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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 17 - Dec 2015
Volume 16, Issue 16 - Nov 2015
Volume 16, Issue 15 - Oct 2015
Volume 16, Issue 14 - Sep 2015
Volume 16, Issue 13 - Aug 2015
Volume 16, Issue 12 - Jul 2015
Volume 16, Issue 11 - Jun 2015
Volume 16, Issue 10 - Jun 2015
Volume 16, Issue 9 - May 2015
Volume 16, Issue 8 - Apr 2015
Volume 16, Issue 7 - Apr 2015
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Apr 2015
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Mar 2015
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Mar 2015
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Volume 15, Issue 24 - Jan 2015
Volume 15, Issue 23 - Jan 2015
Selecting the target year
Comparative Efficacy of Four Imaging Instruments for Breast Cancer Screening
Mehnati, Parinaz ; Tirtash, Maede Jafari ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6177~6186
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6177
Sensitivity and specificity are the two most important indicators in selection of medical imaging devices for cancer screening. Breast images taken by conventional or digital mammography, ultrasound, MRI and optical mammography were collected from 2,143,852 patients. They were then studied and compared for sensitivity and specificity results. Optical mammography had the highest sensitivity (p<0.001 and p<0.006) except with MRI. Digital mammography had the highest specificity for breast cancer imaging. A comparison of specificity between digital mammography and optical mammography was significant (p<0.021). If two or more breast diagnostic imaging tests are requested the overall sensitivity and specificity will increase. In this literature review study patients at high-risk of breast cancer were studied beside normal or sensitive women. The image modality performance of each breast test was compared for each.
Survivin as a Potential Target for Cancer Therapy
Soleimanpour, Elaheh ; Babaei, Esmaeil ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6187~6191
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6187
In 1997 for the first time, survivin was described by Amborsini et al. as an anti-apoptotic protein. Subsequent studies revealed that survivin is a multifunctional protein that plays critical roles in several crucial cell processes such as apoptosis, cell cycle, chromosome movement, mitosis and cellular stress responses. Moreover, it's overexpression in cancer cells versus normal cells is associated with chemotherapy resistance, increased tumor recurrence, and shorter patient survival. All of these features make survivin a promising target for cancer therapy. Here, we review the potential characteristics of survivin as a tumor marker.
Roles of Human Papillomaviruses and p16 in Oral Cancer
Sritippho, Thanun ; Chotjumlong, Pareena ; Iamaroon, Anak ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6193~6200
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6193
Head and neck cancer, including oral cancer, is the sixth most common cancer in humans worldwide. More than 90% of oral cancers are of squamous cell carcinoma type. Recent studies have shown a strong relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and head and neck cancer, especially oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Moreover, the incidence of HPV-related OSCC appears to be on the rise while HPV-unrelated OSCC tends to have stabilized in the past decades. p16, a tumor suppressor gene, normally functions as a regulator of the cell cycle. Upon infection with high-risk types of HPV (HR-HPV), particularly types 16, 18, 31, 33, 34, 35, 39, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, and 70, the expression of p16 is aberrantly overexpressed. Therefore, the expression of p16 is widely used as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in head and neck cancer.
Roles of Signaling Pathways in the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Cancer
Liu, Xia ; Yun, Fen ; Shi, Lin ; Li, Zhe-Hai ; Luo, Nian-Rong ; Jia, Yong-Feng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6201~6206
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6201
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular process though which an epithelial phenotype can be converted into a phenotype of mesenchymal cells. Under physiological conditions EMT is important for embryogenesis, organ development, wound repair and tissue remodeling. However, EMT may also be activated under pathologic conditions, especially in carcinogenesis and metastatic progression. Major signaling pathways involved in EMT include transforming growth factor
, Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog and other signaling pathways. These pathways are related to several transcription factors, including Twist, Smads and zinc finger proteins snail and slug. These interact with each other to provide crosstalk between the relevant signaling pathways. This review lays emphasis on studying the relationship between EMT and signaling pathways in carcinogenesis and metastatic progression.
Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Cancer Patients
Shankar, Abhishek ; Roy, Shubham ; Malik, Abhidha ; Julka, PK ; Rath, GK ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6207~6213
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6207
The supportive care of patients receiving antineoplastic treatment has dramatically improved over the past few years and development of effective measures to prevent nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy serves as one of the most important examples of this progress. A patient who starts cancer treatment with chemotherapy lists chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting as among their greatest fears. Inadequately controlled emesis impairs functional activity and quality of life, increases the use of health care resources, and may occasionally compromise adherence to treatment. New insights into the pathophysiology of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, a better understanding of the risk factors for these effects, and the availability of new antiemetic agents have all contributed to substantial improvements in emetic control. This review focuses on current understanding of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and the status of pharmacological interventions for their prevention and treatment.
Tumor-Suppression Mechanisms of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase O and Clinical Applications
Kang, Man-Man ; Shan, Shun-Lin ; Wen, Xu-Yang ; Shan, Hu-Sheng ; Wang, Zheng-Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6215~6223
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6215
Tyrosine phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating human physiological and pathological processes. Functional stabilization of tyrosine phosphorylation largely contributes to the balanced, coordinated regulation of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Research has revealed PTPs play an important suppressive role in carcinogenesis and progression by reversing oncoprotein functions. Receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase O (PTPRO) as one member of the PTPs family has also been identified to have some roles in tumor development. Some reports have shown PTPRO over-expression in tumors can not only inhibit the frequency of tumor cell division and induce tumor cell death, but also suppress migration. However, the tumor-suppression mechanisms are very complex and understanding is incomplete, which in some degree blocks the further development of PTPRO. Hence, in order to resolve this problem, we here have summarized research findings to draw meaningful conclusions. We found tumor-suppression mechanisms of PTPRO to be diverse, such as controlling G0/G1 of the tumor cell proliferation cycle, inhibiting substrate phosphorylation, down-regulating transcription activators and other activities. In clinical anticancer efforts, expression level of PTPRO in tumors can not only serve as a biomarker to monitor the prognosis of patients, but act as an epigenetic biomarker for noninvasive diagnosis. In addition, the re-activation of PTPRO in tumor tissues, not only can induce tumor volume reduction, but also enhance the susceptibility to chemotherapy drugs. So, we can propose that these research findings of PTPRO will not only support new study ideas and directions for other tumor-suppressors, importantly, but also supply a theoretical basis for researching new molecular targeting agents in the future.
Effects of Two Traditional Chinese Cooking Oils, Canola and Pork, on pH and Cholic Acid Content of Faeces and Colon Tumorigenesis in Kunming Mice
He, Xiao-Qiong ; Duan, Jia-Li ; Zhou, Jin ; Song, Zhong-Yu ; Cichello, Simon Angelo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6225~6229
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6225
Faecal pH and cholate are two important factors that can affect colon tumorigenesis, and can be modified by diet. In this study, the effects of two Chinese traditional cooking oils (pork oil and canola/rapeseed oil) on the pH and the cholic acid content in feces, in addition to colon tumorigenesis, were studied in mice. Kunming mice were randomized into various groups; negative control group (NCG), azoxymethane control group (ACG), pork oil group (POG), and canola oil Ggroup (COG). Mice in the ACG were fed a basic rodent chow; mice in POG and COG were given 10% cooking oil rodent chow with the respective oil type. All mice were given four weekly AOM (azoxymethane) i.p. injections (10mg/kg). The pH and cholic acid of the feces were examined every two weeks. Colon tumors, aberrant crypt foci and organ weights were examined 32 weeks following the final AOM injection. The results showed that canola oil significantly decreased faecal pH in female mice (P<0.05), but had no influence on feces pH in male mice (P>0.05). Pork oil significantly increased the feces pH in both male and female mice (P<0.05). No significant change was found in feces cholic acid content when mice were fed 10% pork oil or canola oil compared with the ACG. Although Kunming mice were not susceptible to AOM-induced tumorigenesis in terms of colon tumor incidence, pork oil significantly increased the ACF number in male mice. Canola oil showed no influence on ACF in either male or female mice. Our results indicate that cooking oil effects faecal pH, but does not affect the faecal cholic acid content and thus AOM-induced colon neoplastic ACF is modified by dietary fat.
Knowledge of Female Undergraduate Students on Breast Cancer and Breast Self-examination in Klang Valley, Malaysia
Akhtari-Zavare, Mehrnoosh ; Latiff, Latiffah A ; Juni, Muhamad Hanafiah ; Said, Salmiah Md ; Ismail, Irmi Zarina ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6231~6235
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6231
Background: In Malaysia, breast cancer is the first cancer among females regardness of race. Aim: The purpose of this study was to identify the knowledge and BSE practice among undergraduate female students at four public universities in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 820 undergraduate female students using a self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic data, knowledge of breast cancer and BSE practice. Results: The mean age of the respondents was
years. The majority of them were single (96.8%), Malay (91.9%) and 16.5% of respondents had a family history of breast cancer. This study showed low level of knowledge on breast cancer and breast self-examination among participants. Only 19.6% participants were performing BSE regularly. Knowledge of breast self-examination was significantly associated with BSE practice (p=0.00). Also, there were significant associations between performing BSE with age, marital status and being trained by a doctor for doing BSE (p<0.05). Conclusions: Our findings showed that the rate of BSE practice and knowledge of breast cancer is inadequate among young Malaysian females. A public health education program is essential to improve breast cancer prevention among this group.
An Empirical Study on Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine Usage among Malaysian Cancer Patients
Nagashekhara, Molugulu ; Murthy, Vasudeva ; Mruthyunjaya, Anil Tumkur ; Ann, Lim Li ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6237~6241
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6237
Usage of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) has gained popularity over the past few years. However, very little is known about TCAM use among Malaysian cancer patients. This study aimed to identify the determinants of TCAM usage among cancer patients with determination of relationships between demographic factors, patient satisfaction with conventional treatment, knowledge on TCAM and healthcare professional influence. Patient's perceptions towards TCAM were also determined. A simple random convenient sampling method was used to recruit 354 patients from Hospital Kuala Lumpur between February to April 2013. All were directly interviewed with a structured questionnaire. In this study, 172 respondents were TCAM users. There was no significant differences between demographic background of respondents in the usage of TCAM. Minimal correlation was found between patient satisfaction with the conventional treatment and usage of TCAM (r=0.091). A poor correlation was found between healthcare professional's influence and TCAM usage (r=-0.213) but the results suggested that increase in influence would decrease TCAM usage. Patient TCAM knowledge correlated negatively with the TCAM usage (r=-0.555) indicated that cancer patients are less likely to use TCAM when they have more TCAM knowledge. Healthcare professionals should be fully equipped with the necessary TCAM knowledge while maintaining patient satisfaction with the conventional treatment. They should also intervene on patient TCAM usage where a potential drug interaction or a harmful adverse event can occur.
Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer in Females Using a Logit Model in Lahore, Pakistan
Asif, Faiza ; Ahmad, Muhammad Riaz ; Majid, Arshia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6243~6247
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6243
Background: Thyroid cancer (TC) is a more common endocrine malignancy in females and is a major cause of death in developing countries. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore possible risk factors of thyroid cancer in females of Pakistan. Materials and Methods: This study covered 232 females, including 127 (54.7%) cases and 105 (45.2%) controls, from the INMOL Hospital and Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore. Different risk factors were explored by the descriptive and inferentially statistics. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for different risk factors were computed using logistic regression. Results: The results showed six risk factors, marital status, family history of thyroid cancer, iodine in the diet, oxidative stress, fast food and fried food, to demonstrate positive significant links to thyroid cancer (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of :2.152, 1.104-4.198; 2.630, 1.416-4.887; 2.391, 1.282-4.458; 4.115, 2.185-7.750; 3.656, 1.851-7.223; 2.357, 1.268-4.382; and 2.360, 1.199-4.643, respectively). Conclusions: The Oxidative stress, marital status, family history of cancer, fast food, use of iodine diet and fried food are the risk factors of thyroid cancer in females.
Breast Cancer Awareness among Middle Class Urban Women - a Community-Based Study from Mumbai, India
Gadgil, Anita ; Sauvaget, Catherine ; Roy, Nobhojit ; Frie, Kirstin Grosse ; Chakraborty, Anuradha ; Lucas, Eric ; Bantwal, Kanchan ; Haldar, Indrani ; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6249~6254
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6249
Targeting breast cancer awareness along with comprehensive cancer care is appropriate in low and middle income countries like India, where there are no organized and affordable screening services. It is essential to identify the existing awareness about breast cancer in the community prior to launching an organized effort. This study assessed the existing awareness about breast cancer amongst women and their health seeking practices in an urban community in Mumbai, India. A postal survey was undertaken with low or no cost options for returning the completed questionnaires. The majority of the women were aware about cancer but awareness about symptoms and signs was poor. Women were willing to accept more information about cancer and those with higher awareness scores were more likely to seek medical help. They were also more likely to have undergone breast examination in the past and less likely to use alternative medicines. High income was associated with better awareness but this did not translate into better health seeking behaviour. Organized programmes giving detailed information about breast cancer and its symptoms are needed and women from all income categories need to be encouraged for positive change towards health seeking. Further detailed studies regarding barriers to health seeking in India are necessary.
Model Based on Alkaline Phosphatase and Gamma-Glutamyltransferase for Gallbladder Cancer Prognosis
Xu, Xin-Sen ; Miao, Run-Chen ; Zhang, Ling-Qiang ; Wang, Rui-Tao ; Qu, Kai ; Pang, Qing ; Liu, Chang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6255~6259
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6255
Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic value of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in gallbladder cancer (GBC). Materials and Methods: Serum ALP and GGT levels and clinicopathological parameters were retrospectively evaluated in 199 GBC patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the cut-off values of ALP and GGT. Then, associations with overall survival were assessed by multivariate analysis. Based on the significant factors, a prognostic score model was established. Results: By ROC curve analysis,
were considered elevated. Overall survival for patients with elevated ALP and GGT was significantly worse than for patients within the normal range. Multivariate analysis showed that the elevated ALP, GGT and tumor stage were independent prognostic factors. Giving each positive factor a score of 1, we established a preoperative prognostic score model. Varied outcomes would be significantly distinguished by the different score groups. By further ROC curve analysis, the simple score showed great superiority compared with the widely used TNM staging, each of the ALP or GGT alone, or traditional tumor markers such as CEA, AFP, CA125 and CA199. Conclusions: Elevated ALP and GGT levels were risk predictors in GBC patients. Our prognostic model provides infomration on varied outcomes of patients from different score groups.
Clinicopathology Profile and Bone Involvement of Multiple Myeloma Patients in Dharmais National Cancer Hospital, Indonesia
Sutandyo, Noorwati ; Firna, Evi ; Agustina, Julyanti ; Prayogo, Nugroho ; Widjaja, Leovinna ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6261~6265
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6261
Background: Even though rarely found in Indonesia, the incidence of multiple myeloma (MM) is increasing every year. Bone involvement of MM is the most often a clinical disorder which leads to worsening clinical conditions and low quality of life of patients. Purpose: To determine the clinicopathology profile of bone involvement of MM patients in Indonesia. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study of MM conducted at Dharmais National Cancer Hospital (DNCH) by collecting data from medical records of MM patients who came to DNCH in period 2008-2012. Results: There were 39 MM patients all with age above 60 years. There were 56.4% male and 43.6% female patients. Most were diagnosed at stage III (32.4%), and 41% had obesity. The comorbid conditions were anemia (82.9%), hypoalbuminemia (60%), increased creatinine level (38.5%), increased
microglobulin level (94.1%), increased LDH level (23.1%) and plasmocytes above 30% (65%), but only 4.2% patients presented with hypercalcemia. Meanwhile, bone involvement occurred in 76.9% of MM patients with 4 lesions on average and a maximum of 16 lesions. The locations of bone lesions were spine (70%), skull (70%), pelvis (33.3%), humerus (30%), and femur (30%). Conclusions: The incidence of MM in Indonesia is increasing annually with bone involvement in more than three-fourths, but interestingly without hypercalcemia.
Head and neck extra nodal NHL (HNENL) - Treatment Outcome and Pattern of failure - A Single Institution Experience
Giridhar, Prashanth ; Mallick, Supriya ; Bhasker, Suman ; Pathy, Sushmita ; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan ; Biswas, Ahitagni ; Sharma, Atul ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6267~6272
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6267
Background: Extra nodal lymphoma (ENL) constitutes about 33 % of all non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. 18-28% develops in the head and neck region. A multimodality treatment with multi-agent chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) is considered optimum. Materials and Methods: We retrieved the treatment charts of patients of HNENL treated in our institute from 2001-2012. The charts were reviewed and the demographic, treatment details and outcome of HNENL patients were retrieved using predesigned pro-forma. Results: We retrieved data of 75consecutive patients HNENL. Median age was 47years (Range: 8-76 years). Of the 75 patients 51 were male and 24 were female. 55patients were evaluable. The patient and tumor characteristics are summarized in Table 1. All patients were staged comprehensively with contrast enhanced computed tomography of head, neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and bone marrow aspiration and biopsy 66 patients received a combination multi-agent CT with CHOP being the commonest regimen. 42 patients received 4 or lesser number of cycles of chemotherapy whereas 24received more than 4 cycles chemotherapy. Post radiotherapy, 41 out of 42 patients had a complete response at 3 months. Only 21patients had a complete response after chemotherapy. All patients received radiation (mostly involved field radiation) as a part of the treatment. The median radiation dose was 45 Gray (Range: 36 Gray-50 Gray). The radiation was planned by 2D fluoro simulation based technique in 37cases and by 3 Dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) in 36 cases. Two patients were planned by the intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique. IMRT was planned for one thyroid and one nasal cavity primary. 5 patients experienced relapse after a median follow up of 19 months. The median survival was not reached. The estimated two and three year survival were 92.9% (95%CI- 68.6- 95.35) and 88% (95%CI- 60.82 - 92.66) respectively. Univariate analysis revealed higher stage and poorer baseline performance status to be significantly associated with worse progression free survival. 5 patients progressed (relapse or primary disease progression) after treatment. Of the 5 patients, two patients were primary orbital NHL, two patients had NHL nasal cavity and one was NHL thyroid. Conclusions: Combined modality treatment in HNENL confers excellent disease control with acceptable side effects.
Relationships between Body Image, Body Mass Index, and Smoking in Korean Adolescents: Results of a Nationwide Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey
Lee, Woo-Taek ; Kim, Hye In ; Kim, Jee Hoon ; Lee, Seok-Jin R ; Hong, Seri ; Park, Eun-Cheol ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6273~6278
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6273
Objective: This study assessed the association between subjective body image or objective body mass index (BMI) and the risk of daily smoking in Korean adolescents, with a purpose of identifying the most suitable models. Materials and Methods: Using the 2013 9th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey data for 72,435 students, odds ratios were calculated for daily smoking in the past month, according to the subjective body image and calculated BMI using a respective multiple logistic regression model. The combined effect of these two factors was also analyzed by pairing a BMI category with a subjective body image category, using odds ratios for the same event within each sex group. Results: Among the surveyed students, 7.2% of boys and 1.8% of girls were classified as daily smokers. Students who perceived themselves as being very obese tended to be at lower risk of daily smoking (OR=0.61 in boys with 95% CI=0.47 to 0.79; OR=0.66 in women with 95% CI=0.47 to 0.93). In addition, boys within the obese or overweight BMI category showed a lower risk of daily smoking (OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.77-0.96). Lean BMI was significantly associated with higher odds ratios for daily smoking only in female students (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.02-1.52). When pairing these two objective and subjective factors, results suggested that subjective body image has a greater effect on daily smoking than BMI in both boys and girls. Conclusions: In both male and female students, subjective body image had a greater effect on daily smoking than body mass index. A model using the combination of BMI and subjective body image was the best fit in girls, in contrast to the model using subjective body image only best suitable in boys, for the prediction of daily smoking. These results including several factors associated with daily smoking in Korean students, provide useful data for the development and implementation of smoking intervention and cessation programs for adolescents.
Anticancer Activity of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC in a Hamster Model and Application of PET-CT for Early Detection and Monitoring Progression of Cholangiocarcinoma
Plengsuriyakarn, Tullayakorn ; Matsuda, Naoki ; Karbwang, Juntra ; Viyanant, Vithoon ; Hirayama, Kenji ; Na-Bangchang, Kesara ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6279~6284
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6279
Opisthorchis viverrini (OV)-induced cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an important cancer in the Great Mekong region, particularly in Thailand. Limitations of treatment options and the lack of an effective diagnostic tool for early detection of CCA are major concerns for the control of this type of cancer. The aim of the study was to investigate anti-CCA activity of the ethanolic extract of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC., and the applicability of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) as a tool for detection and monitoring the progression of CCA in Opisthorchis viverrini (OV)/dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced CCA hamsters. Male Syrian hamsters were used for toxicity tests and anti-CCA activity evaluation. Development of CCA was induced by initial feeding of 50 metacercariae of OV, followed by drinking water containing 12.5 ppm of DMN in hamsters. The ethanolic extract of A. lancea (Thunb.) DC. was administered orally for 30 days. PET-CT was performed every 4 weeks after initiation of CCA using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (
). Results from the present study suggest that the ethanolic extract of A. lancea (Thunb.) DC. rhizome exhibited promising anti-CCA activity and safety profile in the OV/DMN-induced hamster model. To successfully apply PET-CT as a tool for early detection of tumor development and progression, modification of radiolabeling approach is required to improve its specificity for CCA cells.
Breast Cancer Screening in Morocco: Performance Indicators During Two Years of an Organized Programme
Fakir, Samira El ; Najdi, Adil ; Khazraji, Youssef Chami ; Bennani, Maria ; Belakhel, Latifa ; Abousselham, Loubna ; Lyoussi, Badiaa ; Bekkali, Rachid ; Nejjari, Chakib ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6285~6288
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6285
Background: Breast cancer is commonly diagnosed at late stages in countries with limited resources. In Morocco, breast cancer is ranked the first female cancer (36.1%) and screening methods could reduce the proportion presenting with a late diagnosis. Morocco is currently adopting a breast cancer screening program based on clinical examination at primary health facilities, diagnosis at secondary level and treatment at tertiary level. So far, there is no systematic information on the performance of the screening program for breast cancer in Morocco. The aim of this study was to analyze early performance indicators. Materials and Methods: A retrospective evaluative study conducted in Temara city. The target population was the entire female population aged between 45-70 years. The study was based on process and performance indicators collected at the individual level from the various health structures in Tamara between 2009 and 2011. Results: A total of 2,350 women participated in the screening program; the participation rate was 35.7%. Of these, 76.8% (1,806) were married and 5.2% (106) of this group had a family history of breast cancer. Of the women who attended screening, 9.3% (190) were found to have an abnormal physical examination findings. A total of 260 (12.7%) were referred for a specialist consultation. The positive predictive value of clinical breast examination versus mammography was 23.0%. Forty four (35.5%) of the lesions found on the mammograms were classified as BI-RADs 3; 4 or 5 category. Cancer was found in 4 (1.95%) of the total number of screened women and benign cases represented 0.58%. Conclusions: These first results of the programme are very encouraging, but there is a need to closely monitor performance and to improve programme procedures with the aim of increasing both the participation rate and the proportion of women eligible to attend screening.
Expression of Bcl-2 in Primary and Recurrent Odontogenic Keratocysts in Comparison with Other Odontogenic Lesions
Naz, Iram ; Mahmood, Muhammad Khurram ; Nagi, Abdul Hannan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6289~6292
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6289
Purpose: To determine the biological behaviour of common odontogenic cystic lesions by analysing and comparing bcl-2 expression amongst them. Materials and Methods: Our study covered 90 formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples: 26 primary cases each of radicular cysts (RC), dentigerous cysts (DC) and odontogenic keratocysts (OKC) and 12 of recurrent OKCs. Bcl-2 expression was analysed immunohistochemically and data analysis was accomplished using SPSS version 17.0. Means were taken for age while for gender and site of the lesions frequencies and percentages were determined. The Chi-square test was applied to evaluate any statistically significant difference of bcl-2 expression in these lesions and p value of
was taken as significant. Results: All the recurrent OKCs showed a strong positivity for bcl-2 that was absent in all of its primary cases (p value<0.05). Although variation in expression of bcl-2 was not found to be statistically significant between RC and DC, however, it became significant when all primary cases of these common odontogenic lesions were compared. Conclusions: Recurrent OKC showed comparatively a more aggressive behaviour than their primary counterparts and also from RC and DC. Bcl-2 proved to be a valuable adjunct in determining aggressive biological behaviour of odontogenic lesions.
Intentions to Undergo Lung Cancer Screening among Korean Men
Cam, Nhung Bui ; Lee, Yoon Young ; Yoon, HyoJoong ; Suh, Mina ; Park, Boyoung ; Jun, Jae Kwan ; Kim, Yeol ; Choi, Kui Son ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6293~6298
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6293
Opportunistic screening for lung cancer is commonly conducted in Korea in accordance with physician recommendations and screenee's preferences. However, studies have yet to thoroughly examine the public's understanding of the risks posed by lung cancer screening. This study was conducted to assess changes in intentions to undergo lung cancer screening in response to being informed about exposure to radiation during low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) tests and to identify factors with the greatest influence thereon among Korean men. We conducted sub-group interviews among men chosen from the 2013 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional survey of men aged 40 to 74 years and women aged 30 to 74 years. From 4100 participants in the KNCSS, 414 men who underwent any cancer screening test within the last 2 years were randomly selected for inclusion in this study. Via face-to-face interviews, their intentions to undergo lung cancer screening were assessed before and after being informed about exposure to radiation during LDCT testing. Of the 414 participants, 50% were current smokers. After receiving information on the benefits of the test, 95.1% stated an intention to undergo screening; this decreased to 81.6% after they received information on the harms of the test. The average decrease in intention rate was 35.3%. Smoking status, household income, and education level were not associated with lowered intentions to undergo lung cancer screening. Participants who were older than 60 years old (OR=0.56; 95% CI= 0.33-0.96) and those with less concern for radiation exposure (OR=0.56; 95% CI=0.36-0.89) were less likely to lower their screening intentions. The results of this study suggest that there is a need to educate both non-smokers and former smokers on the harms of lung cancer screening.
Is Exposure to Tobacco Advertising, Promotion and Sponsorship Associated with Initiation of Tobacco Use among Current Tobacco Users in Youth in India?
Sardana, Mohini ; Goel, Sonu ; Gupta, Madhu ; Sardana, Veera ; Singh, BS ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6299~6302
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6299
Background: The rise in consumption of tobacco products among youth is a public health concern in India. Several studies have shown that advertisements promoting tobacco products influence decisions and behaviour of youth towards smoking. Objective: To ascertain which method of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion and Sponsorship (TAPS) was more influential for initiating tobacco use in youth in India. Materials and Methods: The secondary data of youth (15-24 years) from nationally representative Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in 2009-2010 was analyzed. Odds ratio and p-value were used to know the association between TAPS and initiation of use of tobacco products among youth. Logistic regression was used to determine the most significant means of TAPS altering the youth's behaviour towards tobacco products. Results: Out of 13,383 youths, 1,982 (14.7%) used smokeless forms of tobacco and 860 (6.38%) used smoke forms. Logistic regression reveals that promotional activities mainly through cinemas (p<0.05) and providing free samples of tobacco products (p < = .001) were most influential means of initiating consumption of tobacco products among youth. Conclusions: The smoking in youth is associated with watching advertisements particularly in cinema and promotional activities like distribution of free samples, coupons and sales on the price of tobacco products. Stronger legislative measures should be enforced to curb promotional advertisements in cinemas and distribution of free samples.
Addressing Factors Associated with Arab Women's Socioeconomic Status May Reduce Breast Cancer Mortality: Report from a Well Resourced Middle Eastern Country
Donnelly, Tam Truong ; Al Khater, Al-Hareth ; Al Kuwari, Mohamed Ghaith ; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum ; Abdulmalik, Mariam ; Al-Meer, Nabila ; Singh, Rajvir ; Fung, Tak ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6303~6309
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6303
Differences in socioeconomic status (SES) such as income levels may partly explain why breast cancer screening (BCS) disparities exist in countries where health care services are free or heavily subsidized. However, factors that contribute to such differences in SES among women living in well resourced Middle East countries are not fully understood. This quantitative study investigated factors that influence SES and BCS of Arab women. Understanding of such factors can be useful for the development of effective intervention strategies that aim to increase BCS uptake among Arab women. Using data from a cross-sectional survey among 1,063 Arabic-speaking women in Qatar, age 35+, additional data analysis was performed to determine the relationship between socioeconomic indicators such as income and other factors in relation to BCS activities. This study found that income is determined and influenced by education level, occupation, nationality, years of residence in the country, level of social activity, self-perceived health status, and living area. Financial stress, unemployment, and unfavorable social conditions may impede women's participation in BCS activities in well resourced Middle East countries.
Staged Improvement in Awareness of Disease for Elderly Cancer Patients in Southern China
Li, Xing ; Dong, Min ; Wen, Jing-Yun ; Wei, Li ; Ma, Xiao-Kun ; Xing, Yan-Fang ; Deng, Yun ; Chen, Zhan-Hong ; Chen, Jie ; Ruan, Dan-Yun ; Lin, Ze-Xiao ; Wang, Tian-Tian ; Wu, Dong-Hao ; Liu, Xu ; Hu, Hai-Tao ; Lin, Jia-Yu ; Li, Zhuang-Hua ; Liu, Yuan-Chao ; Xia, Qing ; Jia, Chang-Chang ; Wu, Xiang-Yuan ; Lin, Qu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6311~6316
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6311
Background: In mainland China, awareness of disease of elderly cancer patients largely relies on the patients' families. We developed a staged procedure to improve their awareness of disease. Materials and Methods: Participants were 224 elderly cancer patients from 9 leading hospitals across Southern China. A questionnaire was given to the oncologists in charge of each patient to evaluate the interaction between family and patients, patient awareness of their disease and participation in medical decision-making. After first cycles of treatment, increased information of disease was given to patients with cooperation of the family. Then patient awareness of their disease and participation in medical decision-making was documented. Results: Among the 224 cancer elderly patients, 26 (11.6%) made decisions by themselves and 125 (55.8%) delegated their rights of decision-making to their family. Subordinate family members tended to play a passive role in decision-making significantly. Patients participating more in medical decision-making tended to know more about their disease. However, in contrast to the awareness of disease, patient awareness of violation of medical recommendations was reversely associated with their participation in medical decision-making. Improvement in awareness of diagnosis, stages and prognosis was achieved in about 20% elderly cancer patients. About 5% participated more actively in medical decision-making. Conclusions: Chinese elderly cancer patient awareness of disease and participation in medical decision-making is limited and relies on their family status. The staged procedure we developed to improve patient awareness of disease proved effective.
Inhibitory Aromatase Effects of Flavonoids from Ginkgo Biloba Extracts on Estrogen Biosynthesis
Park, Yong Joo ; Choo, Wun Hak ; Kim, Ha Ryong ; Chung, Kyu Hyuck ; Oh, Seung Min ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6317~6325
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6317
Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is a popular phytomedicine and has been used for disorders of the central nervous system, cardiovascular, renal, respiratory, and circulatory diseases. Although GBE is a complex mixture of over 300 compounds, its major components are 24% flavonoids and 6% terpene lactones. In this study, we tested the inhibitory effects of the three major flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin, and isorhamnetin) from GBE, independently and as mixtures, on aromatase activity using JEG-3 cells (human placental cells) and recombinant proteins (human placental microsome). In both systems, kaempferol showed the strongest inhibitory effects among the three flavonoids; the flavanoid mixtures exerted increased inhibitory effects. The results of exon I.1-driven luciferase reporter gene assays supported the increased inhibitory effects of flavonoid mixtures, accompanied by suppression of estrogen biosynthesis. In the RT-PCR analysis, decreased patterns of aromatase promoter I.1 mRNA expressions were observed, which were similar to the aromatase inhibition patterns of flavonoids and their mixtures. The present study demonstrated that three flavonoids synergistically inhibit estrogen biosynthesis through aromatase inhibition, decrease CYP19 mRNA, and induce transcriptional suppression. Our results support the usefulness of flavonoids in adjuvant therapy for breast cancer by reducing estrogen levels with reduced adverse effects due to estrogen depletion.
4G/5G and A-844G Polymorphisms of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Associated with Glioblastoma in Iran - a Case-Control Study
Pooyan, Honari ; Ahmad, Ebrahimi ; Azadeh, Rakhshan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6327~6330
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6327
Background: Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive and malignant brain tumor. Risk factors are largely unknown however, although several biomarkers have been identified which may support development, angiogenesis and invasion of tumor cells. One of these biomarkers is PAI-1.4G/5G and A-844G are two common polymorphisms in the gene promotor of PAI 1 that may be related to high transcription and expression of this gene. Studies have shown that the prevalence of the 4G and 844G allele is significantly higher in patients with some cancers and genetic disorders. Materials and Methods: We here assessed the association of 4G/5G and A-844G polymorphisms with glioblastoma cancer risk in Iranians in a case-control study. All 71 patients with clinically confirmed and 140 volunteers with no history and symptoms of glioblastoma as control group were screened for 4G/5G and A-844G polymorphisms of PAI-1, using ARMS-PCR. Genotype and allele frequencies of case and control groups were analyzed using the DeFinetti program. Results: Our results showed significant associations between 4G/5G (p=0.01824) and A-844G (p = 0.02012) polymorphisms of the PAI-1 gene with glioblastoma cancer risk in our Iranian population. Conclusions: The results of this study supporting an association of the PAI-1 4G/5G (p=0.01824) and A-844G (p = 0.02012) polymorphisms with increasing glioblastoma cancer risk in Iranian patients.
Palliative Care Education in Gynecologic Oncology: a Survey of Gynecologic Oncologists and Gynecologic Oncology Fellows in Thailand
Ratanakaaew, A ; Khemapech, N ; Laurujisawat, P ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6331~6334
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6331
Background: The main purpose of this study was to survey the education and training of certified gynecologic oncologists and fellows in Thailand. A secondary objective was to study the problems in fellowship training regarding palliative care for gynecologic cancer patients. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted by sending a questionnaire regarding palliative care education to all certified gynecologic oncologists and gynecologic oncology fellows in Thailand. The contents of the survey included fellowship training experience, caring for the dying, patient preparation, attitudes and respondent characteristics. Statistics were analyzed by percentage, mean and standard deviation and chi-square. Results: One hundred seventy completed questionnaires were returned; the response rate was 66%. Most certified gynecologic oncologists and fellows in gynecologic oncology have a positive attitude towards palliative care education, and agree that "psychological distress can result in severe physical suffering". It was found that the curriculum of gynecologic oncology fellowship training equally emphasizes three aspects, namely managing post-operative complications, managing a patient at the end of life and managing a patient with gynecologic oncology. As for experiential training during the fellowship of gynecologic oncology, education regarding breaking bad news, discussion about goals of care and procedures for symptoms control were mostly on-the-job training without explicit teaching. In addition, only 42.9 % of respondents were explicitly taught the coping skill for managing their own stress when caring for palliative patients during fellowship training. Most of respondents rated their clinical competency for palliative care in the "moderately well prepared" level, and the lowest score of the competency was the issue of spiritual care. Conclusions: Almost all certified gynecologic oncologists and fellows in gynecologic oncology have a positive attitude towards learning and teaching in palliative care. In this study, some issues were identified for improving palliative care education such as proper training under the supervision of a mentor, teaching how to deal with work stress, competency in spiritual care and attitudes on responsibility for bereavement care.
Expression of Cytoplasmic 8-oxo-Gsn and MTH1 Correlates with Pathological Grading in Human Gastric Cancer
Song, Wen-Jie ; Jiang, Ping ; Cai, Jian-Ping ; Zheng, Zhi-Qiang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6335~6338
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6335
Background: Cancers have dysfunctional redox regulation resulting in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), damaging DNA, RNA and free NTPs, and causing the accumulation of oxidative nucleic acids in cytoplasm. The major types are 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine(8-oxoGsn) in RNA and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2' deoxyguanosine(8-oxodGsn) in Mt-DNA. The MTH1 protein sanitizes oxidized nucleotide pools from NTPs to monophosphates, preventing the occurrence of transversion mutations. This study concerned cytoplasmic 8-oxodGsn/Gsn and MTH1 expression in gastric cancer and para-cancer tissues and elucidated roles of nucleic-acid oxidation and anti-oxidation. Materials and Methods: A polymer HRP detection system was used to detect 8-oxo-Gsn/dGsn and MTH1 expression in 51 gastric cancer and para-cancer tissue samples. Analyses of patient clinical and pathological data were also performed. Results: The expression of MTH1 and the 8-oxo-dGsn/Gsn ratio were significantly higher in cancer tissues than para-cancer tissues (P<0.05). Cytoplasmic 8-oxo-Gsn and MTH1 were both found to positively correlate (P<0.05) with tumor differentiation, while no significant associations were found with gender, age, invasion depth, lymph node metastasis and clinical stage (P>0.05). Conclusions: We found 8-oxo-dGsn/Gsn and MTH1 are both highly expressed in gastric cancer tissues, especially in well differentiated lesions. In addition, oxidated mtDNA is prevalently expressed in gastric cancers, while 8-oxo-Gsn expression in cytoplasmic RNA is a bit lower, but more selectively.
Supportive Care Needs of Iranian Cancer Survivors and Relationships with Social Support
Faghani, Safieh ; Mohammadian, Robab ; Rahmani, Azad ; Mohajjel-Aghdam, Ali-Reza ; Hassankhani, Hadi ; Azadi, Arman ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6339~6345
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6339
Background: Assessment of supportive care needs of cancer survivors and identifying factors affecting such needs is important for implementation of any supportive care programs. So, the aims of present study were to investigate the supportive care needs of Iranian cancer survivors and relationships with social support. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study two hundred and fifty cancer survivors participated via convenient sampling methods. The Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-SF34) and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) were used for data collection. SPSS software was applied and univariate regression was used for examine relationships of supportive care needs with social support. Results: Participants demonstrated many unmet supportive care needs, especially in health system and information and psychological domains. In addition, participants reported that family members and significant others were their main source of support. Also, social support has a significant correlation with all domains of supportive care needs. Conclusions: There is an indispensable need for establishment of supportive care programs for Iranian cancer survivors. In addition, family members of family members of such survivors are an important resource to help develop such programs.
Evaluation of Common Risk Factors for Breast Carcinoma in Females: a Hospital Based Study in Karachi, Pakistan
Sufian, Saira Naz ; Masroor, Imrana ; Mirza, Waseem ; Butt, Sehrish ; Afzal, Shaista ; Sajjad, Zafar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6347~6352
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6347
Background: Breast malignancies are one of the leading causes of deaths in females worldwide. There are a number of risk factors associated with breast cancer but in Karachi Pakistan there are insufficient data available. Materials and Methods: A case control study was conducted on females in age group between 30-80 years. This study was accomplished by retrospective data collection in Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 108 females with primary malignancy of breast were included along with 108 matched controls. Relationship of various factors with disease was studied using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals. Results: A total of 14 variables were analyzed and based on and 7 were found to be risk factors: old age, family history of breast cancer, family history of other carcinomas, personal history of breast carcinoma, early age of menarche, older age of mother at first delivery and lower number of children. Five factors, parity, breast feeding, history of oral contraceptive pills intake, past history of oophorectomy and hysterectomy showed protective associations. One variable, use of hormonal replacement therapy, showed a controversial link and one other, marital status, was not significant in this study. Conclusions: It is concluded that most of the well-known risk factors for breast cancer are also associated with the disease in the female population of Karachi, Pakistan. High risk patients should be the focus with the help of this study so that screening can be more effective for early diagnosis before clinically evident breast malignancy.
Laparoscopic Versus Open Radical Cystectomy for Patients Older than 75 Years: a Single-Center Comparative Analysis
Yasui, Takahiro ; Tozawa, Keiichi ; Ando, Ryosuke ; Hamakawa, Takashi ; Iwatsuki, Shoichiro ; Taguchi, Kazumi ; Kobayashi, Daichi ; Naiki, Taku ; Mizuno, Kentaro ; Okada, Atsushi ; Umemoto, Yukihiro ; Kawai, Noriyasu ; Sasaki, Shoichi ; Hayashi, Yutaro ; Kohri, Kenjiro ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6353~6358
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6353
Background: To explore the safety, efficacy, and oncological outcome of 3-port laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC) compared to open radical cystectomy (ORC) in patients older than 75 years. Materials and Methods: From June 2010 to July 2014, we analyzed 16 radical cystectomies in patients older than 75 years (LRC group=8; ORC group=8). Demographic parameters, operative variables, and perioperative outcome in the 2 groups were retrospectively collected, analyzed, and compared. Results: Patients in both groups had comparable preoperative characteristics. A significantly longer operating time (476 vs. 303 min, P=0.0002) and less estimated blood loss (627 vs. 2,106 mL, P=0.021) were observed in the LRC group compared to the ORC group. Infection and ileus were the most common early complications after surgery. Patients who underwent ORC suffered from more postoperative infection (22.2% vs. 0.0%, P=0.054) and ileus (25.0% vs. 12.5%, P=0.521) than the LRC group, but the difference was not significant. Conclusions: Judging from this initial trial, 3-port LRC can be safely carried out in elderly patients. We suggest 3-port LRC as the primary intervention to treat muscle-invasive or high-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer in elderly patients with an otherwise relatively long life expectancy.
Aromatase Inhibition and Capecitabine Combination as 1
Line Treatment for Metastatic Breast Cancer - a Retrospective Analysis
Shankar, Abhishek ; Roy, Shubham ; Rath, Goura Kishor ; Julka, Pramod Kumar ; Kamal, Vineet Kumar ; Malik, Abhidha ; Patil, Jaineet ; Jeyaraj, Pamela Alice ; Mahajan, Manmohan K ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6359~6364
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6359
Background: Preclinical studies have shown that the combination of an aromatase inhibitor (AI) and capecitabine in estrogen receptor (ER)- positive cell lines enhance antitumor efficacy. This retrospective analysis of a group of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) evaluated the efficacy and safety of combined AI with capecitabine. Materials and Methods: Patients with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer treated between 1st January 2005 and 31st December 2010 with a combination of capecitabine and AI were evaluated and outcomes were compared with those of women treated with capecitabine in conventional dose or AI as a monotherapy. Results: Of 72 patients evaluated, 31 received the combination treatment, 22 AI and 19 capecitabine. The combination was used in 20 patients as first-line and 11 as second-line treatment. Mean age was 46.2 years with a range of 28-72 years. At the time of progression, 97% had a performance status of <2 and 55% had visceral disease. No significant difference was observed between the three groups according to clinical and pathological features. Mean follow up was 38 months with a range of 16-66 months. The median PFS of first-line treatment was significantly better for the combination (PFS 21 months vs 8.0 months for capecitabine and 15.0 months for AI). For second-line treatment, the PFS was longer in the combination compared with capecitabine and Al groups (18 months vs. 5.0 months vs. 11.0 months, respectively). Median 2 year and 5 year survival did not show any significant differences among combination and monotherapy groups. The most common adverse events for the combination group were grade 1 and 2 hand-for syndrome (69%), grade 1 fatigue (64%) and grade 1 diarrhoea (29%). Three grade 3 hand-foot syndrome events were reported. Conclusions: Combination treatment with capecitabine and AI used as a first line or second line treatment was safe with much lowered toxicity. Prospective randomized clinical trials should evaluate the use of combination therapy in advanced breast cancer to confirm these findings.
Women and Tobacco Use: Discrepancy in the Knowledge, Belief and Behavior towards Tobacco Consumption among Urban and Rural Women in Chhattisgarh, Central India
Tiwari, Ram Vinod ; Gupta, Anjali ; Agrawal, Ankush ; Gandhi, Aniruddh ; Gupta, Manjari ; Das, Mayank ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6365~6373
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6365
Background: Tobacco consumption has become pandemic, and is estimated to have killed 100 million people in the 20th century worldwide. Some 700,000 out of 5.4 million deaths due to tobacco use were from India. The era of global modernization has led to an increase in the involvement of women in tobacco consumption in the low income and middle-income countries. Tobacco consumption by females is known to have grave consequences. Objectives: To assess: (1) the tobacco use among urban and rural women; (2) the discrepancy in the knowledge, belief and behavior towards tobacco consumption among urban and rural women in Durg-Bhilai Metropolitan, Chhattisgarh, Central India. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 2,000 18-25 year old young women from Durg-Bhilai Metropolitan, Chhattisgarh, Central India, from both urban and rural areas. Data were collected using a pretested, anonymous, extensive face to face interview by a female investigator to assess the tobacco use among women and the discrepancy in the knowledge, belief and behavior towards tobacco consumption among urban and rural individuals. Results: The prevalence of tobacco use was found to be 47.2%. Tobacco consumption among rural women was 54.4% and in urban women was 40%. The majority of the women from urban areas (62.8%) were smokers whilst rural women (77.4%) showed preponderance toward smokeless tobacco use. Urban women had a better knowledge and attitude towards harms from tobacco and its use than the rural women. Women in rural areas had higher odds (1.335) of developing tobacco habit than the urban women. Conclusions: Increased tobacco use by women poses very severe hazards to their health, maternal and child health, and their family health and economic well-being. Due to the remarkably complex Indian picture of female tobacco use, an immediate and compulsory implementation of tobacco control policies laid down by t he WHO FCTC is the need of the hour.
Age Specific Cytological Abnormalities in Women Screened for Cervical Cancer in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi
Al Zaabi, Muna ; Al Muqbali, Shaikha ; Al Sayadi, Thekra ; Al Ameeri, Suhaila ; Coetsee, Karin ; Balayah, Zuhur ; Ortashi, Osman ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6375~6379
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6375
Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide, with about 500,000 new cases and 270,000 deaths each year. Globally, it is estimated that over one million women currently have cervical cancer, most of whom have not been diagnosed, or have no access to treatment that could cure them or prolong their lives. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE) cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional retrospective survey of cervical smear abnormalities was conducted in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE, from January 2013 to December 2013 by collecting consecutive liquid-based cytology samples from the Department of Pathology at the SKMC Hospital in Abu Dhabi city. Results: The total number of women screened for cervical cancer for the year 2013 at SKMC was 4,593, with 225 (4.89%) abnormal smears. The majority of the abnormal smear results were atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) 114 (2.48%). This study showed 60% increase in the rate of abnormal cervical smears in the UAE over the last 10 years. In this study the highest incidence of high grade abnormalities were seen in women above the age of 61years (1.73%), this might be due to the fact that this group of women missed the chance of screening of cervical cancer earlier in their lives or could be explained by the well-known second peak of HPV infection seen in many prevalence studies. Conclusions: We conclude that the rate of abnormal cervical smear in the screened Abu Dhabi women is not different from the rate in developed countries. A notable increase in both low and high grade abnormalities has occurred within the last decade.
Whole Liver Palliative Radiotherapy for Patients with Massive Liver Metastases
Edyta, Wolny-Rokicka ; Jakub, Lipinski ; Jerzy, Wydmanski ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6381~6384
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6381
Background: The purpose of this retrospectively study was to examine the effectiveness and tolerability of a radiotherapy technique for the palliation of symptomatic liver metastases. Materials and Methods: Twentyseven patients with liver metastases were enrolled and received targeted whole liver irradiation consisting of mean 1, 8 Gy in five to twelve fractions to a total mean dose 17Gy. Symptoms at baseline were hepatic pain (26 patients), lost of weight (6), lack of appetite (2), and night sweats (1). Seventeen patients (63%) had failed previous treatment with chemotherapy and/or high-dose steroids. Results: Individual symptom response rates were 100% at 4 weeks. Partial or complete global symptomatic responses were noted in 11 patients (40%) after 2 months. After 3 months, 8 patients (28%) reported loss of pain. The treatment was well tolerated with one patient (3%) experiencing grade 3 toxicity (one vomiting and one diarrhoea). Overall the median survival time was 4.9 months (range 1 - 14 months). One year survival was 39%. Conclusions: This is simple and well-tolerated treatment but to achieve good palliation effects we should carefully selected patients whose conventional treatment does not bring good analgesic control.
Polymorphism of the DNA Repair Gene XRCC1 (Arg194Trp) and its role in Colorectal Cancer in Kashmiri Population: a Case Control Study
Nissar, Saniya ; Sameer, Aga Syed ; Rasool, Roohi ; Chowdri, Nissar A ; Rashid, Fouzia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6385~6390
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6385
Background: Genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may influence individual variation in DNA repair capacity, which may be associated with risk of developing cancer. For colorectal cancer the importance of mutations in mismatch repair genes has been extensively documented. Materials and Methods: In this study we focused on the Arg194Trp polymorphism of the DNA repair gene XRCC1, involved in base excision repair (BER) and its role in colorectal cancer in Kashmiri population. A case-control study was conducted including 100 cases of colorectal cancer, and 100 hospital-based age- and sex-matched healthy controls to examine the role of XRCC1 genetic polymorphisms in the context of colorectal cancer risk for the Kashmiri population. Results: Genotype analysis of XRCC1 Arg194Trp was conducted with a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. The overall association between the XRCC1 polymorphism and the CRC cases was found to be significant (p < 0.05) with both the heterozygous genotype (Arg/Trp) as well as homozygous variant genotype (Trp/Trp) being moderately associated with the elevated risk for CRC [OR=2.01 (95% CI=1.03-3.94) and OR=5.2(95% CI=1.42-19.5)] respectively. Conclusions: Our results suggest an increased risk for CRC in individuals with XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism suggesting BER repair pathway modulates the risk of developing colorectal cancer in the Kashmiri population.
Cervical Cancer Mortality Trends in China, 1991-2013, and Predictions for the Future
Du, Pei-Ling ; Wu, Ku-Sheng ; Fang, Jia-Ying ; Zeng, Yang ; Xu, Zhen-Xi ; Tang, Wen-Rui ; Xu, Xiao-Ling ; Lin, Kun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6391~6396
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6391
Background: To analyze cervical cancer mortality trends in China from 1991-2013 and forecast the mortality distribution in future five years (2014-2018), and provide clues for prevention and treatment. Materials and Methods: Mortality data for cervical cancer in China from 1991 to 2013 were used to describe the epidemiological characteristics and distribution, including the trend of the standardized mortality rate, urban-rural differences, and age variation. Trend-surface analysis was used to analyze the geographical distribution of mortality. Curve estimation, time series, gray modeling, and joinpoint regression were performed to predict and forecast mortality trends. Results: In recent years, the mortality rate of cervical cancer has increased, and there is also a steady increase in the incidence from 2003 to 2013 in China. Mortality rates in rural areas are higher than in urban areas. The mortality dramatically increases in the 40+ yr age group, reaching a peak in the >85 yr age group. In addition, geographical analysis showed that the cervical cancer mortality increased from the southwest to west-central and from the southeast to northeast of the country. Conclusions: The incidence rate and the mortality rate are increasing from 1991 to 2013, and the predictions show this will continue in the future. Thus, implementation of prevention and management programs for cervical cancer are necessary in China, especially for rural areas, young women in urban areas, and high risk regions (the west-central).
Arsenic Exposure and Haematological Derangement in Cervical Cancer Cases in India
Kumar, Rahul ; Trivedi, Vinita ; Murti, Krishna ; Dey, Akalanka ; Singh, Jitendra Kumar ; Nath, A ; Das, P ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6397~6400
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6397
Cervical cancer is the second most common gynecological malignancy worldwide. According to HPV Information Centre, Spain (Aug'2014), in India approximately 1,22,844 women are diagnosed with the disease every year and of them 67,477 die due to the disease. CaCx is said to be mediated by HPV but recent data published reveal the role of Oxidative Stress in different Cancers. Arsenic is also one of the agents for causing Oxidative Stress. Arsenic has been linked with different types of cancer. Arsenic is considered responsible for generation of free radicals and eventually for apoptosis. Early diagnosis of CaCx is presently a matter of concern and clinical presentation in advanced stages become difficult for complete clinical response. For determination of oxidative stress, Malondialdehyde (MDA) was taken as an identifier and arsenic estimation was performed with the help of Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). RBC count and Haemoglobin levels were performed according to standard protocol. MDA was in direct proportion with arsenic concentration and inversely proportional to RBC and Haemoglobin in CaCx patients. Arsenic is one of the major causative agents for oxidative stress and hence may be a risk factor leading to cancer including CaCx.
Diagnostic Performance of Diffusion - Weighted Imaging for Multiple Hilar and Mediastinal Lymph Nodes with FDG Accumulation
Usuda, Katsuo ; Maeda, Sumiko ; Motono, Nozomu ; Ueno, Masakatsu ; Tanaka, Makoto ; Machida, Yuichiro ; Matoba, Munetaka ; Watanabe, Naoto ; Tonami, Hisao ; Ueda, Yoshimichi ; Sagawa, Motoyasu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6401~6406
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6401
Background: It is sometimes difficult to assess patients who have multiple hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes (MHMLN) with FDG accumulation in PET-CT. Since it is uncertain whether diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is useful in the assessment of such patients, its diagnostic performance was assessed. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three patients who had three or more stations of hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes with SUVmax of 3 or more in PET-CT were included in this study. Results: For diagnosis of disease, there were 20 malignancies (lung cancers 17, malignant lymphomas 2 and metastatic lung tumor 1), and 3 benign cases (sarcoidosis 2 and benign disease 1). For diagnosis of lymph nodes, there were 7 malignancies (metastasis of lung cancer 7 and malignant lymphoma 1) and 16 benign lymphadenopathies (pneumoconiosis/silicosis 7, sarcoidosis 4, benign disease 4, and atypical lymphocyte infiltration 1). The ADC value (
) of malignant MHMLN was significantly lower than that (
) of benign MHMLN (P=0.0437). However, the SUVmax was not significantly higher (
as compared to
) (P=0.15). The sensitivity (86%) by PET-CT was not significantly higher than that (71%) by DWI for malignant MHMLN (P=1.0). The specificity (100%) by DWI was significantly higher than that (31%) for benign MHMLN (P=0.0098). Furthermore, the accuracy (91%) with DWI was significantly higher than that (48%) with PET-CT for MHMLN (P=0.0129). Conclusions: Evaluation by DWI for patients with MHMLN with FDG accumulation is useful for distinguishing benign from malignant conditions.
Predictive Value of the Platelet-To-Lymphocyte Ratio in Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer
Yuksel, Ozgur Haki ; Urkmez, Ahmet ; Akan, Serkan ; Yldirim, Caglar ; Verit, Ayhan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6407~6412
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6407
Purpose: To predict prostatic carcinoma using a logistic regression model on prebiopsy peripheral blood samples. Materials and Methods: Data of a total of 873 patients who consulted Urology Outpatient Clinics of Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital between February 2008 and April 2014 scheduled for prostate biopsy were screened retrospectively. PSA levels, prostate volumes, prebiopsy whole blood cell counts, neutrophil and platelet counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), biopsy results and Gleason scores in patients who had established diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) were evaluated. Results: This study was performed on a total of 873 cases, with an age range 48-76 years, divided into three groups as for biopsy results. with diagnoses of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (n=304, 34.8 %), PCa (n=265, 30.4 %) and histological prostatitis (n=304; 34.8 %). Intra- and intergroup comparative evaluations were performed. White blood cell and neutrophil counts in the histological prostatitis group were significantly higher than those of the BPH and PCa groups (p=0.001; p=0.004; p<0.01). A statistically significant intergroup difference was found for PLR (p=0.041; p<0.05) but not lymphocyte count (p>0.05). According to pairwise comparisons, PLR were significantly higher in the PCa group relative to BPH group (p=0.018, p<0.05, respectively). Though not statistically significant, higher PLR in cases with PCa in comparison with the prostatitis group was remarkable (p=0.067, and p>0.05, respectively). Conclusions: Meta-analyses showed that in patients with PSA levels over 4 ng/ml, positive predictive value of PSA is only 25 percent. Therefore, novel markers which can both detect clinically significant prostate cancer, and also prevent unnecessary biopsies are needed. Relevant to this issue in addition to PSA density, velocity, and PCA3, various markers have been analyzed. In the present study, PLR were found to be the additional predictor of prostatic carcinoma.
Temporal Epidemiological Assessment of Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in East Kazakhstan, 2004-2013
Zhabagin, Kuantkan ; Igissinov, Nurbek ; Manambayeva, Zukhra ; Adylkhanov, Tasbolat ; Sandybayev, Marat ; Nurgazin, Murat ; Massadykov, Adilzhan ; Tanatarov, Sayat ; Aldyngurov, Daniyar ; Urazalina, Nailya ; Abiltayeva, Aizhan ; Baissalbayeva, Ainoor ; Zhabagina, Almagul ; Sabitova, Dinara ; Zhumykbayeva, Nurgul ; Kenbayeva, Dinara ; Rakhimbekov, Alexander ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6413~6416
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6413
Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in Kazakhstan are relatively high but exact statistics have hitherto been lacking and trends over time are unclear. The present study was therefore undertaken to retrospectively assess data for East Kazakhstan, accessed from the central registration office, for the period 2004-2013. Approximate age standardized data for incidence and mortality were generated and compared across age groups, gender and year. It was determined that during the studied period 3,417 new cases of colorectal cancer were registered and 2,259 died of this pathology. Average cancer cancer incidence and mortality over the ten years were
respectively, and the overall ratio of mortality/incidence (M/I) was 0.69:1 (range 0.58-0.73). Both incidence and mortality tended to remain constant in both males and females. The male to female ratios also did not significantly vary over time but a trend for improvement of the mortality to incidence ratio was observed, especially for rectum. Whether this might be related to screening remains unclear. These preliminary data indicate that whereas colorectal cancer continues to be important, change in environmental factors are not having a great impact on incidence in East Kazakhstan.
Viscum Album Var Hot Water Extract Mediates Anti-cancer Effects through G1 Phase Cell Cycle Arrest in SK-Hep1 Human Hepatocarcinoma cells
Cruz, Joseph Flores dela ; Kim, Yeon Soo ; Lumbera, Wenchie Marie Lara ; Hwang, Seong Gu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6417~6421
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6417
Viscum album var (VAV) also known as mistletoe, has long been categorized as a traditional herbal medicine in Asia. In addition to its immunomodulating activities, mistletoe has also been used in the treatment of chronic hepatic disorders in China and Korea. There are numerous reports showing that VAV possesses anti-cancer effects, however influence on human hepatocarcinoma has never been elucidated. In the present study, hot water extracts of VAV was evaluated for its potential anti-cancer effect in vitro. SK-Hep1 cells were treated with VAV (50-400ug/ml) for both 24 and 48 hours then cell viability was measured by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). Flow cytometry analysis was used to measure the proportion of SK-Hep1 in the different stages of cell cycle. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis were conducted to measure expression of cell cycle arrest related genes and proteins respectively. VAV dose dependently inhibited the proliferation of SK-Hep1 cells without any cytotoxicity with normal Chang liver cell (CCL-13). Flow cytometry analysis showed that VAV extract inhibited the cell cycle of SK-Hep1 cells via G1 phase arrest. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis both revealed that cyclin dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) and cyclin D1 gene expression were significantly down regulated while p21 was upregulated dose dependently by VAV treatment. Combined down regulation of Cdk2, Cyclin D1 and up regulation of p21 can result in cell death. These results indicate that VAV showed evidence of anti-cancer activity through G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SK-Hep1 cells.
In Vitro Anticancer Activities of Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia bellerica, Acacia catechu and Moringa oleiferna Indian Plants
Diab, Kawthar AE ; Guru, Santosh Kumar ; Bhushan, Shashi ; Saxena, Ajit K ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6423~6428
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6423
The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro anti-proliferative potential of extracts from four Indian medicinal plants, namely Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia bellerica, Acacia catechu and Moringa oleiferna. Their cytotoxicity was tested in nine human cancer cell lines, including cancers of lung (A549), prostate (PC-3), breast (T47D and MCF-7), colon (HCT-16 and Colo-205) and leukemia (THP-1, HL-60 and K562) by using SRB and MTT assays. The findings showed that the selected plant extracts inhibited the cell proliferation of nine human cancer cell lines in a concentration dependent manner. The extracts inhibited cell viability of leukemia HL-60 and K562 cells by blocking G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Interestingly, A. catechu extract at
induced G2/M arrest in K562 cells. DNA fragmentation analysis displayed the appearance of a smear pattern of cell necrosis upon agarose gel electrophoresis after incubation of HL-60 cells with these extracts for 24h.
Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 Polymorphisms, Cigarette Smoking and HPV Infection in Precancerous and Cancerous Lesions of the Uterine Cervix
Sharma, Anita ; Gupta, Sanjay ; Sodhani, Pushpa ; Singh, Veena ; Sehgal, Ashok ; Sardana, Sarita ; Mehrotra, Ravi ; Sharma, Joginder Kumar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6429~6438
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6429
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play an important role in detoxification of carcinogenic electrophiles. The null genotypes in GSTM1 and GSTT1 have been implicated in carcinogenesis. Present study was planned to evaluate the influence of genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene loci in cervical carcinogenesis. The study was conducted in Lok Nayak hospital, New Delhi. DNA from clinical scrapes of 482 women with minor gynaecologic complaints attending Gynaecology OPD and tumor biopsies of 135 cervical cancer cases attending the cancer clinic was extracted. HPV DNA was detected by standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using L1 consensus primer pair. Polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were analysed by multiplex PCR procedures. Differences in proportions were tested using Pearson's Chi-square test with Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The risk of cervical cancer was almost three times in women with GSTM1 homozygous null genotype (OR-2.62, 95%CI, 1.77-3.88; p<0.0001). No association of GSTM1 or GSTT1 homozygous null genotypes was observed in women with normal, precancerous and cervical cancerous lesions among
or >35 years of age groups. Smokers with null GSTT1 genotype had a higher risk of cervical cancer as compared to non-smokers (OR-3.01, 95% CI, 1.10-8.23; p=0.03). The results further showed that a significant increased risk of cervical cancer was observed in HPV positive smoker women with GSTT1 (OR-4.36, 95% CI, 1.27-15.03; p=0.02) and GSTM1T1 (OR-3.87, 95% CI, 1.05-14.23; p=0.04) homozygous null genotypes as compared to HPV positive non smokers. The results demonstrate that the GST null genotypes were alone not associated with the development of cervical cancer, but interacted with smoking and HPV to exert effects in our Delhi population.
Exploratory Study to Evaluate Changes in Serum Lipid Levels as Early Diagnostic and/or Prognostic Indicators for Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Cancer among Gutkha Consumers in India
Agarwal, Ankit ; Saxena, Anshul ; Rubens, Muni ; Ahuja, Rinky ; Tijare, Manisha ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6439~6444
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6439
Background: In India smokeless tobacco users account for 25.9% of total tobacco use, Gutkha being the most common form. This study evaluated the association between serum lipid profile and Gutkha use as an early diagnostic and/or prognostic indicator for oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and oral cancer (Oral Ca) in non-smokers and non-alcohol consumers. Materials and Methods: A total of 163 participants were recruited from two sites in India. Participants were divided into four groups: individuals without any Gutkha chewing habit and without any oral lesions (control group), individuals with Gutkha chewing habit but without any oral lesions (GWL), patients with a confirmed clinical diagnosis of OSMF, and patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Oral Ca. Mixed linear modelling (MLM) was conducted to detect the change in mean serum lipid levels among four groups. Results: The sample consisted of 69% males and 31% females. Results of MLM show an inverse relationship between serum lipid levels in OSMF, and Oral Ca groups when compared to the control group. Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrated that GWL, OSMF and Oral Ca patients had lower serum lipid levels. Low serum lipid levels could be an indicator of initial neoplastic changes in oral cancer.
Cell Free EGFR mRNA Expression and Implications for Survival and Metastasis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cases
Masroor, Mirza ; Mir, Rashid ; Javid, Jamsheed ; Prasant, Y ; Imtiyaz, A ; Mariyam, Z ; Mohan, Anant ; Ray, PC ; Saxena, Alpana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6445~6449
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6445
Background: NSCLC is a disease involving uncontrolled cell growth, which could result in metastases into nearby tissues beyond the lungs. Materials and Methods: The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene expression on metastasis and survival in NSCLC patients. The present case-control study included 100 cases of NSCLC patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. EGFR gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR using serum RNA. Association with NSCLC patient survival was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: We analyzed EGFR gene expression and observed mean increased gene expression of 13.5 fold in NSCLC patients. Values reflected overall survival of patients with a median of 15.8 months in the cases of <13 fold increased gene expression vs 6.7 months with >13 fold increased EGFR gene expression (p=0.005). Distant metastatic patients with <13 fold increased EGFR gene expression had 7.9 months of median survival time while>13 fold increased EGFR gene expression had only 5 months of median survival time (p=0.03). Non metastatic patients with <13 fold increased EGFR gene expression had 18 months of median survival time as compared to only 7.1 months with >13 fold increased expression. Conclusions: Higher cell free EGFR mRNA expression may play an important role in causing distant metastases and reducing overall survival of NSCLC patients in the Indian population.
Epidemiological Aspects of Osteosarcoma, Giant Cell Tumor and Chondrosarcoma Musculoskeletal Tumors - Experience of the National Rehabilitation Institute, Mexico City
DelaGarza-Montano, P ; Estrada-Villasenor, E ; Dominguez Rubio, R ; Martinez-Lopez, V ; Avila-Luna, A ; Alfaro-Rodriguez, A ; Garciadiego-Cazares, D ; Carlos, A ; Hernandez-Perez, AD ; Bandala, C ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6451~6455
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6451
Background: Primary bone neoplasms are rare, contributing only 0.2% of the global burden of all human malignancies. Osteosarcoma (OS) and chondrosarcoma (CS) are the most common malignancies of bone. The giant cell tumor of bone (GCTb) is a benign tumor with behavior characterized by osteolytic bone destruction. The OS, CS and GCTb affect both sexes, all races and generally have incidence peaks regarding the age of the patient which vary according to the tumor type. We analyzed the incidences of OS, CS and GCTb and their relations with gender and age in patients treated in the National Rehabilitation Institute (INR, for its acronym in Spanish) over a period of nine years. Materials and Methods: In the study period, clinic pathological data for 384 patients were obtained with clinical, radiological and histopathological diagnosis for OS, GCTb and CS. Data analysis was performed using the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Results: From 2006 to 2014 were recorded 384 cases of bone malignancies in the database of INR. The GCTb had the highest incidence (53.1%), followed by OS (31.3%) and finally the CS (15.6%). The overall average age was
years and the overall frequency of gender had a ratio of 1/1.03 male/female. The states with the highest incidence were Distrito Federal and Estado de Mexico with 29.2% and 25.3% respectively. Malignant neoplasms of bone assessed in the course of nine years show three significant increases in 2008, 2011 and 2014 (p=0.14). We found association between sex and tumor type (p=0.03), GCTb and CS predominated in females (54.9% and 56.6% respectively), while for the OS males were most affected (59.1%). Age was different in relation with tumor type (p=0.0001), average age was
years for OS,
years for GCTb and
years for CS. Furthermore, associations of tumor type with topographic location of the primary tumor (P=0.0001) were found. Conclusions: In this study we can see that incidence of musculoskeletal tumor in our population is continuously increasing and in nine years an approximately 200% increase of musculoskeletal tumor cases was observed.
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in miR-149 (rs2292832) and miR-101-1 (rs7536540) Are Not Associated with Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Thai Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection
Pratedrat, Pornpitra ; Sopipong, Watanyoo ; Makkoch, Jarika ; Praianantathavorn, Kesmanee ; Chuaypen, Natthaya ; Tangkijvanich, Pisit ; Payungporn, Sunchai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6457~6461
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6457
MicroRNAs directly and indirectly influence many biological processes such as apoptosis, cell maintenance, and immune responses, impacting on tumor genesis and metastasis. They modulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and are associated with progression of liver disease. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a cancer which mostly occurs in males. There are many factors affect HCC development, for example, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), co-infection, environmental factors including alcohol, aflatoxin consumption and host-related factors such as age, gender immune response, microRNA and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus is the major factor leading to HCC progression since it causes the liver injury. At present, there are many reports regarding the association of SNPs on miRNAs and the HCC progression. In this research, we investigated the role of miR-149 (rs2292832) and miR-101-1 (rs7536540) with HCC progression in Thai population. The study included 289 Thai subjects including 104 HCC patients, 90 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB) and 95 healthy control subjects. The allele and genotype of rs2292832 and rs7536540 polymorphisms were determined by TaqMan real-time PCR assay. Our results revealed no significant association between miR-149 (rs2292832) and miR-101-1 (rs7536540) and the risk of HCC in our Thai population. However, this research is the first study of miR-149 (rs2292832) and miR-101-1 (rs7536540) in HCC in Thai populations and the results need to be confirmed with a larger population.
Time - and Concentration - Dependent Effects of Resveratrol on miR 15a and miR16-1 Expression and Apoptosis in the CCRF-CEM Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cell Line
Azimi, Ako ; Hagh, Majid Farshdousti ; Talebi, Mehdi ; Yousefi, Bahman ; feizi, Abbas Ali Hossein pour ; Baradaran, Behzad ; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar ; Shamsasenjan, Karim ; Khanzedeh, Taghi ; Ghaderi, Abdol Hasan ; Heydarabad, Milad Zadi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6463~6468
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6463
Background: Chemotherapy is one of the common approaches in treatment of cancers, especially leukemia. However, drug resistance phenomena reduce the likelihood of treatment success. Resveratrol is a herbal compound which through complicated processes makes some selected cells sensitive to treatment and induction of apoptosis. In the present study, the effects of resveratrol on the expression of miR 15a and miR16-1 and apoptosis in the CCRF-CEM cell line were investigated. Materials and Methods: The CCRF-CEM cell line was cultured under standard conditions and changes in miR 15a and miR 16-1 expression were analyzed by real time-PCR technique, with attention to reveratrol dose and time dependence. Also, apoptosis is evaluated by flow cytometry using annexin V and PI. Results: CCRF-CEM cells underwent dose-dependent apoptotic cell death in response to resveratrol. MiR 15a and miR 16-1 expression was up-regulated after 24 and 48 hours resveratrol treatment (p<0.05). Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that resveratrol induces apoptosis in a time and dose-dependent manner in CCRF-CEM cells. Also, increased expression level of miR 16-1 and miR 15a by means of resveratrol in CCRF-CEM cells might have a role in apoptosis induction and predisposition. According to our results resveratrol can be regarded as a dietary supplement to improve efficacy of anti-leukemia therapies.
Diffusion Weighted Imaging Can Distinguish Benign from Malignant Mediastinal Tumors and Mass Lesions: Comparison with Positron Emission Tomography
Usuda, Katsuo ; Maeda, Sumiko ; Motono, Nozomu ; Ueno, Masakatsu ; Tanaka, Makoto ; Machida, Yuichiro ; Matoba, Munetaka ; Watanabe, Naoto ; Tonami, Hisao ; Ueda, Yoshimichi ; Sagawa, Motoyasu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6469~6475
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6469
Background: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) makes it possible to detect malignant tumors based on the diffusion of water molecules. It is uncertain whether DWI is more useful than positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) for distinguishing benign from malignant mediastinal tumors and mass lesions. Materials and Methods: Sixteen malignant mediastinal tumors (thymomas 7, thymic cancers 3, malignant lymphomas 3, malignant germ cell tumors 2, and thymic carcinoid 1) and 12 benign mediastinal tumors or mass lesions were assessed in this study. DWI and PET-CT were performed before biopsy or surgery. Results: The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value (
) of malignant mediastinal tumors was significantly lower than that (
) of benign mediastinal tumors and mass lesions (P<0.0001). Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) (
) of malignant mediastinal tumors was significantly higher than that (
) of benign mediastinal tumors and mass lesions (P=0.0159). Using the optimal cutoff value (OCV)
for ADC and 2.93 for SUVmax, the sensitivity (100%) by DWI was not significantly higher than that (93.8%) by PET-CT for malignant mediastinal tumors. The specificity (83.3%) by DWI was not significantly higher than that (66.7%) for benign mediastinal tumors and mass lesions. The accuracy (92.9%) by DWI was not significantly higher than that (82.1%) by PET-CT for mediastinal tumors and mass lesions. Conclusions: There was no significant difference between diagnostic capability of DWI and that of PET-CT for distinguishing mediastinal tumors and mass lesions. DWI is useful in distinguishing benign from malignant mediastinal tumors and mass lesions.
Predictors of Sun-Protective Practices among Iranian Female College Students: Application of Protection Motivation Theory
Dehbari, Samaneh Rooshanpour ; Dehdari, Tahereh ; Dehdari, Laleh ; Mahmoudi, Maryam ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6477~6480
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6477
Purpose: Given the importance of sun protection in the prevention of skin cancer, this study was designed to determine predictors of sun-protective practices among a sample of Iranian female college students based on protection motivation theory (PMT) variables. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 201 female college students in Iran University of Medical Sciences were selected. Demographic and PMT variables were assessed with a 67-item questionnaire. Multiple linear regression was used to identify demographic and PMT variables that were associated with sun-protective practices and intention. Results: one percent of participants always wore a hat with a brim, 3.5% gloves and 15.9% sunglasses while outdoors. Only 10.9% regularly had their skin checked by a doctor. Perceived rewards, response efficacy, fear, self-efficacy and marital status were the five variables which could predict 39% variance of participants intention to perform sun-protective practices. Also, intention and response cost explained 31% of the variance of sun-protective practices. Conclusions: These predictive variables may be used to develop theory-based education interventions to prevent skin cancer among college students.
Patterns of Esophageal Cancer in the National Cancer Institute at the University of Gezira, in Gezira State, Sudan, in 1999-2012
Gasmelseed, Nagla ; Abudris, Daffalla ; Elhaj, Ahmed ; Eltayeb, Elgaylani A ; Elmadani, Ahmed ; Elhassan, Moawia M ; Mohammed, Khadiga ; Elgaili, Elgaili M ; Elbalal, Moawia ; Schuz, Joachim ; Leon, Maria E ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6481~6490
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6481
Background: Esophageal cancer (EC) is among the most common malignancies in Eastern Africa, but the occurrence of EC in Sudan has rarely been described in the scientific literature. This paper reports the results of a consecutive case series of all EC patients who visited one of the two public cancer treatment centers in the country in 1999-2012, providing a first description of this disease in a treatment center located in central Sudan. Materials and Methods: Clinical and demographic data for all EC patients who visited the Department of Oncology of the National Cancer Institute at the University of Gezira (NCI-UG) from 1999 to the end of 2012 were abstracted and tabulated by sex, tumor type and other characteristics. Results: A total of 448 EC patients visited NCI-UG in 1999-2012, and the annual number of EC cases increased steadily from 1999. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the predominant EC tumor type (90%), and adenocarcinoma (ADC) was reported in 9.4% of the EC cases. The overall male-to-female ratio for EC was 1:1.8, but the ratio was tumor type-dependent, being 1:2 for SCC and 2:1 for ADC. Only 20% of EC patients reported having ever used tobacco and/or alcohol, and the vast majority of these patients were male. At the time of EC diagnosis, 47.3% of the patients resided in Gezira State. Some EC patients from Gezira State seek out-of-state treatment in the national capital of Khartoum instead of visiting NCI-UG. Conclusions: The annual number of EC patients visiting NCI-UG has increased in recent years, approximately half of these patients being from Gezira State. Although this consecutive series of EC patients who visited NCI-UG was complete, it did not capture all EC patients from the state. A populationbased cancer registry would provide more complete data required to better understand EC patterns and risk factors.
Chemopreventive Actions of Blond and Red-Fleshed Sweet Orange Juice on the Loucy Leukemia Cell Line
Dourado, Grace KZS ; Stanilka, Joy M ; Percival, Susan S ; Cesar, Thais B ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6491~6499
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6491
Background: Red-fleshed sweet orange juice (ROJ) comes from a new variety of citrus cultivated in Brazil that contains high levels of
-carotene and lycopene, and similar amounts of hesperidin (HSP) and nutrients, equivalently to blond orange juice (BOJ). Such bioactive compounds are associated with chemopreventive actions in several cancer cell lines. The purpose of this study was to examine the cytotoxicity, cell cycle, apoptosis, and cytokine secretion after BOJ, ROJ, and HSP treatment of a novel T acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, Loucy. Materials and Methods: Loucy cells were incubated for 24-h with BOJ, ROJ, and HSP, and the viability was measured using trypan blue. Cell cycling and apoptosis were assessed by propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry, respectively. Secretion of cytokines
, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A,
was determined by ELISA array. Results: BOJ and ROJ treatments promoted Loucy cell cytotoxicity. Additionally, BOJ induced cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase, and decreased the cell accumulation in the G2/M. ROJ decreased only the G0/G1 fraction, while HSP did not change the cell cycle. BOJ led to apoptosis in a different fashion of ROJ, while the first treatment induced apoptosis by increase of late apoptosis and primary necrotic fractions, the second increased early and late apoptosis, and primary necrotic fraction compared to positive controls. HSP had no effect on apoptosis. IL-6 and IL-10 were abrogated by all treatments. Conclusions: Taking together, these results suggest potential chemopreventive effects of BOJ and ROJ on Loucy cells.
Bevacizumab Regulates Cancer Cell Migration by Activation of STAT3
Wu, Huan-Huan ; Zhang, Shuai ; Bian, Huan ; Li, Xiao-Xu ; Wang, Lin ; Pu, Yin-Fei ; Wang, Yi-Xiang ; Guo, Chuan-Bin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6501~6506
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6501
There are numerous clinical cases indicating that long-term use of bevacizumab may increase the invasiveness of tumors. However, to date, little is known about underlying molecular mechanisms. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to investigate effects of bevacizumab in four cancer cells lines (WSU-HN6, CAL27, Tca83, and HeLa). It was found to promote migration and invasion in the WSU-HN6 and Tca83 cases, while exerting inhibitory effects in CAL27 and HeLa cells. The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 inhibitors niclosamide and S3I-201 inhibited the STAT3 signal pathway, which is activated by bevacizumab. These inhibitors also substantially blocked bevacizumab-induced migration of WSU-HN6 and Tca83 cells. Bevacizumab upregulated interleukin (IL)-6 and phosphorylated (p)-STAT3 expression time-dependently. Therefore, we propose that bevacizumab has differential effects on the migration of different cancer cell lines and promotes migration via the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.
Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma - Circulating Status of Vaspin and Retinol Binding Protein-4 in Iranian Patients
Jabbari, Sepideh ; Hedayati, Mehdi ; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh ; Parivar, Kazem ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6507~6512
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6507
Background: Vaspin and Retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) are new adipokines mainly produced by adipose tissue. Considering that medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a malignant neuroendocrine tumor, and to date the relationship between serum levels of vaspin and RBP4 with MTC has not been studied, in this matched case-control study we evaluated their possible significance to this tumor type. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 patients with MTC (21 males and 24 females) and 45 healthy persons as a control group (24 males and 21 females) were selected. The two groups were matched for age, sex and body mass index. Serum Vaspin and RBP4 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods in both groups. Also, weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated too. Results: In total, patients with MTC had significantly higher serum vaspin levels compared to the controls (0.52ng/ml vs. 0.45ng/ml, P=0.0241). However, no significant difference was found in serum RBP4 concentrations between the patients with MTC and the controls (
, p>0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that serum RBP4 levels in MTC patients are not significantly different from those found in healthy individuals and did not correlate with MTC. On the other hand, higher levels of serum vaspin are associated with an increased risk of MTC. Thus Vaspin may be a novel and promising biomarker for diagnosis or confirmation of MTC in conjunction other specific tumor markers.
Anticancer Effects of Curcuma C20-Dialdehyde against Colon and Cervical Cancer Cell Lines
Chaithongyot, Supattra ; Asgar, Ali ; Senawong, Gulsiri ; Yowapuy, Anongnat ; Lattmann, Eric ; Sattayasai, Nison ; Senawong, Thanaset ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6513~6519
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6513
Background: Recent attention on chemotherapeutic intervention against cancer has been focused on discovering and developing phytochemicals as anticancer agents with improved efficacy, low drug resistance and toxicity, low cost and limited adverse side effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of Curcuma C20-dialdehyde on growth, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in colon and cervical cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Antiproliferative, apoptosis induction, and cell cycle arrest activities of Curcuma C20-dialdehyde were determined by WST cell proliferation assay, flow cytometric Alexa fluor 488-annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining and PI staining, respectively. Results: Curcuma C20 dialdehyde suppressed the proliferation of HCT116, HT29 and HeLa cells, with IC50 values of
, respectively, with 72 h exposure. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that percentages of early apoptotic cells increased in a dose-dependent manner upon exposure to Curcuma C20-dialdehyde. Furthermore, exposure to lower concentrations of this compound significantly induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase for both HCT116 and HT29 cells, while higher concentrations increased sub-G1 populations. However, the concentrations used in this study could not induce cell cycle arrest but rather induced apoptotic cell death in HeLa cells. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the phytochemical Curcuma C20-dialdehyde may be a potential antineoplastic agent for colon and cervical cancer chemotherapy and/or chemoprevention. Further studies are needed to characterize the drug target or mode of action of the Curcuma C20-dialdehyde as an anticancer agent.
Treatment and Follow-up of Human Papillomavirus Infected Women in a Municipality in Southern Brazil
Ruggeri, Joao Batista ; Agnolo, Catia Millene Dell ; Gravena, Angela Andreia Franca ; Demitto, Marcela de Oliveira ; Lopes, Tiara Cristina Romeiro ; Delatorre, Silvana ; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros ; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes ; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6521~6526
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6521
Background: This study aimed toanalyze the risk behavior for cervical cancer (CC) and the human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and resolution among women who received care through the private healthcare network of a municipality in southern Brazil. Materials and Methods: This descriptive and retrospective study was conducted with 25 women aged 20 to 59 years who received care through the private healthcare network and were treated at a specialty clinic in the period from January to December 2012 in a municipality in Northwest Parana, Southern Brazil. Data from medical records with cytological and HPV results were used. Following treatment, these women were followed-up and reassessed after 6 months. Data were statistically analyzed using the t-test and chi-squared test at a 5% significance level. Results: The mean age of the studied women was
years old, and the majority were married, with paid employment and were non-smokers. The mean age at menarche was
years old, and the mean age at first intercourse was
years, with only 8.0% (2) initiating sexual activity at an age
years old. The majority had 1 to 2 children (60.0%), while 88.0% reported having had one sexual partner in their lifetime, and all the women were sexually active. A total of 68.0% used a hormonal contraceptive method. All the women had leukorrhea and pain and were infected by a single HPV type. Regarding the lesion grade, 80.0% showed high risk and 20.0% low risk. The most prevalent high-risk HPV strain was 16. Conclusions: These findings provide relevant information on HPV risk factors and infection, as well as the treatment and 6-month follow-up results, in economically and socially advantaged women with no traditional risk factors, corroborating previous reports that different risk factors may be described in different populations. Thus, this study reinforces the fact that even women without the traditional risk factors should undergo HPVmonitoring and assessment to determine the persistence of infection, promoting early diagnosis of the lesions presented and appropriate treatment to thus prevent the occurrence of CC.
Association between Smoking Status and Food and Nutrient Consumption in Japanese: a Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study
Endoh, Kaori ; Kuriki, Kiyonori ; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko ; Tohyama, Kazushige ; Goda, Toshinao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6527~6534
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6527
Background: In Japan, in comparison with the rest of the world the death rate of lung cancer is low although the smoking rate is relatively high. This is the so-called "Japanese smoking paradox". A healthy diet is proposed to attenuate the risk without quitting smoking. We here examined the relationships between smoking status (SS) and the consumption of food and nutrient in Japan. Materials and Methods: Totals of 5,587 men and 2,718 women were divided into three (non-smokers, smokers and heavy smokers) and two (non-smokers and smokers) groups, respectively, according to pack-year, which represents the amount of smoking over a long period. Food and nutrient consumption was estimated with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Using general linear models, food and nutrient consumption was estimated for each group in men and women, separately. Results: In men, SS was positively related to consumption of rice, 3 alcoholic beverages, carbohydrate, alcohol and other 8 foods/nutrients (p< 0.05 for all) and negatively to those of protein animal, fat, fatty acids, dietary fiber, isoflavones and 36 other foods/nutrients (p<0.05 for all). In women, SS was positively associated with intake of 13 foods/nutrients, while being negatively associated with those of rice, energy, dietary fiber, and 14 other foods/nutrients (p<0.05 for all). Conclusions: Our results support lower intake of vegetables and fruits rich in antioxidants, which are thought as preventive factors for many diseases, in smokers.
Nuclear DNA Damage and Repair in Normal Ovarian Cells Caused by Epothilone B
Rogalska, Aneta ; Marczak, Agnieszka ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6535~6539
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6535
This study was designed to assess, whether a new chemotherapeutic microtubule inhibitor, Epothilone B (EpoB, Patupilone), can induce DNA damage in normal ovarian cells (MM14.Ov), and to evaluate if such damage could be repaired. The changes were compared with the effect of paclitaxel (PTX) commonly employed in the clinic. The alkaline comet assay technique and TUNEL assay were used. The kinetics of DNA damage formation and the level of apoptotic cells were determined after treatment with IC50 concentrations of EpoB and PTX. It was observed that PTX generated significantly higher apoptotic and genotoxic changes than EpoB. The peak was observed after 48 h of treatment when the DNA damage had a maximal level. The DNA damage induced by both tested drugs was almost completely repaired. As EpoB in normal cells causes less damage to DNA it might be a promising anticancer drug with potential for the treatment of ovarian tumors.
Epidemiological Study of Laryngeal Carcinoma in Western Nepal
Koirala, Krishna ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6541~6544
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6541
Background: Laryngeal malignancy is a common malignancy of the head and neck region. Affected patients usually present with features that are characteristic of certain subsites. The larynx is oncologically divided into three: supraglottis, glottis and subglottis. Studies from Western countries have shown that the glottis is the commonest subsite to harbour laryngeal malignancy. However, the supraglottis has been reported to be the commonest subsite in developing countries, including examples in the Indian subcontinent. To our knowledge, no study has been carried out in western Nepal about the epidemiology of laryngeal cancer to date. The purpose of this study was to analyse the epidemiology of laryngeal cancer in relation to its risk factors, age distribution,and preferred subsites and to see if there is any recent change in the subsite wise distribution of laryngeal malignancy in western Nepal. Materials and Methods: Patients of all ages and both sexes with suspected laryngeal malignancy were enrolled in the initial study. Detailed history taking and clinical examination was performed to find out the involved subsite in relation to the clinical features. Direct laryngoscopy was performed to further confirm the subsite and to take biopsy from the growth under general anesthesia. After confirmation of malignancy from the biopsy report, patients were finally included in the study. Data were analysed and observations were made to find out the distribution of laryngeal malignancy in different subsites. Results: The supraglottic larynx was the commonest subsite to harbor laryngeal malignancy. Smoking and alcohol were found to be the common risk factors. The mean age of the patients was in their sixties. Conclusions: Laryngeal malignancy is common in elderly individuals. Supraglottic laryngeal malignancy is the commonest laryngeal malignancy in people who smoke and drink alcohol in Nepal. Avoidance of alcohol use and smoking will be a milestone to reduce the incidence of laryngeal cancers and associated mortality.
Transducer-like Enhancer of Split 1 as a Novel Immunohistochemical Marker for Diagnosis of Synovial Sarcoma
Atef, Aliaa ; Alrashidy, Mohammed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6545~6548
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6545
Background: Synovial sarcoma is a mesenchymal neoplasm that accounts for around 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. The diagnosis of synovial sarcoma can be a challenging task, particularly with small biopsy specimens. Aim: We investigated transducer-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1), monoclonal antibody, expression by immunohistochemical analysis in a group of 74 synovial sarcoma cases, 20 cases of MPNST, 12 cases of neurofibroma, 15 cases of schwannoma, 5 cases of MFH, 10 cases of lieomyosarcoma and 10 cases of solitary fibrous tumor. Materials and Methods: Whole tissue sections were examined: (39 biphasic and 35 monophasic). Nuclear immunoreactivity was scored as negative (<5% of cells positive), 1+(mild /5-25%), 2+ (moderate/25-50%), and 3+ (strong >50%). Results: Overall, 71 (96%) of 74 synovial sarcomas were positive for TLE1, including 37 biphasic (95%) and 34 monophasic (97%) tumors. Other spindle cell tumors showed very low or absent staining of TLE1. Conclusions: We conclude that TLE1 is a sensitive marker and can be a useful diagnostic marker for synovial sarcoma, particularly the monophasic forms.
Mechanism of Chemoprevention against Colon Cancer Cells Using Combined Gelam Honey and Ginger Extract via mTOR and Wnt/β-catenin Pathways
Wee, Lee Heng ; Morad, Noor Azian ; Aan, Goon Jo ; Makpol, Suzana ; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan ; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6549~6556
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6549
-catenin and apoptosis signaling pathways have been shown to be involved in genesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether combination of Gelam honey and ginger might have chemopreventive properties in HT29 colon cancer cells by modulating the mTOR,
-catenin and apoptosis signaling pathways. Treatment with Gelam honey and ginger reduced the viability of the HT29 cells dose dependently with
values of 88 mg/ml and 2.15 mg/ml respectively, their while the combined treatment of 2 mg/ml of ginger with 31 mg/ml of Gelam honey inhibited growth of most HT29 cells. Gelam honey, ginger and combination induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner with the combined treatment exhibiting the highest apoptosis rate. The combined treatment downregulated the gene expressions of Akt, mTOR, Raptor, Rictor,
, Tcf4 and cyclin D1 while cytochrome C and caspase 3 genes were shown to be upregulated. In conclusion, the combination of Gelam honey and ginger may serve as a potential therapy in the treatment of colorectal cancer through inhibiton of mTOR,
catenin signaling pathways and induction of apoptosis pathway.
Does Cervical Screening in Young Women Aged 20-25 Years Lead to Unnecessary and Harmful Interventions?
Al-Kalbani, Moza ; Price, John ; Thompson, Gwen ; Ahmad, Sarfraz ; Nagar, Hans ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6557~6559
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6557
Background: Cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among young women (20-25 years of age) is common and normally transient. There are growing concerns that referral to a colposcopy clinic may lead to unnecessary treatment with an increased risk of obstetric complications. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the level of intervention for cervical abnormalities in this age group of the Northern Ireland population. Materials and Methods: A review of all serial new patients under 25 years of age, who were referred to colposcopy clinics in Northern Ireland between January 1, 2009 to June 30, 2009 formed the basis of this study. Results: During the study period, a total of 4,767 women under 25 years of age were screened. Two-hundred-and-thirty-four (4.9%) cases were referred to the colposcopy clinics. The cervical cytology results were: high-grade abnormality in 35%, and low-grade abnormality in 31% of these cases. One-hundred-and-seventy-eight (76%) of the referred women received at least one treatment. One-hundred-and-twenty-one of 234 (51.5%) women underwent an excisional treatment with histology showing the presence of high-grade abnormalities (CIN2-3) in 52%, CIN1 in 28%, and Koilocytosis or normal tissue in 20% of this sub-group of cases. Conclusions: Screening women under the age of 25 years cause unnecessary referral for colposcopy. This may also result in considerable anxiety and psychosexual morbidity. It leads to an over-treatment with a potential of negative impact on the future pregnancy outcomes (including pre-term delivery, low birth weight, and pre-term premature rupture of membranes).
Trends of Smokeless Tobacco use among Adults (Aged 15-49 Years) in Bangladesh, India and Nepal
Sinha, Dhirendra N ; Rizwan, SA ; Aryal, Krishna K ; Karki, Khem B ; Zaman, Mostafa M ; Gupta, Prakash C ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6561~6568
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6561
Background: Smokeless tobacco (SLT) has long been realized as an important component of the fight for global tobacco control. It still remains a major problem in countries like India, Bangladesh and Nepal. The objective of this study was to estimate the trends of SLT use in three countries of the SEARO WHO office. Materials and Methods: We used data from national surveys in three countries (Bangladesh, India and Nepal) to estimate trends in prevalence of current SLT use. All available nationally representative data sources were used. Estimates were weighted, age standardized and given along with 95% confidence intervals. Significance of linear trend in prevalence over time was tested using the Cochrane-Armitage test for trend. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: We identified three surveys for Bangladesh, three for India and four for Nepal that met the selection criteria (such as Demographic and Health Surveys, WHO-STEPwise approach to Surveillance and Global Adult Tobacco Surveys). A significantly increasing trend was noticed in the prevalence of current SLT use among Bangladeshi men (20.2% to 23%, p=0.03). In India, a similar significantly increasing trend was seen among men (27.1% to 33.4%, p<0.001) and women (10.1% to 15.7%, p<0.001). In Nepal, there was a no significant trend among both men (39.1% to 31.6%, p=0.11) and women (5.6% to 4.7%, p=0.49). Conclusions: In the study countries SLT use has remained at alarmingly high levels. Usage trends do not show any signs of decline in spite of control efforts. Tobacco control measures should focus more on controlling SLT use.
Applicative Value of Serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 in Diagnosis and Prognosis for Patients with Pancreatic Cancer Treated by Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy
Gu, Yu-Lei ; Lan, Chao ; Pei, Hui ; Yang, Shuang-Ning ; Liu, Yan-Fen ; Xiao, Li-Li ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6569~6573
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6569
Objective: To evaluate the application value of serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 in diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer cases treated with concurrent chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: 52 patients with pancreatic cancer, 40 with benign pancreatic diseases and 40 healthy people were selected. The electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method was used for detecting levels of CA19-9, CEA and CA125, and a CanAg CA242 enzyme linked immunoassay kit for assessing the level of CA242. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for analyzing the prognostic factors of patients with pancreatic cancer. The Cox proportional hazard model was applied for analyzing the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidential interval (CI) for survival time of patients with pancreatic cancer. Results: The levels of serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 in patients with pancreatic cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with benign pancreatic diseases and healthy people (P<0.001). The sensitivity of CA19-9 was the highest among these, followed by CA242, CA125 and CEA. The specificity of CA242 is the highest, followed by CA125, CEA and CA19-9. The sensitivity and specificity of joint detection of serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125and CA242 were 90.4% and 93.8%, obviously higher than single detection of those markers in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. The median survival time of 52 patients with pancreatic cancer was 10 months (95% CI7.389~12.611).. Patients with the increasing level of serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125, CA242 had shorter survival times (P=0.047. 0.043, 0.0041, 0.029). COX regression analysis showed that CA19-9 was an independent prognostic factor for patients with pancreatic cancer (P=0.001, 95%CI 2.591~38.243). Conclusions: The detection of serum tumor markers (CA19.9, CEA, CA125 and CA242) is conducive to the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and joint detection of tumor markers helps improve the diagnostic efficiency. Moreover, CA19-9 is an independent prognostic factor for patients with pancreatic cancer.
Differences in Prognostic Factors between Early and Late Recurrence Breast Cancers
Payandeh, Mehrdad ; Sadeghi, Masoud ; Sadeghi, Edris ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6575~6579
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6575
Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent malignancy among females and is a leading cause of death of middle-aged women. Herein, we evaluated baseline characteristics for BC patients and also compared these variables across ealry and late recurrence groups. Materials and Methods: Between 1995 to 2014, among female breast cancer patients referred to our oncology clinic, eighty-six were entered into our study. All had distant metastasis. Early recurrence was defined as initial recurrence within 5 years following curative surgery irrespective of site. Likewise, late recurrence was defined as initial recurrence after 5 years. No recurrence was defined for survivors to a complete minimum of 10 years follow-up. Significant prognostic factors associated with early or late recurrence were selected according to the Akaike Information Criterion. Results: The median follow-up was 9 years (range, 1-18 years). During follow-up period, 51 recurrences occurred (distant metastasis), 31 early and 20 late. According to the site of recurrence, there were 51 distant. In this follow-up period, 19 patients died. Compared with the early recurrence group, the no recurrence group had lower lymph node involvement and more p53 positive lesions but the late recurrence group had lower tumor size. In comparison to no recurrence, p53 (odds ratio [OR] 6.94, 95% CI 1.49-32.16) was a significant prognostic factor for early recurrence within 5 years. Conclusions: Tumor size, p53 and LN metastasis are the most important risk factors for distance recurrence especially in early recurrence and also between of them, p53 is significant prognostic factor for early recurrence.
Propolis from the Stingless Bee Trigona incisa from East Kalimantan, Indonesia, Induces In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in Cancer Cell lines
Kustiawan, Paula M ; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha ; Puthong, Songchan ; Palaga, Tanapat ; Arung, Enos T ; Chanchao, Chanpen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6581~6589
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6581
Background: Previously, stingless bee (Trigona spp.) products from East Kalimantan, Indonesia, were successfully screened for in vitro antiproliferative activity against human cancer derived cell lines. It was established that propolis from T. incisa presented the highest in vitro cytotoxicity against the SW620 colon cancer cell line (6% cell survival in
). Materials and Methods: Propolis from T. incisa was extracted with methanol and further partitioned with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the extracts was assessed by the MTT assay against human colon (SW620), liver (Hep-G2), gastric (KATO-III), lung (Chago) and breast (BT474) cancer derived cell lines. The active fractions were further enriched by silica gel quick column, absorption and size exclusion chromatography. The purity of each fraction was checked by thin layer chromatography. Cytotoxicity in BT-474 cells induced by cardanol compared to doxorubicin were evaluated by MTT assay, induction of cell cycle arrest and cell death by flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide and annexin-V stained cells. Results: A cardol isomer was found to be the major compound in one active fraction (F45) of T. incisa propolis, with a cytotoxicity against the SW620 (
), KATO-III (IC50 of
), Hep-G2 (
), Chago I (
) and BT474 (IC50 of
) cell lines. Early apoptosis (programmed cell death) of SW620 cells was induced by the cardol containing F45 fraction at the
concentrations, respectively, within 2-6 h of incubation. In addition, the F45 fraction induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 subphase. Conclusions: Indonesian stingless bee (T. incisa) propolis had moderately potent in vitro anticancer activity on human cancer derived cell lines. Cardol or 5-pentadecyl resorcinol was identified as a major active compound and induced apoptosis in SW620 cells in an early period (
) and cell cycle arrest at the G1 subphase. Thus, cardol is a potential candidate for cancer chemotherapy.
Ki-67 Labeling Indices in 'Classic' versus 'Blastoid' Mantle Cell Lymphomas - Proposed Cutoff Values for Routine Diagnostic Workup
Pervez, Shahid ; Haroon, Saroona ; Awan, Dreema ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6591~6594
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6591
Background: Mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL) is a unique entity of peripheral B-cell lymphoma that has a discrete morphologic, immunologic, and genetic phenotype, with more common 'classic' and less frequent 'blastoid' and 'pleomorphic' variants, associated with an aggressive clinical course. The aim of this study was to analyze proliferation (Ki-67) indices of 'classic' (c-MCL) and 'blastoid' (b-MCL) variants of a cohort of MCL and to suggest cut off values for the Ki-67 proliferation index in these two subsets. Materials and Methods: MCL cases diagnosed over
years at Section of Histopathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi were retrieved and reviewed. Ki-67 labelling was scored and analysed. Results: A total of 90 of cases of MCL were scrutinized. Mean age
years and the male to female ratio was 4:1, with 67 (75%) cases of c-MCL and 23 (25%) cases of b-MCL. Most samples were lymph node biopsies (n=68), whereas the remainder were from various extranodal sites The mean Ki-67 proliferation index was
in classic variants and
for the blastoid variant, the difference being statistically significant (p = 0.029). Conclusions: It was concluded that differential cut-off values of Ki-67 labeling may be used in more objective way to reliably classify MCL into classic or blastoid variants by diagnostic pathologists. We propose a < 40 proliferative index to be suggestive of c-MCL and one of > 50 for the blastoid variant.
Clinical Study on Lobaplatin Combined with 5-Fu and Concurrent Radiotherapy in Treating Patients with Inoperable Esophageal Cancer
Jia, Xiao-Jing ; Huang, Jing-Zi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6595~6597
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6595
Objective: To investigate short- and long-term treatment effects and side reactions of lobaplatin plus 5-Fu combined and concurrent radiotherapy in treating patients with inoperable middle-advanced stage esophageal cancer. Methods: Sixty patients with middle-advanced stage esophageal squamous cell cancer were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were administered lobaplatin (50 mg intravenously) for 2 h on day 1, and 5-Fu (
) injected intravenously from day 1 to 5 for 1 cycle, in an interval of 21 days for totally 4 cycles. At the same time, late-course accelerated hyperfractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy was performed. Patients were firstly treated with conventional fractionated irradiation (1.8 Gy/d, 5 times/week, a total of 23 treatments, and DT41.4 Gy), and then treated with accelerated hyperfractionated irradiation (1.5 Gy, 2 times/d, a total of 27 Gy in 9 days, an entire course of 6-7 weeks, and DT 68.4Gy). Results: All patients completed treatment, including 10 complete response (CR), 41 partial response (PR), 7 stable disease (SD), and 2 progressive disease (PD). The total effective rate was 85.0% (51/60). Thirty-nine patients had an increased KPS score. One-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 85.3%, 57.5%, and 41.7%, respectively. The median survival time was 27 months. The adverse reactions included myelosuppression, which was mainly degree I and II. The occurrence rate of radiation esophagitis was 17.5%. No significant hepatic or renal toxicity was observed. Conclusion: Lobaplatin plus 5-Fu combined with concurrent radiotherapy is safe and effective in treating patients with middle-advanced stage esophageal cancer. However, this result warrants further evaluation by randomized clinical studies.
Creatine Kinase (CK)-MB-to-Total-CK Ratio: a Laboratory Indicator for Primary Cancer Screening
Chang, Chih-Chun ; Liou, Ching-Biau ; Su, Ming-Jang ; Lee, Yi-Chen ; Liang, Chai-Ting ; Ho, Jung-Li ; Tsai, Huang-Wen ; Yen, Tzung-Hai ; Chu, Fang-Yeh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6599~6603
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6599
Background: For the determination of creatine kinase (CK)-MB, the immunoinhibition method is utilized most commonly. However, the estimated CK-MB activity may be influenced by the presence of CK isoenzymes in some conditions like cancer. Thus, a CK-MB-to-total-CK ratio more than 1.0 could be found in such a situation. The study aimed to explore the relationship of cancer to high CK-MB-to-total-CK ratio. Materials and Methods: From January 2011 to December 2014, laboratory data on all CK-MB and total CK test requests were extracted at Far Eastern Memorial Hospital (88,415 requests). Patients with a CK-MB-to-total-CK ratio more than 1.0 were registered in this study. Clinical data including tumor location, tumor TNM stage and metastatic status were also collected. Results: A total of 846 patients were identified with a CK-MB-to-total-CK ratio more than 1.0. Of these, 339 (40.1%) were diagnosed with malignancies. The mean CK-MB-to-total-CK ratio was significantly higher in malignancy than in non-malignancy (
, p<0.001) groups. The most frequent malignancy with a CK-MB-to-total-CK ratio more than 1.0 was colorectal cancer (
, 16.5%, n=56), followed by lung cancer (
, 15.9%, n=54) and hepatocellular carcinoma (14.5%, n=49). Higher CK-MB-to-total-CK ratios in hematological malignancies (
)were also noted. Additionally, the CK-MB-to-total-CK ratio was markedly higher in advanced stage malignancy than in early stage (
, p=0.014) and significantly higher in liver metastasis than in non-liver metastasis (
, p<0.001). Conclusions: The CK-MB-to-total-CK ratio is an easily available indicator and could be clinically utilized as a primary screening tool for cancer. Higher ratio of CK-MB-to-total-CK was specifically associated with certain malignancies, like colorectal cancer, lung cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as some cancer-associated status factors such as advanced stage and liver metastasis.
Information Engineering and Workflow Design in a Clinical Decision Support System for Colorectal Cancer Screening in Iran
Maserat, Elham ; Farajollah, Seiede Sedigheh Seied ; Safdari, Reza ; Ghazisaeedi, Marjan ; Aghdaei, Hamid Asadzadeh ; Zali, Mohammad Reza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6605~6608
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6605
Background: Colorectal cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Colorectal cancer screening is an optimal way for reducing of morbidity and mortality and a clinical decision support system (CDSS) plays an important role in predicting success of screening processes. DSS is a computer-based information system that improves the delivery of preventive care services. The aim of this article was to detail engineering of information requirements and work flow design of CDSS for a colorectal cancer screening program. Materials and Methods: In the first stage a screening minimum data set was determined. Developed and developing countries were analyzed for identifying this data set. Then information deficiencies and gaps were determined by check list. The second stage was a qualitative survey with a semi-structured interview as the study tool. A total of 15 users and stakeholders' perspectives about workflow of CDSS were studied. Finally workflow of DSS of control program was designed by standard clinical practice guidelines and perspectives. Results: Screening minimum data set of national colorectal cancer screening program was defined in five sections, including colonoscopy data set, surgery, pathology, genetics and pedigree data set. Deficiencies and information gaps were analyzed. Then we designed a work process standard of screening. Finally workflow of DSS and entry stage were determined. Conclusions: A CDSS facilitates complex decision making for screening and has key roles in designing optimal interactions between colonoscopy, pathology and laboratory departments. Also workflow analysis is useful to identify data reconciliation strategies to address documentation gaps. Following recommendations of CDSS should improve quality of colorectal cancer screening.
Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-10 at Invasive Front of Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Verrucous Carcinoma in the Oral Cavity
Kadeh, Hamideh ; Saravani, Shirin ; Heydari, Fatemeh ; Keikha, Mohammad ; Rigi, Vahab ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6609~6613
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6609
Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc metalloproteinases capable of degrading components of connective tissues. MMP-10 is frequently expressed in human cancers. The aim of this study was to immunohistochemically evaluate its expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and verrucous carcinoma (OVC). Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 73 samples (31 OSCC, 22 OVC and 20 non-neoplastic epithelium) was performed. All samples were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal MMP-10 antibody and expression levels and staining intensity were evaluated with respect to microscopic features. Data were analyzed by SPSS (V.21), Mann-Whitney and Kruskal Wallis tests. Results: MMP-10 was detected in all OSCC and OVC cases. The expression of MMP-10 in OSCC was intensive (score 3) and in OVC was low and moderate (score 1 and score 2) more frequently. Non- neoplastic epithelium did not show MMP-10 expression. Differences between groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). However, the expression of MMP-10 was not obviously different between various grades of OSCC. Conclusions: According to our study, MMP-10 protein can be important possible factor in the transformation of normal oral epithelium to OVC and OSCC, also the level of MMP-10 expression at invasion front of the lesions can be helpful in the differentiation of OVC and OSCC.
Possible Role of HER-2 in the Progression of Prostate Cancer from Primary Tumor to Androgen Independence
Murray, Nigel P ; Reyes, Eduardo ; Fuentealba, Cynthia ; Jacob, Omar ; Orellana, Nelson ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6615~6619
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6615
Background: The expression of HER-2 in prostate cancer has been linked to disease progression. We analysed the presence of HER-2 expression in primary tumors in men undergoing radical prostatectomy, its association with clinical and pathological findings, and its expression in secondary circulating prostate cells (CPCs) during follow up, as well as links with biochemical failure and the effects of androgen blockade. Materials and Methods: Consecutive men undergoing radical prostatectomy for histologically confirmed prostate cancer were analyzed. HER-2 expression in the primary tumor was assessed using the HercepTest(R), CPCs were identified from blood samples using standard immunocytochemistry with anti-PSA and positive samples with the HercepTest(R) to determine HER-2 expression. The influence of HER-2 expression on the frequency of biochemical failure and effects of androgen blockade was determined. Results: 144 men with a mean age of
years participated, with a median follow up of 8.2 years. HER-2 was expressed in 20.8% of primary tumors; it was associated with vascular infiltration and older age, but not with other clinical pathological findings. Some 40.3% of men had secondary CPCs detected, of which 38% expressed HER-2. Men CPC (+) had a higher frequency of biochemical failure, but there was no difference in HER-2 expression of CPCs with the frequency of biochemical failure. After androgen blockade, men with HER-2 (+) positive secondary CPCs had a higher frequency of disease progression to castrate resistant disease. Conclusions: HER-2 plays a dual role in the progression of prostate cancer; firstly it may increase the potential of tumor cells to disseminate from the primary tumor via the blood by increasing vascular infiltration. In the presence of androgens, there is no survival advantage of expressing HER-2, but once biochemical failure has occurred and androgen blockade started, HER-2 positive cells are resistant to treatment, survive and grow leading to castration resistant disease.
Metformin Addition to Chemotherapy in Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: an Open Label Randomized Controlled Study
Sayed, Rana ; Saad, Amr S ; El Wakeel, Lamia ; Elkholy, Engi ; Badary, Osama ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6621~6626
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6621
Purpose: To evaluate effects of metformin on clinical outcome of non-diabetic patients with stage IV NSCLC. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized, open-label, controlled pilot study was conducted on patients with stage IV NSCLC with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) of 0-2, excluding patients with diabetes and lactic acidosis. Thirty chemo-
, non-diabetic patients with stage IV NSCLC were enrolled. Fifteen patients received intravenous gemcitabine/cisplatin regimen alone (arm B) while fifteen patients received the same regimen plus daily oral metformin 500mg (arm A). The effect of metformin on chemotherapy-response rates, survival, and adverse events in these patients was evaluated. Results: Objective response rate (ORR) and median overall survival (OS) in arms A and B were 46.7% versus 13.3% respectively, p=0.109 and 12 months versus 6.5 months, respectively, p=0.119. Median progression free survival (PFS) in arms A and B was 5.5 months versus 5 months, p=0.062. No significant increase in toxicity was observed in arm A versus arm B. Percentage of patients who experienced nausea was significantly lower in arm A versus arm B, at 26.7% versus 66.7% respectively, p=0.028. Conclusions: Metformin administration reduced occurrence of chemotherapy induced-nausea. Non-statistically significant improvements in the ORR or OS were observed. Metformin had no effect on PFS.
Decitabine in the Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Which Combined with Complex Karyotype Respectively
Gao, Su ; Li, Zheng ; Fu, Jian-Hong ; Hu, Xiao-Hui ; Xu, Yang ; Jin, Zheng-Ming ; Tang, Xiao-Wen ; Han, Yue ; Chen, Su-Ning ; Sun, Ai-Ning ; Wu, De-Pei ; Qiu, Hui-Ying ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6627~6632
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6627
Background: We conducted a study exploring the clinical safety and efficacy of decitabine in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), combined with a complex karyotype. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to September 2013, a total of 35 patients with AML/MDS combined with a complex karyotype diagnosed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University were included for retrospective analysis. All patients were treated with decitabine alone (
daily for 5 days) or combination AAG chemotherapy (Acla 20mg qod*4d, Ara-C
qd, the dose of G-CSF adjusted to the amount in blood routinely). Results: In 35 patients, 15 exhibited a complete response (CR), and 6 a partial response (PR), the overall response rate (CR+PR) being 60% (21 of 35). Median disease-free survival was 18 months and overall survival was 14 months. In the 15 MDS patients with a complex karyotype, the CR rate was 53.3% (8 of 15); in 20 AML patients with complex karyotype, the overall response rate was 65% (13 of 20). The response rate of decitabine alone (22 cases) was 56.5% (13 of 22), while in the combination chemotherapy group (13 cases), the effective rate was 61.5% (8 of 13)(P>0.05). There are 15 patients with chromosome 7 aberration, after treatment with decitabine, 7 CR, 3 PR, overall response rate was 66.7% (10 of 15). Of 18 patients with 3 to 5 kinds of chromosomal abnormalities, 66.7% demonstrated a response; of 17 with more than 5 chromosomal abnormalities, 52.9% had a response. In the total of 35 patients, with one course (23 patients) and
two courses (12 patients), the overall response rate was 40.9% and 92.3% (P<0.05). Grade III to IV hematological toxicity was observed in 27 cases (75%). Grade III to IV infections were clinically documented in 7 (20%). Grades I to II non-hematological toxicity were infections (18 patients), haematuria (2 patients), and bleeding (3 patients). With follow-up until September 2013, 7 patients were surviving, 18 had died and 10 were lost to follow-up. In the 6 cases who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) all were still relapse-free survivors. Conclusions: Decitabine alone or combination with AAG can improve outcome of AML/MDS with a complex karyotype, there being no significant difference decitabine in inducing remission rates in patients with different karyotype. Increasing the number of courses can improve efficiency. This approach with fewer treatment side effects in patients with a better tolerance should be employed in order to create an improved subsequent chance for HSCT.
Lived Experience among Patients Newly Diagnosed with Lung Adenocarcinoma Stage IV within One Year
Shih, Whei-Mei Jean ; Hsu, Hsiu-Chin ; Jiang, Ru-Shang ; Lin, Mei-Hsiang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6633~6638
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6633
Background: lung cancer (LC) is the fifth of the 10 leading causes of death in the world. LC is in first place for cancer-related mortality for both males and females in Taiwan. It is one of the most difficult cancers to treat and is often diagnosed at a late stage. Patients with stage IV are often unprepared for the diagnosis. Materials and Methods: To explore lived experience among patients newly diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma stage IV within one year. Results: Twelve participants were recruited in this study. Content analysis of the interviews revealed four themes: (1) emotional roller coaster, (2) trying to find out causes, (3) adjusting my lifestyle, and (4) cancer fighter. Conclusions: This study provides new insight into the experiences of lung cancer patients y with newly diagnosed lung adenocarcinoma stage 4. These results will inform future supportive care service development and intervention research for patients with advanced stage cancer.
Correlation between Microvascular Density and Matrix Metalloproteinase 11 Expression in Prostate Cancer Tissues: a Preliminary Study in Thailand
Kanharat, Nongnuch ; Tuamsuk, Panya ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6639~6643
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6639
Background: Prostate cancer is a major concern of public health. Microvascular density (MVD) is one of the prognostic markers for various solid cancers. Matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11) plays an important role in angiogenesis and changes in its expression level are known to be associated with tumor progression and clinical outcome. Aim: To investigate the relationship between MVD and MMP11 expression in prostatic adenocarcinoma tissues. Materials and Methods: The expression levels of MMP11 and MVD were analyzed immunohistochemically for 50 specimens of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Results: MMP11 was mainly expressed in stromal cells but rarely seen in epithelial cells. Mean MVD was
, and it was correlated significantly only with bone metastases. MVD was also significantly correlated with MMP11 expression (r=0.29, p=0.044). Conclusions: MMP11 may alter the stromal microenvironment of prostate cancer to stimulate tumor angiogenesis.
Helicobacter pylori cag Pathogenicity Island cagL and orf17 Genotypes Predict Risk of Peptic Ulcerations but not Gastric Cancer in Iran
Raei, Negin ; Latifi-Navid, Saeid ; Zahri, Saber ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6645~6650
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6645
Background: Gastric cancer (GC) is the third most common cancer regarding mortality in the world. The cag pathogenicity island (PAI) of Helicobacter pylori which contains genes associated with a more aggressive phenotype may involve in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disease. We here aimed to examine the associations of cagH, cagL, orf17, and cagG genotypes of H. pylori cag PAI with severe gastrointestinal disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 242 H. pylori strains were genotyped. Histopathological examination and classification of subjects were performed. Results: The frequencies of the cagH, cagL, cagG, and orf17 genotypes were 40/54 (74.1%), 53/54 (98.1%), 38/54 (70.4%), and 43/54 (79.6%), respectively, in patients with peptidic ulceration (PU),while in the control group, the frequencies were 87/147 (59.6%) for cagH, 121/146 (82.9%) for cagL, 109/146 (74.7%) for cagG, and 89/146 (61.0%) for orf17. The results of simple logistic regression analysis showed that the cagL and orf17 genotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk of PU not GC; the ORs (95% CI) were 10.950 (1.446-82.935), and 2.504 (1.193-5.253), respectively. No significant association was found between the cagH and cagG genotypes and the risk of both the PU and the GC in Iran (P>0.05). Finally, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the cagL genotype was independently and significantly associated with the age-and sex-adjusted risk for PU; the OR (95% CI) was 9.557 (1.219-17.185). Conclusions: We conclude that the orf17 and especially cagL genotypes of H. pylori cag PAI could be factors for risk prediction of PU, but not GC in Iran.
In Vitro Apoptosis Triggering in the BT-474 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line by Lyophilised Camel's Milk
Hasson, Sidgi S.A.A ; Al-Busaidi, Juma Zaid ; Al-Qarni, Zahra A.M. ; Rajapakse, S. ; Al-Bahlani, Shadia ; Idris, Mohamed Ahmed ; Sallam, Talal A. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6651~6661
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6651
Breast cancer is a global health concern and is a major cause of death among women. In Oman, it is the most common cancer in women, with an incidence rate of 15.6 per 100,000 Omani females. Various anticancer remedies have been discovered from natural products in the past and the search is continuing for additional examples. Cytotoxic natural compounds may have a major role in cancer therapy either in potentiating the effect of chemotherapy or reducing its harmful effects. Recently, a few studies have reported advantages of using crude camel milk in treating some forms of cancer. However, no adequate data are available on the lyophilised camel's milk responsibility for triggering apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human breast cancer. The present study aimed to address the role of the lyophilised camel's milk in inducing proliferation repression of BT-474 and HEp-2 cells compared with the non-cancer HCC1937 BL cell line. Lyophilized camel's milk fundamentally repressed BT-474 cells growth and proliferation through the initiation of either the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways as indicated by both caspase-3 mRNA and its action level, and induction of death receptors in BT-474 but not the HEp-2 cell line. In addition, lyophilised camel's milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme-oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in BT-474 cells. Increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by the lyophilised camel's milk was completely prevented by the actinomycin D, a transcriptional inhibitor. This suggests that lyophilized camel's milk increased newly synthesized RNA. Interestingly,it significantly (p<0.003) repressed the growth of HEp-2 cells and BT-474 cells after treatment for 72 hours while 24 hours treatment repressed BT-474 cells alone. This finding suggests that the lyophilised camel's milk might instigate apoptosis through initiation of an alternative apoptotic pathway.
High Expression of Lung Resistance Protein mRNA at Diagnosis Predicts Poor Early Response to Induction Chemotherapy in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Bhatia, Prateek ; Masih, Shet ; Varma, Neelam ; Bansal, Deepak ; Trehan, Amita ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6663~6668
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6663
Background: Treatment failure in leukemia is due to either pharmacokinetic resistance or cell resistance to drugs. Materials and Methods: Gene expression of multiple drug resistance protein (MDR-1), multidrug resistance-related protein (MRP) and low resistance protein (LRP) was assessed in 45 pediatric ALL cases and 7 healthy controls by real time PCR. The expression was scored as negative, weak, moderate and strong. Results: The male female ratio of cases was 2.75:1 and the mean age was 5.2 years. Some 26/45 (58%) were in standard risk, 17/45(38%) intermediate and 2/45 (4%) in high risk categorie, 42/45 (93%) being B-ALL and recurrent translocations being noted in 5/45 (11.0%). Rapid early response (RER) at day 14 was seen in 37/45 (82.3%) and slow early response (SER) in 8/45 (17.7%) cases. Positive expression of MDR-1, LRP and MRP was noted in 14/45 (31%), 15/45 (33%) and 27/45 (60%) cases and strong expression in 3/14 (21%), 11/27 (40.7%) and 8/15 (53.3%) cases respectively. Dual or more gene positivity was noted in 17/45 (38%) cases. 46.5 % (7/15) of LRP positive cases at day 14 were in RER as compared to 100% (30/30) of LRP negative cases (p<0.05). All 8 (100%) LRP positive cases in SER had strong LRP expression (p=<0.05). Moreover, only 53.3% of LRP positive cases were in haematological remission at day 30 as compared to 100% of LRP negative cases (p=<0.05). Conclusions: Our study indicated that increased LRP expression at diagnosis in pediatric ALL predicts poor response to early treatment and hence can be used as a prognostic marker. However, larger prospective studies with longer follow up are needed, to understand the clinical relevance of drug resistance proteins.
Poor Knowledge and Practice Towards Breast Cancer among Women in Baghdad City, Iraq
Hasan, Tiba Nezar ; Shah, Shamsul Azhar ; Hassan, Mohd Rohaizat ; Safian, Nazarudin ; Azhar, Zahir Izuan ; Syed Abdul Rahim, Syed Sharizman ; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6669~6672
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6669
Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among females worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice about breast cancer and its related factors among women in Baghdad city, Iraq. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 508 women aged 18 to 55 years from four non-governmental organizations (NGO) in Baghdad city, Iraq. A self-administered questionnaire on breast cancer knowledge and practice was distributed to participants during weekly activity of the NGO. Results: A total of 61.2% of the respondents had poor knowledge, only 30.3% performed breast self-examination (BSE) and 41.8% said that they did not know the technique to perform BSE. Associations between knowledge and marital status and age were significant. For practice, working status, education, age and family income were significant. After controlling for cofounders, the most important contributing factors for poor knowledge among respondents were marital status and not performing BSE, with adjusted odds ratio of 1.6 and 1.8 respectively. Conclusions: Breast cancer knowledge and practice of BSE are poor among women in Baghdad city, Iraq. More promotion regarding breast cancer signs and symptoms and also how to perform BSE should be conducted using media such as television and internet as these constituted the main sources of information for most women in our study.
Male Breast Cancer: 20 Years Experience of a Tertiary Hospital from the Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey
Serarslan, Alparslan ; Gursel, Bilge ; Okumus, Nilgun Ozbek ; Meydan, Deniz ; Sullu, Yurdanur ; Gonullu, Guzin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6673~6679
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6673
Background: Male breast cancer is a rare neoplasm, and its treatments are based on those of female breast cancer. This study aimed to analyze 20 years of male breast cancer clinical characteristics and treatment results from the Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 16 male breast cancer patients treated in our tertiary hospital between 1994 and 2014 was performed. Epidemiologic data, tumor characteristics, and treatments were recorded and compared with 466 female breast cancer ((premenopausal; n = 230) + (postmenopausal n = 236)) patients. The 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates were calculated. Results: Male breast cancer constituted 0.1% of all malignant neoplasms in both sexes, 0.2% of all malignant neoplasms in males, and 0.7% of all breast cancers. The mean patient age in this study was
(39-74) years. The mean time between first symptom and diagnosis was
(3-60) months. Histology revealed infiltrative ductal carcinoma in 81.3% of patients. The most common detected molecular subtype was luminal A, in 12 (75%) patients. Estrogen receptor rate (93.8%) in male breast cancer patients was significantly higher than that in female breast cancer (70.8% in all females, p = 0.003; 68.2% in postmenopausal females, p = 0.002) patients. Most of the tumors (56.3%) were grade 2. Tumor stage was T4 in 50% of males. The majority (56.3%) of the patients were stage III at diagnosis. Surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine-therapy were applied to 62.5%, 62.5%, 81.2% and 73.3%, respectively. Loco-regional failure did not occur in any of the cases. All recurrences were metastastic. The 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates in male breast cancer patients were 58% and 68%, respectively. Conclusions: Tumors found in male breast cancer patients were similar in size to tumors found in females, but they advanced to T4 stage more rapidly because of the lack of breast parenchymal tissues. The rate of estrogen receptor expression tended to be higher in male breast cancer patients than in female breast cancer patients. Metastasis is the most important problem in initially non-metastatic male breast cancer patients.
Tumors Involving Skin, Soft Tissue and Skeletal Muscle: Benign, Primary Malignant or Metastatic?
Hsieh, Chi-Ying ; Tsai, Huang-Wen ; Chang, Chih-Chun ; Lin, Tsuo-Wu ; Chang, Ke-Chung ; Chen, Yo-Shen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6681~6684
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6681
Background: Metastatic cancer with invasion of skin, soft tissue and skeletal muscle is not common. Examples presenting as soft tissue masses could sometimes lead to misdiagnosis with delayed or inappropriate management. The purpose of current study was to investigate clinical characteristics in the involvement of metastatic cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,097 patients complaining of skin or soft tissue masses and/or lesions were retrospectively reviewed from January 2012 to June 2013. Tumors involving skin, soft tissue and skeletal muscle of head and neck, chest wall, abdominal wall, pelvic region, back, upper and lower extremities were included in the study. Results: Fifty-seven (5.2%) patients were recognized as having malignancies on histopathological examination. The most common involvement of malignancy was basal cell carcinoma, followed by cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, sarcoma and melanoma. The most common anatomical location in skin and soft tissue malignancies was head and neck (52.6% of the malignancies). Four (0.36%) of the malignant group were identified as metastatic cancer with the primary cancer source from lung, liver and tonsil and the most common site was upper extremities. One of them unexpectedly expired during the operation of metastatic tumor excision at the scalp. Conclusions: Discrimination between benign and malignant soft tissue tumors is crucial. Performance of imaging study could assist in the differential diagnosis and the pre-operative risk evaluation of metastatic tumors involving skin, soft tissue and skeletal muscle.
CHRNA5 rs16969968 Polymorphism Association with Risk of Lung Cancer - Evidence from 17,962 Lung Cancer Cases and 77,216 Control Subjects
Xu, Zhi-Wei ; Wang, Guan-Nan ; Dong, Zhou-Zhou ; Li, Tao-Hong ; Cao, Chao ; Jin, Yu-Hong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6685~6690
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6685
Background: Genetic studies have shown a possible relationship between the rs16969968 polymorphism in CHRNA5 and the risk of lung cancer. However, the results have been conflicting. Thus we rigorously conducted a meta-analysis to clarify any association. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 case-control studies involving 17,962 lung cancer cases and 77,216 control subjects were analysed. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to measure the strength of the association. Results: We found the CHRNA5 rs16969968 polymorphism to be associated with the risk of lung cancer (AA vs GG: OR=1.60, 95%CI=1.51-1.71). On stratified analysis by smoking status, a statistically significant increased risk was observed in the smoking group (AA vs GG: OR=1.80, 95%CI=1.61-2.01). However, this polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer risk in Asians (AA vs GG: OR=0.95, 95%CI=0.35-2.59), whereas it was linked to increased risk of lung cancer among Caucasians (AA vs GG: OR=1.65, 95%CI=1.55-1.76). Conclusions: Our meta-analysis provided statistical evidence for a strong association between rs16969968 polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer, especially in smokers and Caucasians. Application of this relationship may contribute to identification of individuals at high risk of lung cancer and indicate a chemoprevention target.
Accuracy of Sentinel Node in Detecting Lymph Node Metastasis in Primary Endometrial Carcinoma
Farghali, Mohamed M ; Allam, Ihab S ; Abdelazim, Ibrahim A ; El-Kady, Osama S ; Rashed, Ahmed R ; Gareer, Waheed Y ; Sweed, Mohammed S ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6691~6696
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6691
Background: Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecological cancer and its treatment is still controversial, especially in its early stages. There are conflicting data about the efficacy of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy during abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingoophrectomy treatment. Lymphadenectomy carries a risk of severe complications, especially in women with co-morbidities. Selective lymphadenectomy has been widely employed for staging evaluation of endometrial carcinoma because it is simple and seems to provide reliable data regarding nodal metastasis. This study was designed to evaluate accuracy of sentinel node sampling in detecting lymph node metastasis in primary endometrial carcinoma during staging laparotomy. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three women with endometrial carcinoma at high-risk for nodal metastasis were studied. During laparotomy, methylene blue dye was injected into sub-serosal myometrium, then retroperitoneal spaces were opened and blue lymph nodes within pelvic and para-aortic regions were removed as separate specimens for histopathological examination (sentinel lymph nodes = SLNs). Hysterectomy and selective lymphadenectomy then performed for all women included in this study. Results: Deposition of methylene dye into at least one lymph node was observed in 73.1% (68/93) of studied cases. 18.3% (17/93) of studied women had positive lymph node metastasis and 94.1% (16/17) of them had positive metastasis in SLNs. In this study, SNLs had 94.4% sensitivity and 100% specificity in prediction of lymph node metastasis. Mean number of lymph nodes removed from each case decreased when SLNs biopsy were taken. Conclusions: SLNs are the key lymph nodes in endometrial tumor metastasis and their involvement could be an indicator for whether or not complete systematic lymphadenectomy is needed during staging laparotomy.
Differences in Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Rates in Jordan among Women from Different Socioeconomic Strata: Analysis of the 2012 Population-Based Household Survey
Al Rifai, Rami ; Nakamura, Keiko ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6697~6704
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6697
Background: The burden of breast and cervical cancer is changing over time in developing countries. Regular screening is very important for early detection and treatment. In this study, we assessed inequalities in breast and cervical cancer screening rates in women according to household wealth status, and analyzed the potential predictors associated with a low cancer screening rate in Jordan. Materials and Methods: A nationwide populationbased cross-sectional survey collected information on different variables at the national level. All ever-married women (the phrase is used throughout the text to refer to women who had ever married) aged 15-49 years were included in the survey. Analysis of breast self-examination (BSE) and clinical breast examination (CBE) at least once in the previous year was carried out in 11,068 women, while lifetime Pap-smear testing was carried out in 8,333 women, aged 20-49 years. Results: Over 39% and 19% of ever-married Jordanian women reported having undergone a breast examination during the previous year and Pap smear examination at least once in their lifetime, respectively. The rate of BSE in the previous year was 31.5%, that of CBE in the previous year was 19.3%, and that of Pap smear examination at least once in life was 25.5%. The adjusted OR was higher for performing BSE (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.43), undergoing CBE (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.60) and undergoing Pap smear examination (aOR 2.38, 95% CI 1.92-2.93) among women in the highest wealth-index quintile as compared to those in the lowest quintile. The concentration index was 0.11 for BSE, 0.01 for CBE, and 0.27 for Pap smear examination. Women in their twenties, living in rural or the southern region of Jordan, with an elementary school education or less, who listened to the radio or read the newspaper not more than a few times a year, and nulliparous women were less likely to undergo breast and cervical cancer screening. Conclusions: The rates of breast and cervical cancer screening are low in Jordan. Reducing the sociodemographic and economic inequalities in breast and cervical cancer screenings requires concerted outreach activities for women living under socially deprived conditions.
Incidence and Clinical Characteristic of Venous Thromboembolism in Gynecologic Oncology Patients attending King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital over a 10 Year Period
Oranratanaphan, S ; Termrungruanglert, W ; Khemapech, N ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6705~6709
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6705
Background: Venous thromboembolisms (VTEs) constitute a group of diseases including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). They regarded as the second leading cause of death in cancer patients and several studies have confirmed that VTEs have a negative impact on survival and recurrent rate in both ovarian and endometrial cancer cases. The incidence of VTEs differs worldwide and depends on several risk factors including race, underlying disease, lifestyle, body weight, BMI and genetic risk factors. There is heterogeneity of DVT rates between Asian and Western countries. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the character and incidence of VTEs in gynecologic oncology patients in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital over a 10 year period. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed with VTEs defined as objective diagnosis of acute DVT or PE with typical symptoms and signs. Diagnoses were approved byan internist and/or confirmed with imaging studies. Data from both outpatient and inpatient sessions of the affected cases from January 2004 to December 2013 were extracted. General characteristics of the patients were collected with details of the diseases, types of cancer, stage, date of diagnosis of cancer, operative data, treatment outcome, progression free survival and overall survival. Results: Thirty cases of VTEs were identified in a total 2,316 gynecologic oncology cases. The incidence of symptomatic VTEs in total gynecologic oncology patients in our institution is 1.295%. The incidence of VTEs in ovarian cancer patients in our institution was 5.9%. Duration for VTE detection ranged from 13 months before diagnosis of cancer to 33 months after diagnosis of cancer. Most of the VTE cases were detected in ovarian cancer patients (60%). The most common cell type was adenocarcinoma (moderately to poorly differentiated) which accounted for 26.7% of the cases. The second most common cell type was clear cell carcinoma with 23.3% of the cases. Thirty percent of VTE cases developed before cancer was diagnosed, 20% were diagnosed at the same time as cancer detection and fifty percent developed after cancer was diagnosed. Median disease free survival of the gynecologic oncology patients with VTE was 7.5 months. Median overall survival (OS) was 12 months. Median progession free survivals of DVT and PE groups were 11.5 and 5.5 months, respectively. OS of DVT and PE was 12.0 and 11.5 months respectively. Conclusions: The incidence of VTE in Asian countries is believed to be lower than in European or Western countries. From our retrospective review, the incidence of VTEs in all types of gynecologic oncology was 1.295%, much lower than reported in the West. The reason for the lower incidence may genetic differences. Another factor is that VTE in this review was symptomatic, which is less than asymptomatic VTE. More than half of VTEs in this study developed in ovarian cancer patients. The results are compatible with earlier reports that among gynecologic malignancies, the incidence of VTE is highest in ovarian cancer.
Insomnia in Cancer - Associations and Implications
George, Mathew ; Elias, Alby ; Shafiei, Mohsen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6711~6714
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6711
Background: Insomnia is a common condition in cancer patients. In spite of the high prevalence its associations have not been well studied. Existing data suggests that insomnia is related to depression and pain. However, the impact of ongoing chemotherapy on sleep is not investigated. Aim: To study the relationship between insomnia and chemotherapy after analysing confounding variables. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients who visited New England Oncology Clinic in Tamworth were recruited. Insomnia was assessed with the Bergen insomnia scale. The Montgomery Asberg Depression rating scale was used to measure depression. Pain was assessed with the Brief Pain inventory. Chronic medical conditions, type of cancer, side effects to chemotherapy, role of steroids and other drugs were studied as confounders. Results: A total of 56 patients participated in the study. Age ranged from 33 to 83 years (mean: 63.6, SD=10.97). There were 29 men and 27 women. 42 patients received at least one form of chemotherapy and 15 were receiving radiotherapy at the time of assessment. Mean insomnia score was significantly higher in those receiving chemotherapy than in those without chemotherapy (8.92 vs 17.2, two tailed p=0.005, 95% CI=2.63-13.71). There was no significant variation in insomnia scores in terms of chronic medical condition, type of cancer, psychiatric history, use of steroids or adverse effects of chemotherapy. However, total insomnia score was correlated with depression rating score (Pearson correlation, r=0.39, p=0.003) and magnitude of pain (r=0.37, p=0.006). On regression analysis only pain was found to be predictive of insomnia. Conclusions: Insomnia in patients with cancer is found to be associated with concurrent chemotherapy and correlated with degree of depression and pain. Identifying factors related to insomnia in cancer population has implications in its management and patient education.
Descriptive Epidemiology of Thyroid Cancers in Togo
Darre, Tchin ; Amana, Bathokedeou ; Pegbessou, Essobozou ; Bissa, Harefeteguena ; Amegbor, Koffi ; Boko, Essohanam ; Kpemessi, Eyawelohn ; Napo-Koura, Gado ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6715~6717
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6715
Background: The purpose of this study was to provide epidemiological and histological data of thyroid cancers in Togo. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of cases of thyroid cancers diagnosed from 2000 to 2014 (15 years) at the pathology laboratory of the Sylvanus Olympio Teaching Hospital of
. All cases of review of a thyroid sample (biopsies, surgical specimens) were collected from the data records of that laboratory. Results: Thyroid cancers represented 1.1% (7930cases) of all cancers registered during the study period. Mean age was
years and the proportion of females was 78.3%. We identified 92.4% carcinomas and 7.6% lymphomas. Carcinomas were well differentiated in 80 cases and were dominated by the papillary type (47 cases). Metastasis was observed in 13% of patients. The pTNM classification evaluated in 18 cases showed a predominance of grade I (13 cases). Lymphomas were dominated by lymphoma diffuse large B-cell (5 cases). Conclusions: This study is the first global standard for thyroid cancer pathology in Togo. The high frequency of follicular form suggests an unrecognized iodine deficiency. The improvement of the technical platform of the LAP (immunohistochemistry) will increase the diagnosis of rare forms of thyroid cancer.
Readability, Suitability and Health Content Assessment of Cancer Screening Announcements in Municipal Newspapers in Japan
Okuhara, Tsuyoshi ; Ishikawa, Hirono ; Okada, Hiroko ; Kiuchi, Takahiro ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6719~6727
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6719
Background: The objective of this study was to assess the readability, suitability, and health content of cancer screening information in municipal newspapers in Japan. Materials and Methods: Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) and the framework of Health Belief Model (HBM) were used for assessment of municipal newspapers that were published in central Tokyo (23 wards) from January to December 2013. Results: The mean domain SAM scores of content, literacy demand, and layout/typography were considered superior. The SAM scores of interaction with readers, an indication of the models of desirable actions, and elaboration to enhance readers' self-efficacy were low. According to the HBM coding, messages of medical/clinical severity, of social severity, of social benefits, and of barriers of fear were scarce. Conclusions: The articles were generally well written and suitable. However, learning stimulation/motivation was scarce and the HBM constructs were not fully addressed. Practice implications: Articles can be improved to motivate readers to obtain cancer screening by increasing interaction with readers, introducing models of desirable actions and devices to raise readers' self-efficacy, and providing statements of perceived barriers of fear for pain and time constraints, perceived severity, and social benefits and losses.
Mortality Characteristic and Prediction of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in China from 1991 to 2013
Xu, Zhen-Xi ; Lin, Zhi-Xiong ; Fang, Jia-Ying ; Wu, Ku-Sheng ; Du, Pei-Ling ; Zeng, Yang ; Tang, Wen-Rui ; Xu, Xiao-Ling ; Lin, Kun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6729~6734
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6729
Background: To analyze the mortality distribution of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in China from 1991 to 2013, to predict the mortality in the ensuing five years, and to provide evidence for prevention and treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Mortality data for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in China from 1991 to 2013 were used to describe its epidemiological characteristics, such as the change of the standardized mortality rate, sex and age differences, urban-rural differences. Trend-surface analysis was used to study the geographical distribution of the mortality. Curve estimation, time series, gray modeling, and joinpoint regression were used to predict the mortality for the ensuing five years in the future. Results: In China, the standardized mortality rate of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma increased with time from 1996, reaching the peak values of
at the year of 2002, and decreased gradually afterwards. With males being 1.51 times higher than females, and the city had a higher rate than the rural during the past two decades. The mortality rate increased from age 40. Geographical analysis showed the mortality rate increased from middle to southern China. Conclusions: The standardized mortality rate of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma is falling. The regional disease control for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma should be focused on Guangdong province of China, and the key targets for prevention and treatment are rural men, especially after the age of 40. The mortality of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma will decrease in the next five years.
Breast Cancer in Surat Thani, a Province in Southern Thailand: Analysis of 2004-2012 Incidence and Future Trends
Tassanasunthornwong, Sukit ; Chansaard, Wasan ; Sriplung, Hutcha ; Bilheem, Surichai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6735~6740
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6735
Background: With the recent epidemiologic transition in Thailand, featuring decreasing incidences of infectious diseases along with increasing rates of chronic conditions, cancer is becoming a serious problem for the country. Breast cancer has the highest incidence rates among females, not only in the southern regions, but throughout Thailand. Surat Thani is a province in the upper part of Southern Thailand. A study was needed to identify the current burden, and the future trends of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Here we used cancer incidence data from the Surat Thani Cancer Registry to characterize the incidences of breast cancer. Joinpoint analysis was used to investigate the incidences in the province from 2004 to 2012 and to project future trends from 2013 to 2030. Results: Age-standardized incidence rates (world) of breast cancer in the upper parts of Southern Thailand increased from 35.1 to 59.2 cases per 100,000 female population, which is equivalent to an annual percentage change of 4.5-4.8%. Linear drift effects played a role in shaping the increase of incidence. Joinpoint projection suggested that incidence rates would continue to increase in the future with incidence for women aged 50 and above, at a higher rate than for women below the age of 50. Conclusions: The current early detection measures increase detection rates of early disease. Preparation of a budget for treatment facilities and human resources, both in surgical and medical oncology, is essential.
Intention to Quit Smoking among Intermediate and Secondary School Students in Saudi Arabia
Abdulmohsen Hamdan, Al-Zalabani ; Ayat Roushdy, Abdallah ; Reem Ibrahim, Alqabshawi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6741~6747
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6741
Background: Smoking is one of the most preventable causes of disease and death, including cancer, and quitting at an early age can reduce smoking-related morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and to identify factors affecting the "intention to quit" among intermediate and secondary school current cigarette smoker students in Al Madinah city, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This study cohort included 307 current smoker students in a school-based survey. The intention to quit and its related determinants were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: More than half of the participants were
years, and of male gender (54.7%, 77.9% respectively). An intention to quit smoking was reported in 71.7% of participants, and was been significantly associated with: male gender (OR=3.25, 95% CI=1.65-6.41): age at 1st trial of smoking. 10-15 years (OR=2.11, 95% CI=1.03-4.32) along with age of
years (OR=3.10, 95% CI=1.20-7.88); days of smoking in the past 30 days (days <10 (OR=2.31, 95% CI=1.23-4.35) along with days ranging from 10-19 days (OR= 3.42, 95% CI=1.18-9.91); knowing that smoking is hazardous to health (OR=3.04, 95% CI=1.42-6.47); and finally, supporting smoking bans in public places (OR=1.89, 95% CI=1.11-3.25). Conclusions: A substantial number of participants were willing to quit smoking. Effective interventions focusing on providing information about the hazards of smoking and prohibiting smoking in public places could help initiate the intention to quit among youth smokers.
Serum Level of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in Patients with Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Clinical Significance
Lotfi, Alireza ; Mohammadi, Ghodrat ; Saniee, Lale ; Mousaviagdas, Mehrnoosh ; Chavoshi, Hadi ; Tavassoli, Atena ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6749~6751
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6749
Background: Laryngeal cancer is an important malignancy in head and neck area and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common type accounting for 95% of cases. Increase in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in different tumors and their correlation with tumor invasiveness has been documented. However, most studies have evaluated MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and few have evaluated serum levels. The aim of current study was to evaluate serum levels in patients with laryngeal SCC compared to normal subjects and assess any relation with tumor clinicopathological findings. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, 20 patients with oral SCC and 20 healthy subjects were included. Serum levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were compared between groups and correlations with findings including grade (T) and node involvement (N) were evaluated. Results: Patients with laryngeal SCC had significantly higher serum levels of MMP-2 (p=0.01) and MMP-9 (p=0.03) compared to healthy subjects. Patients with higher T stage (T3,4) had significantly higher MMP-2 (p=0.04) and MMP-9 (p=0.01). There was significant positive correlation between serum levels of MMP-2 with T stage (r=0.45, p=0.04) and lymph node involvement (r=0.563, p=0.01) and between levels of MMP-9 with T stage (r=0.527, p=0.01). Conclusions: Our results showed that compared to healthy subjects, both MMP-2 and MMP-9 are significantly increased in serum of laryngeal SCC cases. MMP-2 was correlated with lymph node involvement while MMP-9 has stronger correlation with T stage compared to MMP-2.
Induction of Apoptosis by Eugenol and Capsaicin in Human Gastric Cancer AGS Cells - Elucidating the Role of p53
Sarkar, Arnab ; Bhattacharjee, Shamee ; Mandal, Deba Prasad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6753~6759
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6753
Background: Loss of function of the p53 gene is implicated in defective apoptotic responses of tumors to chemotherapy. Although the pro-apoptotic roles of eugenol and capsaicin have been amply reported, their dependence on p53 for apoptosis induction in gastric cancer cells is not well elucidated. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of p53 in the induction of apoptosis by eugenol and capsaicin in a human gastric cancer cell line, AGS. Materials and Methods: AGS cells were incubated with or without various concentrations of capsaicin and eugenol for 12 hrs, in the presence and absence of p53 siRNA. Cell cycling, annexin V and expression of apoptosis related proteins Bax, Bcl-2 ratio, p21, cyt c-caspase-9 association, caspase-3 and caspase-8 were studied. Results: In the presence of p53, capsaicin was a more potent pro-apoptotic agent than eugenol. However, silencing of p53 significantly abrogated apoptosis induced by capsaicin but not that by eugenol. Western blot analysis of pro-apoptotic markers revealed that as opposed to capsaicin, eugenol could induce caspase-8 and caspase-3 even in the absence of p53. Conclusions: Unlike capsaicin, eugenol could induce apoptosis both in presence and absence of functional p53. Agents which can induce apoptosis irrespective of the cellular p53 status have immense scope for development as potential anticancer agents.
Repairing Facial Soft Tissue Defects by Swelling Anesthesia after Tumor Resection with Narrow Pedicle Flaps
Huang, Chun-Hui ; Qian, Han-Gen ; Zhao, Xiao-Yu ; Shen, Guo-Liang ; Lin, Wei ; Qi, Qiang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6761~6763
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6761
Aims: To investigate the role of swelling anesthesia in repairing facial soft tissue defects after tumor resection and temporal superficial artery frontal branch of narrow pedicle flap. Materials and Methods: From January 2008 to June 2008, 16 patients from Department of Ophthalmology with eye or eyelid tumors after eyeball removal of eye and part resection of surrounding soft tissue, undergoing postoperative swelling anesthesia with superficial temporal artery flap repair to prevent facial soft tissue defect formation and bone exposure, were recruited. Results: In all 16 patients facial soft tissue defect repair had good effects, with limited bleeding, and short operation times. Seven days after surgery, all flaps were in good repair. On postoperative follow-up after 3 months, flaps showed a similar appearance as with facial tissue. Conclusions: Swelling anesthesia for superficial temporoparietal artery frontal branch of narrow pedicle flap to repair soft tissue defect after facial tumor resection is feasible, and is linked with good analgesic effects, high postoperative survival of skin flaps, and good cosmetic effects.
Human Recombinant Endostatin Combined with Cisplatin Based Doublets in Treating Patients with Advanced NSCLC and Evaluation by CT Perfusion Imaging
Zhang, Feng-Lin ; Gao, Er-Yun ; Shu, Rong-Bao ; Wang, Hui ; Zhang, Yan ; Sun, Peng ; Li, Min ; Tang, Wei ; Jiang, Bang-Qin ; Chen, Shuang-Qi ; Cui, Fang-Bo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6765~6768
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6765
Aims: To study the effectiveness of human recombinant endostatin injection (Endostar(R)) combined with cisplatin doublets in treating advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and to evaluate outcome by CT perfusion imaging. Methods: From April 2011 to September 2014, 76 patients with advanced NSCLC who were treated with platinum-based doublets were divided into group A (36 patients) and group B (40 patients). Endostar(R) 15mg/day was administered 4 days before chemotherapy and combined with chemotherapy from day 5 in group A, and combined with chemotherapy from the first day in Group B. Endostar(R) in the two groups was injected intravenously for 14 days. Results: Treatment effectiveness in the two groups differed with statistical significance (p<0.05). Effectiveness evaluated by CT perfusion imaging, BF, BV, MTT and PS also demonstrated significant differences (all p<0.05). Adverse reactions in the two groups did not significantly vary (p> 0.05). Conclusions: The response rate with Endostar(R) administered 4 days before chemotherapy and combined with chemotherapy from day 5 in group A was better than Endostar(R) combined with chemotherapy from the first day, and CT perfusion imaging could be a reasonable method for evaluation of patient outcomes.
Type-Specific Human Papillomavirus Distribution in Invasive Squamous Cervical Carcinomas in Tunisia and Vaccine Impact
Ennaifer, Emna ; Salhi, Faten ; Laassili, Thalja ; Fehri, Emna ; Alaya, Nissaf Ben ; Guizani, Ikram ; Boubaker, Samir ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6769~6772
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6769
Background: High risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the leading cause of cervical cancer (CC) and Pap smear screening has not been successful in preventing CC in Tunisia. HPV vaccination that targets HPV16 and 18 offers a new efficient prevention tool. Identification of HPV types in CC is thus essential to determine the impact of HPV vaccine implementation. The aim of this study is to provide specific data from Tunisia. Materials and Methods: A total of 89 histological confirmed paraffin embedded samples isolated from patients with CC diagnosed between 2001 and 2011 were collected from five medical centres from Northern and Southern Tunisia. HPV DNA was detected using a nested PCR (MY09/MY11-GP5+/GP6+) and genotyping was assessed using a reverse blot line hybridisation assay that enables the detection of 32 HPV types. Results: HPV DNA was detected in all samples. Twelve high risk types were detected; HPV16 and/or 18 were predominant, accounting together for 92.1% of all the CC cases (HPV16: 83.1%). Single infections accounted for 48.8% of the cases and were mostly linked to HPV 16 (32.6%) and less frequently to HPV 18 (2.4%). The other high risk HPV single infections were linked to HPV 35 (4.6%), 45 (4.6%), 58 (2.3%) and 59 (2.3%). Multiple infections with mixing of 2 to 4 genotypes predominately featrued HPV16 and/or 18 with HPV 35 and 45 (96.6 %) and less frequently with HPV 59, 40, 66, 73 and 58. There was no statistically significant variation in the relative distribution of HPV types with age. Conclusions: These results strongly indicate that prophylactic HPV vaccines can have a major impact in preventing CC in Tunisia.
Survival Prognostic Factors of Male Breast Cancer in Southern Iran: a LASSO-Cox Regression Approach
Shahraki, Hadi Raeisi ; Salehi, Alireza ; Zare, Najaf ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6773~6777
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6773
We used to LASSO-Cox method for determining prognostic factors of male breast cancer survival and showed the superiority of this method compared to Cox proportional hazard model in low sample size setting. In order to identify and estimate exactly the relative hazard of the most important factors effective for the survival duration of male breast cancer, the LASSO-Cox method has been used. Our data includes the information of male breast cancer patients in Fars province, south of Iran, from 1989 to 2008. Cox proportional hazard and LASSO-Cox models were fitted for 20 classified variables. To reduce the impact of missing data, the multiple imputation method was used 20 times through the Markov chain Mont Carlo method and the results were combined with Rubin's rules. In 50 patients, the age at diagnosis was 59.6 (SD=12.8) years with a minimum of 34 and maximum of 84 years and the mean of survival time was 62 months. Three, 5 and 10 year survival were 92%, 77% and 26%, respectively. Using the LASSO-Cox method led to eliminating 8 low effect variables and also decreased the standard error by 2.5 to 7 times. The relative efficiency of LASSO-Cox method compared with the Cox proportional hazard method was calculated as 22.39. The19 years follow of male breast cancer patients show that the age, having a history of alcohol use, nipple discharge, laterality, histological grade and duration of symptoms were the most important variables that have played an effective role in the patient's survival. In such situations, estimating the coefficients by LASSO-Cox method will be more efficient than the Cox's proportional hazard method.
Effects of Definitive Chemoradiotherapy on Respiratory Function Tests and Quality of Life Scores During Treatment of Lung Cancer
Duman, Evrim ; Yildirim, Mustafa ; Kaya, Vildan ; Ozturk, Duriye ; Inal, Aysun ; Akarsu, Zeynep ; Gunduz, Seyda ; Yildiz, Mustafa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6779~6782
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6779
Background: Chemoradiotherapy is an important treatment modality for lung cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in, as well as the interrelationship between, lung function and quality of life of patients receiving chemoradiotherapy due to locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) limited to the thorax. Materials and Methods: The study included patients receiving definitive chemoradiotherapy for lung carcinoma. The respiratory function of the patients was assessed by measuring forced expiratory volume in 1 s per unit (FEV1) and forced expiratory volume in 1s per unit of vital capacity (FEV1/VC) before, in the middle of and after treatment. During the study, EORTC QLQ C30 and LC13 questionnaires developed by the Committee of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) were employed to evaluate the quality of life on the same day as respiratory function tests (RFT). Findings: The study included 23 patients in total: 19 (82.6%) diagnosed with NSCLC and 4 (17.4%) with SCLC. The average percentage FEV1 was
in the pre-treatment period,
in the middle of treatment and
at the end of treatment. The improvement in functional scores, symptom scores and general health scores during treatment was not statistically significant (P= 0.568, P= 0.734, P= 0.680, P=0.757 respectively). Conclusions: Although this study showed an improvement in respiratory function and quality of life of patients during treatment with thoracic chemoradiotherapy, no statistically significant results were obtained. While evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for lung carcinoma, the effects of treatment on respiratory function and quality of life should be considered.
CYP2D6 Genotype and Risk of Recurrence in Tamoxifen Treated Breast Cancer Patients
Yazdi, Mohammad Forat ; Rafieian, Shiva ; Gholi-Nataj, Mohsen ; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hasan ; Nazari, Tahereh ; Neamatzadeh, Hossein ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6783~6787
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6783
Background: Despite consistent pharmacogenetic effects of CYP2D6 on tamoxifen exposure, there is considerable controversy regarding the validity of CYP2D6 as a predictor of tamoxifen outcome. Understanding the current state of evidence in this area and its limitations is important for the care of patients who require endocrine therapy for breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 101 patients with breast cancer who received tamoxifen therapy for at least 3 years, were genotyped for common alleles of the CYP2D6 gene by nested-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR. Patients were classified as extensive or poor metabolizers (PM) based on CYP2D6*4 alleles in 3 different groups according to the menopause, Her2-neu status, and stage 3. Results: The mean age of the patients with the disease recurrence was
and in non recurrent patients was
. In this study 63.3% (n=64) patients were extensive metabolizers and 36.6% (n=37) were poor metabolizers. Sixty four of the 101 patients (63.3%) were Her2-neu positive. For tamoxifen-treated patients, no statistically significant difference in rate of recurrence observed between CYP2D6 metabolic variants in stage 3 and post-menopausal patients. However, there was a significant association between CYP2D6 genotype and recurrence in tamoxifen-treated Her2-neu positive patients. Compared with other women with breast cancer, those with Her2-neu positive breast cancer and extensive metabolizer alleles had a decreased likelihood of recurrence. Conclusions: This study for the first time demonstrated significant effects of CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer alleles on risk of recurrence in Her2-neu positive breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. Therefore, CYP2D6 metabolism, as measured by genetic variation, can be a predictor of breast cancer outcome in Her2-neu positive women receiving tamoxifen.
Expression of ER, PR, C-erbB-2 and Ki-67 in Endometrial Carcinoma and their Relationships with the Clinicopathological Features
Yu, Cui-Ge ; Jiang, Xiang-Yang ; Li, Bin ; Gan, Lu ; Huang, Jian-Feng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6789~6794
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6789
Background: To analyze the expression of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), C-erbB-2 and Ki-67 in endometrial carcinoma (EC) and their relationships with the clinicopathological features. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven EC samples, 53 normal endometrial samples and 53 atypical hyperplasia endometrial samples were all selected in Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital from Jun., 2012 to Jun., 2014. The expression of ER, PR, C-erbB-2 and Ki-67 in EC tissue, normal endometrial tissue and atypical hyperplasia endometrial tissue was respectively detected using immunohistochemical SP method. The relationships between the expression of ER, PR, C-erbB-2 and Ki-67 and the patients' clinicopathological features as well as their correlations in EC tissue were also analyzed. Results: The positive expression rates of ER and PR in EC tissue were 44.8% and 41.8%, respectively, dramatically lower than in atypical hyperplasia endometrial tissue and normal endometrial tissue (P<0.01). The positive expression rates of C-erbB-2 and Ki-67 in EC tissue were 80.6% and 64.2%, respectively, significantly higher than in atypical hyperplasia endometrial tissue and normal endometrial tissue (P<0.01). In EC tissue, the expression of ER and PR was closely associated with the differentiated degrees and depth of myometrial invasion (P<0.05), while that of C-erbB-2 and Ki-67 with the clinical staging, differentiated degrees, depth of myometrial invasion and presence or absence of lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). Spearman correlation analysis further displayed that the expression of ER was positively correlated with PR (r=0.393, P=0.001), but negatively with C-erbB-2 and Ki-67 (r=-0.469, P=0.000; r=-0.329, P=0.007); The expression of PR was negatively correlated with C-erbB-2 and Ki-67 (r=-0.273, P=0.025; r=-0.251, P=0.041), but that of C-erbB-2 positively with Ki-67 (r=0.342, P=0.005). Conclusions: Abnormal expression of ER, PR, C-erbB2 and Ki-67 might play an important role in endometrial malignant transformation and cell differentiation, so their joint detection is likely to be a comprehensive combination of immune factors, which is of great importance for EC prognosis.
Spatial and Temporal Epidemiological Assessment of Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Kazakhstan, 1999-2013
Beysebayev, Eldar ; Bilyalova, Zarina ; Kozhakeeva, Lyazzat ; Baissalbayeva, Ainur ; Abiltayeva, Aizhan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6795~6798
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6795
Breast cancer incidence and mortality in Kazakhstan are considered to be increasing but exact statistics have hitherto been lacking. The present study was therefore undertaken to retrospectively assess data for the whole country, accessed from the central registration office, for the period 1999-2013. Age standardized data for incidence and mortality were generated and compared across age groups. It was determined that during the studied period 45,891 new cases of breast cancer were registered and 20,122 women died of this pathology. Average breast cancer incidence and mortality were
respectively, and the overall ratio of mortality/incidence (M/I) was 0.44. Incidence tended to increase (T = + 2.3%), and mortality to decrease (T of =-0.3%). Peaks of incidence and mortality were noted in those aged 60-74 years and 75-84, respectively. Particularly high incidences were established in large cities of Kazakhstan, Astana (
) and Almaty (
), and high mortality was observed in the Pavlodar region (
) and Almaty city (
). Considerable variation in the mortality/incidence ratio was noted, suggesting the need for more stress on access to screening and clinical care in some regions of the country.
Cancer Patients, Complementary Medicine and Unmet Needs in Saudi Arabia
AlBedah, Abdullah M ; Khalil, Mohamed KM ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 15, 2015, Pages 6799~6799
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6799