serious problem in both adults and children can induce chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and possibly gastric cancer. The aim of the current study was to survey antibiotic resistance and also to determine influence of PPAR
polymorphism in patients with H. pylori infection. During an 11-month-period, 98 H. pylori isolates were collected from 104 biopsy specimens. In vitro susceptibility of H. pylori isolates to 4 antimicrobial agents metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline were assessed by quantitative method according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) guideline. PPAR
polymorphism was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The frequency of H. pylori infection in our study was 94.2%. In vitro susceptibility data showed that highest level of resistance was related to metronidazole (66.3%), and the majority of H. pylori isolates were highly susceptible to amoxicillin and tetracycline (94.9% and 96.9%, respectively). Genotypic frequencies were 25.5% for CC (Pro12Pro), 40.8% for GC (Pro12Ala) and 33.7% for GG (Ala12Ala). In our study, CG genotype had highest distributions among infected patients with H. pylori. The study suggests that the PPAR-
Pro12Ala polymorphism could be evaluated as a potential genetic marker for susceptibility to gastric cancer in the presence of H. pylori infection.
Spatial analysis of Relative Risks for skin cancer morbidity and mortality in Iran, 2008 - 2010
Zayeri, Farid ; Kavousi, Amir ; Najafimehr, Hadis ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5225~5231
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5225
Background: One of the most prevalent cancers in whole world is skin cancer and its prevalence is growing. The present research sought to estimate relative risk of morbidity and mortality due to skin cancer. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study. The required data were gathered from the registered cancer reports of Cancer Control Office in the Center for Non Communicable Disease of the Iranian Ministry of Health (MOH). The data were extracted at province level in the time span of 2008-10. WINBUGS software was used to analyze the data and to identify high risk regions. ArcGIS10 was utilized to map the distribution of skin cancer and to demonstrate high risk provinces by using classic and fully Bayesian models taking into account spatial correlations of adjacent regions separately for men and women. Results: Relative risk of morbidity for women in Yazd and for men in Kurdistan and relative risk of mortality for women in Bushehr and for men in Kohgiluyeh were found to be the highest. Bayesian model due to regarding adjacent regions correlation, have precise estimation in comparing to classical model. More frequent epidemiological studies to enact skin cancer prevention programs. Conclusions: High risk regions in Iran include central and highland regions. Therefore it is suggested that health decision makers enact public education, using anti UV creams and sunglasses for those parts as a short preventing program.
Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Healthcare Providers towards Breast Cancer in Malaysia: a Systematic Review
Azeem, Eman ; Gillani, Syed Wasif ; Siddiqui, Ammar ; HA, Al Shammary ; Poh, Vinci ; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed ; Baig, Mirza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5233~5235
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5233
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia. Therefore, it is highly important for the public to be educated on breast cancer and to know the steps to detect it early on. Healthcare providers are in the prime position to provide such education to the public due to their high knowledge regarding health and their roles in healthcare. The present systematic review involved studies conducted in recent years to analyze the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of Malaysian healthcare providers regarding breast cancer, in attempts to obtain an overall picture of how well equipped our healthcare providers are to provide optimal breast cancer education, and to see their perceptions and actual involvement in said education. The systematic review was conducted via a primary search of various databases and journal websites, and a secondary search of references used by eligible studies. Criteria for eligibility included being published from the year 2008 till present, being conducted in Malaysia, and being written in the English language. A total of two studies were eligible for this review. Findings show that Malaysian future and current healthcare providers have moderate knowledge on breast cancer, have a positive towards involvement of breast cancer education, but have poor actual involvement.
Effect of Screening on Variation in Cervical Cancer Survival by Socioeconomic Determinants - a Study from Rural South India
Thulaseedharan, Jissa Vinoda ; Malila, Nea ; Swaminathan, Rajaraman ; Esmy, Pulikottil Okuru ; Cherian, Mary ; Hakama, Matti ; Muwonge, Richard ; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5237~5242
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5237
Background: Socioeconomic factors are associated with screening in terms of reducing the risk of cervical cancer. This study aimed to clearly establish the effect of screening on variation in socio-economic factor-specific survival estimates. Materials and Methods: Survival estimates were calculated using the life table method for 165 women from the routine care control arm and 67 from the visual inspection with acetic acid screening arm diagnosed with cervical cancer during 2000-2006 in rural south India. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted to compare the variation in survival by socioeconomic factors. Results: Whereas there was a significant variation in survival estimates of the different categories of age at diagnosis among the screen-detected cancers with women aged<50 years having an improved survival, no significant variation was noted among women diagnosed with cervical cancer from the control arm. Compared to the variation among the cancer cases detected in the unscreened control group, screening widened the variation in survival estimates by age and type of house, and reduced the variation by education. The direction of the magnitude of the survival estimates was reversed within the different categories of occupation, marital status and household income in the screen-detected cancer cases compared to control group cancer cases. Also, women diagnosed with stage 1 disease had a very good survival. Conclusions: Screening changed the pattern of survival by socio-economic factors. We found improved survival rates in screened women aged <50 years, with no formal education, manual workers and married women.
Breast Cancer Awareness at the Community Level among Women in Delhi, India
Dey, Subhojit ; Mishra, Arti ; Govil, Jyotsna ; Dhillon, Preet K ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5243~5251
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5243
Background: To assess women's awareness from diverse sections of society in Delhi regarding various aspects of breast cancer (BC) - perceptions, signs and symptoms, risk factors, prevention, screening and treatment. Materials and Methods: Community-level survey was undertaken in association with the Indian Cancer Society (ICS), Delhi during May 2013-March 2014. Women attending BC awareness workshops by ICS were given self-administered questionnaires before the workshop in the local language to assess BC literacy. Information provided by 2017 women was converted into awareness scores (aware=1) for analysis using SPSS. Awareness scores were dichotomized with median score=19 as cut off, create more aware and less aware categories. Bivariate and multivariate analysis provided P-values, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Broadly, 53.4% women were aware about various aspects of BC. Notably, 49.1% women believed that BC was incurable and 73.9% women believed pain to be an initial BC symptom. Only 34.9% women performed breast self-examination (BSE) and 6.9% women had undergone clinical breast-examination/mammography. 40.5% women had higher awareness (awareness score > median score of 19), which was associated with education [graduates (OR=2.31; 95%CI=1.78, 3.16), post-graduates (OR=7.06; 95%CI=4.14, 12.05) compared to
high school] and socio-economic status (SES) [low-middle (OR=4.20; 95%CI=2.72, 6.49), middle (OR=6.00; 95%CI=3.82, 9.42) and upper (OR=6.97; 95%CI=4.10, 11.84) compared to low SES]. Conclusions: BC awareness of women in Delhi was suboptimal and was associated with low SES and education. Awareness must be drastically increased via community outreach and use of media as a first step in the fight against BC.
Mortality and Morbidity and Disease Free Survival after D1 and D2 Gastrectomy for Stomach Adenocarcinomas
Talaiezadeh, AH ; Asgari, M ; Zargar, MA ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5253~5256
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5253
Background: A number of randomized trials addressing alternative operative and multimodality approaches to gastric cancer have characterized early postoperative morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to compare mortality and morbidity and disease free survival after D1 and D2 gastrectomy for adenocarcinomas of the stomach Materials and Methods: From June 2006 to January 2012, patients were selected according to information of the cancer administrator center of Ahvaz Jundishapur Medical University. The inclusion criteria were age between 20-85 years and histologically proven adenocarcinoma of the stomach without evidence of distant metastasis. Patients were excluded if they had previous or coexisting cancer or disability disease. In this research, D1 was compared to D2 gastrectomy. Results: 131 patients were randomised, 49 allocated to D1 and 82 to D2 gastrectomy. The two groups were comparable for age, sex, site of tumors, and type of resection performed. The overall post-operative morbidity rate was 17.5%. Complications developed in 14.2% of patients after D1 and in 19.5% of patients after D2 gastrectomy (p=0.07). Postoperative mortality rate was 0.8% (one death); it was 2% after D1 and 0% after D2 gastrectomy. In this research disease free-survival after 3 years was 71.2 % with 63.2% after D1 and 76.8% after D2 gasterctomy. Conclusions: This study indicates that D2 gastrectomy with pancreas preservation is not followed by significantly higher morbidity and mortality than D1 resection. Based on the results of present study, D2 resection should be recommended as the standard surgical approach for resectable gastric cancer.
Increasing Trend in Colorectal Cancer Incidence in the Southeast of Iran 2003-2013: A Population Based Cancer Registry Study
Baniasadi, Nadieh ; Moghtader, Elahe ; Khajehkazemi, Razieh ; Mohebbi, Elham ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5257~5260
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5257
Rates based on age-adjusted incidence of colorectal cancers over a 10-year period in Kerman, the biggest province of Iran, were estimated from 2003 to 2013. Data were obtained from the population-based cancer registry unit of Kerman University of Medical Sciences (CR-KMU). Information included age, sex, city, ICD-O and year of registry. Our trend analyses cover 3.91% of the Iranian population. The data set comprised cases diagnosed from 2003 to 2013.The population of over 20 years was interpolated using 2003 and 2010 censuses. Then, truncated age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated. Increase was noted from 2003-2009 to 2010-2013 for 731 cancer cases considered in the analysis. The increases was most prominent in 2009. Totally, the frequency of the cancer was greater in males. Moreover, calculating truncated age-adjusted incidence rate indicated that the most prevalent age of colorectal incidence was in the 50-59 year age group except in 2007-2008 and 2012- 2013, when greatest incidences occurred in people aged 60-69 years. Our data revealed that the incidence rates of colorectal cancer have increased over the past decade in our region of Iran.
Diagnostic Role of Serum Free-to-Total Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Ratio in Prostate Cancer with Serum Total Concentration of PSA below 4 ng/mL
Chang, Chih-Chun ; Lee, Yi-Chen ; Tsai, Huang-Wen ; Yii, Shyi-Chun ; Yen, Tzung-Hai ; Chu, Fang-Yeh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5261~5264
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5261
Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of serum free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio (%fPSA) for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in men with different serum total PSA (tPSA) categories. Materials and Methods: From January 2010 to December 2013, a total of 225 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) underwent tPSA and %fPSA measurements. Histological examination with calculation of Gleason score and whole body bone scans were performed in identified cases of PCa. Results: PCa was diagnosed in 44 (19.6%) patients and the remaining 181 patients had benign prostate disease. PCa was detected in 5 (23.8%), 13 (8.7%) and 26 (47.3%) cases with tPSA level ranges
, 4 to 10 ng/ml and >10 ng/ml, respectively. The average Gleason score was
. Some 6 (13.6%) out of 44 PCa patients had bone metastases. The sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 81.3% at the cut-off %fPSA of 15% in PCa patients with a tPSA level below 4 ng/mL. A lower %fPSA was associated with PCa patients with Gleason score
than those with Gleason score
, P=0.029). No obvious relation of %fPSA to the incidence of bone metastasis was apparent in this study. Conclusions: The clinical application of %fPSA could help to discriminate PCa from benign prostate disease in men with a tPSA concentration below 4 ng/mL.
Pectic-Oligoshaccharides from Apples Induce Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in MDA-MB-231 Cells, a Model of Human Breast Cancer
Delphi, Ladan ; Sepehri, Houri ; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad Reza ; Mansoori, Fatemeh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5265~5271
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5265
Background: The effects of plant products on cancer cells has become a field of major importance. Many substancesmay induce apoptosis in anti-cancer treatment. Pectins, a family of complex polysaccharides, and their degradation products may for exasmple exert apoptotic effects in cancer cells. Apples and citrus fruits are the main sources of pectin which can be applied for anti-cancer research. The present study concerned an intact form of pectic-oligoshaccharide named pectic acid (poly galactronic acid). Materials and Methods: Inhibition of cell proliferation assays (MTT), light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide), DNA fragmentation tests, cell cycle analysis, annexin PI and Western blotting methods were applied to evaluate apoptosis. Results: The results indicated that pectic acid inhibited cell growth and reduced cell attachment after 24h incubation. This did not appear to be due to necrosis, since morphological features of apoptosis were detected with AO/EB staining and cell cycling was blocked in the sub-G1 phase. Annexin/PI and DNA fragmentation findings indicated that apoptosis frequency increased after 24h incubation with pectic acid. In addition, the data showed pectic acid induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. Conclusions: These data indicate that apple pectic acid without any modification could trigger apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and has potential to improve cancer treatment as a natural product.
Parameters Involved in Autophosphorylation in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: a Systems Biology Approach
Kumar, Himansu ; Tichkule, Swapnil ; Raj, Utkarsh ; Gupta, Saurabh ; Srivastava, Swati ; Varadwaj, Pritish Kumar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5273~5278
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5273
Background: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a stem cell disorder characterized by the fusion of two oncogenes namely BCR and ABL with their aberrant expression. Autophosphorylation of BCR-ABL oncogenes results in proliferation of CML. The study deals with estimation of rate constant involved in each step of the cellular autophosphorylation process, which are consequently playing important roles in the proliferation of cancerous cells. Materials and Methods: A mathematical model was proposed for autophosphorylation of BCR-ABL oncogenes utilizing ordinary differential equations to enumerate the rate of change of each responsible system component. The major difficulty to model this process is the lack of experimental data, which are needed to estimate unknown model parameters. Initial concentration data of each substrate and product for BCR-ABL systems were collected from the reported literature. All parameters were optimized through time interval simulation using the fminsearch algorithm. Results: The rate of change versus time was estimated to indicate the role of each state variable that are crucial for the systems. The time wise change in concentration of substrate shows the convergence of each parameter in autophosphorylation process. Conclusions: The role of each constituent parameter and their relative time dependent variations in autophosphorylation process could be inferred.
Outcomes for Pituitary Adenoma Patients Treated with Linac-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy: a Long Term Experience in Thailand
Puataweepong, Putipun ; Dhanachai, Mantana ; Hansasuta, Ake ; Dangprasert, Somjai ; Sitathanee, Chomporn ; Swangsilpa, Thiti ; Vitoonpanich, Patamintita ; Yongvithisatid, Pornpan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5279~5284
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5279
Background: The study analyzed the long term clinical outcomes of pituitary adenoma cases treated with the first Thailand installation of a dedicated Linac-based stereotactic radiation machine (X-Knife). Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 115 consecutive pituitary adenoma patients treated with X-Knife at the Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand from 1997 to 2003 was performed. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was selected for 21 patients (18%) including those with small tumors (
. from the optic apparatus, whereas the remaining 94 patients (82%) were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Results: With a median follow-up time of 62 months (range, 21-179), the six-year progression free survival was 95% (93% for SRS and 95% for FSRT). The overall hormone normalization at 3 and 5 years was 20% and 30%, respectively, with average time required for normalization of approximately 16 months for SRS and 20 months for FSRT. The incidence of new hypopituitarism was 10% in the SRS group and 9% in the FSRT group. Four patients (5%) developed optic neuropathy (1 in the SRS group and 3 in the FSRT group). Conclusions: Linac-based SRS and FSRT achieved similar high local control rates with few complications in pituitary adenoma cases. However, further well designed, randomized comparative studies between SRS versus FSRT particularly focusing on hormone normalization rates are required.
Hepatitis B Virus Infection Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Advanced Non Small Cell Lung Cancer
Peng, Jie-Wen ; Liu, Dong-Ying ; Lin, Gui-Nan ; Xiao, Jian-jun ; Xia, Zhong-Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5285~5288
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5285
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been reported to be associated with inferior prognosis in hepatocellular and pancreatic carcinoma cases, but has not been studied with respect to non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of HBV infection in advanced NSCLC patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort of 445 advanced NSCLC patients was recruited at our hospital from January 1, 2003 until August 30, 2014. Serum HBV markers were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. COX proportional hazards analysis was used to evaluate associations of HBV infection with overall survival (OS). Results: Of 445 patients who were qualified for the study, 68 patients were positive for HBsAg, also considered as HBV infection. Patients in HBsAg negative group were found to have better OS (12.6 months [12.2-12.9]) than those in HBsAg positive group (11.30 months [10.8-11.9]; p=0.001). Furthermore, COX multivariate analysis identified HBV infection as an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR 0.740 [0.560, 0.978], p=0.034). Conclusions: Our study found that HBsAg-positive status was an independent prognostic factor for OS in patients with advanced NSCLC. Future prospective studies are required to confirm our findings.
Individualized Chemotherapy for Metastatic Gastric Cancer: Retrospective Data from a University Hospital in Brazil
Aguiar, Pedro Nazareth Junior ; Ribas, Christian ; Forones, Nora Manoukian ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5289~5296
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5289
Background: Despite the decreased incidence, gastric cancer is still a frequent cause of cancer related death. The 1st line 2 or 3 drugs regimen is still a debatable issue. HER2 targeted therapy has emerged as the standard of care, but it is unavailable in the Brazilian Public Health System. The end-point of this trial was overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic gastric cancer treated in a public university hospital in Brazil. The secondary end-points were efficacy and safety of regimens with 2 (F+P) or 3 (EOX) drugs to develop an institutional guideline to facilitate optimal treatments. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 1st line regimens were evaluated for OS and PFS stratified by age and ECOG using Cox regression. Results: 47 patients were treated over the last 3 years. In 1st line, 29 were treated with F+P (mean 59.3 years, 34.5% ECOG 2 and a mean of 5.69 cycles) and 16 with EOX (mean 47 years, 18.8% ECOG 2 and a mean of 5.44 cycles). The median OS was 13.8 months (95%CI 10.7-16.9). Response was evaluated in 40 cases and was 64.3% for EOX and 37.5% for F+P (p=0.25). The median PFS was 9.5 months for EOX and 5.6 months for F+P (HR 0.85, 95%CI 0.41-1.74). However, among patients with ECOG 2 mPFS was 3.70 vs 5.40 months, respectively (p=0.86). Regimens showed similar manageable adverse events. A total of 34 patients suffered progression and 14 received
line therapy. Diffuse histology (HR 1.89, 95%CI 1.22-2.88), achieving 2nd line (HR: 0.25, 95%CI 0.11-0.58) and treatment response (HR 0.23, 95%CI 0.12-0.47) were OS prognostic factors. Conclusions: Patients treated in our hospital had outcomes compatible with the literature. The regimen choice should be related to patient features. Second line treatment should be considered.
Trends and Analysis of Cancer Incidence for Common Male and Female Cancers in the Population of Punjab Province of Pakistan during 1984 to 2014
Masood, Khalid ; Masood, Andleeb ; Zafar, Junaid ; Shahid, Abubaker ; Kamran, Mujahid ; Murad, Sohail ; Masood, Misbah ; Alluddin, Zafar ; Riaz, Masooma ; Akhter, Naseem ; Ahmad, Munir ; Ahmad, Fayyaz ; Akhtar, Javaid ; Naeem, Muhammad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5297~5304
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5297
Background: The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Cancer Registry (PAECCR) program has made availability of a common cancer incidence database possible in Pakistan. The cancer incidence data from nuclear medicine and oncology institutes were gathered and presented. Materials and Methods: The cancer incidence data for the last 30 years (1984-2014) are included to describe a data set of male and female patients. The data analysis concerning occurrence, trends of common cancers in male and female patients, stage-wise distribution, and mortality/follow-up cases is also incorporated for the last 10 years (2004-2014). Results: The total population of provincial capital Lahore is 9,800,000. The total number of cancer cases was 80,390 (males 32,156, females 48,134). The crude incidence rates in PAECCR areas were 580.8/
during 2010 to 885.4/
in 2014 (males 354.1/
, females 530.1/
). The cancer incidence rates for head and neck (15.70%), brain tumors (10.5%), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, 9.53%) were found to be the highest in male patients, whereas breast cancer (46.7%), ovary tumors (6.80%), and cervix (6.31%) cancer incidence rates were observed to be the most common in female patients. The age range distribution of diagnosed and treated patients in conjunction with the percentage contribution of cancer patients from 15 different cities of Punjab province treated at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology, Lahore are also included. Leukemia was found to be the most common cancer for the age group of 1-12 years. It has been identified that the maximum number of diagnosed cases were found in the age range of 51-60 years for males and 41-50 years for female cancer patients. Conclusions: Overall cancer incidence of the thirty years demonstrated that head and neck and breast cancers in males and in females respectively are the most common cancers in Punjab province in Pakistan, at rates almost the highest in Asia, requiring especial attention. The incidence of brain, NHL, and prostate cancers among males and ovarian and cervix cancers among females have increased rapidly. These data from a major population of Punjab province should be helpful for implementation of appropriate planning, prevention and cancer control measures and for determination of risk factors within the country.
Do Leukocyte and Platelet Counts Have Benefit for ＼Preoperative Evaluation of Endometrial Cancer?
Ekici, Huseyin ; Malatyalioglu, Erdal ; Kokcu, Arif ; Kurtoglu, Emel ; Tosun, Migraci ; Celik, Handan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5305~5310
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5305
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between preoperative leukocyte and platelet counts and the stage of the disease in patients with endometrial cancer. Materials and Methods: Data for 100 patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingoophorectomy for benign uterine diseases and 177 patients surgically staged for endometrial cancer at Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics between 2005 and 2013, with preoperative complete blood count in the week prior to surgery including WBC, platelet count, pathologic evaluation for both benign and malign endometrium lesions, tumor stage and presence of lymphovascular space invasion (LVI), were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The preoperative leukocyte count was significantly higher in patients with endometrial cancer when compared to the patients with benign diseases. However, there were no significant differences in platelet counts between the groups. Patients with advanced stage endometrial cancer had higher preoperative leukocyte counts when compared to the early stage disease whereas there was no difference in platelet count. Multivariate regression analysis identified preoperative leukocytosis as an independent prognostic factor for endometrial cancer. The optimal cut-off point for WBC was calculated as 10,500 to differentiate stage 1-2-3 and 4 with 88.9% sensitivity and 86.3% specificity (AUC: 0.901, 95% CI: 0.829-0.973, p<0.001, PPV: 25.8%, NPV: 99.3%). Conclusions: Preoperative leukocytosis is independently associated with advanced endometrial cancer.
Binding Pattern Elucidation of NNK and NNAL Cigarette Smoke Carcinogens with NER Pathway Enzymes: an Onco-Informatics Study
Jamal, Qazi Mohammad Sajid ; Dhasmana, Anupam ; Lohani, Mohtashim ; Firdaus, Sumbul ; Ansari, Md Yousuf ; Sahoo, Ganesh Chandra ; Haque, Shafiul ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5311~5317
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5311
Cigarette smoke derivatives like NNK (4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone) and NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butan-1-ol) are well-known carcinogens. We analyzed the interaction of enzymes involved in the NER (nucleotide excision repair) pathway with ligands (NNK and NNAL). Binding was characterized for the enzymes sharing equivalent or better interaction as compared to +Ve control. The highest obtained docking energy between NNK and enzymes RAD23A, CCNH, CDK7, and CETN2 were -7.13 kcal/mol, -7.27 kcal/mol, -8.05 kcal/mol and -7.58 kcal/mol respectively. Similarly the highest obtained docking energy between NNAL and enzymes RAD23A, CCNH, CDK7, and CETN2 were -7.46 kcal/mol, -7.94 kcal/mol, -7.83 kcal/mol and -7.67 kcal/mol respectively. In order to find out the effect of NNK and NNAL on enzymes involved in the NER pathway applying protein-protein interaction and protein-complex (i.e. enzymes docked with NNK/NNAL) interaction analysis. It was found that carcinogens are well capable to reduce the normal functioning of genes like RAD23A (HR23A), CCNH, CDK7 and CETN2. In silico analysis indicated loss of functions of these genes and their corresponding enzymes, which possibly might be a cause for alteration of DNA repair pathways leading to damage buildup and finally contributing to cancer formation.
Prognostic Factors in Oligodendrogliomas: a Clinical Study of Twenty-Five Consecutive Patients
Atalay, Tugay ; Ak, Hakan ; Celik, Bahattin ; Gulsen, Ismail ; Seckin, Hakan ; Tanik, Nermin ; Albayrak, Sedat Baki ; Bavbek, Murad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5319~5323
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5319
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of Ki-67 and subjective microvascular density (SMVD) indexes together with other factors in patients with oligodendroglioma. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, oligodendroglioma specimens obtained from twenty-five consecutive patients were evaluated for Ki-67 and SMVD indices to help determine histological grading and investigate the fidelity of these markers in clinical prognosis. Other potentially prognostic factors were Karnofsky performance scale, tumor histological grade, and adjuvant radiotherapy. Results: The Ki-67 proliferation index appeared to have a strong correlation with the grade of the tumor and the survival. Age, gender, adjuvant radiotherapy, surgical resection type (complete versus incomplete) did not have any influence on recurrence. The SMVD index correlated significantly with the 3 to 5-year survival. Conclusions: Ki-67 and MVD indexes are important and useful markers in estimating the prognosis of oligodendrogliomas.
Anti-proliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Dendrosomal Farnesiferol C on Gastric Cancer Cells
Aas, Zohreh ; Babaei, Esmaeil ; Feizi, Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour ; Dehghan, Gholamreza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5325~5329
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5325
Farnesiferol C is a natural compound with various anti-cancer properties that belongs to the class of sesquiterpene coumarins. However, the low bioavailability of farnesiferol C limits its therapeutic potential. Here, we overcame this problem utilizing dendrosome nano-particles and evaluated the anti-cancer effect of dendrosomal farnesiferol C (DFC) on the AGS gastric cancer cell line. The 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2yl)-2,5- diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were respectively used to detect the anti-proliferative properties of DFC and expression ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 as a hallmark of apoptosis. Compared to the void farnesiferol C (FC), our data showed that DFC significantly suppresses the proliferation of AGS cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). Also, DFC meaningfully increased the expression ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in AGS cells (P<0.01). The findings demonstrate that our nano-based formulation of farnesiferol C could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent in cancer targeting.
Is Surgical Staging Necessary for Patients with Low-risk Endometrial Cancer? A Retrospective Clinical Analysis
Kokcu, Arif ; Kurtoglu, Emel ; Celik, Handan ; Kefeli, Mehmet ; Tosun, Migraci ; Onal, Mesut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5331~5335
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5331
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the tumor-free and overall survival rates between patients with low-risk endometrial cancer who underwent surgical staging and those who did not undergo surgical staging. Materials and Methods: Data, including demographic characteristics, grade of the tumor, myometrial invasion, cervical involvement, peritoneal washing, lymph node involvement, lymphovascular space invasion, postoperative complication, adjuvant treatment, cancer recurrence, and tumor-free and overall survival rates, for patients with low-risk endometrioid endometrial cancer who were treated surgically with and without pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection (LND) were analyzed retrospectively. The patients diagnosed with endometrioid endometrial cancer including the following criteria were considered low-risk: 1) a grade 1 (G1) or grade 2 (G2) endometrioid histology; 2) myometrial invasion of <50% upon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); 3) no stromal glandular or stromal invasion upon MRI; and 4) no evidence of intra-abdominal metastasis. Then the patients at low-risk were divided into two groups; group 1 (n=117): patients treated surgically with pelvic and paraaortic LND and group 2 (n=170): patients treated surgically without pelvic and paraaortic LND. Results: There was no statistical significance when the groups were compared in terms of lymphovascular space invasion, cervical involvement, positive cytology, and recurrence, whereas the administration of an adjuvant therapy was higher in group 2 (p<0.005). The number of patients with positive pelvic nodes and the number of metastatic pelvic nodes were significantly higher in the group with positive LVI than in the group without LVI (p<0.005). No statistically significant differences were detected between the groups in terms of tumor-free survival (p=0.981) and overall survival (p=0.166). Conclusions: Total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and stage-adapted postoperative adjuvant therapy without pelvic and/or paraaortic lymphadenectomy may be safe and efficient treatments for low-risk endometrial cancer.
Leu432Val Polymorphism of CYP1B1 is Not Associated with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Esophagus - a Case-Control Study from Kashmir, India
Shah, Idrees Ayoub ; Mehta, Promila ; Lone, Mohd Maqbool ; Dar, Nazir Ahmad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5337~5341
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5337
Background: Individual susceptibility to cancer has been attributed to polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing genes. To evaluate the association of the Leu432Val polymorphism of cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we conducted a case control study in Kashmir, India, an area with a relatively high incidence of ESCC. Materials and Methods: We recruited 404 histopathologically confirmed ESCC cases, and an equal number of controls, individually matched for sex, age and district of residence to respective cases. Information was obtained on various dietary, lifestyle and environmental factors in face to face interviews, using a structured questionnaire, from each subject. Genotypes were analysed by polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing of randomly selected samples. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results: Among the three possible variants, we did not find any Leu432Leu genotype of CYP1B1 in the study population and the genotypic distribution of Val432Val and Leu432Val carriers was nearly equal in both cases (89.6% and 10.4%) and controls (88.9% and 11.1%) respectively. We did not find any risk associated with this polymorphism in the current study (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.55 - 1.64). Conclusions: The study indicates that (Leu432Val) polymorphism of CYP1B1, is not associated with ESCC risk. However, replicative studies with larger sample size are needed to substantiate the findings.
Increased Oxidative Stress and RUNX3 Hypermethylation in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) and Induction of RUNX3 Hypermethylation by Reactive Oxygen Species in HCC Cells
Poungpairoj, Poonsin ; Whongsiri, Patcharawalai ; Suwannasin, Surasit ; Khlaiphuengsin, Apichaya ; Tangkijvanich, Pisit ; Boonla, Chanchai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5343~5348
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5343
Promoter hypermethylation of the runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) gene is associated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Oxidative stress plays a vital role in both carcinogenesis and progression of HCC. However, whether oxidative stress and RUNX3 hypermethylation in HCC have a cause-and-effect relationship is not known. In this study, plasma protein carbonyl and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated HCC (n=60) and age-matched healthy subjects (n=80) was determined. RUNX3 methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of subjects was measured by methylation-specific PCR. Effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on induction of RUNX3 hypermethylation in HCC cells was investigated. Plasma protein carbonyl content was significantly higher, whereas plasma TAC was significantly lower, in HCC patients than healthy controls. Based on logistic regression, increased plasma protein carbonyl and decreased plasma TAC were independently associated with increased risk for HCC. PBMC RUNX3 methylation in the patient group was significantly greater than in the healthy group. RUNX3 methylation in hydrogen peroxide (
)-treated HepG2 cells was significantly higher than in untreated control cells. In conclusion, increase in oxidative stress in Thai patients with HBV-associated HCC was demonstrated. This oxidative increment was independently associated with an increased risk for HCC development. RUNX3 in PBMC was found to be hypermethylated in the HCC patients. In vitro, RUNX3 hypermethylation was experimentally induced by
. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress is a cause of RUNX3 promoter hypermethylation in HCC cells.
Association of Knowledge and Cultural Perceptions of Malaysian Women with Delay in Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer: a Systematic Review
Khan, Tahir Mehmood ; Leong, Jamie Pik Yan ; Ming, Long Chiau ; Khan, Amer Hayat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5349~5357
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5349
Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer mortality among women of all ethnic and age groups in Malaysia. Delay in seeking help for breast cancer symptoms is preventable and by identifying possible factors for delayed diagnosis, patient prognosis and survival rates could be improved. Objectives: This narrative review aimed to understand and evaluate the level of in-depth breast cancer knowledge in terms of clinical breast examination and breast self-examination, and other important aspects such as side-effects and risk factors in Malaysian females. Since Malaysia is multicultural, this review assessed social perceptions, cultural beliefs and help-seeking behaviour in respect to breast cancer among different ethnic groups, since these may impinge on efforts to 'avoid' the disease. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive literature search of seven databases was performed from December 2015 to January 2015. Screening of relevant published journals was also undertaken to identify available information related to the knowledge, perception and help-seeking behaviour of Malaysian women in relation to breast cancer. Results: A total of 42 articles were appraised and included in this review. Generally, women in Malaysia had good awareness of breast cancer and its screening tools, particularly breast self-examination, but only superficial in-depth knowledge about the disease. Women in rural areas had lower levels of knowledge than those in urban areas. It was also shown that books, magazines, brochures and television were among the most common sources of breast cancer information. Delay in presentation was attributed mainly to a negative social perception of the disease, poverty, cultural and religion practices, and a strong influence of complementary and alternative medicine, rather than a lack of knowledge. Conclusions: This review highlighted the need for an intensive and in-depth breast cancer education campaigns using media and community health programmes, even with the existing good awareness of breast cancer. This is essential in order to avoid misconceptions and to frame the correct mind-set about breast cancer among women in Malaysia. Socio-cultural differences and religious practices should be taken into account by health care professionals when advising on breast cancer. Women need to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of breast cancer so that early diagnosis can take place and the chances of survival improved.
Expression of Granulysin and FOXP3 in Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma and Sézary Syndrome
Shareef, Mohamed Moustafa ; Elgarhy, Lamia Hamouda ; Wasfy, Rania El-Said ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5359~5364
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5359
Background: Multiple complex pathways are operable in the evolution of cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCLs). These pathways involve interaction between neoplastic T cells and cells of the immune system (especially dendritic cells and the non-malignant T cells). Granulysin is a proinflammatory antimicrobial peptide which has an immune alarmin function, activating dendritic cells, as well as an active role in tumor immunology and prognosis. FOXP3+ regulatory T cells Tregs are an important player in the immune system. Much controversy is found in the literature about the role of Tregs in CTCL. Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the expression of granulysin and FOXP3 in mycosis fungoides (MF), its precursor lesion large plaque parapsoriasis and its leukemic form ;
syndrome (SS). Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of granulysin and FOXP3 were assessed in lesional skin biopsies taken from 58 patients (4 large plaque parapsoriasis, 48 MF and 6 SS). Results: Granulysin positivity was cytoplasmic and higher in MF than in parapsoriasis en plaque and higher in the more advanced stages of MF (p<0.001). All groups showed significant differences between each other except between MF tumor stage and SS. FOXP3 positivity was nuclear and higher in early stage MF (plaque and patch stages) than in tumor stages and SS (p<0.001). However the FOXP3 count was lower in parapsoriasis en plaque than in other stages of MF. All the groups showed significant differences between each other except between parapsoriasis and SS and between patch and plaque stages of MF. Conclusions: The present study supports a role for granulysin in MF progression and proposes a novel hypothesis about the effect of FOXP3 +veTregs in the suppression of the activity of the neoplastic cells in MF.
Comparison of the Formula of PSA, Age, Prostate Volume and Race Versus PSA Density and the Detection of Primary Malignant Circulating Prostate Cells in Predicting a Positive Initial Prostate Biopsy in Chilean Men with Suspicion of Prostate Cancer
Murray, Nigel P ; Reyes, Eduardo ; Fuentealba, Cynthia ; Orellana, Nelson ; Morales, Francisca ; Jacob, Omar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5365~5370
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5365
Background: Combining risk factors for prostate cancer into a predictive tool may improve the detection of prostate cancer while decreasing the number of benign biopsies. We compare one such tool, age multiplied by prostate volume divided by total serum PSA (PSA-AV) with PSA density and detection of primary malignant circulating prostate cells (CPCs) in a Chilean prostate cancer screening program. The objectives were not only to determine the predictive values of each, but to determine the number of clinically significant cancers that would have been detected or missed. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted of all men undergoing 12 core ultrasound guided prostate biopsy for suspicion of cancer attending the Hospital DIPRECA and Hospital de Carabineros de Chile. Total serum PSA was registered, prostate volumecalculated at the moment of biopsy, and an 8ml blood simple taken immediately before the biopsy procedure. Mononuclear cells were obtained from the blood simple using differential gel centrifugation and CPCs identified using immunocytchemistry with anti-PSA and anti-P504S. Biopsy results were classed as positive or negative for cancer and if positive the Gleason score, number of positive cores and percent infiltration recorded. Results: A total of 664 men participated, of whom 234 (35.2%) had cancer detected. They were older, had higher mean PSA, PSA density and lower PSA-AV. Detection of CPCs had high predictive score, sensitivity, sensibility and positive and negative predictive values, PSA-AV was not significantly different from PSA density in this population. The use of CPC detection avoided more biopsies and missed fewer significant cancers.Conclusions: In this screening population the use of CPC detection predicted the presence of clinically significant prostate cancer better than the other parameters. The high negative predictive value would allow men CPC negative to avoid biopsy but remain in follow up. The formula PSA-AV did not add to the predictive performance using PSA density.
Antioxidant Effect of Berberine and its Phenolic Derivatives Against Human Fibrosarcoma Cells
Pongkittiphan, Veerachai ; Chavasiri, Warinthorn ; Supabphol, Roongtawan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5371~5376
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5371
Berberine (B1), isolated from stems of Coscinium fenestratum (Goetgh.) Colebr, was used as a principle structure to synthesize three phenolic derivatives: berberrubine (B2) with a single phenolic group, berberrubine chloride (B3) as a chloride counter ion derivative, and 2,3,9,10-tetra-hydroxyberberine chloride (B4) with four phenolic groups, to investigate their direct and indirect antioxidant activities. For DPPH assay, compounds B4, B3, and B2 showed good direct antioxidant activity (
, respectively) whereas the
value of berberine was higher than
. Moreover, compound B4 exhibited a better DPPH scavenging activity than BHT as a standard antioxidant (
) due to the ortho position of hydroxyl groups and its capacity to undergo intramolecular hydrogen bonding. For cytotoxicity assay against human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) using MTT reagent, the sequence of
value at 7-day treatment stated that B1 < B4 < B2 (
, respectively). Berberine derivatives, B2 and B4, showed approximately the same level of CAT expression and significant up-regulation of SOD expression in a dose-dependent manner compared to berberine treatment for 7-day exposure using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. Our findings show a better direct-antioxidant activity of the derivatives containing phenolic groups than berberine in a cell-free system. For cell-based system, berberine was able to exert better cytotoxic activity than its derivatives. Berberine derivatives containing a single and four phenolic groups showed improved up-regulation of SOD gene expression. Cytotoxic action might not be the main effect of berberine derivatives. Other pharmacological targets of these derivatives should be further investigated to confirm the medical benefit of phenolic groups introduced into the berberine molecule.
Predictors of Participation in Prostate Cancer Screening among Older Men in Jordan
Abuadas, Mohammad H ; Petro-Nustas, Wasileh ; Albikawi, Zainab F. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5377~5383
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5377
Background: Participation is one of the major factors affecting the long-term success of population-based prostate cancer screening programs. The aim of this study was to explore strong factors linked to participation in prostate cancer screening among older Jordanian adults using the Health Belief Model (HBM). Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from Jordanian older adults, aged 40 years and over, who visited a comprehensive health care center within the Ministry of Health. A pilot test was conducted to investigate the internal consistency of the the Champion Health Belief Model Scale for prostate cancer screening and the clarity of survey questions. Sample characteristics and rates of participation in prostate cancer screening were examined using means and frequencies. Important factors associated with participation in prostate cancer screening were examined using bivariate correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: About 13% of the respondents had adhered to prostate cancer screening guidelines over the previous decade. Four out of the seven HBM-driven factors (perceived susceptibility, benefits and barriers to PSA test, and health motivation) were statistically significant. Those with greater levels of susceptibility, benefits of PSA test and health motivation and lower levels of barriers to PSA testing were more likely to participate in prostate cancer screening. Family history, presence of urinary symptoms, age, and knowledge about prostate cancer significantly predicted the participation in prostate cancer screening. Conclusions: Health professionals should focus more on the four modifiable HBMrelated factors to encourage older adults to participate in prostate cancer screening. Intervention programs, which lower perceived barriers to PSA testing and increase susceptibility, benefits of PSA testing and health motivation, should be developed and implemented.
Presentation and Outcomes of Gastric Cancer at a University Teaching Hospital in Nepal
Sah, Jayant Kumar ; Singh, Yogendra P ; Ghimire, Bikal ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5385~5388
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5385
Background: Gastric cancer is the most common gastrointestinal cancer and a leading cause of cancer mortality in Nepal. Survival of gastric cancer patients depends on the stage at which diagnosis is made. The aim of this study was to analyze the presentation and outcomes of gastric cancer patients treated at a tertiary care hospital in Nepal. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 140 consecutive histologically proven gastric adenocarcinoma cases managed at the Department of Surgery, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal for the period of January 2009 to December 2013 was carried out. Results: One hundred forty out of the total 186 patients with histologically proven gastric adenocarcinoma, were admitted for surgery. The mean age was
(range 29 to 78 yrs) and the male: female ratio was 2:1. Sixty three (45%) patients featured Tibeto-Burman descent though this ethnic group accounts for only 18% of the Nepalese population. Two-thirds or more patients presented with abdominal pain, anorexia, weight loss and/or vomiting. In 86 (61.5%) of the patients the tumor was located in the lower
of the stomach and in only 15% of the patients the tumor was located at the upper
. Early gastric cancer was diagnosed postoperatively in only 4%. In 54%, the disease was locally advanced and metastatic lesions were found in 14% of the patients. Subtotal (73) or total (11) curative gastrectomies (D1, D1+ or D2) were performed in 84 (60%) patients with average lymph node retrieval of
. Palliative gastrectomies or procedures were performed in 23% of the patients and no intervention (open & close/biopsy) was employed in 15% of the patients. Perioperative morbidity was seen in 10% and mortality in 4%. Three, four and five year survival rates up to the recent follow-up were 17.9%, 11.9% and 8.3%, respectively. Conclusions: Gastric cancer in Nepal is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis. Thus, early detection is the key to improve the survival of gastric cancer patients.
Diet and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Asia - a Systematic Review
Azeem, Salman ; Gillani, Syed Wasif ; Siddiqui, Ammar ; Jandrajupalli, Suresh Babu ; Poh, Vinci ; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5389~5396
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5389
Diet is one of the major factors that can exert a majorly influence on colorectal cancer risk. This systematic review aimed to find correlations between various diet types, food or nutrients and colorectal cancer risk among Asian populations. Search limitations include dAsian populations residing in Asia, being published from the year 2008 till present, and written in the English language. A total of 16 articles were included in this systematic review. We found that red meats, processed meats, preserved foods, saturated/animal fats, cholesterol, high sugar foods, spicy foods, tubers or refined carbohydrates have been found by most studies to have a positive association with colorectal cancer risk. Inversely, calcium/dairy foods, vitamin D, general vegetable/fruit/fiber consumption, cruciferous vegetables, soy bean/soy products, selenium, vitamins C,E and B12, lycophene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, folic acid and many other vitamins and minerals play a protective role against colorectal cancer risk. Associations of fish and seafood consumption with colorectal cancer risk are still inconclusive due to many varying findings, and require further more detailed studies to pinpoint the actual correlation. There is either a positive or no association for total meat consumption or white meats, however their influence is not as strong as with red and processed meats.
Platelet Indices May be Useful in Discrimination of Benign and Malign Endometrial Lesions, and Early and Advanced Stage Endometrial Cancer
Kurtoglu, Emel ; Kokcu, Arif ; Celik, Handan ; Sari, Seher ; Tosun, Migraci ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5397~5400
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5397
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of white blood cells (WBC), the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet indices including mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), platelet crit (PCT) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in discrimination between benign and malign endometrial lesions, and early and advanced stage endometrial adenocarcinomas. Materials and Methods: Data for 105 patients undergoing total abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy for benign uterine diseases and 114 patients surgically staged for endometrium adenocarcinoma at Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, between 2008 and 2014, were collected. Parameters were preoperative and postoperative complete blood counts in the week prior to surgery with differentials including WBC, platelet count, platelet indices (MPV, PCT, PDW), NLR and PLR. Pathologic evaluations for both benign and malign endometrium lesions, grade of endometrium adenocarcinoma, tumor stage, presence of lymphovascular space invasion (LVI) were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Regarding definitive factors in discriminating patients with endometrium cancer from those with benign diseases, MPV was significantly increased in the malign group whereas there was a significant decrease in the PDW value compared to the benign group. The best cut-off value in differentiation of the benign and malign groups, malign cases were found to increase over the value of 7.54 for MPV, and under 37.8 for PDW. When definitive factors in discrimination of early stage endometrium cancer from advanced stage disease and LVI in the malign group were evaluated according to the ROC analysis, no significant relation was detected between blood parameters and the stage and the LVI of the disease. Conclusions: MPV and PDW may have predictive value in the discrimination of benign and malign endometrium diseases. Nevertheless, since there have been few reports on this topic, further large-scale prospective studies are necessary.
Brain Metastases from Solid Tumors: an Institutional Study from South India
Ghosh, Saptarshi ; Rao, Pamidimukkala Brahmananda ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5401~5406
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5401
Background: Brain metastases are the most common intra-cranial neoplasms. The incidence is on a rise due to advanced imaging techniques. Aims: The objective of the study was to analyse the clinical and demographic profile of patients with brain metastases from primary solid tumors. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective single institutional study covering 130 consecutive patients with brain metastases from January 2007 to August 2014. Results: Some 64.6% of the patients were females. The majority were in the sixth decade of life. The site of the primary tumor was the lungs in 50.8% of the cases. The overall median time from the diagnosis of the primary malignancy to detection of brain metastases was 21.4 months. Survival was found to be significantly improved in patients with solitary brain lesions when compared to patients with multiple brain metastases, and in patients undergoing surgical excision with or without cranial irradiation when compared to whole brain irradiation alone. The majority of the cases belonged to the recursive partitioning analysis class II group. Whole brain radiation therapy was delivered to 79% of the patients. Conclusions: Most of the patients with brain metastases in the study belonged to recursive partitioning analysis classes II or III, and hence had poor prognosis. Most of the patients in the Indian context either do not satisfy the indications for surgical excision or are incapable of bearing the high cost associated with stereotactic radiosurgery. Treatment should be tailored on an individual basis to all these patients.
The P275A Polymorphism in the Macrophage Scavenger Receptor 1 Gene and Prostate Cancer Risk: a Meta-Analysis
Zhou, Qiao-Xia ; Tang, Jian-Qiu ; Zhao, Fen ; Wei, Fu-Lin ; Huang, Ying ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5407~5413
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5407
Background: Published data regarding associations between the P275A polymorphism in the macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1) gene and prostate cancer (PCa) risk are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the genetic risk of P275A polymorphism in MSR1 gene for PCa. Materials and Methods: A systematic literature search was carried out in Pubmed, Medline (Ovid), Embase, CBM, CNKI, Weipu, and Wanfang databases, covering all available publications (last search was performed on Apr 27, 2015). Statistical analysis was performed using Revman 5.2 and STATA 10.1 software. Results: A total of 5,017 cases and 4,869 controls in 12 case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. When all groups were pooled, there was no evidence that the P275A polymorphism had a significant association with PCa under dominant (OR=0.93, 95%CI=0.81-1.06, and p=0.28), co-dominant (homogeneous OR=0.97, 95%CI=0.56-1.68, and p=0.92; heterogeneous OR=0.93, 95%CI=0.74-1.15, and p=0.49), recessive (OR=1.10, 95%CI=0.65-1.87, and p=0.73), over-dominant (OR=0.93, 95%CI=0.75-1.15, and p=0.50), and allelic (OR=0.95, 95%CI=0.77-1.16, and p=0.61) genetic models. For stratified analyses by ethnicity and study design, no significant associations were found in the white race, the yellow race, the black race and mixed ethnicity, and the population-based case-control (PCC) and hospital-based case-control (HCC) studies under all genetic models. Conclusions: Based on our meta-analysis, the P275A polymorphism in the MSR1 gene is unlikely to be a risk factor for PCa.
HPV, Cervical Cancer and Pap Test Related Knowledge Among a Sample of Female Dental Students in India
Doshi, Dolar ; Reddy, B Srikanth ; Karunakar, P ; Deshpande, Kopparesh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5415~5420
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5415
Background: The present study was designed to ascertain knowledge about HPV, cervical cancer (CC) and the Pap test among female dental students of Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Hyderabad, India. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire covering demographic details, knowledge relating to human papilloma virus (HPV) (8 items), cervical cancer (4 items) and the Pap smear (6 items) was employed. Responses were coded as "True, False and Don't Know". Mean and standard deviation (SD) for correct answers and levels of knowledge were determined. Results: Based on the year of study, significant differences in knowledge of HPV werenoted for questions on symptoms (p=0.01); transmission from asymptomatic partners (p=0.002); treatment with antibiotics (p=0.002); start of sexual activity (p=0.004); and recommended age for HPV vaccination (p=0.01). For knowledge regarding CC, significance was observed for the age group being affected (p=0.008) and symptoms of the disease in early stages (p=0.001). Indications for Pap smear tests like symptoms' of vaginal discharge (p=0.002), marital status (p=0.01) and women with children (p=0.02) had significant difference based on the year of study. Based on religion, transmission of HPV via pregnancy, HPV related diseases except CC and preventive measures except condom use and oral contraceptives showed significant differences. However, significant variation with religion was observed only for two preventive measures of CC (Pap test; p=0.004) and HPV vaccination (p=0.003). Likewise, only the frequency of Pap test showed a significant difference for religion (p=0.001). Conclusions: This study emphasizes the lack of awareness with regard to HPV, CC and screening with pap smear even among health professionals. Hence, regular health campaigns are essential to reduce the disease burden.
Growth Hormone 1 T1663A Polymorphism, Recreational Physical Activity and BMI, and Breast Cancer Risk in Chinese Women
Gao, Chang-Ming ; Ding, Jian-Hua ; Wu, Jian-Shong ; Cao, Hai-Xia ; Li, Su-Ping ; Liu, Yan-Ting ; Tang, Jin-Hai ; Tajima, Kazuo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5421~5425
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5421
To evaluate the relationship between the growth hormone 1 (GH1) T1663A polymorphism, recreational physical activity and body mass index (BMI) with reference to breast cancer, we conducted a case-control study with 669 cases of breast cancer and 682 population-based controls in Jiangsu Province, China. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit detailed information. All subjects completed an in-person interview. GH1 genotypes were identified using PCR-RFLP methods. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with an unconditional logistic model. The distribution of GH1 genotypes was not significantly different between controls and cases (
=2.576, P=0.276). Results of stratified analysis by the participation status of the recreational physical activity showed that the persons with GH1 A allele were at a decreased risk of breast cancer (adjusted-OR=0.66; 95% CI, 0.50-0.87) only among inactive individuals. Stratified analysis by BMI showed that the genotype A/A was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer only among individuals of the BMI <25 (adjusted-OR=0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.98). The findings of this study suggest that recreational physical activity and BMI may modify any association between the GH1 T1663A polymorphism and breast cancer risk.
Epidemiology of Oral Cancer in Iran: a Systematic Review
Maleki, Davood ; Ghojazadeh, Morteza ; Mahmoudi, Seyed-Sajjad ; Mahmoudi, Seed-Mostafa ; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh ; Torab, Ali ; Piri, Reza ; Azami-Aghdash, Saber ; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5427~5432
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5427
Background: Oral cancer stands among the 10 top causes of cancer death in the world. Considering the role of epidemiologic information on planning and effective interventions, the present study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of oral cancer in Iran. Materials and Methods: The required information for this systematic review study was obtained from PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL,SID, Medlib, Magiran and Iranmedex databases, using key words "cancer", "oral cancer", "squamous cell carcinoma", "oral cavity carcinoma" and their Persian equivalents in combination with keywords of epidemiology, prevalence, etiology, frequency, and Iran from 1990 to 2014. From 1,065 related studies found, finally 25 were included to the study. Results: The mean age of 8,248 patients in 25 studies was
. The male/female ratio for oral cancer was 1.91. Tongue with average percentage of 29.9 was the most involved site. Regarding microscopic grade, 65.7% of cases were grade 1. SCCs, accounting for an average of 70.0%, was the most common among all types of oral cancer. In the majority of studies, smoking including cigarette, hookah, and tobacco consumption was found to be a risk factor. Conclusions: The epidemiological pattern of oral cancer in Iran is somewhat similar to that of other countries. Yet the information on hand in this field is limited and considering the role of epidemiological data we suggest conducting more accurate studies to catch data that is required for effective programs and interventions.
Clinical Characteristics Associated with Long-term Survival in Metastatic Gastric Cancer after Systemic Chemotherapy
Kadowaki, Shigenori ; Komori, Azusa ; Takahari, Daisuke ; Ura, Takashi ; Ito, Seiji ; Tajika, Masahiro ; Niwa, Yasumasa ; Oze, Isao ; Muro, Kei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5433~5438
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5433
Background: Systemic chemotherapy for patients with metastatic gastric cancer (MGC) is generally palliative, although some patients experience long-term survival after treatment. Thus, we identified clinical characteristics that are associated with long-term survival of patients with MGC after palliative chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 514 MGC patients who received systemic chemotherapy at our institution from 2001 to 2008. To identify clinical predictors of survival beyond 2 years, multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, and 5-year survival rates were estimated among MGC patients following chemotherapy. Results: Among 514 patients, 96 (19%) and 16 (3%) survived beyond 2 and 5 years, respectively, and performance status of 0 or 1 (odds ratio [OR]=3.39; p=0.01), previous gastrectomy (OR=1.86; p=0.01), single metastatic site (OR=1.80; p=0.03), and normal alkaline phosphatase levels (OR=2.81; p<0.01) were identified as independent predictors of long-term survival. Of the 16 5-year survivors, six were alive at the end of the study and showed no evidence of disease despite cessation of chemotherapy. Conclusions: The present data demonstrate distinct clinical characteristics that are associated with long-term survival of MGC patients, and indicated that palliative chemotherapy can be curative in highly selected patients.
Oral Cancer Knowledge and Practice among Dental Patients and their Attitude Towards Tobacco Cessation in Iran
Razavi, Sayed Mohammad ; Tahani, Bahareh ; Nouri, Samin ; Khazaei, Azadeh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5439~5444
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5439
Background: One of the main causes of delay in diagnosis of oral cancer is lack of awareness about aetiology and symptoms among the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of patients regarding oral cancer and their attitude towards tobacco cessation. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Isfahan-Iran in 2014. A 29-item self-administrated questionnaire was designed and piloted and distributed to patients attending dental clinics. Questions were focused on awareness about oral cancer risk factors, signs and symptoms, places in the mouth which are more susceptible and attitude toward tobacco cessation. Chi-square, T-test, ANOVA and logistic regression tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 546 valid completed questionnaires were obtained. The mean knowledge score of patients was 4.1(
) out of 13. Some 80% of patients did not know about early manifestations of oral cancer. Only 18% knew the most likely sites of oral cancer. Only 43.1% and 65.2% of patients reported alcohol and tobacco consumption as the main risk factors but they had a fair knowledge about other risk factors. There was no significant difference in Knowledge level between patients regarding their sex, educational levels and age. Most patents (90%) expected their dentists to warn them about the harmful effects of smoking and showed willingness to quit if recommended. Conclusions: Knowledge about oral cancer was found to be quite low. It seems necessary to increase the level of public awareness using educational programs with cooperation of dentists in tobacco cessation programs.
Network Analyses of Gene Expression following Fascin Knockdown in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells
Du, Ze-Peng ; Wu, Bing-Li ; Xie, Jian-Jun ; Lin, Xuan-Hao ; Qiu, Xiao-Yang ; Zhan, Xiao-Fen ; Wang, Shao-Hong ; Shen, Jin-Hui ; Li, En-Min ; Xu, Li-Yan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5445~5451
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5445
Fascin-1 (FSCN1) is an actin-bundling protein that induces cell membrane protrusions, increases cell motility, and is overexpressed in various human epithelial cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We analyzed various protein-protein interactions (PPI) of differentially-expressed genes (DEGs), in fascin knockdown ESCC cells, to explore the role of fascin overexpression. The node-degree distributions indicated these PPI sub-networks to be characterized as scale-free. Subcellular localization analysis revealed DEGs to interact with other proteins directly or indirectly, distributed in multiple layers of extracellular membrane-cytoskeleton/ cytoplasm-nucleus. The functional annotation map revealed hundreds of significant gene ontology (GO) terms, especially those associated with cytoskeleton organization of FSCN1. The Random Walk with Restart algorithm was applied to identify the prioritizations of these DEGs when considering their relationship with FSCN1. These analyses based on PPI network have greatly expanded our comprehension of the mRNA expression profile following fascin knockdown to future examine the roles and mechanisms of fascin action.
Perceptions of Iranian Cancer Patients Regarding Respecting their Dignity in Hospital Settings
Avestan, Zoleikha ; Rahmani, Azad ; Heshmati-Nabavi, Fatemeh ; Mogadasian, Sima ; Faghani, Safieh ; Azadi, Arman ; Esfahani, Ali ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5453~5458
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5453
Background: There are several factors that threaten the dignity of cancer patients in hospital settings. However, there is limited literature regarding the degree to which dignity of cancer patients is actually respected in daily clinical practice. The aims of this study were therefore to explore cancer patient perceptions of respecting their dignity and related variables in an Iranian cancer specific center. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was carried out among 250 cancer patients admitted to a cancer specific center in East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. These patients were selected using a convenience sampling method. The Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI) was used for data collection. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Results: The patients' scores in 18 out of 25 items of PDI were 3 or greater which indicate the importance of considering these items in clinical settings. Also, the score of patients in three sub-scales of PDI including illness-related concerns, personal dignity, and social dignity were 74, 65 and 57, respectively (based on a total 100). The overall score of PDI was statistically associated with age, history of disease recurrence, education, employment and economic status of participants. Conclusions: According to the study findings the dignity of Iranian cancer patients is not completely respected in clinical settings which require special considerations. As nurses spend more time at patients' bedsides, they have an important role in maintaining and promoting dignified care.
Epidemiology of Childhood Cancer in Northwest Iran
Fathi, Afshin ; Amani, Firouz ; Bahadoram, Mohammad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5459~5462
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5459
This case series study was performed for all 83 children below 14 years old suffering from cancer during 2010-2013 who were registered in Ardabil pediatric cancer registry (APCR). The required data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS.19 statistical methods software. Some 51 (61.4%) of cases were male. The mean age of patients was 5.8 years. Of the total, 60 (72.3%) of cases were from urban areas. Results showed that leukemia with 54.2%, CNS with 12% and neuroblastoma with 8.4% were the most prevalent childhood malignancies in Ardabil province. Based on the under 14 year old population estimated from Ardabil province, the cumulative incidence rate was 95.4 patients per one million. The incidence rate was relatively high so that childhood cancers should be considered as an important issue in health policy making in Ardabil province of Iran.
Relation of Compassionate Competence to Burnout, Job Stress, Turnover Intention, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment for Oncology Nurses in Korea
Park, Sun-A ; Ahn, Seung-Hee ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5463~5469
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5463
Background: Nursing focuses on the development of an empathic relationship between the nurse and the patients. Compassionate competence, in particular, is a very important trait for oncology nurses. The current study sought to determine the degree of compassionate competence in oncology nurses, as well as to determine the relationships between compassionate competence, burnout, job stress, turnover intention, degrees of job satisfaction, and organizational commitment in oncology nurses. Materials and Methods: A descriptive correlational study evaluating the relationships between compassionate competence, burnout, job stress, turnover intention, degrees of job satisfaction, and organizational commitment in 419 oncology nurses was conducted between January 30 and February 20, 2015. Results: The average score of compassionate competence for oncology nurses in the current study was higher than for clinical nurses. Conclusions: The correlational analysis between compassionate competence and organizational commitment, burnout, job stress, turnover intention, and degree of job satisfaction revealed a high correlation between compassionate competence and positive job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Conclusions: Compassionate competence was higher in oncology nurses than in nurses investigated in previous studies and positively correlated with work experience. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment in nurses may be improved through compassionate competence enhancement programs that employ a variety of experiences.
High Efficiency Apoptosis Induction in Breast Cancer Cell Lines by MLN4924/2DG Co-Treatment
Oladghaffari, Maryam ; Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh ; Baradaran, Behzad ; Monfared, Ali Shabestani ; Farajollahi, Alireza ; Shanehbandi, Dariush ; Mohammadi, Mohsen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5471~5476
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5471
2-deoxy-D-Glucose (2DG) causes cytotoxicity in cancer cells by disrupting thiol metabolism. It is an effective component in therapeutic strategies. It targets the metabolism of cancer cells with glycolysis inhibitory activity. On the other hand, MLN4924, a newly discovered investigational small molecule inhibitor of NAE (NEDD8 activating enzyme), inactivates SCF E3 ligase and causes accumulation of its substrates which triggers apoptosis. Combination of these components might provide a more efficient approach to treatment. In this research, 2DG and MLN4924 were co-applied to breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and SKBR-3) and cytotoxic and apoptotic activity were evaluated the by Micro culture tetrazolium test (MTT), TUNEL and ELISA methods. Caspase3 and Bcl2 genes expression were evaluated by real time Q-PCR methods. The results showed that MLN4924 and MLN4924/2DG dose-dependently suppressed the proliferation of MCF7 and SKBR-3 cells. Cell survival of breast cancer cells exposed to the combination of 2DG/MLN4924 was decreased significantly compared to controls (p<0.05), while 2DG and MLN4924 alone had less pronounced effects on the cells. The obtained results suggest that 2DG/MLN4924 is much more efficient in breast cancer cell lines with enhanced cytotoxicity via inducing a apoptosis cell signaling gene, caspase-3.
Analysis of Prethrombotic States in Patients with Malignant Tumors
Cui, Lin ; Sun, You-Hong ; Chen, Jue ; Wang, Lu ; Liu, Jian-Jun ; Zhou, Xiang-Rong ; Ding, Jie ; Liu, Xing-Xiang ; Huang, Xin-En ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5477~5482
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5477
Background: This study aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors for a prethrombotic state in patients with malignant tumors. Materials and Methods: Plasma d-dimer (D-D) in patients with malignant tumors was measured. Abnormal rates of D-D and possible risk factors like gender, age, type of tumor, and staging of tumor were analyzed. Results: Of 1,453 patients, 629 demonstrated plasma D-D abnormality (43.3%). The D-D abnormal rate of male patients (n=851, 43.5%) was not statistically significantly different from that for female patients (n=602, 43.0%) (p>0.05). D-D abnormal rate increased with age and was statistically significant among different age groups (p<0.05). Regarding staging of tumor, D-D abnormal rate in patients with phase I was 2.0%, 6.2% in phase II, 47.6% in phase III and 83.1% in phase IV, with statistically significant differences between phase III and II, as well as phase III and IV (p<0.01). Conclusions: A prethrombotic state was closely related to malignancy of tumors. The risk factors for a prethrombotic state include age and tumor stage.
Comparison of Perioperative and Oncologic Outcomes with Laparotomy, and Laparoscopic or Robotic Surgery for Women with Endometrial Cancer
Manchana, Tarinee ; Puangsricharoen, Pimpitcha ; Sirisabya, Nakarin ; Worasethsin, Pongkasem ; Vasuratna, Apichai ; Termrungruanglert, Wichai ; Tresukosol, Damrong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5483~5488
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5483
Purpose: To compare perioperative outcomes and oncologic outcomes in endometrial cancer patients treated with laparotomy, and laparoscopic or robotic surgery. Materials and Methods: Endometrial cancer patients who underwent primary surgery from January 2011 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Perioperative outcomes, including estimated blood loss (EBL), operation time, number of lymph nodes retrieved, and intra and postoperative complications, were reviewed. Recovery time, disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared. Results: Of the total of 218 patients, 143 underwent laparotomy, 47 laparoscopy, and 28 robotic surgery. The laparotomy group had the highest EBL (300, 200, 200 ml, p<0.05) while the robotic group had the longest operative time (302 min) as compared with laparoscopy (180 min) and laparotomy (125 min) (p<0.05). Intra and postoperative complications were not different with any of the surgical approaches. No significant difference in number of lymph nodes retrieved was identified. The longest hospital stay was reported in the laparotomy group (four days) but there was no difference between the laparoscopy (three days) and robotic (three days) groups. Recovery was significantly faster in robotic group than laparotomy group (14 and 28 days, p =0.003). No significant difference in DFS and OS at 21 months of median follow up time was observed among the three groups. Conclusions: Minimally invasive surgery has more favorable outcomes, including lower blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and faster recovery time than laparotomy. It also has equivalent perioperative complications and short term oncologic outcomes. MIS is feasible as an alternative option to surgery of endometrial cancer.
Differential Expression of Cytokeratin 13 in Non-Neoplastic, Dysplastic and Neoplastic Oral Mucosa in a High Risk Pakistani Population
Farrukh, Sanniya ; Syed, Serajuddaula ; Pervez, Shahid ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5489~5492
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5489
Background: Gradual loss of cytokeratin 13 (CK13) may be linked with the severity of dysplastic changes and transformation to malignancy. In this study we assessed the differential expression of CK13 in normal, hyperplastic, dysplastic and cancerous oral mucosa. Materials and Methods: A total of 93 oral biopsies were collected during the 2011-2014 period. The biopsies were characterized as normal (19), hyperplastic (21), severely dysplastic/carcinoma in situ (16) and invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) (37) after morphological assessment. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections were stained with a monoclonal antibody against CK13 using the Envision technique. Immunohistochemically stained slides were then analyzed for CK13 expression. Results: CK13 was consistently and diffusely expressed in all normal and hyperplastic tissue biopsies from oral mucosa. Severely dysplastic/carcinoma in situ biopsies showed complete loss in 50% of cases, while in the remaining 50% expression was very focal and weak. OSCC cases showed complete or near complete loss of CK13 in all cases. Few cases showed weak expression in keratin pearls only. Conclusions: This study validates the utility of CK13 IHC as a useful immunohistochemical marker in routine diagnostic practice to make distinction between non-neoplastic from dysplastic and neoplastic (malignant) oral lesions.
Total and Partial Prevalence of Cancer Across Kerman Province, Iran, in 2014, Using an Adapted Generalized Network Scale-Up Method
Vardanjani, Hossein Molavi ; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza ; Haghdoost, AliAkbar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5493~5498
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5493
Due to the lack of nationwide population-based cancer registration, the total cancer prevalence in Iran is unknown. Our previous work in which we used a basic network scale-up (NSU) method, failed to provide plausible estimates of total cancer prevalence in Kerman. The aim of the present study was to estimate total and partial prevalence of cancer in southeastern Iran using an adapted version of the generalized network scale-up method. A survey was conducted in 2014 using multi-stage cluster sampling. A total of 1995 face-to-face gender-matched interviews were performed based on an adapted version of the NSU questionnaire. Interviewees were asked about their family cancer history. Total and partial prevalence were estimated using a generalized NSU estimator. The Monte Carlo method was adopted for the estimation of upper/lower bounds of the uncertainty range of point estimates. One-yr, 2-3 yr, and 4-5 yr prevalence (per 100,000 people) was respectively estimated at 78 (95%CI, 66, 90), 128 (95%CI, 118, 147), and 59 (95%CI, 49, 70) for women, and 48 (95%CI, 38, 58), 78 (95%CI, 66, 91), and 42 (95%CI, 32, 52) for men. The 5-yr prevalence of all cancers was estimated at 0.18 percent for men, and 0.27 percent for women. This study showed that the generalized familial network scale-up method is capable of estimating cancer prevalence, with acceptable precision.
Cancer Care Burden among Primary Family Caregivers of Iranian Hematologic Cancer Patients
Abbasnezhad, Masoomeh ; Rahmani, Azad ; Ghahramanian, Akram ; Roshangar, Fariborz ; Eivazi, Jamal ; Azadi, Arman ; Berahmany, Golshan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5499~5505
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5499
Background: Providing care for hematologic cancer patients may lead to many negative complications in different aspects of life in their family caregivers. Based on a wide review of relevant literature, there are limited data about the burden of giving care for hematologic cancer patients on their primary family caregivers in Iran or other Middle Eastern countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the cancer care burden on primary family caregivers of hematologic cancer patients, in terms of physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and financial aspects. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 151 primary family caregivers of hematologic cancer patients referred to two cancer care centers in East Azerbaijan Province in northwest of Iran participated. The Financial Distress/Financial Well-being Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Vaux Social Support Questionnaire, Spiritual Well-being Scale, and SF-36 were used for data collection. Data analysis was performed with SPSS software. Results: The findings of this study indicated that the primary family caregivers experience a high level of financial distress and a significant percentage of them suffered from anxiety and depression. In addition, the physical quality of life in these caregivers was moderate. On the other hand, spiritual health and social support of participants was at an acceptable level. Conclusions: Iranian primary family caregivers of hematologic cancer patients experience many problems in physical, psychological, and financial aspects of their life. Therefore, developing care plans for reducing these problems appears necessary.
Momordica cochinchinensis Aril Extract Induced Apoptosis in Human MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells
Petchsak, Phuchong ; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5507~5513
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5507
Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng (MC) has been used in traditional medicine due to its high carotenoid content. The objective of this study was to investigate mechanisms underlying apoptotic effects of MC on human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. A lycopene-enriched aril extract of MC (AE) showed cytotoxicity and antiestrogenicity to MCF-7 cells. On DAPI staining, AE induced cell shrinkage and chromatin condensation were evident. With flow cytometric analysis, AE increased the percentage of cells in an early apoptosis stage when compared with the control group. RT-PCR analysis showed AE to significantly increase the expression of the proapoptotic bax gene without effect on expression of the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 gene. Moreover, AE enhanced caspase 6, 8 and 9 activity. Taken together, we conclude that AE of MC fruit has anticancer effects on human MCF-7 breast cancer cells by induction of cell apoptosis via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of signaling.
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Interferon Lambda-4 Gene is not Associated with Treatment Response to Pegylated Interferon in Thai Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B
Limothai, Umaporn ; Wasitthankasem, Rujipat ; Poovorawan, Yong ; Tangkijvanich, Pisit ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5515~5519
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5515
The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ss469415590 in the interferon lambda-4 (IFNL4) gene has recently been reported to have an association with treatment response in chronic hepatitis C. However, any importance of the SNP in association with response to pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is unclear. We retrospectively analyzed data for Thai patients with CHB treated with PEG-IFN for 48 weeks. Virological response (VR) for HBeAg-positive CHB was defined as HBeAg seroconversion plus HBV DNA level <2,000 IU/mL at 24 weeks post-treatment. VR for HBeAg-negative CHB was defined as an HBV DNA level <2,000 IU/mL at 48 weeks. The SNP was identified by real time PCR using the TaqMan genotyping assay with MGB probes. A total 254 patients (107 HBeAg-positive and 147 HBeAg-negative) were enrolled in the study. The distribution of TT/TT,
genotypes was 221 (87.0%), 32 (12.6%) and 1 (0.4%), respectively. Patients with non-TT/TT genotypes had significantly higher baseline HBV DNA levels than patients with the TT/TT genotype. In HBeAg-positive CHB, 41.2% of patients with TT/TT genotype versus 50.0% with non-TT/TT genotype achieved VR (P=0.593). In HBeAg-negative CHB, the corresponding figures were 40.3% and 43.5%, respectively (P=0.777). There was no significant correlation between the SNP genotypes and HBsAg clearance in both groups of patients. In summary, ss469415590 genotypes were not associated with response to PEG-IFN in Thai patients with HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative CHB.
Systematic Analysis of Icotinib Treatment for Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Shi, Bing ; Zhang, Xiu-Bing ; Xu, Jian ; Huang, Xin-En ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5521~5524
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5521
Purpose: This analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib based regimens in treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Clinical studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of icotinib-based regimens with regard to response and safety for patients with NSCLC were identified using a predefined search strategy. Pooled response rates of treatment were calculated. Results: With icotinib-based regimens, 7 clinical studies which including 5,985 Chinese patients with NSCLC were considered eligible for inclusion. The pooled analysis suggested that, in all patients, the positive reponse rate was 30.1% (1,803/5,985) with icotinib-based regimens. Mild skin itching, rashes and diarrhea were the main side effects. No grade III or IV renal or liver toxicity was observed. No treatment-related death occurred in patients treated with icotinib-based regimens. Conclusions: This evidence based analysis suggests that icotinib based regimens are associated with mild response rate and acceptable toxicity for treating Chinese patients with NSCLC.
Saliva-Based Screening of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Strains: Detection in Female Indonesian and Thai Dental Students
Wimardhani, Yuniardini Septorini ; Sasanti, Harum ; Wardhany, Indriasti Indah ; Sarsito, Afi Savitri ; Pradono, Siti Aliyah ; Subita, Gus Permana ; Soegyanto, Anandina Irmagita ; Rahmayanti, Febrina ; Chamusri, Nutchapon ; Iamaroon, Anak ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5525~5529
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5525
Background: Currently it is believed that human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with the development of some oral/oropharyngeal cancers. It has been suggested that these viruses influence carcinogenesis in both smokers and non-smokers. Data on the prevalence of HPV in healthy adults are thus needed to estimate the risk of oral/oropharyngeal cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of oral HPV in healthy female adults in Indonesia and Thailand. Materials and Methods: Healthy female students from the Faculties of Dentistry of Universitas Indonesia and Chiang Mai University were asked to participate in this pilot study. DNA was extracted from saliva specimens and screened for HPV16 and HPV18 using PCR. Results: The age, marital status and sexual experience of the subjects between the two countries were not significantly different. Eight (4%) and 4 (2%) samples were positive for HPV16 and HPV18, respectively. Fisher's Exact test found a significant difference between HPV16 positivity in subjects who were married and had sexual intercourse but not for HPV18. Conclusions: This study successfully detected presence of HPV16 and HPV18 DNA in a number of saliva samples from female dental school students. Marital status, experience of sexual intercourse and safe sexual practice are related to the possibility of finding HPV DNA finding in saliva. Dentists, physicians and other health care professionals may gain significant value from the findings of this study, which provide an understanding of the nature of HPV infection and its risk to patient health and disease.
Association of Cigarette Prices with the Prevalence of Smoking in Korean University Students: Analysis of Effects of the Tobacco Control Policy
Han, Jin-Ok ; Im, Jeong-Soo ; Yim, Jun ; Choi, Yoon-Hyeong ; Ko, Kwang-Pil ; Kim, Junghoon ; Kim, Hee Gerl ; Noh, Yunhong ; Lim, Young-Khi ; Oh, Dae-Kyu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5531~5536
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5531
Background: Increased pricing of cigarettes might be one of the most effective approaches for reducing the prevalence of smoking. This study aimed to investigate the effects of increasing cigarette prices through taxation by a tobacco intervention policy on the changes in smoking prevalence in Korean university students. Materials and Methods: The participants in this study were 23,047 healthy university students aged 18-29 years from a health examination in 2011-2015. We investigated the adjusted prevalence of daily and occasional smoking before and after increasing cigarette prices through taxation. Results: The prevalence of occasional smoking was significantly decreased in 2015 from 2014 in both male (from 10.7% in 2014 to 5.4%) and female (from 3.6% to 1.1%) students, but the prevalence of daily smoking did not decrease significantly. The frequency of individuals who had attempted smoking cessation during the past year was significantly higher among occasional smokers in male students (90.2%) compared with daily smokers (64.9%). For female students, there were no differences in experience of smoking cessation, willingness for smoking cessation, or E-cigarette experience between daily and occasional smokers. Conclusions: We found that a policy of increasing cigarette prices through taxation is associated with decreases in the prevalence of occasional smokers, who have relatively lower nicotine dependence compared with individuals who smoke daily. The results of our study suggest that social support and direct intervention for smoking cessation at the community level are needed for university students alongside the pricing policy.
Pre-treatment Elevated Platelet Count Associates with HER2 Overexpression and Prognosis in Patients with Breast Cancer
Gu, Mei-Ling ; Yuan, Cai-Jun ; Liu, Xiao-Mei ; Zhou, Yi-Chao ; Di, Shu-Huan ; Sun, Fei-Fei ; Qu, Quan-Ying ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5537~5540
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5537
Purpose: To research the association between pre-treatment elevated platelet count and clinicopathologic characteristics in breast cancer (BC), as well as explore the relationship between pre-treatment elevated platelet count and HER2 status and prognosis of BC patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort of BC patients who were newly diagnosed or treated by surgery only and had pathological detection results and platelet values in the Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical College were enrolled from 1/1/2008 until 31/12/2009, and followed up until 31/12/2014. Age, thrombocyte parameters before chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, immunohistochemical (IHM) indexes, and regional lymph node (LN) involvement and progression-free survival (PFS) were recorded. Results: A total of 447 eligible subjects were included in this research. As we analyzed, for HER2, positive and negative, the incidence rates of elevated platelet count were 25.8% and 14.7% (P<0.05). In the Cox proportional hazards model both variables were independent risk factors for BC (for HER2, OR, 0.592, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.355 to 0.985, P=0.044;f or PLT, OR, 0.998, 95% CI, 0.996 to 1.000, P=0.042). For ER, PR, Ki67 and LN involvement, the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusions: In this research, pre-treatment elevated level of platelet count demostrated a significantrelationship with HER2 amplification/overexpression, and both variables significantly influenced the prognosis of BC. However, elevated platelet count did not exhibit any association with ER, PR, Ki67 and LN involvement.
Systematic Review of Single Large and/or Multinodular Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Surgical Resection Improves Survival
Yang, Xiang-Di ; Pan, Ling-Hui ; Wang, Lin ; Ke, Yang ; Cao, Ji ; Yang, Chun ; Zhong, Jian-Hong ; Luo, Wang ; Guo, Jiao ; Li, Le-Qun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5541~5547
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5541
Background: The role of surgical resection for patients with single large (
) and/or multinodular (
) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still controversial. This systematic review was performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of resection for patients with single large and/or multinodular HCC. Materials and Methods: Databases (the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane databases) were systematically searched to identify relevant studies exploring the safety and efficacy of resection for single large and/or multinodular HCC, published between January 2000 and December 2014. Perioperative morbidity and mortality, overall survival, and disease-free survival of the resection group were calculated. In addition, these outcome variables were also calculated for the control group in the included studies. Results: One randomized controlled trial and 42 nonrandomized studies involving 9,580 patients were eligible for analysis. Eight (1,594 patients) of the 43 studies also reported the outcomes of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Although 51.4% of patients featured cirrhosis, 90.7% of them demonstrated Child-Pugh A liver function in the resection group. The median rates of morbidity (24.5%) and mortality (2.5%) after resection were significantly higher than that of TACE (11.0%, P<0.001; 1.9%, P<0.001). However, patients who underwent resection had significantly higher median one-, three-, and five-year overall survival (76.1%, 51.7%, and 37.4%) than those who underwent TACE (68.3%, 31.5%, and 17.5%, all P<0.001). The median 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS rates after resection were 58.3%, 34.6%, and 24.0%, respectively. Conclusions: Although tumor recurrence after resection for patients with single large and/ or multinodular HCC continues to be a major problem, resection should be considered as a strategy to achieve long-term survival.
Estimation of Completeness of Cancer Registration for Patients Referred to Shiraz Selected Centers through a Two Source Capture Re-capture Method, 2009 Data
Sharifian, Roxana ; SedaghatNia, Mohammad Hossein ; Nematolahi, Mohtram ; Zare, Najaf ; Barzegari, Saeed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5549~5556
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5549
Background: Cancer has important social consequences with cancer registration as the basis of moving towards prevention. The present study aimed to estimate the completeness of registration of the ten most common cancers in patients referred to selected hospitals in Shiraz, Iran by using capture-recapture method. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was performed in 2014 based on the data of 2009, on a total of 4,388 registered cancer patients. After cleaning data from two sources, using capture-recapture common findings were identified. Then, the percentage of the completeness of cancer registration was estimated using Chapman and Chao methods. Finally, the effects of demographic and treatment variables on the completeness of cancer registration were investigated. Results: The results showed that the percentages of completeness of cancer registration in the selected hospitals of Shiraz were 58.6% and 58.4%, and influenced by different variables. The age group between 40-49 years old was the highest represented and for the age group under 20 years old was the lowest for cancer registration. Breast cancer had the highest registration level and after that, thyroid and lung cancers, while colorectal cancer had the lowest registration level. Conclusions: According to the results, the number of cancers registered was very few and it seems that factors like inadequate knowledge of some doctors, imprecise diagnosis about the types of cancer, incorrectly filled out medical documents, and lack of sufficient accuracy in recording data on the computer cause errors and defects in cancer registration. This suggests a necessity to educate and teach doctors and other medical workers about the methods of documenting information related to cancer and also conduct additional measures to improve the cancer registration system.
Association of Cytochrome-17 (MspA1) Gene Polymorphism with Risk of Gall Bladder Stones and Cancer in North India
Dwivedi, Shipra ; Agrawal, Sarita ; Singh, Shraddha ; Madeshiya, Amit Kumar ; Singh, Devendra ; Mahdi, Abbas Ali ; Chandra, Abhjeet ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5557~5563
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5557
Background: Cholelithiasis is associated in 54%-98% of patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder, and a high incidence among females suggests a role of female hormones in the etiology of the disease. Cytochrome
(CYP-17) is a key enzyme involved in estrogen metabolism and polymorphisms in CYP-17 are associated with altered serum levels of estrogens. Thus, we investigated whether the CYP-17 MspA1 gene polymorphism might impact on risk of gall bladder cancers or gallstones, as well as to determine if this gene polymorphism might be linked with estrogen serum levels and lipid profile among the North Indian gall bladder cancer or gallstone patients. Materials and Methods: CYP-17 gene polymorphisms (MspA1) were genotyped with PCR-RFLP in cancer patients (n=96), stone patients (n=102), cancer + stone patients (n=52) and age/sex matched control subjects (n= 256). Lipid profile was estimated using a commercial kit and serum estrogen was measured using ELISA. Results: The majority of the patients in all groups were females. The lipid profile and estrogen level were significantly higher among the study as compared to control groups. The frequency of mutant allele A2 of CYP17 MspA1 gene polymorphism was higher among cancer (OR=5.13, 95% CI+3.10-8.51, p=0.0001), stone (OR=5.69, 95%CI=3.46-9.37, p=0.0001) and cancer + stone (OR=3.54, 95%CI=1.90-6.60, p=0.0001) when compared with the control group. However there was no significant association between genotypes of CYP17 MspA1 gene polymorphism and circulating serum level of estrogen and lipid profile. Conclusions: A higher frequency of mutant genotype A1A2 as well as mutant allele A2 of CYP-17 gene polymorphism is significantly associated with risk of gallbladder cancer and stones. Elevated levels of estrogen and an altered lipid profile can be used as predictors ofgall bladder stones and cancer in post menopausal females in India.
Genetic Association between ERCC5 rs17655 Polymorphism and Colorectal Cancer Risk: Evidence Based on a Meta-analysis
Zeng, Yong ; Wei, Li ; Wang, Ya-Jie ; Liu, Chuan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5565~5571
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5565
Background: Previous studies evaluating the association between the excision repair cross complementing group 5 (ERCC5) gene rs17655 polymorphism and colorectal cancer susceptibility generated controversial results. To generate large-scale evidence on whether the ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphism might indeed be associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility, the present meta-analysis was performed. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from PubMed, Embase and Web of Science, with the last report up to Apr 03, 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of any association. Results: A total of nine studies including 5,102 cases and 6,326 controls based on the search criteria were included and significant associations were found between ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphism CG vs GG overall (OR = 1.29, 95% CI =1.18~1.40) and in the dominant model (OR=1.23, 95% CI =1.13~1.33). On subgroup analysis by ethnicity and source of controls, the ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphism was found to correlate with the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer among Asians and Caucasians and with hospital-based populations. Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that the ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphism might contribute to genetic susceptibility to colorectal cancer.
Hepatic Re-resection Versus Transarterial Chemoembolization for the Treatment of Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Initial Resection: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Wang, Di-Ya ; Liu, Lei ; Qi, Xing-Shun ; Su, Chun-Ping ; Chen, Xue ; Liu, Xu ; Chen, Jiang ; Li, Hong-Yu ; Guo, Xiao-Zhong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5573~5578
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5573
Background: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to compare the post-recurrence survival with hepatic re-resection versus transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after initial resection. Materials and Methods: All relevant papers were searched via PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random-effects model. Subgroup analysis was performed according to country. Sensitivity analysis was performed in studies which clearly reported the recurrent regions, in moderate/high-quality studies, in studies published in full-text form, and in studies published after 2005. Results: In total, twelve papers were included in our study. Five and seven of them were of moderate- and poor-quality, respectively. The overall meta-analysis demonstrated a statistically significantly higher post-recurrence survival in the hepatic re-resection group than in those undergoing TACE (HR=0.64, 95%CI=0.52-0.79, P<0.0001). Heterogeneity was statistically significant and statistical significance remained in the subgroup analysis. Sensitivity analyses were also consistent with the overall analysis. Conclusions: Hepatic re-resection might provide a better post-recurrence survival than TACE for recurrent HCC after initial resection. However, considering the low quality of published studies and the potential bias of treatment selection, further randomized trials should be warranted to confirm these findings.
The Single Cigarette Economy in India - a Back of the Envelope Survey to Estimate its Magnitude
Lal, Pranay ; Kumar, Ravinder ; Ray, Shreelekha ; Sharma, Narinder ; Bhattarcharya, Bhaktimay ; Mishra, Deepak ; Sinha, Mukesh K. ; Christian, Anant ; Rathinam, Arul ; Singh, Gurbinder ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5579~5582
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5579
Background: Sale of single cigarettes is an important factor for early experimentation, initiation and persistence of tobacco use and a vital factor in the smoking epidemic in India as it is globally. Single cigarettes also promote the sale of illicit cigarettes and neutralises the effect of pack warnings and effective taxation, making tobacco more accessible and affordable to minors. This is the first study to our knowledge which estimates the size of the single stick market in India. Materials and Methods: In February 2014, a 10 jurisdiction survey was conducted across India to estimate the sale of cigarettes in packs and sticks, by brands and price over a full business day. Results: We estimate that nearly 75% of all cigarettes are sold as single sticks annually, which translates to nearly half a billion US dollars or 30 percent of the India's excise revenues from all cigarettes. This is the price which the consumers pay but is not captured through tax and therefore pervades into an informal economy. Conclusions: Tracking the retail price of single cigarettes is an efficient way to determine the willingness to pay by cigarette smokers and is a possible method to determine the tax rates in the absence of any other rationale.
HCV, Interferon Therapy Response, Direct Acting Antiviral Therapy Revolution and Pakistan: Future Perspectives
Raza, Hamid ; Ahmad, Tahir ; Afzal, Muhammad Sohail ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5583~5584
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5583
Comments on - Neoadjuvant Chemo-radiation with IMRT in Resectable and Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Cancer
Pathy, Sushmita ; Francis, Antony George ; Roy, Soumyajit ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5585~5585
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5585
Retraction Notice to: Normalization of CA19-9 Following Resection for Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma is not Tantamount to being Cured?
Chen, Tao ; Zhang, Min-Gui ; Yu, Xian-Jun ; Liu, Liang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 13, 2015, Pages 5587~5587
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5587