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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 17 - Dec 2015
Volume 16, Issue 16 - Nov 2015
Volume 16, Issue 15 - Oct 2015
Volume 16, Issue 14 - Sep 2015
Volume 16, Issue 13 - Aug 2015
Volume 16, Issue 12 - Jul 2015
Volume 16, Issue 11 - Jun 2015
Volume 16, Issue 10 - Jun 2015
Volume 16, Issue 9 - May 2015
Volume 16, Issue 8 - Apr 2015
Volume 16, Issue 7 - Apr 2015
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Apr 2015
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Mar 2015
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Mar 2015
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Volume 15, Issue 24 - Jan 2015
Volume 15, Issue 23 - Jan 2015
Selecting the target year
An Overview of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Polymorphism and Gastric Cancer Risk
Verma, Sugreev ; Kesh, Kousik ; Gupta, Arnab ; Swarnakar, Snehasikta ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7393~7400
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7393
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9, a key member of multifunctional family of zinc dependent endopeptidases has been found to be upregulated during inflammation and in some cancers. MMPs cleave extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and play critical roles in cellular apoptosis, angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. Several genetic polymorphisms have been identified that show allele specific effects on MMP9 regulation and are associated with gastric cancer, the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Besides Helicobacter pylori infection, genetic predisposition is another documented risk factor for gastric carcinoma. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position -1562C/T of MMP9 results in the modulation for binding of transcription factors to the MMP9 gene promoter and thereby causes differences in protein expression and enzymatic activity. MMP9 transcriptional regulation during gastric cancer development remains poorly known although several studies have demonstrated associations between MMP9 -1562 C/T polymorphism with different diseases. Knowledge on mechanisms of MMP9 upregulation during gastric cancer may provide new paradigm in diagnostics and therapeutics.
Review of the Cervical Cancer Burden and Population-Based Cervical Cancer Screening in China
Di, Jiangli ; Rutherford, Shannon ; Chu, Cordia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7401~7407
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7401
Cervical cancer continues to be a serious public health problem in the developing world, including China. Because of its large population with geographical and socioeconomic inequities, China has a high burden of cervical cancer and important disparities among different regions. In this review, we first present an overview of the cervical cancer incidence and mortality over time, and focus on diversity and disparity in access to care for various subpopulations across geographical regions and socioeconomic strata in China. Then, we describe population-based cervical cancer screening in China, and in particular implementation of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NACCSPRA) and the challenges that this program faces. These include low screening coverage, shortage of qualified health care personnel and limited funds. To improve prevention of cervical cancer and obtain better cancer outcomes, the Chinese government needs to urgently consider the following key factors: reducing disparities in health care access, collecting accurate and broadly representative data in cancer registries, expanding target population size and increasing allocation of government funding for training of personnel, improving health education for women, enhancing quality control of screening services and improving a system to increase follow up for women with positive results.
Techniques for Evaluation of LAMP Amplicons and their Applications in Molecular Biology
Esmatabadi, Mohammad javad Dehghan ; Bozorgmehr, Ali ; zadeh, Hesam Motaleb ; Bodaghabadi, Narges ; Farhangi, Baharak ; Babashah, Sadegh ; Sadeghizadeh, Majid ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7409~7414
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7409
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) developed by Notomi et al. (2000) has made it possible to amplify DNA with high specificity, efficiency and rapidity under isothermal conditions. The ultimate products of LAMP are stem-loop structures with several inverted repeats of the target sequence and cauliflower-like patterns with multiple loops shaped by annealing between every other inverted repeats of the amplified target in the similar strand. Because the amplification process in LAMP is achieved by using four to six distinct primers, it is expected to amplify the target region with high selectivity. However, evaluation of reaction accuracy or quantitative inspection make it necessary to append other procedures to scrutinize the amplified products. Hitherto, various techniques such as turbidity assessment in the reaction vessel, post-reaction agarose gel electrophoresis, use of intercalating fluorescent dyes, real-time turbidimetry, addition of cationic polymers to the reaction mixture, polyacrylamide gel-based microchambers, lateral flow dipsticks, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and nanoparticle-based colorimetric tests have been utilized for this purpose. In this paper, we reviewed the best-known techniques for evaluation of LAMP amplicons and their applications in molecular biology beside their advantages and deficiencies. Regarding the properties of each technique, the development of innovative prompt, cost-effective and precise molecular detection methods for application in the broad field of cancer research may be feasible.
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia - Prognostic Value of Mutations
Kaleem, Bushra ; Shahab, Sadaf ; Ahmed, Nuzhat ; Shamsi, Tahir Sultan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7415~7423
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7415
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a stem cell disorder characterized by unrestricted proliferation of the myeloid series that occurs due to the BCR-ABL fusion oncogene as a result of reciprocal translocation t(9;22) (q34;q11). This discovery has made this particular domain a target for future efforts to cure CML. Imatinib revolutionized the treatment options for CML and gave encouraging results both in case of safety as well as tolerability profile as compared to agents such as hydroxyurea or busulfan given before Imatinib. However, about 2-4% of patients show resistance and mutations have been found to be one of the reasons for its development. European Leukemianet gives recommendations for BCR-ABL mutational analysis along with other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that should be administered according to the mutations harbored in a patient. The following overview gives recommendations for monitoring patients on the basis of their mutational status.
Colorectal Cancer in the Arab World - Screening Practices and Future Prospects
Arafa, Mostafa A ; Farhat, Karim ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7425~7430
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7425
Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates have dropped 30% in the US in the last 10 years among adults ages 50 and older due to the widespread uptake of colonoscopy, yet incidences in the Arab countries have been increasing in the past ten years, albeit with lower figures when compared with developed countries. Lifestyle changes, food consumption patterns and obesity have been observed during the past years where the regular consumption of traditional foods is being replaced with more Western-style and ready-made foods. Most high income countries have implemented population based colorectal cancer screening programs, which aid in decreasing the incidence and mortality of cancer, while these are lacking in most of the Arab world countries due to many cultural and religious barriers to CRC screening as well as lack of high education or familiarity. What is needed is health education to modify risky lifestyle, and to increase motives and enhance positive attitudes towards early screening especially amongst high risk groups in addition to policy designed to encourage healthier living.
Progression of NETs Correlating with Tumor-Related Diseases
Zhang, Le-Meng ; Chen, Jian-Hua ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7431~7434
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7431
As an important component of innate immune system, neutrophil has been involved in many other physiological processes, including tumor-related diseases. In 2004, the phenomenon of NETs was reported for the first time. Extracellular decondensed chromatin, released from activated neutrophils, forms a network structure, which is NETs. This review focuses on the function of NETs in tumor cell proliferation, metastasis, and tumor-associated thrombosis; it also explores the application of NETs specific markers in the diagnosis of pre-thrombotic state and tumor associated diseases; it also explores NETs inhibitor for the treatment of tumor-related diseases. In view of the rapid development of NETs, it may provide new therapeutic targets for tumor-associated thrombosis, and even tumor itself.
Can Cancer Therapy be Achieved by Bridging Apoptosis and Autophagy: a Method Based on microRNA-Dependent Gene Therapy and Phytochemical Targets
Vijayarathna, Soundararajan ; Gothai, Sivapragasam ; Jothy, Subramanion L ; Chen, Yeng ; Kanwar, Jagat R ; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7435~7439
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7435
A failure of a cell to self destruct has long been associated with cancer progression and development. The fact that tumour cells may not instigate cell arrest or activate cell death mechanisms upon cancer drug delivery is a major concern. Autophagy is a mechanism whereby cell material can be engulfed and digested while apoptosis is a self-killing mechanism, both capable of hindering multiplication after cell injury. In particular situations, autophagy and apoptosis seem to co-exist simultaneously or interdependently with the aid of mutual proteins. This review covers roles of microRNAs and chemopreventive agents and makes an attempt at outlining possible partnerships in maximizing cancer cell death with minimal normal cell damage.
I-Labeled-Metuximab Plus Transarterial Chemoembolization in Combination Therapy for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Results from a Multicenter Phase IV Clinical Study
Ma, Jun ; Wang, Jian-Hua ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7441~7447
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7441
Objective: This study evaluated the safety and objective response of combining
-labeled-metuximab (Licartin) with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods: In a multicenter open-label clinical trial, 341 enrolled patients with stage III/IV HCC according to TNM criteria were nonrandomly assigned to a trial group (n=167) and a control group (n=174), undergoing TACE following hepatic intra-arterial injection of licartin or TACE alone from July 2007 to July 2009. Radiopharmaceutical distribution was evaluated. The primary endpoint was overall survival; secondary endpoints included time-to-progression (TTP), toxicity and adverse events (AEs). Results: The radiobiological distribution demonstrated better localization of licartin in liver tumors than other tissues (P<0.01). The organ absorbed doses to liver and red marrow were
, respectively. The 1-year survival rate was significantly higher [79.47% vs. 65.59%, hazard ratio (HR), 0.598, P=0.041] and TTP significantly improved (
, P=0.037) compared with the control group. Patients at stage III achieved more benefit of one year survival than stage IV in the trial group (86.9% vs. 53.8%, P<0.001). There were significant different toxicities in leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and increased total bilirubin level [P<0.001, P=0.013, P<0.01, relative risk (RR) 1.63, 1.33, 1.43], but no differences in severe AEs of upper GI hemorrhage and severe liver dysfunction between the groups (5.39% vs. 2.3%, P=0.136). Conclusions: Owing to excellent tumor-targeting, promised efficacy and favourable toxicity profile, the novel combination therapy of licartin and TACE could be applied in patients with unresectable HCC.
C-kit Mutations in Endometrial Cancer: Correlation with Tumor Histologic Type
Kafshdooz, Taiebeh ; Ardabili, Seyyed Mojtaba Mohaddes ; Kafshdooz, Leila ; Tabrizi, Ali Dastranj ; Ghojazadeh, Morteza ; Gharesouran, Jalal ; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7449~7452
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7449
Objective: Endometrial cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women in developed countries. Affected patients may benefit from systemic chemotherapy, alone or in combination with targeted therapies if the disease is clinically diagnosed prior to expansion and metastasis to other organs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic role of c-kit mutations and comparision with tumor type and grade in human uterine endometrial carcinomas. Materials and Methods: Seventy five patients with endometrial carcinoma and seventy five normal controls were studied for possible mutations in exon 17 of the c-kit gene using single strand conformational polymorphisms and sequencing. Results: c-kit mutation in exon 17 appeared to be significantly different between endometrial carcinoma and normal endometrium. The pattern and frequency of the mutations was also shown to be different between tumors from different stages.
Attitudes of Medical Students Regarding Cancer Pain Management: Comparison Between Pre- and Post-Lecture Test Findings
Nimmaanrat, Sasikaan ; Oofuvong, Maliwan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7453~7456
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7453
Background: Medical practitioners' attitudes have a significant impact on quality of care for cancer pain patients. This study was conducted to determine if being given a lecture concerning cancer pain and its management could improve the attitudes of medical students. Materials and Methods: A comparative study was conducted in 126 fifth-year medical students. Each student completed a pretest consisting of 3 questions about attitudes toward the optimal use of analgesics and 5 questions about attitudes toward prescribing opioids. Then they were given a 1.5-hour lecture, immediately following which they completed a post-test with the same questions. Results: Analysis with either comparison between groups or by matching, the post-test showed significantly more positive attitudes (p<0.05) of the medical students in all 3 questions about optimal use of analgesics and 4 out of 5 questions about prescription of opioids. The post-test results showed significantly more negative attitudes concerning the most appropriate stage for patients with severe pain to receive maximal doses of analgesics. Conclusions: Conservative attitudes, especially concerns about addiction, have been associated with a reluctance in many physicians to prescribe opioids. This study found that cancer pain education can help to improve medical student attitudes. However, fear of addiction and tolerance was still evident so emphasis of this particular issue during a lecture is essential. Providing appropriate information by means of a lecture can improve the attitudes of medical students regarding cancer pain management. However, more information should be given to lessen fear of addiction and tolerance.
Protection and Dissection of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve in Salvage Thyroid Cancer Surgery to Patients with Insufficient Primary Operation Extent and Suspicious Residual Tumor
Yu, Wen-Bin ; Zhang, Nai-Song ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7457~7461
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7457
Some thyroid cancer patients undergone insufficient tumor removal in the primary surgery in China. our aim is to evaluate the impact of dissection of the recurrent laryngeal nerve during a salvage thyroid cancer operation in these patients to prevent nerve injury. Clinical data of 49 enrolled patients who received a salvage thyroid operation were retrospectively reviewed. Primary pathology was thyroid papillary cancer. The initial procedure performed included nodulectomy (20 patients), partial thyroidectomy (19 patients) and subtotal thyroidectomy (10 patients). The effect of dissection and protection of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the mechanism of nerve injury were studied. The cervical courses of the recurrent laryngeal nerves were successfully dissected in all cases. Nerves were adherent to or involved by scars in 22 cases. Three were ligated near the place where the nerve entered the larynx, while another three were cut near the intersection of inferior thyroid artery with the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Light hoarseness occurred to four patients without a preoperative voice change. In conclusion, accurate primary diagnosis allows for a sufficient primary operation to be performed, avoiding insufficient tumor removal that requires a secondary surgery. The most important cause of nerve damage resulted from not identifying the recurrent laryngeal nerve during first surgery, and meticulous dissection during salvage surgery was the most efficient method to avoid nerve damage.
Tumor Diameter for Prediction of Recurrence, Disease Free and Overall Survival in Endometrial Cancer Cases
Senol, Taylan ; Polat, Mesut ; Ozkaya, Enis ; Karateke, Ates ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7463~7466
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7463
Aims: To analyse the predictors of recurrence, disease free survival and overall survival in cases with endometrial cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 152 women diagnosed with endometrial cancer were screened using a prospectively collected database including age, smoking history, menopausal status, body mass index, CA125, systemic disorders, tumor histology, tumor grade, lymphovascular space invasion, tumor diameter, cervical involvement, myometrial invasion, adnexal metastases, positive cytology, serosal involvement, other pelvic metastases, type of surgery, fertility sparing approach to assess their ability to predict recurrence, disease free survival and overall survival. Results: In ROC analyses tumor diameter was a significant predictor of recurrence (AUC:0.771, P<0.001). The optimal cut off value was 3.75 with 82% sensitivity and 63% specificity. In correlation analyses tumor grade (r=0.267, p=0.001), tumor diameter (r=0.297, p<0.001) and the serosal involvement (r=0.464, p<0.001) were found to significantly correlate with the recurrence. In Cox regression analyses when some different combinations of variables included in the model which are found to be significantly associated with the presence of recurrence, tumor diameter was found to be a significant confounder for disease free survival (OR=1.2(95 CI,1.016-1.394, P=0.031). On Cox regression for overall survival only serosal involvement was found to be a significant predictor (OR=20.8 (95 % CI 2.4-179.2, P=0.006). In univariate analysis of tumor diameter > 3.75 cm and the recurrence, there was 14 (21.9 %) cases with recurrence in group with high tumor diameter where as only 3 (3.4 %) cases group with smaller tumor size (Odds ratio:7.9 (95 %CI 2.2-28.9, p<0.001). Conclusions: Although most of the significantly correlated variables are part of the FIGO staging, tumor diameter was also found to be predictor for recurrence with higher values than generally accepted.
Clinical Presentation and Frequency of Risk Factors in Patients with Breast Carcinoma in Pakistan
Memon, Zahid Ali ; Qurrat-ul-Ain, Qurrat-ul-Ain ; Khan, Ruba ; Raza, Natasha ; Noor, Tooba ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7467~7472
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7467
Background: Breast cancer is known to be one of the most prevalent cancers among women in both developing and developed countries. The incidence of breast cancer in Pakistan has increased dramatically within the last few years and is the second country after Israel in Asia to have highest proportional cases of breast cancer. However, there are limited data for breast cancer available in the literature from Pakistan. Objectives: The study was conducted to bring to light the common clinical presentation of breast cancer and to evaluate the frequency of established risk factors in breast carcinoma patients and furthermore to compare the findings between premenopausal and postmenopausal women in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A 6 months (from July 2012 to Dec 2012) cross sectional survey was conducted in Surgical and Oncology Units of Civil Hospital, Karachi. Data were collected though a well developed questionnaire from 105 female patients diagnosed with carcinoma of breast and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Institutional ethical approval was obtained prior to data collection. Results: Out of 105 patients, 43 were premenopausal and 62 were postmenopausal, 99 being married. Mean age at diagnosis was
. A painless lump was the most frequent symptom, notived by 77.1%(n=81). Some 55.2% (n=58) patients had a lump in the right breast and 44.8%(n=47) in the left breast. In the majority of cases, the lump was present in upper outer quadrant 41.9% (n=44). Mean period of delay from appearance of symptoms to consulting a doctor was
, from the shortest 1 month to the longest 36 months. Long delay (> 3 months) was the most frequent figure 41.9%. Considering overall risk factors most frequent were first pregnancy after 20 years of age (41%), physical breast trauma (28.6%), lack of breast feeding(21.9%), and early menarche <11 years (19%), followed by null parity (16.2%), consumption of high fat diet (15.2%), family history of breast cancer or any other cancer in first degree relatives (9.5% and 13.3%, respectively). Some of the less common factors were late menopause >54 years (8.6%), use of oral contraceptive pills (10.5%), use of hormone replacement therapy (4.7%),smoking (4.7%) and radiation (0.96%). Significant differences (p<0.005) were observed between pre and post menopausal women regarding history of physical breast trauma, practice of breast feeding and parity. Conclusions: A painless lump was the most frequent clinical presentation noted. Overall age at first child > 20 years, physical breast trauma, lack of breast feeding, early menarche <11 were the most frequent risk factors. Physical breast trauma, lower parity, a trend for less breast feeding had more significant associations with pre-menopausal than post-menopausal onset. Increase opportunity of disease prevention can be obtained through better understanding of clinical presentation and risk factors important in the etiology of breast cancer.
Roles of Kermanshahi Oil, Animal Fat, Dietary and Non-Dietary Vitamin D and other Nutrients in Increased Risk of Premenopausal Breast Cancer: A Case Control Study in Kermanshah, Iran
Salarabadi, Asadollah ; Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi ; Madani, Sayed Hamid ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7473~7478
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7473
Background: Kermanshahi oil is one the most favorable oils in Iran especially in Kermanshah province. We aimed to evaluate the role of usual intake of Kermanshahi oil and other kinds of dietary fats as well as different meats, vegetables and fruits, carbohydrates, cereals, grains, sweets, candy and lifestyle habits in risk of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A case-control study with 47 consecutive, newly diagnosed premenopausal breast-cancer patients and 105 age and socioeconomic matched healthy women was conducted from 2013-2014 in Imam Reza hospital of Kermanshah using a standardized, validated questionnaire assessing various anthropometric, socio-demographic, lifestyle and dietary characteristics. Results: Kermanshahi oil intake was associated with a 2.1-fold (OR=2.123, 95% CI 1.332-3.38) (p=0.002) higher likelihood of having breast cancer, while daily intake of other solid animal fats also increased the likelihood by 2.8-fold (OR = 2.754, 95% CI 1.43-5.273) (p < 0.001), after various adjustments made. Lack of fish oil, white meat, vegetables, soy products, nuts and dairy products (especially during adolescence) in daily regimens and lack of sun exposure were significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk in this region. Conclusions: This study suggested that animal fat increases the risk of premenopausal breast cancer but many other dietary and non-dietary factors including calcium and vitamin D deficiency are consistently associated with increased odds of breast cancer in this region.
Mutagenicity Assessment of Drinking Water in Combination with Flavored Black Tea Bags: a Cross Sectional Study in Tehran
Alebouyeh, Farzaneh ; Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi ; Ziarati, Parisa ; Heshmati, Masoomeh ; Qomi, Mahnaz ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7479~7484
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7479
Diseases related to water impurities may present as major public health burdens. The present study aimed to assess the mutagenicity of drinking water from different zones of Tehran, and evaluate possible health risks through making tea with tea bags, by Ames mutagenicity test using TA 100, TA 98 and YG1029 strains. For this purpose, 450 water samples were collected over the period of July to December 2014 from 5 different zones of Tehran. Except for one sample, no mutagenic potential was detected during these two seasons and the MI scores were almost normal (
) in TA 100, TA 98 and YG1029 strains. Although no mutagenic effects were considered in TA 98 and TA 100 in the test samples of our three evaluated tea bag brands, one sample from a local company showed mutagenic effects in the YG1029 strain (MI=1.7-1.9 and 2) after prolonged (10-15 min.) steeping. Despite the mild mutagenic effect discovered for one of the brand, this cross sectional study showed relative safety of water samples and black tea bags in Tehran. According to the sensitivity of YG1029 to the mutagenic potential of water and black tea, even without metabolic activation by s9 fraction, this metabolizer strain could be considered as sensitive and applicable to food samples for quantitative analysis of mutagens.
Risk of Breast Cancer among Young Women and Importance of Early Screening
Memon, Zahid Ali ; Kanwal, Noureen ; Sami, Munam ; Larik, Parsa Azam ; Farooq, Mohammad Zain ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7485~7489
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7485
Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women throughout the world. However, in comparison with Western women, it presents relatively early in women of Asian ethnicity. Early menarche, late menopause, use of OCP's, family history of benign or malignant breast disease, exposure to radiation and BMI in the under-weight range are well known risk factors for the development of breast cancer in premenopausal women. Early detection with the use of breast self-examination (BSE) and breast cancer screening programs can lead to a reduction in the mortality rates due to breast cancer. The aim of our study was to assess the risk factors for breast cancer among young women and to emphasize the importance of early screening among them. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among women aged 18 to 25 using a self-administered questionnaire. Data was collected over a period of 6 months from June to December, 2014. A total of 300 young women selected randomly from Dow Medical College and various departments of Karachi University successfully completed the survey. Results: Respondents were 18-25 years of age (mean age=21.5). Out of the 300 young females, 90 (30%) had at least one risk factor, 90 (30%) had two, 40 (13%) had three, 8 (2.7%) had four, 2 (0.7%) had five while one female was found to have six positive risk factors for breast cancer. Some 66 women (22%) experienced symptoms of breast cancer such as non-cyclical pain and lumps. While 222 women (74%) had never performed breast self-examination, 22 (7.3%) had had a breast examination done by a health professional while 32 (10.7%) had participated in breast screening programs. A total of 223 (74.3%) women considered breast cancer screening important for young women. Conclusions: The percentage of young women with risk factors for breast cancer was found to be alarmingly high. Therefore, screening for breast cancer should start at an early age especially in high risk groups. Awareness about breast self-examination should be emphasized. Moreover, screening programs should be started to ensure early detection and reduction of mortality rates caused by breast cancer also in young Pakistani females.
Clinicopathological Significance of CD133 and ALDH1 Cancer Stem Cell Marker Expression in Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma
Mansour, Sahar F ; Atwa, Maha M ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7491~7496
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7491
Background: Biomarkers in breast neoplasms provide invaluable information regarding prognosis and help determining the optimal treatment. We investigated the possible correlation between cancer stem cell (CSC) markers (CD133, and ALDH1) in invasive ductal breast carcinomas with some clinicopathological parameters. Aim: To assess the correlation between expression of cancer stem cell (CSC) markers (CD133, and ALDH1) and clinicopathological parameters of invasive ductal breast carcinomas. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis of CD133 and ALDH1 was performed on a series of 120 modified radical mastectomy (MRM) specimens diagnosed as invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Results: Expression of both CD133 and ALDH1 was significantly changed and related to tumor size, tumor stage (TNM), and lymph node metastasis. A negative correlation between CD133 and ALDH1 was found. Conclusions: Detecting the expression of CD133 and ALDH1 in invasive ductal breast carcinomas may be of help in more accurately predicting the aggressive properties and determining the optimal treatment.
Comparison of Serum Fucose Levels in Leukoplakia and Oral Cancer Patients
Rai, Narendra Prakash ; Anekar, Jayaprasad ; Shivaraja, Shankara YM ; Divakar, Darshan Devang ; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah ; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar ; Sebastian, Roopa ; Raj, AC ; Al-Hazmi, Ali ; Mustafa, habil Mohamed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7497~7500
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7497
Background: Tumor markers, designated as a broad group of substances produced by malignancies, could be in the form of biochemical substances, immunological substances, cell surface changes and genetic alterations. Cancer, a disorder of cellular behavior is characterized by alteration of serum glycoproteins. L-fucose, a hexose, which is the terminal sugar in most of the plasma glycoproteins, may be useful as a tumor marker for the detection, monitoring and prognostic assessment of malignancies. The aim of the study was to ascertain the role of serum fucose as a biomarker for early detection of oral cancer and to compare serum fucose levels in healthy controls, leukoplakia and oral cancer patients. Materials and Methods: The study included 60 (100.0%) subjects, who were grouped as 20 (33.3%) control subjects, 20 (33.3%) squamous cell carcinoma patients and 20 (33.3%) leukoplakia patients. Fucose estimation was done using UV-visible spectrophotometry based on the method as adopted by Winzler using cysteine reagent. The results were analyzed statistically using ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests. Results: Results showed a high significance in serum fucose in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and leukoplakia subjects compared to normal controls. There was a gradual increase in the values noted from control to leukoplakia and to squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusions: Estimation of serum fucose may be a reliable marker and can be used as an effective diagnostic biomarker in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.
Oncology Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cancer Pain Management
Shahriary, Shahdad ; Shiryazdi, Seyed Mostafa ; Shiryazdi, Seyed Ali ; Arjomandi, Amir ; Haghighi, Fatemeh ; Vakili, Fariba Mir ; Mostafaie, Naiemeh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7501~7506
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7501
Background: Oncology nurses play a crucial role in cancer pain management and must be highly informed to ensure their effective practice in the cancer setting. The aim of this study was to determine the baseline level of knowledge and attitudes of oncology nurses regarding cancer pain management. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey research design was employed. The sample comprised 58 cancer nurses working in Shahid Sadoughi hospital, Yazd, Iran. The "Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain" (NKAS) tool and a demographic form were utilized to ascertain the knowledge and attitudes of oncology nurses working in oncology settings. Results: The average correct response rate for oncology nurses was 66.6%, ranging from 12.1% to 94.8%. The nurses mean score on the knowledge and attitudes survey regarding pain management was 28.5%. Results revealed that the mean percentage score overall was 65.7%. Only 8.6% of nurse participants obtained a passing score of 75% or greater. Widespread knowledge deficits and poor attitudes were noted in this study, particularly regard pharmacological management of pain. Conclusions: The present study provides important information about knowledge deficits in pain management among oncology nurses and limited training regarding pain management. Our results support the universal concern of inadequate knowledge and attitudes of nurses regarding cancer pain. It is suggested educational and quality improvement initiatives in pain management could enhance nurses knowledge in the area of pain and possibly improve practice.
Association Assessment among Risk Factors and Breast Cancer in a Low Income Country: Bangladesh
Ahmed, Kawsar ; Asaduzzaman, Sayed ; Bashar, Mamun Ibn ; Hossain, Goljar ; Bhuiyan, Touhid ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7507~7512
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7507
Background: In the low incoming country Bangladesh, breast cancer is second most common neoplasm and is increasing at an alarming rate among females. Lack of awareness and illiteracy are contributory factors for late presentation and therefore mortality. Purpose: To examine associations of different factors with breast cancer mortality and to raise awareness among the women of society in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: This descriptive case-control study was conducted on 160 participants from April 2011 till July 2014. Through a valid questionnaire covering personal and family history, data were collected by face to face interview. For analyzing correlations among factors with breast cancer data, binary logistic regression, Pearson's
-value, odd ratios and p-value tests were conducted with SPSS version 20. Results: The mean age of the patients was 43.0 (
). In ascending order the leading significant factors were hormone therapy (p<0.0000, OR=4.897), abortion (p<0.0001, OR=3.452), early start menarche (p<0.0002, OR=3.500), family history (p<0.0022, OR=3.235), and late menopause (p<0.0093, OR=3.674) with both
test and logistic regression analyses. Non-significant factors were cancer experience, fatty food habits, marital status and taking alcohol. Conclusions: Regarding the investigation of this study, significant and insignificant factor's correlation visualization with breast cancer will be helpful to increase awareness among Bangladeshi women as well as all over the world.
Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Angiogenesis Related Markers in Pyogenic Granuloma of Gingiva
Seyedmajidi, Maryam ; Shafaee, Shahryar ; Hashemipour, Golnarsadat ; Bijani, Ali ; Ehsani, Hodis ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7513~7516
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7513
Background: Pyogenic granuloma is a common non-neoplastic connective tissue proliferation. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are vascular adhesion molecules and CD34 is a marker for evaluation of angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to compare the immunohistochemical expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 & CD34 in oral pyogenic granuloma and normal gingiva. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on thirty five formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded samples of gingival pyogenic granuloma. Also we used thirty five paraffined blocks of normal gingiva as control group which were taken from crown lengthening surgery. We employed immunohistochemistry staining for our prepared microscopic slides using monoclonal mouse anti-human antibodies against ICAM-1 (CD54), VCAM-1 (CD106) and CD34. Slides were examined under light microscope and then the mean amount of stained vessels also known as microvascular density (MVD) in highly vascularized areas (hot spots) was measured. Paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA were used to compare the difference between quantitative variables and Chi-square test for qualitative variables in different groups. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to compare relations between quantitative variables. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean of MVD for ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and CD34 was significantly higher in pyogenic granuloma than normal gingiva (p<0.001 & p<0.001 & p<0.001, respectively). Expression of CD34 in pyogenic granuloma was significantly higher than ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 (P<0.001). Besides, expression of ICAM-1 in normal gingiva, was significantly lower than two other markers (p<0.001). Conclusions: Regarding the results, it seems that ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and CD34 are useful biomarkers in evaluation of vascular and inflammatory lesions such as gingival pyogenic granuloma and the results indicate the role of these biomarkers in pathogenesis of oral pyogenic granuloma.
Effects of Fresh Yellow Onion Consumption on CEA, CA125 and Hepatic Enzymes in Breast Cancer Patients: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Jafarpour-Sadegh, Farnaz ; Montazeri, Vahid ; Adili, Ali ; Esfehani, Ali ; Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza ; Mesgari, Mehran ; Pirouzpanah, Saeed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7517~7522
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7517
Onion (Allium cepa) consumption has been remarked in folk medicine which has not been noted to be administered so far as an adjunct to conventional doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. To our knowledge, this is the first study aimed to investigate the effects of consuming fresh yellow onions on hepatic enzymes and cancer specific antigens compared with a low-onion containing diet among breast cancer (BC) participants treated with doxorubicin. This parallel design randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 56 BC patients whose malignancy was confirmed with histopathological examination. Subjects were assigned in a stratified-random allocation into either group received body mass index dependent 100-160 g/d of onion as high onion group (HO; n=28) or 30-40 g/d small onion in low onion group (LO; n=28) for eight weeks intervention. Participants, care givers and laboratory assessor were blinded to the assignments (IRCT registry no: IRCT2012103111335N1). The compliance of participants in the analysis was appropriate (87.9%). Comparing changes throughout pre- and post-dose treatments indicated significant controls on carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer antigen-125 and alkaline phosphatase levels in the HO group (P<0.05). Our findings for the first time showed that regular onion administration could be effective for hepatic enzyme conveying adjuvant chemotherapy relevant toxicity and reducing the tumor markers in BC during doxorubicin-based chemotherapy.
Low Frequency of ETV6-RUNX1 (t 12; 21) in Saudi Arabian Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients: Association with Clinical Parameters and Early Remission
Aljamaan, Khaled ; Aljumah, Talal khalid ; Aloraibi, Saleh ; Absar, Muhammad ; Iqbal, Zafar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7523~7527
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7523
Background: Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pALL) patients at King Abdulaziz Medical City represent a pure Saudi Arabian population. ETV6-RUNX1 positive pALL patients have good prognosis as compared to ETV6-RUNX1 negative counterparts. Therefore, frequencies of these two patient groups have a huge consideration in treatment strategies of pALL in a given population. Different geographical locations have been reported to have different frequencies of ETV6-RUNX1 ranging from 10% in Southeast Asia to 30% in Australia. Aim: Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the ETV6-RUNX1 status of Saudi Arabian pALL patients and its association with clinical parameters and early remission. Materials and Methods: Clinical parameters and ETV6-RUNX1 status (using FISH technique) of pALL patients attending the Pediatric Oncology Clinic, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh from 2006 to 2011 were studied. Comparisons between ETV6-RUNX1 positive and negative groups were accomplished using chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS version 9.2 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC). Results: Out of 54 patients, 33 were male and 21 were females (ratio 1.57:1). B- and T-cell lineages were found in 47 (87%) and 7 (13%) patients respectively. Only 5 (9.3%) patients were ETV6-RUNX1 positive while 49(80.7%) were ETV6-RUNX1 negative. All ETV6-RUNX1 patients (100%) were of B-cell lineage and 80% (4/5) were in the 3-7 year age group. None of the ETV6-RUNX11 patients had
blasts (no remission) at day 14 as compared with 9% in the ETV6-RUNX1 negative group (Figure 1). Conclusions: Frequency of ETV6-RUNX1 positive patients (less than 10%) in our pALL patients is much lower than reported for most European countries, North America, Australia and Japan while it is in accordance with ETV6-RUNX1 frequencies from Egypt (11.6%), Pakistan (10%), Spain (2%) and India (5-7%). This shows ethnic differences in genetics of pALL as well as higher frequencies of ETV6-RUNX1 positive pALL mostly in more industrialized countries, probably due to some industrial pollutants or westernized lifestyle.
Clinical Implication of EGF A61G Polymorphism in the Risk of Non Small Cell Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients: A Case Control Study
Masroor, Mirza ; Amit, Jain ; Javid, Jamsheed ; Mir, Rashid ; Prasant, Y ; Imtiyaz, A ; Mariyam, Z ; Mohan, Anant ; Ray, PC ; Saxena, Alpana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7529~7534
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7529
Background: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays important roles in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) susceptibility and functional polymorphism in the EGF (+61A/G) gene has been linked to increased risk of NSCLC. This study aimed to evaluate the role of the EGF +61A/G polymorphism in risk of NSCLC adenocarcinoma (ADC) occurrence and survival in an Indian population. Materials and Methods: This casecontrol study included 100 histopathologically confirmed NSCLC (ADC) patients and 100 healthy controls. EGF (A61G) was genotyped by AS-PCR to elucidate putative associations with clinical outcomes. The association of the polymorphism with the survival of NSCLC patients was estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: It was found that EGF 61AG heterozygous and GG homozygous genotype is significantly associated with increased risk of NSCLC (ADC) occurrence compared to AA genotype, [OR 2.61 (1.31-5.18) and 3.25 (1.31-8.06), RR 1.51(1.15-2.0) and 1.72 (1.08-2.73) and RD 23.2 (6.90-39.5) and 28.53(7.0-50.1) for heterozygous AG (p=0.005) and homozygous GG (p=0.009)]. Patients homozygous for the G allele exhibited a significantly poor overall survival. The median survival time for patients with EGF 61 AA, AG, and GG genotypes was 10.5, 7.4, and 7.1 months (p=0.02), respectively. NSCLC (ADC) patients with GG + AG exhibited 7.3 months median survival compared to the AA genotype (p=0.009). Conclusions: The present study revealed that the EGF A61G genotype may be a novel independent prognostic marker to identify patients at higher risk of occurrence and an unfavourable clinical outcome.
Predictors of Tobacco Use among Youth in India: GATS 2009-2010 Survey
Sharma, Shailja ; Singh, Mitasha ; Lal, Pranay ; Goel, Sonu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7535~7540
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7535
Background: Early initiation of smoking and chewing of diverse forms of tobacco among youth in India is a significant driver for tobacco epidemic in India. Several socio-demographic factors are predictors of tobacco use in populations, especially among youth. Interventions which address these socio-demographic factors can help policy makers to curb new initiations and avert morbidity and mortality due to tobacco use. Objective: To study the various sociodemographic variables associated with tobacco use among youth in India. Materials and Methods: Secondary analysis of data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey-India 2009-10 for the age group of 15-24 years was performed and predictors of smoking and smokeless tobacco were analyzed using data on occupation, education, and other sociodemographic factors. Results: In India there are a total of 51.3 million (22.1%) youth (15-24 years) tobacco users. Of these 35.1 million consumes chewable tobacco (15.1%), 16.2 million smoke (7%) and 1.6 million are dual users (3.1%). Males, urban, less educated, un-employed and those belonging to middle class preferred smoking over chewing; whereas, females, rural, students and those belonging to low socio-economic class are predictors of smokeless tobacco use. The major determinants of dual users are male sex, poor socio-economic strata and student class. The overall tobacco use was higher among males, rural populations, lower socioeconomic strata and un-employed class. Conclusions: India's youth is more susceptible to the tobacco addiction, especially of smokeless tobacco. Youth from rural India especially students, girls and those from poor socio-economic strata prefer to use smokeless tobacco products whereas urban, male and those less educated prefer smoking tobacco products. More population-based and region-focused research is needed to understand initiation patterns into tobacco use among youth so as to inform policymakers to devise new policy measures to curb the growing epidemic.
Epidemiologic Data, Tumor Size, Histologic Tumor Type and Grade, Pathologic Staging and Follow Up in Cancers of the Ampullary Region and Head of Pancreas in 311 Whipple Resection Specimens of Pakistani Patients
Ahmad, Zubair ; Ud Din, Nasir ; Minhas, Khurram ; Moeen, Sarosh ; Ahmed, Arsalan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7541~7546
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7541
Aim: To report the histologic findings on Whipple resection specimens and thus determine the extent and spread of carcinomas of ampullary region and head of pancreas in our population. Setting: Section of Histopathology, Department of Pathology, Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A case series of 311 consecutive Whipple resection specimens received between January 1,2003 and December 31, 2014. Specimens processed for histologic sections and representative sections submitted and histologically examined as per established and standard protocols. All relevant tumor parameters including histologic type, histologic grade, pathologic T and N stage and tumor size were assessed. Epidemiologic data were also recorded. All findings were analysed using SPSS 19.0 software. Results: Ampullary (periampullary) carcinomas were much more common than carcinomas of the head of the pancreas, especially in males, with an average age of 53 years. Mean tumor size was 2.5 cms, over 54% were well differentiated. A large majority were pT2 or pT3 and N0. Carcinomas of pancreatic head were also more common in males, mean age was 55 years, mean tumor size was 3.5cms, and over 65% were moderately differentiated. The majority were T2 or T3 and pN1. Prognostically, significant statistical correlation was seen with tumor grade and pathologic T and N stage (p values statistically significant). However, tumor size was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Ampullary carcinomas are more common compared to pancreatic carcinomas. Majority of ampullary carcinomas were well differentiated while majority of pancreatic carcinomas were moderately differentiated. Large majority of both types of cases were pT2 or T3. Histologic tumor grade and pathologic T and N stage are significantly related to prognosis in Pakistani patients with ampullary and pancreatic cancers.
Initiating Smokeless Tobacco Use across Reproductive Stages
Begum, Shahina ; Schensul, Jean J. ; Nair, Saritha ; Donta, Balaiah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7547~7554
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7547
Background: The use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) among women is increasing in India, especially among those with limited education and resources. Preventing the initiation of SLT among women is critical since it has known negative consequences for oral and reproductive health. Most research on tobacco initiation in India focuses on adolescents. This paper addresses the unrecognized issues of post marital initiation among women of reproductive age, highlighting the importance of reproductive stages in women's tobacco initiation. The objective is to examine the correlates of SLT initiation among low income women in Mumbai from pre-marriage through early marriage, first pregnancy and beyond, using case examples to illustrate initiation during each of these stages. Materials and Methods: In 2011-2012, cross-sectional community level survey data were collected from a representative sample of 409 daily SLT-using married women aged 18-40 years in a low income community in Mumbai. Information on socio-demographics, initiation by reproductive stage, types of tobacco use, childhood exposure to tobacco, learning to use, and initiation influences and reasons were collected through a researcher-administered survey. Univariate and bivariate analysis assessed factors influencing initiation of SLT use by reproductive stage. In addition 42 narratives of tobacco use were collected from a purposive sample of pregnant and non-pregnant married women addressing the same questions in detail. Narratives were transcribed, translated, and coded for key concepts including initiation of tobacco use. Results: Thirty-two percent of women initiated SLT use before marriage, 44% initiated after marriage but before pregnancy, 18.1% initiated during their first pregnancy and the remainder started after their first pregnancy. Mean age of marriage among women in this study was 16 years. Younger women (i.e. age at time of the interview of less than 30 years) were 0.47 [95% CI (0.32, 0.87)] percent less likely to initiate after marriage than women aged more than 30 years. Women who got married before 18 years of age were 2.34 [95% CI (1.40, 3.93)] times more likely to initiate after marriage than their counterparts. Childhood exposure was a predictor for initiating SLT use prior to marriage but not after. Women reporting tooth and gum pain were 1.85 times more likely to initiate after marriage than their counterparts. Husband and neighbours were the most significant influences on post-marital initiation. Narratives highlighted differences in processes of initiation pre and post marriage and during pregnancy. Conclusions: Most tobacco prevention interventions are directed to adolescents in school. This study suggests that especially for low literate or illiterate women, school based interventions are ineffective. To be effective strategies to prevent SLT initiation must reach women in urban areas at or immediately after marriage and during their first pregnancy. Messages must negate culturally rooted beliefs about the health benefits of SLT in order to prevent initiation and onset of daily use.
Treatment and Survival in Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in a Chronic Phase in West Iran
Payandeh, Mehrdad ; Sadeghi, Masoud ; Sadeghi, Edris ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7555~7559
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7555
Background: CML includes 30% of all leukemias, and occurs from childhood to old age. The present study was a retrospective analysis of chronic phase CML patients registered to a Hematology Clinic in Kermanshah, Iran, with checking of treatment options. Materials and Methods: Between 2002 and 2014, 85 CML patients referred to our hematology clinic were enrolled in our study. We surveyed age, sex, B-symptoms, splenomegaly, Sokal score, Hasford score, treatment and survival in all patients. Philadelphia chromosome analysis was conducted for each patient by conventional cytogenetics. We compared treatment in the patients with three drugs, imatinib, hydroxyurea (HU) and interferon alpha (IFN-
). Results: The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was
(range, 23-82 years), with 43 (50.6%) being male. Some 13 (15.3%) were referred to our clinic for the first time with B-symptoms and 44 patients (51.8%) had splenomegaly. The Sokal score for 77 (90.6%) was low, 4 (4.7%) was intermediate and 4(4.7%) was high, but Hasford (Euro) scores for all patients were low. The 5-year survival rate for treated patients with imatinib, imatinib plus HU and imatinib plus HU plus IFN-
was 90.5%, 81.1% and 55.6%, respectively Conclusions: The results show that imatinib therapy alone provides better survival in CML patients compared to HU or IFN-
. Combinations of IFN-
and/or HU with imatinib probably reduce survival.
Dietary Ziziphus jujuba Fruit Influence on Aberrant Crypt Formation and Blood Cells in Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer Mice
Periasamy, Srinivasan ; Liu, Chung-Teng ; Wu, Wang-Hung ; Chien, Se-Ping ; Liu, Ming-Yie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7561~7566
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7561
Ziziphus jujuba (ZJ) fruit is rich in bioactive functional components such as polysaccharides, triterpenoid acid, flavonoids and oleamide. It has been commonly used in the treatment of various diseases including diabetes, digestive disorders, diarrhea, skin infections, liver and urinary diseases. However, its dietary effect on chemoprevention of colon cancer has never been studied. The present study was to evaluate the protective effects of dietary ZJ on colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane (AOM)-dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-treated mice. AOM was injected (10 mg/kg b.wt., i.p.) and three cycles of 2% DSS in drinking water for 7 days with 14 days of normal drinking water in-between was administered to induce colitis-associated colon cancer. ZJ fruit was supplemented in feed as 5 and 10%. Dietary ZJ significantly attenuated aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation thereby decreasing the progression of hyperplasia to dysplasia. In addition, it significantly reduced circulating white blood cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and platelets compared to colon cancer mice. We conclude that ZJ supplementation delayed the progression of colon cancer from hyperplasia to dysplasia and ultimately adenocarcinoma and cancer. In addition, it decreased circulating tumor-related leucocytes, main regulators of cancer inflammation. Therefore, dietary consumption of ZJ fruit attenuated the formation of ACF and delayed the progression of colon cancer.
Complications and Carcinogenic Effects of Mustard Gas - a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis in Iran
Panahi, Yunes ; Gholami, Nasrin ; Ghojazadeh, Morteza ; Moslemi, Farnaz ; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad ; Azami-Aghdash, Saber ; Ghaffari, Alireza ; Piri, Reza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7567~7573
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7567
Background: Catastrophic effects of mustard gas as a chemical warfare agent have always been a major problem for those exposed to this agent. In this meta-analysis it was tried to evaluate carcinogenesis, ocular, cutaneous and respiratory complications of mustard gas exposure among Iranians who had been exposed to this agent during the Iran-Iraq war. Materials and Methods: In this meta-analysis, the required data were collected using keywords "mustard gas", "sulfur mustard", "cancer", "neoplasm", "respiratory complications", "ocular complications", "lung disease", "chronic complication", "eye", "skin", "cutaneous complication", "carcinogenesis" and their combination with keywords "Iran", "Iranian", "prevalence", "mortality" and their Farsi equivalent terms from the databases of SID, Iranmedex, Magiran, Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Search engine, Gray Literature and Reference of References. To determine the prevalence of each complication and perform meta-analysis, CMA: 2 (Comprehensive Meta-Analysis) software with a randomized model was used. Results: Of the 542 articles found, 7 national articles, consistent with the aims of this study were selected. Meta-analysis of seven papers revealed that cancer risk, especially cancer of the respiratory system was elevated, so that the relative risk (RR) of cancer role of mustard gas was inconsistent from 2/1 to 4 in this survey. Also prevalence of delayed skin disorders due to sulfur mustard was 94.6%, pulmonary complications 94.5% and ocular complications 89.9%. The incidence of various cancers in victims exposed to mustard gas was 1.7% worldwide where the rate was 2.2% in Iranian victims of the Iraq-Iran war. Conclusions: Based on present study the prevalence of delayed mustard gas related cutaneous, pulmonary and ocular complications is above 90% and risk of carcinogenesis is higher in comparison to worldwide statistics. This may suggest need for long-term and persistent follow-up and rehabilitation procedures for populations exposed to this agent.
Overexpression of Cyclin E and its Low Molecular Weight Isoforms Cooperate with Loss of p53 in Promoting Oncogenic Properties of MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells
Montazeri, Hamed ; Bouzari, Saeid ; Azadmanesh, Kayhan ; Ostad, Seyed Nasser ; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7575~7582
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7575
Cyclin E, a key coordinator of the G1 to S transition in the cell cycle, may be deregulated in several malignancies, including breast cancer. The most significant aberration in cyclin E is its elastase mediated proteolytic cleavage into tumor specific low molecular weight isoforms (LMW-Es). LMW-Es are biochemically hyperactive and biologically drive tumorigenesis in transgenic mouse models. Additionally, expression of LMW-Es has been correlated with poor survival in breast cancer cases. Here we determine whether expression of LMW-Es in a breast cancer cell line that is naturally devoid of these deregulated forms would alter their progression through each phase of the cell cycle. The results revealed that LMW-Es expression resulted in an increased doubling time, concomitant with a predominant increase in the population in the S phase of the cell cycle. Moreover, downregulation of p53 in LMW-Es cells resulted in additional shortening of the doubling time and enrichment of cells in the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. Furthermore, expression of LMW-Es sensitized cells to
-estradiol (E2) mediated growth and changed expression patterns of estrogen receptor and Bcl-2. Intriguingly, expression of LMW-Es could surpass anti-apoptotic effects raised by p53 upregulation. Taken together these studies suggest that overexpression of LMW-Es in collaboration with p53 loss results in altered g rowth properties of MCF-7 cells, enhancing the oncogenic activity of these ER positive breast cancer cells.
Seroprevalence of Anti-EBV IgG among Various Age Groups from Khon Kaen Province, Thailand
Suntornlohanakul, Rabporn ; Wanlapakorn, Nasamon ; Vongpunsawad, Sompong ; Thongmee, Thanunrat ; Chansaenroj, Jira ; Poovorawan, Yong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7583~7587
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7583
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an extremely common herpesvirus that may cause asymptomatic infection or various diseases, including infectious mononucleosis, certain lymphoproliferative diseases and several types of neoplasms. Vaccine development is an important strategy to reduce the burden of EBV-associated diseases and the timing of vaccinations should be before primary infection occurs. In the past, more than 90% of Thai children were infected with EBV in early childhood. Now, due to the improved healthcare system in Thailand, we aim to determine current prevalence of EBV infection among people in different age groups. A total of 538 sera were collected from residents of Khon Kaen province in northeastern Thailand for detecting anti-EBV IgG. Sera of infants under 2-years-old were also tested for anti-EBV IgM and EBV-DNA. The prevalence of anti-EBV IgG was 47.1% (95% CI: 23.3-70.8) in infants aged 0-6 months, 34.9% (95% CI: 23.1-46.7) in those aged 6-24 months, 87.9% (95% CI: 79.5-96.3) in children aged 3-5 years and then maintained at above 95% through adulthood. These seropositivity rates among Thai children remain similar to those found in a previous study conducted 20 years ago. Thai children are still exposed to EBV from an early age. Therefore, a prophylactic vaccine should be given within the first two years of life.
Genetic Variation in MicroRNAs and Risk of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in South Indian Population
Sushma, PS ; Jamil, Kaiser ; Kumar, P Uday ; Satyanarayana, U ; Ramakrishna, M ; Triveni, B ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7589~7594
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7589
Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, implicated in several activities like initiation, progression and prognosis of various cancers. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA genes can lead to alteration in mRNA expression, resulting in diverse functional consequences. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of miR-149C>T and miR-196a2C>T SNPs with susceptibility to development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in South Indian subjects. Materials and Methods: 100 OSCC patients and 102 healthy controls from the general population were recruited for the study. Genetic analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) as per a standard protocol. Results: The genotype frequencies in miR-196a2 polymorphism, of TT, CT and CC in the OSCC patients were 69%,10% and 22% respectively while for control group it was 80%, 15% and 5% respectively. The CC genotype of miR196a2 polymorphism was significantly associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The genotype frequencies in miR-149 polymorphisms of CC, CT and TT in the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients were 72%, 22% and 6% respectively and for control group 88%, 12% and 0% respectively. CT and TT genotypes of miR149 polymorphism were found to be significantly associated with OSCC (p = 0.05 and 0.07). Conclusions: Our study suggests that miR-196a2C>T and miR-149C>T polymorphisms may play crucial roles in the development of OSCC in South Indian subjects.
Whole Brain Radiotherapy Combined with Stereotactic Radiosurgery versus Stereotactic Radiosurgery Alone for Brain Metastases
Adas, Yasemin Guzle ; Yazici, Omer ; Kekilli, Esra ; Akkas, Ebru Atasever ; Karakaya, Ebru ; Ucer, Ali Riza ; Ertas, Gulcin ; Calikoglu, Tamer ; Elgin, Yesim ; Inan, Gonca Altinisik ; Kocer, Ali Mert ; Guney, Yildiz ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7595~7597
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7595
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) combined with streotactic radiosurgery versus stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone for patients with brain metastases. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study that evaluated the results of 46 patients treated for brain metastases at Dr. Abdurrahman Yurtaslan Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, between January 2012 and January 2015. Twenty-four patients were treated with WBRT+SRS while 22 patients were treated with only SRS. Results: Time to local recurrence was 9.7 months in the WBRT+SRS arm and 8.3 months in SRS arm, the difference not being statistically significant (p=0.7). Local recurrence rate was higher in the SRS alone arm but again without significance (p=0,06). Conclusions: In selected patient group with limited number (one to four) of brain metastases SRS alone can be considered as a treatment option and WBRT may be omitted in the initial treatment.
Evaluation of Platelet Indices in Lung Cancer Patients
Oncel, Mufide ; Kiyici, Aysel ; Oncel, Murat ; Sunam, Guven Sadi ; Sahin, Emel ; Adam, Bahattin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7599~7602
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7599
Background: In this study, we aimed to determine platelet indices such as platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), Plateletcrit (PCT) platelet count (PLT) in lung cancer cases, and evaluate any relationships between these parameters and stage or histologic types. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study covered 44 lung cancer patients and 47 healthy subjects. Platelet indices including PLT, PCT, MPV, PDW were estimated and compared with normal subjects. The results were evaluated statistically. Results: The PDW value was significantly higher in the cancer group compared to the control group; however, the values for PCT and MPV were lower. Conclusions: We suggest potential use of platelet indices in diagnosis of lung cancer.
Prevalence of Oxaliplatin-induced Chronic Neuropathy and Influencing Factors in Patients with Colorectal Cancer in Iran
Shahriari-Ahmadi, Ali ; Fahimi, Ali ; Payandeh, Mehrdad ; Sadeghi, Masoud ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7603~7606
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7603
Background: The chemotherapeutic agent oxaliplatin can cause acute and chronic forms of peripheral neuropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of chronic neuropathy and its risk factors in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients treated with FOLFOX or XELOX regimens in the Oncology Ward of Hazrate-Rasoul Hospital in Tehran. Materials and Methods: A total of 130 patients with CRC were entered into our study, aged over 18 years, without history of receiving other neurotoxic agents or other predisposing factors such as diabetes or neurologic diseases and kidney and liver dysfunction. For the FOLFOX regimen, patients received oxaliplatin, 85mg/m2, every 2 weeks for 12 courses and with the XELOX regimen, oxaliplatin was
, every 3 weeks for 8 courses. Based on Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC or NCI-CTC v.3), the patients were divided into 5 groups (grades) based on the severity of their symptoms. Results: Fifty-seven patients (43.8%) were male and 73(56.2%) female. Some 19 patients (14.7%) had BMI<20, 97(74.6%) were between 20-25 and 14 (10.8%)
. In 105 patients (80.7%) neuropathy was found. There was significant correlation between BMI, hypomagnesaemia and especially, severity of anemia in patients with neuropathy compared to those without. Conclusions: Oxaliplatin regimens can induce chronic neuropathy in CRC patients, with anemia, high BMI and hypomagnesaemia as risk factors that can predispose to this kind of neurotoxicity.
Diagnostic Performance of Breast MRI in the Evaluation of Contralateral Breast in Patients with Diagnosed Breast Cancer
Saeed, Shaista Afzal ; Masroor, Imrana ; Beg, Madiha ; Idrees, Romana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7607~7612
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7607
Aims: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of contralateral breast in patients with diagnosed breast cancer. A secondary objective was to determine accuracy of breast MRI in diagnosing multi-focal and multicentric lesions in the ipsilateral breast. Materials and Methods: Using a non-probability convenience sampling technique, patients with histopathologically diagnosed breast cancer with MRI of breast performed to exclude additional lesions were included. MRI findings were correlated with histopathology. In addition, follow-up imaging with mammography and ultrasound was also assessed for establishing stability of negative findings and for the detected of benign lesions. Results: Out of 157 MRI breast conducted during the period of 2008 to 2013, 49 were performed for patients with diagnosed breast cancer. The sample comprised of all females with mean age
. The patient follow-up imaging was available for a period of 2-5 years. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of MRI in the detection of multifocal/multicenteric lesions was 85.7%, 88.8%, 60% and 96.6% respectively and for the detection of lesions in the contralateral breast were 100%, 97%, 83.3% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: Our study highlights the diagnostic performance and the added value of MRI in the detection of multifocal/multicenteric and contralateral malignant lesions. In patients with diagnosed breast cancer having dense breast parenchyma and with infiltrating lobular carcinoma as the index lesion MRI is particularly useful with excellent negative predictive value in the exclusion of additional malignant foci in the ipsilateral and contralateral breasts.
Role of Electromagnetic Field Exposure in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and No Impact of Urinary Alpha-Amylase - a Case Control Study in Tehran, Iran
Tabrizi, Maral Mazloomi ; Hosseini, Seyed Ahmad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7613~7618
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7613
Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most common hematologic malignancies which accounts for one fourth of all childhood cancer cases. Exposure to environmental factors around the time of conception or pregnancy can increase the risk of ALL in the offspring. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of prenatal and postnatal exposure to high voltage power lines on the incidence of childhood ALL. It also examines the role of various factors such as environmental factors and alpha-amylase as a marker in the development of leukemia.This cross-sectional case control study was carried out on 22 cases and 100 controls who born and lived in low socioeconomic families in Tehran and were hospitalized for therapeutic purposes in different hospitals ofrom 2013-2014. With regard to the underlying risk factors; familial history and parental factors were detected as risk factors of ALL but in this age, socioeonomic and zonal matched case control study, prenatal and childhood exposure to high voltage power lines was considered as the most important environmental risk factor (p=0.006, OR=3.651, CI 95% 1.692-7.878). As the population study was from low socioeconomic state, use of mobiles, computers and microwaves was negligible. Moreover prenatal and postnatal exposure to all indoor electrically charged objects were not detected as significant environmental factors in the present study. This work defined the risk of environmental especially continuous pre and postnatal exposure to high voltage power lines and living in pollutant regions through the parents or children as well as the previously described risk factors of ALL for the first time in low socioeconomic status Iranian population.
Down Regulation of miR-34a and miR-143 May Indirectly Inhibit p53 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: a Pilot Study
Manikandan, Mayakannan ; Rao, Arunagiri Kuha Deva Magendhra ; Arunkumar, Ganesan ; Rajkumar, Kottayasamy Seenivasagam ; Rajaraman, Ramamurthy ; Munirajan, Arasambattu Kannan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7619~7625
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7619
Background: Aberrant microRNA expression has been associated with the pathogenesis of a variety of human malignancies including oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this study, we examined primary oral SCCs for the expression of 6 candidate miRNAs, of which five (miR-34a, miR-143, miR-373, miR-380-5p, and miR-504) regulate the tumor suppressor TP53 and one (miR-99a) is involved in AKT/mTOR signaling. Materials and Methods: Tumor tissues (punch biopsies) were collected from 52 oral cancer patients and as a control, 8 independent adjacent normal tissue samples were also obtained. After RNA isolation, we assessed the mature miRNA levels of the 6 selected candidates against RNU44 and RNU48 as endogenous controls, using specific TaqMan miRNA assays. Results: miR-34a, miR-99a, miR-143 and miR-380-5p were significantly down-regulated in tumors compared to controls. Moreover, high levels of miR-34a were associated with alcohol consumption while those of miR-99a and miR-143 were associated with advanced tumor size. No significant difference was observed in the levels of miR-504 between the tumors and controls whereas miR-373 was below the detection level in all but two tumor samples. Conclusions: Low levels of miR-380-5p and miR-504 that directly target the 3'UTR of TP53 suggest that p53 may not be repressed by these two miRNAs in OSCC. On the other hand, low levels of miR-34a or miR-143 may relieve MDM4 and SIRT1 or MDM2 respectively, which will sequester p53 indicating an indirect mode of p53 suppression in oral tumors.
Salvage Transoral Robotic Surgery for Recurrent or Residual Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Single Institution Experience
Dabas, Surender ; Dewan, Abhinav ; Ranjan, Reetesh ; Dewan, Ajay Kumar ; Shukla, Himanshu ; Sinha, Rupal ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7627~7632
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7627
Background: The present study was conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility, safety and adequacy of surgical margins with salvage transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for recurrent or residual head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients who underwent salvage TORS using the 'DaVinci' robot were enrolled in the study and data related to their surgical time, complications and functional outcome were recorded. Results: The feasibility of salvage TORS in our study was observed to be 100%. Positive margins were encountered in only 6.7% of patients. Mean blood loss was 23.3 ml with no patient requiring blood transfusion. Postoperative complications in the form of primary haemorrhage requiring active surgical intervention occurred in 13.3%. Oral feeding could be started as early as the 3rd postoperative day in a few patients, with nasogastric tubes being removed on the 12th postoperative day. Long term gastrostomy tube dependency was seen in 10% cases. Median survival of patients was 19 months. Conclusions: Salvage TORS is a safe, effective and feasible option in the management of treatment failure cases. It offers an alternative surgical approach with unexpected benefits in terms of tracheostomy tube use, Ryle's tube and gastrostomy dependence.
Diagnostic Performance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA and HPV DNA Assays for the Detection and Screening of Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus Infection among Woman with Cervical Lesions in China
Wang, Hye-young ; Lee, Dongsup ; Park, Sunyoung ; Kim, Geehyuk ; Kim, Sunghyun ; Han, Lin ; Yubo, Ren ; Li, Yingxue ; Park, Kwang Hwa ; Lee, Hyeyoung ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7633~7640
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7633
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide and it is responsible for most cases of cervical uterine cancer. Although HPV infections of the cervix do not always progress to cancer, 90% of cervical cancer cases have been found to be associated with high risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection. HPV DNA testing is widely used, along with Papanicolaou (Pap) testing, to screen for cervical abnormalities. However, there are no data on the prevalence of genotype-specific HPV infections assessed by measuring HPV E6/E7 mRNA in women representative of the Chinese population across a broad age range. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we compared the results with the CervicGen HPV RT-qDx assay, which detects 16 HR-HPV genotypes (Alpha-9: HPV 16, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58; Alpha-7: HPV 18, 39, 45, 51, 59, and 68; and Alpha-5, 6: HPV 53, 56, 66, and 69), and the REBA HPV-ID assay, which detects 32 HPV genotypes based on the reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) for the detection of oncogenic HPV infection according to cytological diagnosis. We also investigated the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV infection with a total of 324 liquid-based cytology samples collected in western Shandong province, East China. Results: The overall HPV prevalences determined by HPV DNA and HPV E6/E7 mRNA assays in this study were 79.9% (259/324) and 55.6% (180/324), respectively. Although the positivity of HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression was significantly lower than HPV DNA positivity, the HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay showed greater specificity than the HPV DNA assay (88.6% vs. 48.1%) in normal cytology samples. The prevalence of Alpha-9 (HPV 16, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58) HPV infection among these women accounted for up to 80.3% and 76.1% of the high-grade lesions detected in the HPV mRNA and DNA tests, respectively. The HR-HPV genotype distribution, based on HPV DNA and E6/E7 mRNA expression by age group in patients with cytologically confirmed lesions, was highest in women aged 40 to 49 years (35.9% for cytologically confirmed cases, Pearson correlation r value=0.993, p<0.001) for high-grade lesions. Among the oncogenic HR-HPV genotypes for all age groups, there was little difference in the distribution of HPV genotypes between the HPV DNA (HPV -16, 53, 18, 58, and 33) and HPV E6/E7 mRNA (HPV -16, 53, 33, 58, and 18) assays. HPV 16 was the most common HPV genotype among women with high-grade lesions. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay can be a sensitive and specific tool for the screening and investigation of cervical cancer. Furthermore, it may provide useful information regarding the necessity for early cervical cancer screenings and the development of additional effective HPV vaccines, such as one for HPV 53 and 58. Additionally, gaining knowledge of HPV distribution may also inform us about ecological changes in HPV after the vaccination.
Antitumoral and Antioxidant Potential of Egyptian Propolis Against the PC3 Prostate Cancer Cell Line
Salim, Elsayed I ; Abd El-Magid, Afaf D ; Farara, Khalid M ; Maria, Dina SM ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7641~7651
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7641
It has been shown previously that nutritional supplements rich in polyphenolic compounds play a significant role in prostate cancer chemoprevention. Propolis is a natural, resinous hive product that has several pharmacological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumoral activities. The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic, antioxidant and antitumoral activities of an ethanolic extract of Egyptian propolis (EEP) in vitro with an established chemotherapeutic drug such as doxorubicin (DOX), and the effects of their combination against the PC3 human prostate cancer cell line. Cellular viability and
levels with EEP, DOX and their (v/v) combination were detected by sulphorhodamine-B (SRB) assay after incubation of PC3 cells for 72h with different doses (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and
). Two selected doses of
were applied to cells for 24h for antitumor evaluation assay of treatment compounds. EEP and its (v/v) combination with DOX showed significant antitumor potential besides high antioxidant properties of superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase (CAT), nitric oxide (NO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels when compared with the control untreated cells. DNA fragmentation assay and semi quantitative RT-PCR analyses for p53 and Bax genes showed that EEP activated cellular apoptosis and increased the mRNA expression levels more than other treatment. In conclusion, EEP alone or in combination with DOX at both doses used here showed greater antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptotic effects against the PC3 cell lines as compared to treatment with DOX alone. Therefore, EEP could be considered as a promising candidate for prostate cancer chemotherapy.
Clinical Significance of the NQO1 C609T Polymorphism in Non Small Cell Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients
Masroor, Mirza ; Jain, Amit ; Javid, Jamsheed ; Mir, Rashid ; Prashant, Y ; Imtiyaz, A ; Mariyam, Z ; Mohan, Anant ; Ray, PC ; Saxena, Alpana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7653~7658
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7653
Background: NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is part of the antioxidant defence system involved in detoxification. This study aimed to analyze the influence of NQO1 (C609T) genetic polymorphism in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)as a putative risk factor. Materials and Methods: Present study included 100 cases of NSCLC (adenocarcinoma) patients and 100 age and sex matched healthy controls. NQO1 (C609T) genotyping was performed by allele specific PCR for assessment of putative associations with clinical outcome and genotypes of. The association of the polymorphism with the survival of NSCLC patients' was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. Results: In Indian NSCLC (adenocarcinoma) patients increased risk of developing NSCLC was found to be associated with NQO1 609TT genotype [OR 3.68(0.90-14.98), RR 2.04(0.78-5.31)] for CT [OR 2.91(1.58-5.34), RR 1.74(1.23-2.44) p=0.0005 for CT], for CT+TT [ OR 3.26(1.82-5.82), RR 1.87(1.34-2.61) p<0.0001 for CT+TT]. A significant difference (p=0.0009) was observed in genotype distribution among cases and healthy controls. Patients with CT+TT genotype exhibited a significant poor overall survival compared with patients displaying homozygous CC genotype (p=0.03) and when survival independently compared with CC, TT and CT genotype was also found to be significantly associated (p=0.02). Overall median survival times were CT 6.0 months, TT 8.2 months, and CT + TT (6.4 months)]. Conclusions: The present study revealed that NQO1 CT, TT and CT+TT genotypes may be associated with clinical outcome and risk of developing NSCLC in the Indian population.
Clinico-Hematological Profile and Risk Stratification in Patients with Essential Thrombocythemia: Experience from Pakistan
Sultan, Sadia ; Irfan, Syed Mohammed ; Tanveer, Quratulain ; Ali, Navaira ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7659~7661
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7659
Background: Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by sustained thrombocytosis and megakaryocytic hyperplasia. It is an uncommon hematological malignancy which primarily affects elderly individuals. The rational of this study was to determine its clinico-hematological profile along with risk stratification in Pakistan patients. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cross sectional study, 21 patients with ET were enrolled from January 2011 to December 2014. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 21. Results: The mean age was
(range 18-87) and the male to female ratio was 1:1.1. Of the total, 62% of patients were above 50 years of age. Overall 61.9% were diagnosed incidentally and were asymptomatic. In symptomatic patients, major complaints were weakness (19%); erythromelalgia (14.2%), transit ischemic attack (9.5%) and gastrointestinal bleed (4.7%). The mean hemoglobin count was
with a total leukocyte count of
and platelets count of
. Serum lactate dehydrogenase, serum creatinine and uric acid were
respectively. According to risk stratification, 57.1% were in high risk; 23.8% in intermediate risk while 19.1% in low risk group. Conclusions: ET in our patients in Pakistan, unlike in the West, is seen in a relatively young population. Primarily patients were asymptomatic and risk stratification revealed predominance of high risk disease in our setting.
In silico docking of methyl isocyanate (MIC) and its hydrolytic product (1, 3-dimethylurea) shows significant interaction with DNA Methyltransferase 1 suggests cancer risk in Bhopal-Gas-Tragedy survivors
Khan, Inbesat ; Senthilkumar, Chinnu Sugavanam ; Upadhyay, Nisha ; Singh, Hemant ; Sachdeva, Meenu ; Jatawa, Suresh Kumar ; Tiwari, Archana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7663~7670
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7663
DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is a relatively large protein family responsible for maintenance of normal methylation, cell growth and survival in mammals. Toxic industrial chemical exposure associated methylation misregulation has been shown to have epigenetic influence. Such misregulation could effectively contribute to cancer development and progression. Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is a noxious industrial chemical used extensively in the production of carbamate pesticides. We here applied an in silico molecular docking approach to study the interaction of MIC with diverse domains of DNMT1, to predict cancer risk in the Bhopal population exposed to MIC during 1984. For the first time, we investigated the interaction of MIC and its hydrolytic product (1,3-dimethylurea) with DNMT1 interacting (such as DMAP1, RFTS, and CXXC) and catalytic (SAM, SAH, and Sinefungin) domains using computer simulations. The results of the present study showed a potential interaction of MIC and 1,3-dimethylurea with these domains. Obviously, strong binding of MIC with DNMT1 interrupting normal methylation will lead to epigenetic alterations in the exposed humans. We suggest therefore that the MIC-exposed individuals surviving after 1984 disaster have excess risk of cancer, which can be attributed to alterations in their epigenome. Our findings will help in better understanding the underlying epigenetic mechanisms in humans exposed to MIC.
Survey of HER2-neu Expression in Colonic Adenocarcinoma in the West of Iran
Madani, Seyed-Hamid ; Sadeghi, Edris ; Rezaee, Akram ; Sadeghi, Masoud ; Khazaee, Sedigheh ; Amirifard, Nasrin ; Payandeh, Mehrdad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7671~7674
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7671
Background: Overexpression of HER2-neu has been reported in many epithelial malignancies, including cancers of the breast, ovaries, lungs, prostate, bladder, pancreas, colorectum and stomach as well as osteosarcomas. The aim of this study was evaluation of expression of HER2-neu immunohistochemistry (IHC) status and clinicopathologic features in a series of colonic adenocarcinomas. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, we surveyed 211 samples of colon adenocarcinoma from 182 patients (86.3%) undergoing total or partial colectomy and 29 (7.13%) with biopsies by colonoscopy. A sufficient sample size was obtained from all cases and the slides were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and also by IHC (HER2) staining. Results: The mean age for the patients at diagnosis was 57.9 years (range, 15-88 years). One hundred and twenty one patients (57.3%) were male. Of all patients, 201 samples (95.3%) were conventional adenocarcinomas (159, 29 and 13 cases were well, moderately and poorly differentiated, respectively) and 10 (4.7%) were mucinous type. Out of 211 cases, 171 were checked for lymph nodes metastasis and 64 were positive. There is a correlation between HER2 scores and differentiation, most score 3 cases being well differentiated (P<0.05). Conclusions: In patients with advanced colon cancer, surgery alone is not curative and other forms of therapy may be required to prolong patient survival. HER2 overexpression was found in some cases and this could be a guideline to new adjuvant therapy for these patients.
Hazardous Health Behaviour among Medical Students: a Study from Turkey
Nacar, Melis ; Cetinkaya, Fevziye ; Baykan, Zeynep ; Yilmazel, Gulay ; Elmali, Ferhan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7675~7681
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7675
Background: Hazardous health behaviour in young people is an important factor that affects the individual risk for non-communicable diseases and other disorders later in life. This study aimed to determine the hazardous health behaviour of first and last class medical students of Erciyes University. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out with 240 medical students from the first and 130 students from the last (sixth) class. Data were obtained by questionnaire between March-April 2012. In total, 339 students were included with a response rate of 91.6%. Socio-demographic characteristics, school success, self-reported economic difficulties, health perceptions, hazardous health behaviour related to chronic disease, tobacco, alcohol, substance use, body weight, height, traffic, violence and nutrition were assessed in line with the literature. Results: Of the participants; 64.0% were from first and 36.0% were from the last class. Mean ages for the first and last classes were
, respectively. In the current study, males exhibited more hazardous behaviour than females. Sime 19.8% of the students in the study group used alcohol, 35.4% used a waterpipe, and 24.8% used tobacco at least once. These rates increased in both genders in the last class and the increase in males was significant. Some 3.8% of the students in the current study used pleasure-inducing illegal substances at least once. All the students participating in the current study were single, the number of males reported not using condoms (8.6%) was 4.56 times higher compared to females. Some 64.0% of the students did not perform physical activity lasting at least 30 minutes for five times a week, 13.0% did not sleep for mean 7-8 hours daily, males having a 2.9 times higher risk. More than 1/3 of the students did not consume cooked vegetable dishes and 1/4 did not consume fresh fruits and salads, the rates were higher among males. Conclusions: In the current study, hazardous health behaviour was prevalent among medical students, with higher risks among males and last class students. According to these results, medical curriculum may be focused on decreasing hazardous health behaviour. In addition, in order to prevent unhealthy behaviour, the number of youth-friendly health facilities should be increased.
Lifestyle and Sporadic Colorectal Cancer in India
Sinha, Rupal ; Doval, Dinesh Chandra ; Hussain, Showket ; Kumar, Kapil ; Singh, Shivendra ; Basir, Seemi Farhat ; Bharadwaj, Mausumi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7683~7688
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7683
Background: The study evaluated the patient, lifestyle and tumor profile in patients undergoing upfront surgery for sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) in Indian population. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive patients were included. Details related to their demographic profile, habits, signs and symptoms, tumor profile, further treatment and follow up were recorded. Results: The majority of the patients had colonic cancer (68%), advanced tumor stage 3 & 4 (46%), moderately differentiated tumors (70%) with absence of lymphatic invasion (60%) and metastasis (90%). Correlations between tumor location and abdominal pain (p-value 0.002), bleeding per rectum (p-value <0.001), difficulty in micturition (p-value 0.012) and constipation (p-value 0.007) were found to be statistically significant. Abdominal pain was more frequently reported in patients with metastasis (p-value 0.031). Loss of weight statistically correlated with absence of lymphatic invasion (p-value 0.047). Associations between tumor stage and alcohol intake (p-value 0.050) and non vegetarian diet (p-value 0.006); lymphatic invasion and intake of spicy food (p-value 0.040) and non vegetarian diet (p-value 0.001) and metastasis and alcohol intake (p-value 0.041) were also observed. Age and tumor grade were also correlated (p-value 0.020). Conclusions: Minimizing the adverse lifestyle factors can help in reducing the overall incidence of CRC in the Indian population.
Association of Metastasis with Clinicopathological Data in Mexican Patients with Osteosarcoma, Giant Cell Tumor of Bone and Chondrosarcoma
Estrada-Villaseor, E ; Escamilla-Uribe, R ; De la Garza-Montano, P ; Dominguez-Rubio, R ; Martinez-Lopez, V ; Avila-Luna, A ; Alfaro-Rodriguez, A ; Ruvalcaba-Paredes, EK ; Garciadiego-Cazares, D ; Bandala, C ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7689~7694
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7689
Background: Bone tumors are neoplasias with a high overall mortality; one of the main factors that reduce survival is their high capacity to develop metastases. It has been reported that finding lung metastases at diagnosis of osteosarcoma (OS), chondrosarcoma (CS) and giant cell tumor of bone (GCTb) is quite common. In this study, we inquire the relationship of metastases caused by these tumors with different clinical and pathological aspects, in order to guide medical personnel in the diagnosis and opportune treatment of metastases or micro metastases. Materials and Methods: We collected data of 384 patients with clinical, radiological and histopathological diagnosis of OS, GCTb and CS that attended the National Rehabilitation Institute (INR) during 2006 to 2014. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed for data analysis. Results: In the three tumor types, the presence of metastases at diagnosis was variable (p=0.0001). Frequency of metastases was 36.7%, 31.7% and 13.2% for OS, CS and GCTb respectively. The average age had no significant difference (p>0.05) in relation to metastases, even so, patients with OS and GCTb and metastases, were older while patients with CS and metastases were younger, in comparison to patients without metastases. Males had a higher frequency of metastases (68.2%, p = 0.09) in contrast to CS and GCTb, in which the metastases was more frequent in women with 51.9% (p = 0.44) and 57.9% (p = 0.56) respectively. Broadly, metastasis was associated with primary tumors located in the femur (44.4%), followed by the tibia (15.6%); metastases was more frequent when primary tumor of GCTb and OS were in the same bones, but were located in the hip (26.3%) for CS. Conclusions: The frequency of metastases in OS, GCTb and CS is high in our population and is determined by different clinicopathological variables related to the kind of tumor. Further studies are needed in order to evaluate metastases subsequent to diagnosis and associations with survival and clinicopathological factors, as well as to determine the sensitivity and specificity of current methods of detection.
Chromogenic In Situ Hybridisation Test for Breast Cancer Patients with Equivocal IHC Results - a Study from Iran
Mehrazma, Mitra ; Kalantari, Elham ; Rezvani, Hamid ; Bahar, Babak ; Basi, Ali ; Razavi, Seyed Mohsen ; Rakhshani, Nasser ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7695~7700
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7695
Background: HER2/neu overexpression on cell membranes of breast cancer cells is due to HER2/neu gene amplification and it is important to identify potential candidates for anti HER2 therapy with trastuzumab. IHC, FISH and CISH are standard FDA approved assays currently used to determine HER2 status in routine practice. The aim of this study was to determine HER2 gene amplification, using the CISH method in breast carcinoma samples which had IHC +2 reactions. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted from 2008-2010 using 334 consecutive breast carcinoma samples referred from local laboratories to Mehr Hospital. CISH assays were performed for all cases, and IHC tests were also done for determining efficacy and accuracy of local labs. HER2 status in local IHC tests was compared with central IHC and CISH results. Results: Of 334 breast cancer patients, 16 were negative for HER2 IHC (0, +1), 201 cases were equivocal (+2), and 31 positive (+3). Of 334 referral cases, 88 were CISH positive (26.3%) and 246 were CISH negative (73.7%). Of 201 IHC +2 cases, HER2 gene amplification was observed in 42 cases (kappa: 0.42). A 29.9% concordance was found between local IHC and central IHC. Sensitivity and specificity of local IHC were 90% and 53.8%, respectively. Conclusions: Low accuracy of IHC results in local labs was associated with the following factors: using former FDA-approved criteria for HER2 interpretation, utilizing non-validated kits, and lack of any quality assurance program. Therefore, following the new 2014 ASCO/CAP guideline and comprehensive quality assurance should be implemented to ensure accuracy of HER2 testing.
Alteration of Thyroid Function in Indian HER 2-Negative Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy
Ashif Khan, Mohd ; Bhurani, Dinesh ; Agarwal, Nidhi B ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7701~7705
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7701
Background: Thyroid hormones (TH) are regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which plays an important role in cell growth, differentiation, development and other aspects of metabolism. It is believed that an active hypothalamic-pituitary axis increases the susceptibility of thyroid dysfunction during systemic chemotherapy. In order to investigate the relation between thyroid function and chemotherapy the present study was designed to investigate TH in breast cancer patients receiving at least three cycles of chemotherapy. The levels of TH were measured at the baseline and before each cycle of chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Blood samples for estimation of TH levels were collected from 80 (pre-menopausal-40; post-menopausal-40) breast cancer patients just before they were undergoing -
cycle of chemotherapy. The serum was separated and
and TSH levels were determined by chemiluminescence method. Results:
were found significantly decreased and TSH was found significantly increased after
cycle of chemotherapy (p<0.0001). The variation of
levels (decreased) and TSH levels (increased) was found more in post-menopausal (p<0.0001) women then in pre-menopausal women after
cycle of chemotherapy as compared to baseline (p<0.001). Conclusions: TH were remarkably altered after each cycle of chemotherapy leading to decline in thyroid function of breast cancer patients. Further, the results also indicated that post-menopausal women were more prone towards decline in thyroid function then pre-menopausal women. The present study proposes the monitoring of TH after each cycle of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer Knowledge and Screening Behavior among Female School Teachers in Gaza City
Abu-Shammala, Bissan Ismail ; Abed, Yehia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7707~7711
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7707
A cross-sectional survey of 370 female teachers working at Governmental schools in Gaza city was conducted. Twenty four schools were selected randomly of all female schools of the city that included primary, preparatory and secondary. In each school all-female teachers aged 35-45 year were invited to fill out a self-administered questionnaire to investigate knowledge and behavior toward breast cancer screening. The survey revealed that more than 75% of women had never undergone clinical breast examination and 60% had never undergone mammography, whereas 62% performed breast self-examination (BSE). Women who performed BSE had significantly higher knowledge about breast cancer screening (P=0.001). Women attending CBE and mammography screening also had significantly higher knowledge (P=0.001). There were significant associations between the practices and presence of positive breast cancer family history (P=0.002) and the level of education of husbands (P=0.024). The oldest women demonstrated higher performance rates of screening methods than the youngest (P=0.001). Lack of breast screening knowledge was identified among more than one third of the women, and 24.6% of women did not know any screening method. About a half of women harboured misconceptions about breast cancer screening, including the belief that breast cancer not treatable. Women residing in Gaza city (P=0.00) and with husbands less educated were more likely to have a high level of misconceptions (P=0.01).
Comparison Study of Uptake of Colorectal Cancer Testing between Ethnic Minorities and the General Population in Hong Kong
Choi, Kai-Chow ; So, Winnie Kwok-Wei ; Chen, Joanne Man-Ting ; Lau, Grace Chieh ; Lee, Paul Chi-Wai ; Chan, Carmen Wing-Han ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7713~7720
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7713
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers. This study aimed to compare the uptake of CRC testing in the general public and in ethnic minorities in Hong Kong. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey covered 2,327 South Asian and Chinese adults aged over 50, recruited from two separate studies. A structured questionnaires were administered by research staff over the telephone or in faceto-face interviews. Results: The uptake rate of CRC testing among South Asians was significantly lower than that of the general population in Hong Kong. Factors associated with the uptake rate were health professional's recommendation, perception of regular visits to doctor, use of complementary therapy, ethnicity, perceived susceptibility to cancer, presence of chronic illness, and education level. In addition, a significant interaction (p<0.05) between ethnicity and health professionals' recommendations was found, after adjustment for the main independent factors identified. Conclusions: Older people with lower educational attainment, without chronic illness and those have lower perceived susceptibility to cancer may be targeted for CRC testing promotion in the society. In addition, health professionals can play a highly influential role in promoting such testing, particularly among ethnic minorities.
Religious Coping and Quality of Life in Women with Breast Cancer
Zamanian, Hadi ; Eftekhar-Ardebili, Hasan ; Eftekhar-Ardebili, Mehrdad ; Shojaeizadeh, Davood ; Nedjat, Saharnaz ; Taheri-Kharameh, Zahra ; Daryaafzoon, Mona ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7721~7725
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7721
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the predictive role of religious coping in quality of life of breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This multi-center cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran, Iran, from October 2014 to May 2015. A total of 224 women with breast cancer completed measures of socio-demographic information, religious coping (brief RCOPE), and quality of life (FACT-B). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the t-test, ANOVA, and linear regression analysis. Results: The mean age was 47.1 (SD=9.07) years and the majority were married (81.3%). The mean score for positive religious coping was 22.98 (SD=4.09) while it was 10.13 (SD=3.90) for negative religious coping. Multiple linear regression showed positive and negative religious coping as predictor variables explained a significant amount of variance in overall QOL score (
, P=.001) after controlling for socio-demographic, and clinical variables. Positive religious coping was associated with improved QOL (
; p=0.001). In contrast, negative religious coping was significantly associated with worse QOL (
; p=0.005). Conclusions: The results indicated the used types of religious coping strategies are related to better or poorer QOL and highlight the importance of religious support in breast cancer care.
Oral Cancer Early Detection - a Pressing Need for Continuing Education in Jordan
Hassona, Y ; Sawair, F ; Baqain, Z ; Maayta, W ; Shahin, A ; Scully, C ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7727~7730
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7727
Aims: To identify deficiencies in the knowledge of general medical (GMPs) and dental practitioners (GDPs) regarding early detection of oral cancer, to compare differences between subgroups, and to identify educational needs for continuing education courses on this subject. Materials and Methods: 165 GDPs and 165 GMPs were directly interviewed to assess their knowledge about oral cancer using a pre-tested survey. Knowledge scores were generated from correct responses of participants to factual questions about oral cancer. Results: Few participants (15.2% of GDPs and 12.8% of GMPs) reported that they attended any continuing education courses on oral cancer during their professional career. Most participants (81.6% of GDPs and 86.3% of GMPs) admitted that their knowledge about oral cancer was not up to date and that they would need to attend continuing education courses on oral cancer if available. A few significant differences were identified between groups regarding knowledge about risk factors, clinical presentations and diagnostic techniques but the overall knowledge scores showed no significant difference between GMPs and GDPs. Conclusions: The present study identified several deficiencies in the knowledge of GMPs and GDPs regarding risk factors, clinical presentations, and diagnostic techniques of oral cancer. Interventions to correct these defects through properly designed continuing education courses are required.
Health Beliefs of Nursing Faculty Students about Breast Cancer and Self Breast Examination
Ardahan, Melek ; Dinc, Hulya ; Yaman, Askin ; Aykir, Emrah ; Aslan, Baver ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7731~7736
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7731
Background: Breast cancer usually shows a slow development rate and when it is recognized in early stages very successful treatment results can be achieved. This research was planned to research the health beliefs of nursing faculty students about breast cancer and breast self-examination (BSE). Materials and Methods: The first class students of nursing faculty formed the basis for this descriptive research (N=347). Sample selection was not made and all female students who wanted to participate voluntarily in the research during March-May of 2014 were included (n=331). Results: It was determined that 85.5% of students had knowledge about cancer, 79.5 % knew of breast cancer, and 65.3% were aware of how BSE is performed. According to the responses of students to the scale of the health belief model that is used to determine the health beliefs of students, item-point averages of trust and obstacle sub-dimensions were high. Conclusions: It is determined that more than half of students had knowledge about breast cancer and breast self-examination. Their health beliefs were affected by trust and obstacle perceptions, knowledge level about cancer, and awareness about how BSE is done. These factors should be considered in planning trainings that will be given to students. Social responsibility projects should have designed to create the awareness that cancer is a treatable disease.
Spatiotemporal Distribution of Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer through GIS over 2007-2012 in Kermanshah-Iran
Reshadat, Sohyla ; Saeidi, Shahram ; Zangeneh, Ali Reza ; Khademi, Nahid ; Khasi, Keyvan ; Ghasemi, SayedRamin ; Gilan, Nader Rajabi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7737~7742
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7737
Background: Cancer is one of the common causes of disability and mortality in the world. The present study aimed to define the spatiotemporal distribution of gastrointestinal tract cancers using a geographic information system (GIS) over the time period of 2007-2012 in Kermanshah-Iran. Materials and Methods: The method of studying was descriptive-analytical as well as comparative with gastrointestinal tract cancer patients based in the City of Kermanshah over the time period covered. For data analysis, the GIS and SPSS 16.0 were applied. Results: According to the pathological reports within the space of 5 years, 283 cases of gastrointestinal tract cancer (157 in males, 156 in females) were reported. The performed tests in terms of spatial distribution in the environment of GIS indicated that the disease demonstrated a clustered pattern in the City of Kermanshah. More to the point, some loci of this disease have emerged in the City of Kermanshah that in the first level, 6 neighborhoods with 29-59 cases of this disease per square kilometer and in the second level, 15-29 cases. Conclusions: Gastrointestinal tract cancer demonstrated an ascending trend within the space of 5 years of research and the spatiotemporal distribution of cancer featured a concentrated and clustered pattern in the City of Kermanshah.
Burden Assessment of Thyroid cancer in Iran from 1990 to 2010: Lessons Obtained from Global Burden of Disease Report 2010
Modirian, Mitra ; Cheraghi, Zahra ; Rahimzadeh, Shadi ; Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi ; Jarrahi, Alireza Mosavi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7743~7748
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7743
Background: Thyroid tumors are generally regarded as rare malignancies. Nowadays, however, their global incidence is growing continuously partially due to western life style and utilization of more sensitive methods of early detection. It is approximately three times more prevalent in females than in males. Most cases of thyroid cancer are asymptomatic nodules or just have local cervical symptoms or adenopathy in early stages. Materials and Methods: The Global Burden of Diseases report 2010 study (released 3/2013) profited from 100 collaborators worldwide and used a vast network of data on health outcomes, vital registries, and population surveys. It shared many of the Global Burden of Diseases 1990 principal databases such as all available data on injuries, diseases, risk factors, as well as comparable metrics, and used different scientific approved methods to estimate important health status data like: death rate, life expectancy, healthy adjusted life expectancy, disability-adjusted life years (DALY), years of living lost due to premature death and years of life with disabilities. Results: DALY as thyroid cancer burden per 100,000 Iranian populations had increased by about 14% during 1990 to 2010 in all ages; from 6.1 (95% UI 4.2-9.74) years in 1990 to 6.95 (95% UI 5.06-9.18) years in 2010 in both sex. The 2010 peak age-group was estimated at 45-49 years in males and 40-45 years in females.
Optomizing Transfection Efficiency of Cervical Cancer Cells Transfected by Cationic Liposomes Lipofectamine
Huang, Fei ; Zhao, Feng ; Liang, Li-Ping ; Zhou, Mei ; Qu, Zhi-Ling ; Cao, Yan-Zhen ; Lin, Chen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7749~7754
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7749
Background: Currently, cationic liposome has become the commonly used vehicles for gene transfection. Furthermore, one of the most significant steps in microRNAs expression studies is transferring microRNAs into cell cultures successfully. In this study we aim to approach the feasibility of transfection of cervical cancer cell lines mediated by liposome and to obtain the optimized transfection condition for cervical cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods:
as the carrier, miR-101 mimic was transfected into Hela cells and Siha cells. Using green fluorescent protein as reporter gene, to set different groups according to cell seeding density, the amount of miRNA, miRNA and the proportion of Liposomes, Whether to add serum into medium to study their impact on the liposomal transfection efficiency. Finally, MTT assay was used to analyze the relative minimal cell toxicity of liposome reagents. Results: The seeding density of Hela cell line and Siha are
(per well of 24 well plates), miRNA amount is 1ul of both, the ratio of miRNA and liposome is 1:0.5 of Hela cell line; 1:0.7 of Siha cell line respectively, after 24 hours we can get the highest transfection efficiency. Compared with serum medium, only Siha cells cultured with serum-free medium obtained higher transfection efficiency before transfection (P<0.01). MTT assay showed that according to the above conditions which has the lowest cytotoxicity. Conclusions: The method of Liposome to transfected is a suitable way and it can be an efficient reagent for miRNA delivery for Hela cells and Siha cells in vitro. It may serve as a reference for the further research or application.
Survey of Her2-neu Expression and its Correlation with Histology of Gastric Carcinoma and Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma
Madani, Seyed-Hamid ; Rahmati, Ali ; Sadeghi, Edris ; Khazaei, Sedighe ; Sadeghi, Masoud ; Payandeh, Mehrdad ; Amirifard, Nasrin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7755~7758
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7755
Background: There is increasing evidence that HER2-neu is an important biomarker in gastric carcinomas (GC) and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate HER2-neu expression and also some clinicopathological features of these neoplasms. Materials and Methods: We selected 211 paraffin-embedded blocks, 193 GC and 18 GEJ. Then 4 micron sections were prepared for staining with hematoxylin and eosin and also for IHC (Her2-neu). The Chi-square test was used for significance between expression of HER2-neu and clinicopathological parameters. Results: In patients with advanced cancer of GC and GEJ, HER2-neu overexpression was more associated with the intestinal cancer subtype. Conclusions: This could be a guide to new complementary therapy for affected patients.
Leukemia in Iran: Epidemiology and Morphology Trends
Koohi, Fatemeh ; salehiniya, Hamid ; Shamlou, Reza ; Eslami, Soheyla ; Ghojogh, Ziyaeddin Mahery ; Kor, Yones ; Rafiemanesh, Hosein ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7759~7763
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7759
Background: Leukemia accounts for 8% of total cancer cases and involves all age groups with different prevalence and incidence rates in Iran and the entire world and causes a significant death toll and heavy expenses for diagnosis and treatment processes. This study was done to evaluate epidemiology and morphology of blood cancer during 2003-2008. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out based on re-analysis of the Cancer Registry Center report of the Health Deputy in Iran during a 6-year period (2003 - 2008). Statistical analysis for incidence time trends and morphology change percentage was performed with joinpoint regression analysis using the software Joinpoint Regression Program. Results: During the studied years a total of 18,353 hematopoietic and reticuloendothelial system cancers were recorded. Chi square test showed significant difference between sex and morphological types of blood cancer (P-value<0.001). Joinpoint analysis showed a significant increasing trend for the adjusted standard incidence rate (ASIR) for both sexes (P-value<0.05). Annual percent changes (APC) for women and men were 18.7 and 19.9, respectively. The most common morphological blood cancers were ALL, ALM, MM and CLL which accounted for 60% of total hematopoietic system cancers. Joinpoint analyze showed a significant decreasing trend for ALM in both sexes (P-value<0.05). Conclusions: Hematopoietic system cancers in Iran demonstrate an increasing trend for incidence rate and decreasing trend for ALL, ALM and CLL morphology.
Wound Complications after Laparotomy for Endometrial Cancer
Nhokaew, Wilasinee ; Temtanakitpaisan, Amornrat ; Kleebkaow, Pilaiwan ; Chumworathayi, Bundit ; Luanratanakorn, Sanguanchoke ; Kietpeerakool, Chumnan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7765~7768
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7765
This study was conducted to determine the incidence of wound complications after laparotomy for endometrial cancer and significant predictors of risks. Medical records of patients with endometrial cancer undergoing laparotomy for surgical staging at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University between January 2007 and December 2013 were reviewed. Intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis was routinely given 30 minutes before surgery. The primary endpoint was wound complications (including seroma, hematoma, separation, or infection) requiring additional medical and/or surgical management within 4 weeks of laparotomy. During the study period, 357 patients with complete medical records were reviewed. The mean age was 56.9 years. Wound complications were observed in 28 patients (7.84%, 95% CI, 5.27% to 11.14%). Body mass index (BMI)
, diabetes mellitus (DM), and prior abdominal surgery were observed as significant independent factors predicting an increased risk of wound complications with adjusted odds ratios (95% CIs) of 2.96 (1.23-7.16), 2.43 (1.06-5.54), and 3.05 (1.03-8.98), respectively. In conclusion, the incidence of wound complications after laparotomy for endometrial cancer was 7.8%. Significant independent predictors of risk included BMI, DM and prior abdominal surgery.
Effect of Skin Cancer Training Provided to Maritime High School Students on Their Knowledge and Behaviour
Sumen, Adem ; Oncel, Selma ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7769~7779
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7769
Background: This study was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the effect of skin cancer training provided to maritime high school students on their knowledge and behaviour. Materials and Methods: The study had a quasi-experimental design with pre-test and post-test intervention and control groups. Two maritime high schools located in the city of Antalya were included within the scope of the study between March and June 2013, covering a total of 567 students. Results: While the knowledge mean scores of students regarding skin cancer and sun protection did not vary in the pre-test (
) and post-test (
) control group, the knowledge mean scores of students in the experimental group increased from
after the provided training. Some 25.4% of students in the experimental group had low knowledge level and 62.2% had medium knowledge level in the pre-test; whereas no students had low knowledge level and 94.3% had high knowledge level in the post-test. It was determined that tenth grade students, those who had previous knowledge on the subject, who considered themselves to be protecting from the sun better, had higher knowledge levels and their knowledge levels increased as the risk level increased. It was found that the provided training was effective and increased positively the knowledge, attitude and behaviour levels of students in the experimental group in terms of skin cancer and sun protection. Conclusions: Along with the provided training which started to form a lifestyle, appropriate attitudes and behaviours concerning skin cancer and sun protection could be brought to students who will work in outdoor spaces and are members of the maritime profession within the risk group.
Correlation between Patterns of Mdm2 SNIP 309 and Histopathological Severity of Helicobacter pylori Associated Gastritis in Thailand
Tongtawee, Taweesak ; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon ; Talabnin, Krajang ; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat ; Kaewpitoon, Soraya ; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut ; Loyd, Ryan A ; Matrakool, Likit ; Panpimanmas, Sukij ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7781~7784
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7781
Background: The commonly held view of the tumor suppressor p53 is as a regulator of cell proliferation, apoptosis and many other biological processes as well as external and internal stress responses. Mdm2 SNIP309 is a negative regulator of p 53. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the correlation between the patterns of Mdm2 SNIP 309 and the inflammation grading of Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis in a Thai population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2014 through June 2015. Biopsy specimens were obtained from infected patients and infection was proved by positive histology. The gastric mucosa specimens were sent to the Molecular Genetic Unit, Institute of Medicine, Suranaree University of Technology where they were tested by molecular methods to detect the patterns of Mdm2 SNIP 309 using the real-time PCR hybridization probe method. The results were analyzed and compared with the Updated Sydney classification. Results: A total of 100 infected patients were interviewed and gastric mucosa specimens were collected. In this study the percentage of Mdm2 SNIP 309 T/T homozygous and Mdm2 SNIP309 G/T heterozygous was 78% and 19 % respectively whereas Mdm2 SNIP309 G/G homozygous was 3%. Mdm2 SNIP 309 T/T homozygous and Mdm2 SNIP309 G/T heterozygous correlated with mild to moderate inflammation (P<0.01) whereas Mdm2 SNIP309 G/G homozygous correlated with severe inflammation (P<0.01). Conclusions: Our study found the frequency of Mdm2 SNP309 G/G in our Thai population to be very low, and suggests that this can explain to some extent the low incidence of severe inflammation and gastric cancer changes in the Thai population. Mild to moderate inflammation are the most common pathologic gradings due to the unique genetic polymorphism of Mdm2 SNIP 309 in the Thai population.
Breast Radiotherapy with Mixed Energy Photons; a Model for Optimal Beam Weighting
Birgani, Mohammadjavad Tahmasebi ; Fatahiasl, Jafar ; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad ; Bagheri, Ali ; Behrooz, Mohammad Ali ; Zabiehzadeh, Mansour ; meskani, Reza ; Gomari, Maryam Talaei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7785~7788
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7785
Utilization of high energy photons (>10MV) with an optimal weight using a mixed energy technique is a practical way to generate a homogenous dose distribution while maintaining adequate target coverage in intact breast radiotherapy. This study represents a model for estimation of this optimal weight for day to day clinical usage. For this purpose, treatment planning computed tomography scans of thirty-three consecutive early stage breast cancer patients following breast conservation surgery were analyzed. After delineation of the breast clinical target volume (CTV) and placing opposed wedge paired isocenteric tangential portals, dosimeteric calculations were conducted and dose volume histograms (DVHs) were generated, first with pure 6MV photons and then these calculations were repeated ten times with incorporating 18MV photons (ten percent increase in weight per step) in each individual patient. For each calculation two indexes including maximum dose in the breast CTV (
) and the volume of CTV which covered with 95% Isodose line (
) were measured according to the DVH data and then normalized values were plotted in a graph. The optimal weight of 18MV photons was defined as the intersection point of
graphs. For creating a model to predict this optimal weight multiple linear regression analysis was used based on some of the breast and tangential field parameters. The best fitting model for prediction of 18MV photons optimal weight in breast radiotherapy using mixed energy technique, incorporated chest wall separation plus central lung distance (Adjusted R2=0.776). In conclusion, this study represents a model for the estimation of optimal beam weighting in breast radiotherapy using mixed photon energy technique for routine day to day clinical usage.
Community-Based Health Education and Communication Model Development for Opisthorchiasis Prevention in a High Risk Area, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand
Promthet, Paitoon ; Kessomboon, Pattapong ; Promthet, Supannee ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7789~7794
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7789
Background: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a community-based health education and communication programme on reducing liver fluke infections caused by the consumption of uncooked fish among people in a high-risk area of Thailand. Materials and Methods: The study was quasi-experimental in nature, with three-stages. Stage 1 involved a situational and capacity analysis of designated communities in Khon Kaen province. This was followed by the development of a model for community-based health education and communication to prevent liver fluke infections among high-risk people, and, lastly, implementation and evaluation of the model were performed. Data were collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods. In total, 390 people were surveyed, and quasi-experimental and comparison groups, each with 90 people, were assessed between May 2011 and April 2012. Analysis was using statistical OR, 95 % CI, the Willcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test, the chi-square test, and the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The findings showed that most respondents had a high level of knowledge and understanding of liver fluke disease (89.5%, 95% CI:86.0-92.4), and positive attitudes toward the prevention of the disease (94.4%, 95% CI:91.6-96.4). However, with regard to changes in consumption of uncooked fish, most respondents were still in the pre-contemplation phase (55.1%, 95% CI:50.0-60.1), followed by the contemplation phase, 22.6%. Furthermore, four factors were found to be associated with the consumption of uncooked fish - the consumption of alcohol (OR 4.16, 95% CI:1.79-9.65), gender (OR 3.17, 95% CI:1.53-6.54), smoking (OR 3.03, 95% CI:1.31-7.05), and age 40 years and above (OR 2.68, 95% CI:1.02-7.05). After nine months of the health education and communication programme using local media based on local wisdom, culture and persons, the results showed that, compared to the control group, members of the experimental group had a higher level of knowledge, a better attitude and lower levels of ill-advised consumption behaviour. Also, it was found that consumption of uncooked fish, by an assessment of the level of stage of change, was reduced. (p-value 0.002). Conclusions: The health education and communication programme developed as part of the study was effective in changing the consumption of uncooked fish. Therefore, this approach should be promoted in other high-risk areas in Thailand in the future.
Determination of Initial Beam Parameters of Varian 2100 CD Linac for Various Therapeutic Electrons Using PRIMO
Maskani, Reza ; Tahmasebibirgani, Mohammad Javad ; Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi, Mojtaba ; Fatahiasl, Jafar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7795~7801
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7795
The aim of the present research was to establish primary characteristics of electron beams for a Varian 2100C/D linear accelerator with recently developed PRIMO Monte Carlo software and to verify relations between electron energy and dose distribution. To maintain conformity of simulated and measured dose curves within 1%/1mm, mean energy, Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of energy and focal spot FWHM of initial beam were changed iteratively. Mean and most probable energies were extracted from validated phase spaces and compared with related empirical equation results. To explain the importance of correct estimation of primary energy on a clinical case, computed tomography images of a thorax phantom were imported in PRIMO. Dose distributions and dose volume histogram (DVH) curves were compared between validated and artificial cases with overestimated energy. Initial mean energies were obtained of 6.68, 9.73, 13.2 and 16.4 MeV for 6, 9, 12 and 15 nominal energies, respectively. Energy FWHM reduced with increase in energy. Three mm focal spot FWHM for 9 MeV and 4 mm for other energies made proper matches of simulated and measured profiles. In addition, the maximum difference of calculated mean electrons energy at the phantom surface with empirical equation was 2.2 percent. Finally, clear differences in DVH curves of validated and artificial energy were observed as heterogeneity indexes were 0.15 for 7.21 MeV and 0.25 for 6.68 MeV. The Monte Carlo model presented in PRIMO for Varian 2100 CD was precisely validated. IAEA polynomial equations estimated mean energy more accurately than a known linear one. Small displacement of R50 changed DVH curves and homogeneity indexes. PRIMO is a user-friendly software which has suitable capabilities to calculate dose distribution in water phantoms or computerized tomographic volumes accurately.
The Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Opisthorchis viverrini among Rural Community People in Northeast Thailand: a Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study using Multistage Sampling Technique
Kaewpitoon, Soraya J ; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut ; Rujirakul, Ratana ; Ueng-arporn, Naporn ; Matrakool, Likit ; Tongtawee, Taweesak ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7803~7807
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7803
Opisthorchis viverrini infection is a serious public health problem in Southeast Asia especially in the northeast and north of Thailand. Therefore, a cross-sectional survey using multistage sampling was conducted from the rural communities of Surin province, Thailand, during September 2013 to July 2014. O. viverrini infection was determined using Kato's thick smear technique. Socio-demographic, information resources, and history data were collected using predesigned semi-structured questionnaires. A total of 510 participants completed interviews and had stools collected. Some 32 (6.47%) participants were infected with O. viverrini. The rate was slightly higehr in males (6.61%) than females (6.32%). High frequencies were found in the age groups 61-70 (19.4%) and 71-80 years (19.4%), those involved in agriculture (10.5%), and in primary school (10.3%). The distribution of high infection was found in Tha Tum (16.7%) and Sankha district (16.7%), followed by Samrong Thap (13.3%), Si Narong (13.33%), and Buachet district (13.33%). Chi-square testing indicated that age (61-70 and 71-80 year old), education (primary school) and occupation (agriculture), were significantly associated with O. viverrini infection (p-value<0.05). Of 72.6% participants who had past histories with stool examination, 17.0% of them had been infected with O. viverrini and 43.2% treated with praziquantel. This finding confirmed that O. viverrini is still a problem in Surin province, Thailand, and therefore, interventions are urgently required for mass treatment and health education implementation.
Postoperative Serum CEA Level is a More Significant Prognostic Factor than Post/Preoperative Serum CEA Ratio in Non-small Cell Cancer Patients
Tomita, Masaki ; Ayabe, Takanori ; Chosa, Eiichi ; Nakamura, Kunihide ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7809~7812
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7809
Background: In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with preoperative high serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, patients with a persistently high serum CEA level after surgery have been reported to have a poor prognosis. In addition, in other cancers, the post/preoperative serum CEA ratio has been reported as a useful parameter. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 123 NSCLC patients with preoperative high CEA levels (
) who underwent curative surgery between 2004 and 2011. Prognostic significance of postoperative serum CEA level and the CEA ratio was examined. Results: The 5-year survival of patients with persistently high serum CEA level after surgery was poor. On the other hand, patients with normal postoperative serum CEA levels had significant favorable prognosis. The patients with CEA ratio>1 had poor prognosis, however the number was only 7 (5.7%). The 5-year survival rates of patients with other subgroup based on the CEA ratio (
) was similar. Multivariate analysis revealed prognostic significance for the postoperative serum CEA level but not the CEA ratio. Conclusions: For NSCLC patients with preoperative high serum CEA level, their postoperative serum CEA levels is a more significant prognostic factor than the post/preoperative serum CEA ratio.
Lack of Prognostic Impact of Adjuvant Radiation on Oncologic Outcomes in Elderly Women with Breast Cancer
Omidvari, Shapour ; Talei, Abdolrasoul ; Tahmasebi, Sedigheh ; Moaddabshoar, Leila ; Dayani, Maliheh ; Mosalaei, Ahmad ; Ahmadloo, Niloofar ; Ansari, Mansour ; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7813~7818
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7813
Background: Radiotherapy plays an important role as adjuvant treatment in locally advanced breast cancer and in those patients who have undergone breast-conserving surgery. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic impact of adjuvant radiation on oncologic outcomes in elderly women with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed and analyzed the characteristics, treatment outcome and survival of elderly women (aged
) with breast cancer who were treated and followed-up between 1993 and 2014. The median follow up for the surviving patients was 38 (range 3-207) months. Results: One hundred and seventy-eight patients with a median age of 74 (range 60-95) years were enrolled in the study. Of the total, 60 patients received postoperative adjuvant radiation (radiation group) and the remaining 118 did not (control group). Patients in the radiation group were significantly younger than those in the control group (P value=0.004). In addition, patients in radiation group had higher node stage (P value<0.001) and disease stage (P=0.003) and tended to have higher tumor grade (P=0.031) and received more frequent (P value<0.001) adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared to those in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between two groups regarding the local control, disease-free survival and overall survival rates. Conclusions: In this study, we did not find a prognostic impact for adjuvant radiation on oncologic outcomes in elderly women with breast cancer.
Molecular Profiling of Breast Carcinoma in Almadinah, KSA: Immunophenotyping and Clinicopathological Correlation
Elkablawy, Mohamed A ; Albasry, Abdelkader M ; Hussainy, Akbar S ; Nouh, Magdy M ; Alhujaily, Ahmed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7819~7824
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7819
Purpose: To subtype breast cancer (BC) in Saudi women according to the recent molecular classification and to correlate these subtypes with available clinicopathological parameters. Materials and Methods: Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her2/neu) immunostaining was semi-quantitatively assessed to define molecular subtypes of luminal A and B, HER-2 and triple negative (basal-like) in BC paraffin embedded sections from 115 Saudi female patients diagnosed between 2005 to 2015 at the Department of Pathology, King Fahd Hospital, Almadinah, Saudi Arabia. Results: The most common subtypes were luminal A (47%), followed by luminal B (27.8%) and basal like subtypes (18.3%), whereas HER-2 was the least common subtype (6.9%). Luminal A was predominantly found in the old age group, with low tumor grade (p<0.001) and small tumor size, whereas HER-2 and basal-like subtypes were significantly associated with young age, high tumor grade, lymph node metastasis and lymphovascular invasion (p<0.03, 0.004, 0.05 and 0.04 respectively). All subtypes showed advanced clinical stage at the time of presentation. Conclusions: Molecular subtypes of Saudi BC patients in Almadinah region are consistent with most of the worldwide subtyping. The biological behaviour of each molecular subtype could be expected based on its characteristic clinicopathological features. Along with other prognostic indicators, molecular subtyping would be helpful in predicting prognosis and management of our BC patients. We recommend screening and early diagnosis of BC in our population.
Serum Beta-2 Microglobulin: a Possible Marker for Disease Progression in Egyptian Patients with Chronic HCV Related Liver Diseases
Ouda, SM ; Khairy, AM ; Sorour, Ashraf E ; Mikhail, Mikhail Nasr ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7825~7829
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7825
Background: Egypt has the highest prevalence of HCV infection in the world (~14.7%). Around 10-15% of HCV-infected persons will advance to cirrhosis within the first 20 years. The incidence of HCC is expected to grow in the next two decades, largely due to HCV related cirrhosis, and detection of HCC at an early stage is critical for a favorable clinical outcome. No simple reliable non-invasive marker has been available till now. B2M, a non-glycosylated polypeptide composed of 99 amino acids, is one of the components of HLA class I molecules on the surfaces of all nucleated cells. It has been reported that the level of serum B2M is elevated in patients with chronic hepatitis C and HCV-related HCC when compared to HCV-negative patients or healthy donors. Determining the clinical utility of serum B2M as a marker for disease progression in Egyptian patients with HCV related chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma was the aim of the present study. Materials and Methods: In this analytical cross sectional study 92 participants were included in 4 equal groups: Group (1) non cirrhotic chronic HCV; Group (2) HCV related liver cirrhosis; Group (3) HCC on top of HCV,; and Group (4) healthy controls. History taking, clinical examination, routine labs and abdominal ultrasound were conducted for all patients, PCR and Metavir scores for group (1) patients, and triphasic CT abdomen and AFP for Group (3) patients. B2M levels were measured in serum with a fully-automated IMX system. Results: The mean serum B2M level of Group (1) was
., Group (2) was
, Group (3) was
and Group (4) was
. Serum B2M levels were significantly higher in diseased than control group (p<0.01) being significantly higher in cirrhosis (
) and HCC groups (
) than the HCV group (
) (p<0.01). There was a significant correlation between B2M Level and ALK, total and direct bilirubin and INR (p<0.05), and a significant inverse correlation between B2M level and albumin, total proteins, HB andWBCS values (p<0.05). There was no significant correlation between B2M level and viral load or Metavir score, largest tumour size or AFP (p>0.05). The best B2M cut-off for HCV diagnosis was 2.6 with a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 97% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%. The best B2M cut-off for HCC diagnosis was 4.55 which yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive values of 74%, 62%, 39.5, 87.8% respectively (p-value <0.01) while best cut-off for cirrhosis was 4.9, with sensitivity 74 % and specificity 74%.The sensitivity for HCC diagnosis increased upon B2M and AFP combined estimation to 91%, specificity to 79%, NPV to 95% and accuracy to 83%. Conclusions: Serum B2M level is elevated in HCV related chronic liver diseases and may be used as a marker for HCV disease progression towards cirrhosis and carcinoma.
Knowledge about Colorectal Cancer in Northern Iran: a Population-Based Telephone Survey
Mansour-Ghanaei, Alireza ; Joukar, Farahnaz ; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz ; Rasoulian, Javid ; Naghipour, Mohammad Reza ; Fani, Arezoo ; Kazemnejad, Ehsan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7831~7836
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7831
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to assess the general knowledge of CRC in individuals living in Rasht, Iran, using a population-based cross-sectional telephone survey. Materials and Methods: A total of 1557 participants between 18 and 80 years of age were interviewed using random sampling from the telephone directory. Knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, and prevention of CRC was assessed using a validated questionnaire. Results: The mean knowledge level of the 1,557 respondents (average age 46 y) was
(maximum possible score = 26), and 46.4% (722/1,557) of the subjects achieved grades lower than the mean score. The mean scores for knowledge of symptoms and risk factors were
(range: 0-7) and
(range: 0-9), respectively. Older age, higher education, and employment were significantly associated with better scores for recognition of risk factors and warning symptoms. The majority of subjects correctly identified weight loss (70.2%; 1,093/1,557) and rectal bleeding (63.3%; 986/1,557) as symptoms of CRC, and that smoking (85.9%; 1,337/1,557) and a low-fiber diet (73.4%; 1,143/1,557) were risk factors. Approximately half of the subjects noted increasing age, genetic background and fried food as other risk factors. A considerable number (54.8%; 853/1,557) identified colonoscopy as a screening method for detecting CRC in asymptomatic patients. However, a third of the subjects in the target group for screening (
) were not interested in undergoing screening, primarily due to a lack of symptoms. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the knowledge of CRC is poor among the public, and therefore greater attempts should be made to increase awareness. Public education emphasizing the risk factors and symptoms of CRC, as well as the importance of regular screening regardless of the presence of symptoms, may help to reduce CRC morbidity and mortality.
Safety of Lienal Polypeptide Injection Combined with Chemotherapy in Treating Patients with Advanced Cancer
Huang, Xin-En ; Wang, Lin ; Ji, Zhu-Qing ; Liu, Meng-Yan ; Qian, Ting ; Li, Li ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7837~7841
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7837
Objective: To assess the safety of Liena polypeptide injection (produced by JILIN FSENS PHARMACEUTICAL CO.,LTD) combined with chemotherapy in treating patients with advanced cancers. Method: A consecutive cohort of patients with advanced cancers were treated with Liena polypeptide injection combined with chemotherapy. And chemotherapy for patients with advanced cancers were adopted from regimens suggested by NCCN guideline. Liena polypeptide injection was intravenously injected at a dosage of 2ml plus 100ml normal saline for continuous 7 days during chemotherapy as one course. After at least two courses of treatment, safety and side effects were evaluated. Results: There were 20 female and 14 male patients with advanced cancer recruited into this study, including 10 patients with breast, 8 patients with colorectal, 8 patients with lung, 4 patients with gastric, and 1 patient with esophageal cancer, as well as 1 patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 1 patient with low pharyngeal and 1 patient with urethral cancer. The median age of patients was 59 (40-82) years. Incidences of Grade 1 to 2 myelosuppression was observed in 5/34 patients, and Grade 1 to 2 elevation of hepatic enzyme was recorded in 3/34 patients. Adverse effects on the gastrointestinal tract were documented in 5/34 patients, and were Grade 1. No Grade 3-4 toxicities were diagnosed. No treatment related death was found. Conclusions: Liena polypeptide injection combined with chemotherapy was safe in treating several sites of tumors, that mainly included lung, colorectal and breast cancer. However, further study should be conducted to clarify the effectiveness of this treatment.
Protein Expression of Stromelysin-2 in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas
Kadeh, Hamideh ; Heydari, Fatemeh ; Saravani, Shirin ; Ghodsi, Iman Najafi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7843~7846
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7843
Background: Some matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in invasion and metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, there are few studies on association between stromelysin-2 (ST-2) and invasive behavior of HNSCC. The purpose of this study was to investigate Stromelysin-2 expression by immunohistochemistry. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 81 specimens, including 61 HNSCC and 20 non neoplastic epithelium. Sections with 5 micron thickness were prepared and stained with immunohistochemistry technique. Then expression of ST-2 was evaluated according to percentage of stained cells and intensity of staining. Data were analyzed by SPSS (V.21) using Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey tests (P<0.05). Results: The 61 HNSCC specimens were grades I 36.1%, II 34.4% and III 29.5%. The level of ST-2 expressions were moderate (++) and intensive (+++) in 21.3% and 78.7% of tumors, respectively. The ST-2 expression level was only significant between the tumors with grade I and grade III (P=0.016). Tumors presented ST-2 expression with staining intensity of mild 6.6%, moderate 26.2% and strong 67.2%. Staining intensity of ST-2 in grade I tumors was significantly lower than grade II and grade III (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between grades II and III (P=0.99). Conclusions: According to this study, the expression of ST-2 is associated with histopathological grade and tumor differentiation in HNSCCs.
Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Patients with Gynecologic Cancer: a Systematic Review
Akpunar, Dercan ; Bebis, Hatice ; Yavan, Tulay ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7847~7852
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7847
Purpose: Research carried out with gynecologic cancer patients using CAM was reviewed to provide a source for discussing which CAM method is used for which purpose, patients' perceptions on the effects/side effects occurred during/after using CAM and their sources of information regarding CAM. Materials and Methods: This literature review was carried out for the period between January 2000 and March 2015 using Scopus, Dynamed, Med-Line, Science Dırect, Ulakbim, Research Starters, Ebscohost, Cinahl Complete, Academic Onefile, Directory of Open Access Journals, BMJ Online Journals (2007-2009), Ovid, Oxford Journal, Proquest Hospital Collection, Springer-Kluwer Link, Taylor & Francis, Up To Date, Web Of Science (Citation Index), Wiley Cochrane-Evidence Base, Wiley Online Library, and Pub-Med search databases with "complementary and alternative medicine, gynecologic cancer" as keywords. After searching through these results, a total of 12 full length papers in English were included. Results: CAM use in gynecologic cancer patients was discussed in 8 studies and CAM use in breast and gynecologic cancer patients in 4. It was determined that the frequency of CAM use varies between 40.3% and 94.7%. As the CAM method, herbal medicines, vitamins/minerals were used most frequently in 8 of the studies. When the reasons why gynecologic cancer patients use CAM are examined, it is determined that they generally use to strengthen the immune system, reduce the side effects of cancer treatment and for physical and psychological relaxation. In this review, most of the gynecologic cancer patients perceived use of CAM as beneficial. Conclusions: In order that the patients obtain adequate reliable information about CAM and avoid practices which may harm the efficiency of medical treatment, it is recommended that "Healthcare Professionals" develop a common language.
Feasibility Study of Case-Finding for Breast Cancer by Community Health Workers in Rural Bangladesh
Chowdhury, Touhidul Imran ; Love, Richard Reed ; Chowdhury, Mohammad Touhidul Imran ; Artif, Abu Saeem ; Ahsan, Hasib ; Mamun, Anwarul ; Khanam, Tahmina ; Woods, James ; Salim, Reza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7853~7857
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7853
Background: Mortality from breast cancer is high in low- and middle-income countries, in part because most patients have advanced stage disease when first diagnosed. Case-finding may be one approach to changing this situation. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pilot study to explore the feasibility of population-based case finding for breast cancer by community health workers (CHWs) using different data collection methods and approaches to management of women found to have breast abnormalities. After training 8 CHWs in breast problem recognition, manual paper data collection and operation of a cell-phone software platform for reporting demographic, history and physical finding information, these CHWs visited 3150 women >age 18 and over they could find-- from 2356 households in 8 villages in rural Bangladesh. By 4 random assignments of villages, data were collected manually (Group 1), or with the cell-phone program alone (Group 2) or with management algorithms (Groups 3 and 4), and women adjudged to have a serious breast problem were shown a motivational video (Group 3), or navigated/accompanied to a breast problem center for evaluation (Group 4). Results: Only three visited women refused evaluation. The manual data acquisition group (1) had missing data in 80% of cases, and took an average of 5 minutes longer to acquire, versus no missing data in the cell phone-reporting groups (2,3 and 4). One woman was identified with stage III breast cancer, and was appropriately treated. Conclusions: Among very poor rural Bangladeshi women, there was very limited reluctance to undergo breast evaluation. The estimated rarity of clinical breast cancer is supported by these population-based findings. The feasibility and efficient use of mobile technology in this setting is supported. Successor studies may most appropriately be trials focusing on improving the suggested benefits of motivation and navigation, on increasing the numbers of cases found, and on stage of disease at diagnosis as the primary endpoint.
Comparison of Single Agent Gemcitabine and Docetaxel in Second-Line Therapy for Advanced Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in a University Hospital in Turkey
Yildirim, Fatma ; Baha, Ayse ; Yurdakul, Ahmet Selim ; Ozturk, Can ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7859~7863
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7859
Purpose: To compare the efficacy and toxicity of gemcitabine versus docetaxel in a second-line setting of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients previously treated with platin-based combination chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 57 patients treated with single agent gemcitabine or docetaxel in second-line setting of advanced NSCLC who received one prior platinum-based therapy. Results: The mean age was
years with 55 (96.5%) males and two (3.5%) females. Forty of them received docetaxel and 17 gemcitabine. The mean number of chemotherapy cycles was
in the gemcitabine group, while it was
in the docetaxel group. Overall response rates were 8% and 12% (P=0.02) for gemcitabine and docetaxel, respectively. The median survival time was 22 versus 21 months for gemcitabine and docetaxel, respectively. The median times to progression were 8 and 5 months. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of incidence of adverse affects (40% vs 47.1%). All of the hematological side effects were grade 1/2. No major toxicity was encountered necessitating stopping the drug for either group. Conclusions: Treatment with gemcitabine demonstrated clinically equivalent efficacy with a significantly improved safety profile compared with those receiving docetaxel in the second-line setting for advanced NSCLC in this study. Based on these results, treatment with gemcitabine should be considered a standard treatment option for second-line NSCLC.
Thalidomide Combined with Chemotherapy in Treating Patients with Advanced Colorectal Cancer
Huang, Xin-En ; Yan, Xiao-Chun ; Wang, Lin ; Ji, Zhu-Qing ; Li, Li ; Liu, Meng-Yan ; Qian, Ting ; Shen, Hui-Ling ; Gu, Han-Gang ; Liu, Yong ; Gu, Ming ; Deng, Li-Chun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7867~7869
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7867
Objective: To assess the safety and effectiveness of thalidomide (produced by CHANGZHOU PHARMACEUTICAL FACTORY CO.LTD) combined with chemotherapy in treating patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Method: A consecutive cohort of pretreated patients with advanced colorectal cancer were treated with thalidomide combined with chemotherapy. And chemotherapy for patients with advanced colorectal cancer were administered according to the condition of patients. Thalidomide was orally administered at a dosage of 50mg/day to 150mg/day before sleeping for at least 14 days. After at least 14 days of treatment, safety and side effects were evaluated. Results: There were 12 female and 3 male patients with advanced cancer recruited into this study, including 9 patients with colon, 6 patients with rectal cancer. The median age of patients was 57(41-82) years. Partial response was observed in 2 patients (2/15), and stable disease in 3 patients(3/15). Incidences of Grade 1 to 2 myelosuppression was observed in 1/15 patients, and Grade 1 to 2 elevation of hepatic enzyme was recorded in 1/15 patients. Adverse effects on the gastrointestinal tract were documented in 1/15 patients, and were Grade 1. No Grade 3-4 toxicities were diagnosed. No treatment related death was found. Conclusions: Thalidomide combined with chemotherapy was safe and mildly effective in treating patients with advanced colorectal cancer. However, further study should be conducted to clarify the effectiveness of this combination.
Hepatic Resection after Initial Transarterial Chemoembolization Versus Transarterial Chemoembolization Alone for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Meta-analysis of Observational Studies
Tang, Yu-Long ; Qi, Xing-Shun ; Guo, Xiao-Zhong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7871~7874
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7871
Background: There is no consensus regarding the selection of treatment options for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after initial transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). This meta-analysis aimed to explore the survival benefit of hepatic resection after initial TACE for the treatment of HCC. Materials and Methods: We searched three major databases to identify all relevant papers comparing the outcomes of hepatic resection after initial TACE versus TACE alone for the treatment of HCC. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated to evaluate the survival benefit of hepatic resection after initial TACE over TACE alone. Results: Three of 2037 initially identified papers were included. All of them were cohort studies from Asia. There was a significantly better overall survival (OS) in patients undergoing hepatic resection after initial TACE than in those undergoing TACE alone (HR=0.63, 95%CI=0.52-0.76, P<0.00001). The heterogeneity among studies was not statistically significant (P=0.96; I2=0%). Conclusions: Hepatic resection could improve the OS of HCC patients treated with initial TACE. Further randomized controlled trials should be necessary to identify the target population for the sequential use of hepatic resection after initial TACE and to compare the outcomes between patients undergoing hepatic resection after initial TACE session versus those undergoing TACE alone.
Relation of BAALC and ERG Gene Expression with Overall Survival in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cases
Rashed, Reham A ; Kadry, Dalia Y ; Taweel, Maha EL ; Abd El Wahab, Nahed ; Abd El Hameed, Thoreya ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7875~7882
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7875
Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the expression of brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic (BAALC) gene and erythroblast transformation-specific related gene (ERG) in de novo cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and identify roles in disease progression and outcome. Materials and Methods: This study included 50 newly diagnosed AML patients, along with 10 apparently healthy normal controls. BAALC and ERG expression was detected in the bone marrow of both patients and controls using real-time RT-PCR. Results: BAALC and ERG expression was detected in 52% of cases but not in any controls. There was a statistically significant correlation between BAALC and ERG gene expression and age (p-value=0.004 and 0.019, respectively). No statistical significance was noted for sex, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, other hematological findings, immunophenotyping and FAB sub-classification except for ERG gene and FAB (p-value=0.058). A statistical significant correlation was found between response to treatment with ERG expression (p-value=0.028) and age (p-value=0.014). A statistically significant variation in overall survival was evident with patient age, BM blast cells, FAB subgroups, BAALC and ERG expression (p-value=<0.001, 0.045, 0.041, <0.008 and 0.025 respectively). Conclusions: Our results suggest that BAALC and ERG genes are specific significant molecular markers in AML disease progression, response to treatment and survival.
Presence of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Colorectal Cancer Tissues in Shiraz, Southwest Iran
Mahmoudvand, Shahab ; Safaei, Akbar ; Erfani, Nasrollah ; Sarvari, Jamal ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7883~7887
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7883
Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Viruses including human papillomavirus (HPV) have been reported to be associated with different cancers but any association with colorectal cancers remains controversial. Aim: To evaluate any association between HPV infection and adenocarcinoma of the colon and adenomatous polyps. Materials and Methods: Paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of 70 colorectal adenocarcinomas, 70 colorectal adenomatous polyps, and 70 colorectal normal tissues were subjected to DNA extraction. The quality of the extracted DNA was confirmed by amplification of a
-globin fragment using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR using specific primers were performed to detect HPV DNA. Specific primers targeting the E6 region of the HPVs 16 and 18 were used for genotyping. Results: HPV DNA was detected in 2 (2.85%) out of 70 adenocarcinoma colorectal tissues and 4 (5.71 %) out of 70 adenomatous colorectal tissues. All normal colorectal tissues were negative for HPV DNA. HPV-16 was the most predominant genotype (5 sample) followed by HPV-18 (4 sample). Despite the above observations, statistical analyses indicated no significant differences in the frequencies of HPV positive subjects between the cancerous and normal samples. Conclusions: Although the differences observed in the frequencies of HPV positive cases in our study was not significant relative to those of control subjects, the fact of 6 positive samples among cancerous tissues, may still suggest a role of HPV in colorectal carcinogenesis. The study collectively indicated that some colorectal cancerous tissues are infected with high risk HPV genotype. The findings merit more investigation.
JAK-2 V617F Mutational Analysis in Primary Idiopathic Myelofibrosis: Experience from Southern Pakistan
Sultan, Sadia ; Irfan, Syed Mohammed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7889~7892
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7889
Background: Primary idiopathic myelofibrosis (PMF) is a clonal Ph-chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by dysregulated kinase signaling and release of abnormal cytokines. In the recent past, following JAK2 V617F mutation invention, important revolution has been made in the molecular diagnostic biology of this disease. The rational of this study was to determine the mutational status of JAK2 V617F in Pakistan patients with PMF. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 20 patients with PMF were enrolled from January 2011 to December 2014. Diagnosis was based on WHO criteria for PMF. All patients were screened for G-T point mutation (V617F) in the JAK2 gene on chromosome 9 by allele specific PCR. Results: The mean age was
. The male to female ratio was 3:1. The frequency of JAK2 V617F positivity in our PMF patients was found to be 55%. Positive correlations of JAK2 V617F mutation were established with high TLC count, raised LDH and marked splenomegaly (P<0.05). No correlation of JAK2 V617F could be established with age and gender (P>0.05). Conclusions: The JAK2 V617F mutation frequency in our PMF patients was similar to those reported previously. In our hands JAK2 V617F mutated patients expressed an aggressive disease phenotype. Screening for the mutation in all suspected PMF cases could be beneficial in differentiating patients with reactive and clonal marrow fibrosis.
Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: a Single Center Study from Southern Pakistan
Sultan, Sadia ; Irfan, Syed Mohammed ; Ashar, Sana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7893~7895
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7893
Background: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a distinctive clinical, biological and molecular subtype of acute myeloid leukemia. However, data from Pakistan are scarce. Therefore we reviewed the demographic and clinical profile along with risk stratification of APL patients at our center. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, 26 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia were enrolled from January 2011 to June 2015. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 22. Results: The mean age was
with a median of 32 years. The female to male ratio was 2:1.2. The majority of our patients had hypergranular variant (65.4%) rather than the microgranular type. The major complaints were bleeding (80.7%), fever (76.9%), generalized weakness (30.7%) and dyspnea (15.38%). Physical examination revealed petechial rashes as a predominant finding detected in 61.5% followed by pallor in 30.8%. The mean hemoglobin was
with the mean MCV of
. The mean total leukocyte count of
; ANC of
and mean platelets count were
. According to risk stratification, 15.3% were in high, 65.4% in intermediate and 19.2% in low risk groups. Conclusions: Clinico-epidemiological features of APL in Pakistani patients appear comparable to published data. Haemorrhagic diathesis is the commonest presentation. Risk stratification revealed predominance of intermediate risk disease.
3D CACT-assisted Radiofrequency Ablation Following Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Early Experience
Jiao, De-Chao ; Han, Xin-Wei ; Wu, Gang ; Ren, Jian-Zhuang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7897~7903
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7897
Background: To explored the value of 3D C-arm CT (CACT) guidance system in performing radiofrequency ablation (RFA) following transarterial chemoembolizationon (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinomas. Materials and Methods: RFA of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) were performed on 15 patients (21 lesions) with the assistance of CACT guidance system. Technical success, procedure time, complications and patient radiation exposure were investigated. The puncture performance level was evaluated on a five-point scale (5-1: excellent-poor). Complete ablation rate was evaluated after two months follow-up using enhanced CT scans. Results: The technical success rate of RFA procedure under CACT navigation system was 100 %. Mean total procedure time was
, resulting in a mean effective exposure dose of
. The mean puncture performance level rated for CACT guided RFA procedure was
. Complete ablation (CA) was achieved in 20 (95.2%) of the treated 21 tumors after the first RFA session. None of patients developed intra-procedural complications. Conclusions: 3D CACT guidance system enables reliable and efficient needle positioning by providing real-time intraoperative guidance for performing RFA on HCCs.
MicroRNA-124 rs531564 Polymorphism and Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis
Li, Wen-Jing ; Wang, Yong ; Gong, Yu ; Tu, Chao ; Feng, Tong-Bao ; Qi, Chun-Jian ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7905~7909
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7905
Several studies reported there was a polymorphism (rs531564 C > G) in miR-124 gene. To investigate the MiR-124 rs531564 polymorphism and cancer risk. We conducted a literature search of the Medline, Embase and Wangfang Medicine databases to identify all relevant studies for this meta-analysis. We determined that the miR-124 rs531564 polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased risks of cancers in the allelic model (G vs C, OR=0.71, 95% CI=0.53-0.94, P=0.02), homozygote model (GG vs CC, OR=0.42, 95% CI=0.26-0.66, P=0.0002), dominant model (GG/GC vs CC, OR=0.71, 95% CI=0.51-0.98, P=0.04) and recessive model (GG vs GC/CC, OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.27-0.69, P=0.0004). In an analysis stratified by cervical cancer group, significant associations were observed in the allelic model (G vs C, OR=0.46, 95% CI=0.32-0.66, P<0.0001), and dominant model (GG/GC vs CC, OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.3-0.66, P<0.0001). Subgroup analysis also revealed a decreased risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the homozygote model (GG vs CC, OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.27-0.75, P=0.002) and recessive model (GG vs GC/CC, OR=0.46, 95% CI=0.28-0.75, P=0.002). This meta-analysis suggests that the miR-124 rs531564 C > G polymorphism is an important risk factor for cancers among the Chinese population.
Helicobacter pylori Infection and Gastric Mucosal Atrophy in Two Ethnic Groups in Nepal
Miftahussurur, Muhammad ; Sharma, Rabi Prakash ; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna ; Maharjan, Ramesh Kumar ; Shiota, Seiji ; Uchida, Tomohisa ; Sato, Hiroki ; Yamaoka, Yoshio ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7911~7916
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7911
Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies and pepsinogens (PGs) have been used as gastric cancer screening and gastric mucosal status markers. Nepal is a low risk country for gastric cancer. However, the mountainous populace in the northern region culturally linked to Tibet as well as Bhutan, a neighboring country, have a high risk of GC. We collected gastric biopsy specimens and sera from 146 dyspeptic patients living in Kathmandu, Nepal. We also examined the sera of 80 volunteers living in the mountainous regions of the Himalayas. The optimal cut-off was calculated for serum biomarkers against the histology. Kathmandu patients (43.8%) were serologically positive for H. pylori infection, which was significantly lower than that for the mountainous (61.3%, P = 0.01). The same results also found in the prevalence of PG-positivity, PG I levels and PG I/II ratios (P = 0.001, P<0.0001 and P = 0.03, respectively). Moreover, the PG I/II ratios were significantly, and inversely correlated with the OLGA score (r = -0.33, P<0.009). The low incidence of gastric cancer in Nepal can be attributed to low gastric mucosal atrophy. However, the mountainous subjects have high-risk gastric mucosal status, which could be considered a high-risk population in Nepal.
DNA Ploidy and S-phase Fraction Analysis in Paediatric B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cases: a Tertiary Care Centre Experience
Kumar, Banothu Kiran ; Bhatia, Prateek ; Trehan, Amita ; Singh, Ajit Pal ; Kaul, Deepak ; Bansal, Deepak ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7917~7922
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7917
DNA ploidy is an important prognostic parameter in paediatric B-ALL, but the significance of the S-phase fraction is unclear. In present study, DNA ploidy was assessed in 40 pediatric B-ALL cases by flow cytometry. The DI (DNA index) and percentage of cells in S-phase were calculated using Modfit software. Aneuploidy was noted in 26/40 (65%) cases. A DI of 1.10-1.6 (hyperdiploidy B) was noted in 20/40 (50%) and 6/40 (15%) had a DI>1.60 (triploid and tetraploid range). Some 14/40 (35%) cases had a diploid DI between 0.90-1.05. None of the cases had a DI <0.90 (hypodiploid) or in the 1.06-1.09 (hyperdiploid A) range. The mean S-phase fraction was 2.6%, with 24/40 (60%) having low and 16/40 (40%) high S-phase fractions. No correlation was noted with standard ALL risk and treatment response factors with DI values or S-phase data, except for a positive correlation of low S-phase with high NCI risk category (p=0.032). Overall frequency of hyperdiploidy in our cohort of B-ALL patients was very high (65%). No correlation between hyperdiploidy B and low TLC or common B-phenotype was observed in our study as 42% cases with DI 1.10-1.6 had TLC>
and 57.1% CD 10 negativity. The study also highlighted that S-phase fraction analysis does not add any prognostic information and is not a useful parameter for assessment in ALL cases. However, larger studies with long term outcome analysis are needed to derive definitive conclusions.
Fitting Cure Rate Model to Breast Cancer Data of Cancer Research Center
Baghestani, Ahmad Reza ; Zayeri, Farid ; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil ; Shojaee, Leyla ; Khadembashi, Naghmeh ; Shahmirzalou, Parviz ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7923~7927
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7923
Background: The Cox PH model is one of the most significant statistical models in studying survival of patients. But, in the case of patients with long-term survival, it may not be the most appropriate. In such cases, a cure rate model seems more suitable. The purpose of this study was to determine clinical factors associated with cure rate of patients with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: In order to find factors affecting cure rate (response), a non-mixed cure rate model with negative binomial distribution for latent variable was used. Variables selected were recurrence cancer, status for HER2, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), size of tumor, grade of cancer, stage of cancer, type of surgery, age at the diagnosis time and number of removed positive lymph nodes. All analyses were performed using PROC MCMC processes in the SAS 9.2 program. Results: The mean (SD) age of patients was equal to 48.9 (11.1) months. For these patients, 1, 5 and 10-year survival rates were 95, 79 and 50 percent respectively. All of the mentioned variables were effective in cure fraction. Kaplan-Meier curve showed cure model's use competence. Conclusions: Unlike other variables, existence of ER and PR positivity will increase probability of cure in patients. In the present study, Weibull distribution was used for the purpose of analysing survival times. Model fitness with other distributions such as log-N and log-logistic and other distributions for latent variable is recommended.
Absence of 185delAG and 6174delT Mutations among Breast Cancer Patients of Eastern India
Chakraborty, Abhijit ; Banerjee, Debolina ; Basak, Jayasri ; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7929~7933
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7929
Background: The incidence of breast cancer in India is on the rise and is rapidly becoming the number one cancer in females, pushing the cervical cancer to the second position. Most of the predisposition to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer has been attributed to inherited defects in two tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Alterations in these genes have been reported in different populations, some of which are population-specific mutations showing founder effects. Two specific mutations in the BRCA1 (185delAG) and BRCA2 (6174delT) genes have been reported to be of high prevalence in different populations. The aim of this study was to estimate the carrier frequency of 185delAG and 6174delT mutations in eastern Indian breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: We selected 231 histologically confirmed breast cancer patients from our tertiary cancer care center in eastern India. Family history was obtained by interview or a self-reported questionnaire. The presence of the mutation was investigated by allele specific duplex/multiplex-PCR on genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood. Results: A total of 231 patients (age range: 26-77 years), 130 with a family history and 101 without were screened. The two founder mutations 185delAG in BRCA1 and 6174delT in BRCA2 were not found in any of the subjects. This was confirmed by molecular analysis. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that these BRCA mutations may not have a strong recurrent effect on breast cancer among the eastern Indian population. The contribution of these founder mutations to breast cancer incidence is probably low and could be limited to specific subgroups. This may be particularly useful in establishing further pre-screening strategies.
Massive Parallel Sequencing for Diagnostic Genetic Testing of BRCA Genes - a Single Center Experience
Ermolenko, Natalya A ; Boyarskikh, Uljana A ; Kechin, Andrey A ; Mazitova, Alexandra M ; Khrapov, Evgeny A ; Petrova, Valentina D ; Lazarev, Alexandr F ; Kushlinskii, Nikolay E ; Filipenko, Maxim L ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7935~7941
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7935
The aim of this study was to implement massive parallel sequencing (MPS) technology in clinical genetics testing. We developed and tested an amplicon-based method for resequencing the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes on an Illumina MiSeq to identify disease-causing mutations in patients with hereditary breast or ovarian cancer (HBOC). The coding regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 were resequenced in 96 HBOC patient DNA samples obtained from different sample types: peripheral blood leukocytes, whole blood drops dried on paper, and buccal wash epithelia. A total of 16 random DNA samples were characterized using standard Sanger sequencing and applied to optimize the variant calling process and evaluate the accuracy of the MPS-method. The best bioinformatics workflow included the filtration of variants using GATK with the following cut-offs: variant frequency >14%, coverage (
) and presence in both the forward and reverse reads. The MPS method had 100% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity. Similar accuracy levels were achieved for DNA obtained from the different sample types. The workflow presented herein requires low amounts of DNA samples (170 ng) and is cost-effective due to the elimination of DNA and PCR product normalization steps.
Mechanism of Action of Nigella sativa on Human Colon Cancer Cells: the Suppression of AP-1 and NF-κB Transcription Factors and the Induction of Cytoprotective Genes
Elkady, Ayman I ; Hussein, Rania A ; El-Assouli, Sufian M ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7943~7957
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7943
Background and Aims: Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth-suppression potentiality of a crude saponin extract (CSENS) prepared from medicinal herb, Nigella sativa, on human colon cancer cells, HCT116. Materials and Methods: HCT116 cells were subjected to increasing doses of CSENS for 24, 48 and 72 h, and then harvested and assayed for cell viability by WST-1. Flow cytometry analyses, cell death detection ELISA, fluorescent stains (Hoechst 33342 and acridine orange/ethidium bromide), DNA laddering and comet assays were carried out to confirm the apoptogenic effects of CSENS. Luciferase reporter gene assays, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses were performed to assess the impact of CAERS and CFEZO on the expression levels of key regulatory proteins in HCT116 cells. Results: The results demonstrated that CSENS inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis. Apoptosis was confirmed by flow cytometry analyses, while CSENS-treated cells exhibited morphological hallmarks of apoptosis including cell shrinkage, irregularity in cellular shape, cellular detachment and chromatin condensation. Biochemical signs of apoptosis, such as DNA degradation, were observed by comet assay and gel electrophoresis. The pro-apoptotic effect of CSENS was caspase-3-independent and associated with increase of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. CSENS treatment down-regulated transcriptional and DNA-binding activities of NF-
and AP-1 proteins, associated with down-regulation of their target oncogenes, c-Myc, cyclin D1 and survivin. On the other hand, CSENS up-regulated transcriptional and DNA-binding activities of Nrf2 and expression of cytoprotective genes. In addition, CSENS modulated the expression levels of ERK1/2 MAPK, p53 and p21. Conclusions: These findings suggest that CSENS may be a valuable agent for treatment of colon cancer.
Serum Anti-Gal-3 Autoantibody is a Predictive Marker of the Efficacy of Platinum-Based Chemotherapy against Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma
Yanagita, Kengo ; Nagashio, Ryo ; Ryuge, Shinichiro ; Katono, Ken ; Jiang, Shi-Xu ; Tsuchiya, Benio ; Nakashima, Hiroyasu ; Fukuda, Eriko ; Goshima, Naoki ; Saegusa, Makoto ; Satoh, Yukitoshi ; Masuda, Noriyuki ; Sato, Yuichi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7959~7965
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7959
Background: Identification of predictive markers for the efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy is necessary to improve the quality of the life of cancer patients. Materials and Methods: We detected proteins recognized by autoantibodies in pretreated sera from patients with lung adenocarcinoma (AC) evaluated as showing progressive disease (PD) or a partial response (PR) after cisplatin-based chemotherapy by proteomic analysis. Then, the levels of the candidate autoantibodies in the pretreated serum were validated by dot-blot analysis for 22 AC patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy, and the expression of identified proteins was immunohistochemically analyzed in 40 AC biopsy specimens. Results: An autoantibody against galectin-3 (Gal-3) was detected in pretreated sera from an AC patient with PD. Serum IgG levels of anti-Gal-3 autoantibody were significantly higher in patients evaluated with PD than in those with PR and stable disease (SD) (p = 0.0084). Furthermore, pretreated biopsy specimens taken from patients evaluated as showing PD following platinumbased chemotherapy showed a tendency to have a higher positive rate of Gal-3 than those with PR and SD (p = 0.0601). Conclusions: These results suggest that serum IgG levels of anti-Gal-3 autoantibody may be useful to predict the efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy for patients with lung AC.
Dietary Practices, Addictive Behavior and Bowel Habits and Risk of Early Onset Colorectal Cancer: a Case Control Study
Khan, Naveed Ali ; Hussain, Mehwish ; Rahman, Ata ur ; Farooqui, Waqas Ahmed ; Rasheed, Abdur ; Memon, Amjad Siraj ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7967~7973
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7967
Background: The abrupt rise of colorectal cancer in developing countries is raising concern in healthcare settings. Studies on assessing relationships with modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors in the Pakistani population have been limited. The present investigation was designed to examine associations of dietary practices, addictive behavior and bowel habits in developing colorectal cancer (CRC) among patients in a low-resource setup. Materials and Methods: An age-gender matched case control study was conducted from October 2011 to July 2015 in Karachi, Pakistan. Cases were from the surgical oncology department of a public sector tertiary care hospital, while their two pair-matched controls were recruited from the general population. A structured questionnaire was used which included questions related to demographic characteristics, family history, dietary patterns, addictive behavior and bowel habits. Results: A family history of cancer was associated with a 2.2 fold higher chance of developing CRC. Weight loss reduced the likelihood 7.6 times. Refraining from a high fat diet and consuming more vegetables showed protective effects for CRC. The risk of CRC was more than twice among smokers and those who consumed Asian specific addictive products as compared to those who avoid using these addictions (ORsmoking: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.08 - 4.17, ORpan: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.6 - 5.33, ORgutka: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.14 - 3.97). Use of NSAID attenuated risk of CRC up to 86% (OR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.07 - 0.31). Conclusions: Most of the findings showed concordance with the literature elucidating protective effects of consuming vegetables and low fat diet while documenting adverse associations with family history, weight loss, constipation and hematochezia. Moreover, this study highlighted Asian specific indigenous addictive products as important factors. Further studies are needed to validate the findings produced by this research.
Predictive Value of IHC4 Score for Pathological Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer
Elsamany, Shereef ; Elmorsy, Soha ; Alzahrani, Abdullah ; Rasmy, Ayman ; Abozeed, Waleed N ; Mohammed, Amrallah A ; Sherisher, Mohamed A ; Abbas, Mohammed M ; Mashhour, Miral ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7975~7979
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7975
Purpose: This study aimed to explore the value of IHC4 in predicting pathological response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with hormonal receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer (BC). Materials and Methods: In this retrospective exploratory study, data for 68 HR-positive BC patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy were recorded. IHC4 scores were calculated based on estrogen receptors/progesterone receptors, Ki-67 and HER2 status. Logistic and ordinal regression analyses in addition to likelihood ratio test were used to explore associations of IHC4 scores and other clinico-pathological parameters with pathological complete response (pCR) and pathological stage. Results: Taking the 25th percentile as the cut-off, a lower IHC4 score was associated with an increased probability of pCR (low; 52.9% vs. High; 21.6%, OR=4.1, 95% CI=1.28-13.16, p=0.018) and a lower pathological stage (OR=3.9, 95% CI=1.34-11.33, p=0.012). When the IHC4 score was treated as a continuous variable, a lower score was again associated with an increased probability of pCR (OR=1.010, 95% CI=1.001-1.018, p=0.025) and lower pathological stage (OR=1.009, 95% CI=1.002-1.017, P=0.008). Lower clinical stage was associated with a better pCR rate that was of borderline significance (P=0.056). When clinical stage and IHC4 score were incorporated together in a logistic model, the likelihood ratio test gave a P-value of 0.004 after removal of the IHC4 score and 0.011 after removal of the stage, indicating a more significant predictive value of the IHC4 score for pCR. Conclusions: This study suggests that the IHC4 score can predict pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in HR-positive BC patients. This finding now needs to be validated in a larger cohort of patients.
Having Private Cancer Insurance in Korea: Gender Differences
Yoo, Ki-Bong ; Noh, Jin-Won ; Kwon, Young Dae ; Cho, Kyoung Hee ; Choi, Young ; Kim, Jae-Hyun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7981~7986
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7981
Background: As coverage of public insurance is not sufficient to cover diagnosis or treatment of cancer, having private health insurance is important to prepare for unexpected expenses of cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with having private cancer insurance, considering gender among the socio-demographic factors and health behavior. Materials and Methods: We used data from the 2011 Korea Health Panel, which included 10,871 participants aged 20 years and older. Socio-demographics, health behavior, and perceived cancer risk were the independent variables and having private cancer insurance was the dependent variable. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with having private cancer insurance. Results: The variables relating to middle age, higher education, higher household income, married men, and the perceived cancer risk groups of 1-10% and 11-30% were significantly associated with having private cancer insurance. Additionally, females who had private non-cancer health insurance were positively associated with the dependent variables (OR=1.36; 95% CI=1.17-1.57). Education, smoking status, exercise, and perceived cancer risk possibility were significantly associated with having private cancer insurance only among women. The men lowered the overall percentages of those having private cancer insurance (OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.45-0.63). Conclusions: We found that there were significant differences between men and women who had private cancer insurance. Women with private cancer insurance are more likely to follow precautionary health behavior than men. This could be interpreted as resulting from masculine ideologies. It is important to make males recognize the seriousness of the cancer risk. In general, household income was highly associated with private cancer insurance. These results reveal an inequity among the buyers of private cancer insurance in terms of economic status level, education level, and health condition.
Survival and Clinical Aspects for Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia in Kermanshah, Iran
Payandeh, Mehrdad ; Sadeghi, Edris ; Sadeghi, Masoud ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7987~7990
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7987
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)is the most common leukemia in adults in Western countries but is relatively rare in Asia. Immune hemolytic anemia, Evan's syndrome, lymphadenopathy, organomegaly and B symptoms are the main complaints of patients in CLL. The present retrospective analysis evaluated a group of 109 patients with CLL over a 9-year period, studying correlations between sex, age and overall survival. The patients were hospitalized in the Clinic of Hematology and Oncology, Kermanshah, Iran, between 2006 and 2014. Data analysis for sex and age was performed using IBM SPSS19 and overall survival was plotted by Kaplan-Meier plot, Log-rank test in Graph Pad prism 5 Software for five-year periods. The mean age of diagnosis for CLL patients was 60.73 years, 59.6% male. Survival rate patients was 64% and mean overall survival was 38.5 months. In the Rai system, fourteen patients (12.8%) had stage III and twenty eight patients (25.7%) had stage IV. Most frequent clinical features in patients with CLL were lymphadenopathy (38.7%) and organomegaly (34%), respectively. There is not relationship between sex and age in patients but overall survival rate in females was higher than in males. In Asian countries, CLL is more in male and in age above 60 years. Complaints about lymphadenopathy and virus infection are prevalent.
Colorectal Cancer Mortality Characteristics and Predictions in China, 1991-2011
Fang, Jia-Ying ; Dong, Hong-Li ; Sang, Xue-Jin ; Xie, Bin ; Wu, Ku-Sheng ; Du, Pei-Ling ; Xu, Zhen-Xi ; Jia, Xiao-Yue ; Lin, Kun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7991~7995
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7991
Background: To identify the epidemiological characteristics of colorectal cancer mortality in China during the period of 1991-2011, and forecast the future five-year trend. Materials and Methods: Mortality data for colorectal cancer in China from 1991 to 2011 was used to describe epidemiological characteristics in terms of age group, gender, and rural/urban residence. Trend surface analysis was performed to analyze the geographical distribution of colorectal cancer. Four models including curve estimation, time series modeling, gray modeling and joinpoint regression were applied to forecast the trends for the future five years. Results: Since 1991 the colorectal cancer mortality rate increased yearly, and our results showed that the trend would continue to increase in the ensuing 5 years. The mortality rate in males was higher than that of females and the rate in urban areas was higher than in rural areas. The mortality rate was relatively low for individuals less than 60 years of age, but increased dramatically afterwards. People living in the northeastern China provinces or in eastern China had a higher mortality rate for colorectal cancer than those living in middle or western China provinces. Conclusions: The steadily increasing mortality of colorectal cancer in China will become a substantial public health burden in the foreseeable future. For this increasing trend to be controlled, further efforts should concentrate on educating the general public to increase prevention and early detection by screening. More effective prevention and management strategies are needed in higher mortality areas (Eastern parts of China) and high-risk populations (60+ years old).
Detection of Gene Amplification by Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification in Comparison with In Situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemistry
Tabarestani, Sanaz ; Ghaderian, Sayyed Mohammad Hossein ; Rezvani, Hamid ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 7997~8002
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7997
Gene amplification is an important mechanism in the development and progression of cancer. Currently, gene amplification status is generally determined by in situ hybridization (ISH). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a PCR-based method that allows copy number detection of up to 50 nucleic acid sequences in one reaction. The aim of the present study was to compare results for HER2, CCND1, MYC and ESR1 gene amplification detected by MLPA with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) as clinically approved methods. Tissue samples of 170 invasive breast cancers were collected. All were ER positive. Tissue samples had previously been tested for HER2 using immunohistochemistry. Amplification of the selected genes were assessed using MLPA, FISH and CISH and results were compared. HER2 MLPA and ISH results were also compared with HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) which detects protein overexpression. Amplification of HER2, CCND1, MYC and ESR1 by MLPA were found in 9%, 19%, 20% and 2% of samples, respectively. Amplification of HER2, CCND1, MYC and ESR1 by FISH was noted in 7%, 16%, 16% and 1% of samples, respectively. A high level of concordance was found between MLPA/FISH (HER2: 88%, CCND1: 88%, MYC: 86%, ESR1: 92%) and MLPA/CISH (HER2: 84%). Of all IHC 3+ cases, 91% were amplified by MLPA. In IHC 2+ group, 31% were MLPA amplified. In IHC 1+ group, 2% were MLPA amplified. None of the IHC 0 cases were amplified by MLPA. Our results indicate that there is a good correlation between MLPA, IHC and ISH results. Therefore, MLPA can serve as an alternative to ISH for detection of gene amplification.
Family History of Cancer and Head and Neck Cancer Risk in a Chinese Population
Huang, Yu-Hui Jenny ; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy ; Li, Qian ; Chen, Chien-Jen ; Hsu, Wan-Lun ; Lou, Pen-Jen ; Zhu, Cairong ; Pan, Jian ; Shen, Hongbing ; Ma, Hongxia ; Cai, Lin ; He, Baochang ; Wang, Yu ; Zhou, Xiaoyan ; Ji, Qinghai ; Zhou, Baosen ; Wu, Wei ; Ma, Jie ; Boffetta, Paolo ; Zhang, Zuo-Feng ; Dai, Min ; Hashibe, Mia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 8003~8008
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.8003
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether family history of cancer is associated with head and neck cancer risk in a Chinese population. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included 921 cases and 806 controls. Recruitment was from December 2010 to January 2015 in eight centers in East Asia. Controls were matched to cases with reference to sex, 5-year age group, ethnicity, and residence area at each of the centers. Results: We observed an increased risk of head and neck cancer due to first degree family history of head and neck cancer, but after adjustment for tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and betel quid chewing the association was no longer apparent. The adjusted OR were 1.10 (95% CI=0.80-1.50) for family history of tobacco-related cancer and 0.96 (95%CI=0.75-1.24) for family history of any cancer with adjustment for tobacco, betel quid and alcohol habits. The ORs for having a first-degree relative with HNC were higher in all tobacco/alcohol subgroups. Conclusions: We did not observe a strong association between family history of head and neck cancer and head and neck cancer risk after taking into account lifestyle factors. Our study suggests that an increased risk due to family history of head and neck cancer may be due to shared risk factors. Further studies may be needed to assess the lifestyle factors of the relatives.
Clinical Practice of Blood Transfusion in Orthotopic Organ Transplantation: A Single Institution Experience
Tsai, Huang-Wen ; Hsieh, Fu-Chien ; Chang, Chih-Chun ; Su, Ming-Jang ; Chu, Fang-Yeh ; Chen, Kuo-Hsin ; Jeng, Kuo-Shyang ; Chen, Yun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 8009~8013
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.8009
Background: Orthotopic organ transplantation, a treatment option for irreversible organ dysfunction according to organ failure, severe damaged organ or malignancy in situ, was usually accompanied with massive blood loss thus transfusion was required. We aimed to evaluate the adverse impact of blood transfusion on solid organ transplantation. Materials and Methods: From January, 2009 to December, 2014, patients who received orthotopic organ transplantation at Far Eastern Memorial Hospital medical center were enrolled. Clinical data regarding anemia status and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion before, during and after operation, as well as patient outcomes were collected for further univariate analysis. Results: A total of 105 patients who underwent orthotopic transplantation, including liver, kidney and small intestine were registered. The mean hemoglobin (Hb) level upon admission and before operation were
, respectively; and the nadir Hb level post operation and the final Hb level before discharge were
, respectively. The median units (interquartile range) of RBC transfusion in pre-operative, peri-operative and post-operative periods were 0 (0-0), 2 (0-12), and 2 (0-6) units, respectively. Furthermore, the median (interquartile range) length of hospital stay (LHS) from admission to discharge and from operation to discharge were 28 (17-44) and 24 (16-37) days, respectively. Both peri-operative and post-operative RBC transfusion were associated with longer LHS from admission to discharge and from operation to discharge. Furthermore, it increased the risk of post-operative septicemia. While peri-operative RBC transfusion elevated the risk of acute graft rejection in patients who received orthotopic transplantation. Conclusions: Worse outcome could be anticipated in those who had received massive RBC transfusion in transplantation operation. Hence, peri-operative RBC transfusion should be avoided as much as possible.
Regulating Mitochondrial Biogenesis: from Herbal Remedies to Phytomedicine for Cancer Prevention
Jothy, Subramanion L ; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan ; Chen, Yeng ; Kanwar, Jagat R. ; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 8015~8015
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.8015
Association of ATP6AP2 Gene Polymorphisms with Essential Hypertension in a south Chinese Han Population
Wang, Yan ; Bao, Mei-Hua ; Zhang, Qing-Song ; Li, Jian-Ming ; Tang, Liang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 17, 2015, Pages 8017~8018
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.8017