Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 17 - Dec 2015
Volume 16, Issue 16 - Nov 2015
Volume 16, Issue 15 - Oct 2015
Volume 16, Issue 14 - Sep 2015
Volume 16, Issue 13 - Aug 2015
Volume 16, Issue 12 - Jul 2015
Volume 16, Issue 11 - Jun 2015
Volume 16, Issue 10 - Jun 2015
Volume 16, Issue 9 - May 2015
Volume 16, Issue 8 - Apr 2015
Volume 16, Issue 7 - Apr 2015
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Apr 2015
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Mar 2015
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Mar 2015
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Volume 15, Issue 24 - Jan 2015
Volume 15, Issue 23 - Jan 2015
Selecting the target year
Shelterin Proteins and Cancer
Patel, Trupti NV ; Vasan, Richa ; Gupta, Divanshu ; Patel, Jay ; Trivedi, Manjari ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3085~3090
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3085
The telomeric end structures of the DNA are known to contain tandem repeats of TTAGGG sequence bound with specialised protein complex called the "shelterin complex". It comprises six proteins, namely TRF1, TRF2, TIN2, POT1, TPP1 and RAP1. All of these assemble together to form a complex with double strand and single strand DNA repeats at the telomere. Such an association contributes to telomere stability and its protection from undesirable DNA damage control-specific responses. However, any alteration in the structure and function of any of these proteins may lead to undesirable DNA damage responses and thus cellular senescence and death. In our review, we throw light on how mutations in the proteins belonging to the shelterin complex may lead to various malfunctions and ultimately have a role in tumorigenesis and cancer progression.
Benefits and Harms of Phytoestrogen Consumption in Breast Cancer Survivors
Alipour, Sadaf ; Jafari-Adli, Shahrzad ; Eskandari, Amirhossein ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3091~3096
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3091
Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm and the second most common cause of cancer death in women. This malignancy is recognized to be estrogen-dependent and due to this feature, hormone replacement therapy is regarded as potentially dangerous in breast cancer survivors who seek relief of their menopausal symptoms. Whereas hot flashes are detected in nearly half of postmenopausal women with a relatively high frequency and severity, botanic sources of estrogens have been proposed as an alternative treatment. Nevertheless, estrogenic properties of these compounds suggest possibility of stimulating cancer recurrence or worsening prognosis in survivors. As well, effects in improving vasomotor climacteric changes is controversial. Many studies have considered the subject, some focusing on efficacy of phytoestrogens for control of menopausal symptoms, and others discussing effects of these compounds on breast cancer outcome in terms of survival or recurrence. The present article is a concise review of the effects of consumption of phytoestrogens on menopausal symptoms, namely hot flashes, and breast cancer recurrence and mortality in survivors of the disease. Overall, the major part of the current existing literature is in favor of positive effects of phytoestrogens on breast cancer prognosis, but the efficacy on menopausal symptoms is probably minimal at the best.
What is the Most Suitable Time Period to Assess the Time Trends in Cancer Incidence Rates to Make Valid Predictions - an Empirical Approach
Ramnath, Takiar ; Shah, Varsha Premchandbhai ; Krishnan, Sathish Kumar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3097~3100
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3097
Projections of cancer cases are particularly useful in developing countries to plan and prioritize both diagnostic and treatment facilities. In the prediction of cancer cases for the future period say after 5 years or after 10 years, it is imperative to use the knowledge of past time trends in incidence rates as well as in population at risk. In most of the recently published studies the duration for which the time trend was assessed was more than 10 years while in few studies the duration was between 5-7 years. This raises the question as to what is the optimum time period which should be used for assessment of time trends and projections. Thus, the present paper explores the suitability of different time periods to predict the future rates so that the valid projections of cancer burden can be done for India. The cancer incidence data of selected cancer sites of Bangalore, Bhopal, Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai PBCR for the period of 1991-2009 was utilized. The three time periods were selected namely 1991-2005; 1996-2005, 1999-2005 to assess the time trends and projections. For the five selected sites, each for males and females and for each registry, the time trend was assessed and the linear regression equation was obtained to give prediction for the years 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009. These predictions were compared with actual incidence data. The time period giving the least error in prediction was adjudged as the best. The result of the current analysis suggested that for projections of cancer cases, the 10 years duration data are most appropriate as compared to 7 year or 15 year incidence data.
Allele and Genotype Frequencies of the Polymorphic Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase and Lung Cancer in ther Jordanian Population: a Case Control Study
Al-Motassem, Yousef ; Shomaf, Maha ; Said, Ismail ; Berger, Sondra ; Ababneh, Nidaa ; Diab, Ola ; Obeidat, Nathir ; Awidi, Abdallah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3101~3109
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3101
Background: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is involved in amino acid synthesis and DNA function. Two common polymorphisms are reported, C677T and A1298C, that are implicated in a number of human diseases, including cancer. Objective: The association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C genotype and haplotype frequencies in risk for lung cancer (LC) was investigated in the Jordanian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 98 LC cases were studied for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms, compared to 89 controls taken from the general population, employing the PCR-RFLP technique. Results: The frequency of the genotypes of MTHFR C677T among Jordanians was: CC, 59.6%, CT, 33%; and TT, 7.4% among LC cases and 49.4%, 40.2% and 10.3% among controls. No significant association was detected between genetic polymorphism at this site and LC. At MTHFR A12987C, the genotype distribution was AA, 29.5%; AC, 45.3%, and CC 25.3% among LC cases and 36.8%, 50.6% and 12.6% among controls. Carriers of the CC genotype were more likely to have LC (OR=2.5; 95%CI: 1.04-6; p=0.039) as compared to AA carriers. Smokers and males with the CC genotype were 9.9 and 6.7 times more likely to have LC, respectively (
; 95%CI: 1.2-84.5, p=0.018;
; 95%CI: 1.7-26.2, p=0.005). Haplotype analysis of MTHFR polymorphism at the two loci showed differential distribution of the CC haplotype (677C-1298C) between cases and controls. The CC haplotype was associated with an increased risk for lung cancer (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.03-2.4, p=0.037). Conclusions: The genetic polymorphism of MTHFR at 1298 and the CC haplotype (risk is apparently lower with the C allele at position 677) may modulate the risk for LC development among the Jordanian population. Risk associated with the 1298C allele is increased in smokers and in males. The results indicate that a critical gene involved in folate metabolism plays a modifying role in lung cancer risk, at least in the Jordanian population.
Changing patterns of Serum CEA and CA199 for Evaluating the Response to First-line Chemotherapy in Patients with Advanced Gastric Adenocarcinoma
He, Bo ; Zhang, Hui-Qing ; Xiong, Shu-Ping ; Lu, Shan ; Wan, Yi-Ye ; Song, Rong-Feng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3111~3116
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3111
Background: This study was designed to investigate the value of CEA and CA199 in predicting the treatment response to palliative chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: We studied 189 patients with advanced gastric cancer who received first-line chemotherapy, measured the serum CEA and CA199 levels, used RECIST1.1 as the gold standard and analyzed the value of CEA and CA199 levels changes in predicting the treatment efficacy of chemotherapy. Results: Among the 189 patients, 80 and 94 cases had increases of baseline CEA (
) and CA199 levels (
), respectively. After two cycles of chemotherapy, 42.9% patients showed partial remission, 33.3% stable disease, and 23.8% progressive disease. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for CEA and CA199 reduction in predicting effective chemotherapy were 0.828 (95%CI 0.740-0.916) and 0.897 (95%CI 0.832-0.961). The AUCs for CEA and CA199 increase in predicting progression after chemotherapy were 0.923 (95%CI 0.865-0.980) and 0.896 (95%CI 0.834-0.959), respectively. Patients who exhibited a CEA decline
and a CA199 decline
had significantly longer PFS (log rank p=0.001, p<0.001). With the exception of patients who presented with abnormal levels after chemotherapy, changes of CEA and CA199 levels had limited value for evaluating the chemotherapy efficacy in patients with normal baseline tumor markers. Conclusions: Changes in serum CEA and CA199 levels can accurately predict the efficacy of first-line chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer. Patients with levels decreasing beyond the optimal critical values after chemotherapy have longer PFS.
Association Study of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms of STAT2/STAT3/IFN-γ Genes in Cervical Cancer in Southern Chinese Han Women
Yuan, Yuan ; Fan, Jie-Lin ; Yao, Fang-Ling ; Wang, Kang-Tao ; Yu, Ying ; Carlson, Jennifer ; Li, Ming ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3117~3120
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3117
) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) each play an important role in carcinogenesis associated with viral infection. Cervical cancer is almost invariably associated with infection by human papillomavirus (HPV), and previous studies suggested that dysregulation of the signal pathway involved in IFN-
and STATs is associated. Our objective was to evaluate the association of SNPs in STAT2, STAT3, and IFN-
with cervical cancer susceptibility in Chinese Han women in Hunan province. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of 234 cervical cancer patients and 216 healthy female controls. STAT2 and STAT3 genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme (PCR-RE) analysis. IFN-
genotyping was detected by PCR-amplification of specific allele (PASA). Results: For STAT2 rs2066807 polymorphisms, there was no significant difference of genotype distribution (P=0.827) and allele frequencies (P=0.830, OR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.51-2.31) between cases and controls. For STAT3 rs957970 polymorphisms, there was no significant difference of genotype distribution (P=0.455) and allele frequencies (P=0.560, OR=0.92, 95% CI: 0.71-1.20) between cases and controls. For IFN-
+874A/T polymorphisms, there was no significant difference of genotype distribution (P=0.652) and allele frequencies (P=0.527, OR=1.12, 95% CI: 0.79-1.59) between cases and controls. Conclusion: These results suggest that polymorphisms in STAT2, STAT3 and IFN-
genes are not likely to be strong predictors of cervical cancer in Han women in southern China.
Association of Educational Levels with Survival in Indian Patients with Cancer of the Uterine Cervix
Krishnatreya, Manigreeva ; Kataki, Amal Chandra ; Sharma, Jagannath Dev ; Nandy, Pintu ; Gogoi, Gayatri ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3121~3123
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3121
The main objective of this paper was to assess the influence of educational level on the survival of uterine cervix cancer patients in our population. A total of 224 patients were registered in our registry, of which 178 had information on stage and different educational levels. The overall median survival (MS) was 23 months, with values of 18.5, 20.7 and 41.3 months for the illiterate, literate and qualified groups, respectively. In the illiterate patients, stage I was seen in 2.6% and stage IV in 11.8%, while in other 2 groups stage I was seen in 10% to 17% of patients at the time of diagnosis. The survival probability at around 50 months was around 42%, 30% and 26% (approximately) for qualified, literates and illiterates respectively [Log Rank (Mantel-Cox) showed p=0.023]. Emphasis on imparting education to females can be a part of comprehensive cancer control programme for improving the overall survival in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix in our population.
Complementary Alternative Medicine Use Amongst Breast Cancer Patients in the Northern Region of Peninsular Malaysia
Knight, Aishah ; Hwa, Yen Siew ; Hashim, Hasnah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3125~3130
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3125
Background: Breast cancer is a common cancer affecting women in Malaysia and the use of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) has been associated with delays in getting treatment. The aim of the study was to explore the use of CAM and the influencing factors in the Northern region of Peninsular Malaysia. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study on a convenience sample of 100 Malaysian breast cancer survivors. Findings: The reported use of CAM among the breast cancer survivors was lower than in other studies but the types of CAM used had a similar pattern with nutrition supplements/vitamins being the most common. The factors that positively influenced the use of complimentary/traditional therapy were income and getting information from television or radio. Survivors with access to internet/blogs appear to have lower odds of using complimentary/traditional therapy compared to the respondents who reported no such access. Conclusions: Information transmitted via television and radio appears to have a positive influence on CAM use by breast cancer patients compared to other information sources and it is important to ensure that such information is accurate and impartial.
The High Expressed Serum Soluble Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule, a High Risk Factor Indicating Hepatic Encephalopathy in Hepatocelular Carcinoma Patients
Liu, Tian-Hua ; Guo, Kun ; Liu, Ri-Qiang ; Zhang, Shu ; Huang, Zhuo-Hui ; Liu, Yin-Kun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3131~3135
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3131
Objective: To investigate whether the expression of serum soluble neural cell adhesion molecule (sNCAM) is associated with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in hepatocelular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Materials and Methods: The Oncomine Cancer Microarray database was used to determine the clinical relevance of NCAM expression in different kinds of human cancers. Sera from 75 HCC cases enrolled in this study were assessed for expression of sNCAM by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Dependent on the Oncomine Cancer Microarray database analysis, NCAM was down regulated in 10 different kinds of cancer, like bladder cancer, brain and central nervous system cancer, while up-regulated in lung cancer, uterine corpus leiomyoma and sarcoma, compared to normal groups. Puzzlingly, NCAM expression demonstrated no significant difference between normal and HCC groups. However, we found by quantitative ELISA that the level of sNCAM in sera from HCC patients with HE (
) was significantly more up-regulated than that in HCC patients without HE (
), the p-value being 0.008. sNCAM may be an important risk factor of HE in HCC patients, the correlation coefficients was 0.278 (P<0.05) on rank correlation analysis. Conclusions: This study highlights that up-regulated level of serum sNCAM is associated with HE in HCC patients and suggests that the high expression can be used as an indicator.
Immune Reconstitution of CD4
T Cells after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and its Correlation with Invasive Fungal Infection in Patients with Hematological Malignancies
Peng, Xin-Guo ; Dong, Yan ; Zhang, Ting-Ting ; Wang, Kai ; Ma, Yin-Jian ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3137~3140
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3137
Objective: To explore the immune reconstitution of
cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT) and its relationship with invasive fungal infection (IFI) in patients with hematological malignancies. Materials and Methods: Forty-seven patients with hematological malignancies undergoing Allo-HSCT in Binzhou Medical University Hospital from February, 2010 to October, 2014 were selected. At 1, 2 and 3 months after transplantation, the immune subpopulations and concentration of cytokines were assessed respectively using flow cytometry (FCM) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The incidence of IFI after transplantation and its correlation with immune reconstitution of
cells were investigated. Results: The number of
cells and immune subpopulations increased progressively after transplantation as time went on, but the subpopulation cell count 3 months after transplantation was still significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.01). In comparison to the control group, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 after transplantation rose evidently (p<0.01), while that of transforming growth factor-
) was decreased (p<0.01). There was no statistically significant difference level of interferon-
) (p>0.05). The incidence of IFI was 19.2% (9/47), and multivariate logistic regression revealed that IFI might be related to Th17 cell count (p<0.05), instead of Th1, Th2 and Treg cell counts as well as IL-6, IL-10, TGF-
levels (p>0.05). Conclusions: After Allo-HSCT, the immune reconstitution of
cells is delayed and Th17 cell count decreases obviously, which may be related to occurrence of IFI.
Accuracy of Endoscopic Ultrasonography for Determination of Tumor Invasion Depth in Gastric Cancer
Razavi, Seyed Mohsen ; Khodadost, Mahmoud ; Sohrabi, Masoudreza ; Keshavarzi, Azam ; Zamani, Farhad ; Rakhshani, Naser ; Ameli, Mitra ; Sadeghi, Reza ; Hatami, Khadijeh ; Ajdarkosh, Hossein ; Golmahi, Zeynab ; Ranjbaran, Mehdi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3141~3145
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3141
Background: Gastric cancer (GC) is one the common lethal cancers in Iran. Detection of GC in the early stages would assesses to improve the survival of patients. In this study, we attempt to evaluate the accuracy of EUS in detection depth of invasion of GC among Iranian Patients. Materials and Methods: This study is a retrospective study of patients with pathologically confirmed GC. They underwent EUS before initiating the treatment. The accuracy of EUS and agreement between the two methods was evaluated by comparing pre treatment EUS finding with post operative histopathological results. Results: The overall accuracy of EUS for T and N staging was 67.9% and 75.47, respectively. Underestimation and overestimation was seen in 22 (14.2%) and 40 (25.6%) respectively. The EUS was more accurate in large tumors and the tumors located in the middle and lower parts of the stomach. The EUS was more sensitive in T3 staging. The values of weighted Kappa from the T and N staging were 0.53 and 0.66, respectively. Conclusions: EUS is a useful modality for evaluating the depth of invasion of GC. The accuracy of EUS was higher if the tumor was located in the lower parts of the stomach and the size of the tumor was more than 3 cm. Therefore, judgments made upon other criteria evaluated in this study need to be reconsidered.
Role of CD10 Immunohistochemical Expression in Predicting Aggressive Behavior of Phylloides Tumors
Tariq, Muhammad Usman ; Haroon, Saroona ; Kayani, Naila ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3147~3152
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3147
Background: Phylloides tumors are rare breast neoplasms with a variable clinical course depending on the tumor category. Along with histologic features, the role of immunohistochemical staining has been studied in predicting their behavior. Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the role of CD 10 immunohistochemical staining in predicting survival, recurrence and metastasis in phylloides tumor. We also evaluated correlations of other clinicopathological features with overall and disease-free survival. Materials and Methods: CD10 expression was studied in 82 phylloides tumors divided into recurrent/metastatic and non-recurrent/non-metastatic cohorts. The Chi-square test was applied to determine the significance of differences in CD10 expression between outcome cohorts. Uni and multivariate survival analyses were also performed using log-rank test and Cox regression hazard models. Results: All 3 metastatic cases, 5 out of 6 (83.3%) recurrent cases and 37out of 73 (50.7%) non-recurrent and non-metastatic cases expressed significant (2+ or 3+) staining for CD10. This expression significantly varied between outcome cohorts (p<0.03). Tumor category and histological features including mitotic count and necrosis correlated significantly with recurrence and metastasis. A significant decrease in overall and disease free survival was seen with CD10 positivity, malignant category, increased mitoses and necrosis. Neither CD10 expression nor any other clinicopathologic feature proved to be an independent prognostic indicator in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: CD10 immunohistochemical staining can be used as a predictive tool for phylloides tumor but this expression should be interpreted in conjunction with tumor category.
Factors Related to Treatment Refusal in Taiwanese Cancer Patients
Chiang, Ting-Yu ; Wang, Chao-Hui ; Lin, Yu-Fen ; Chou, Shu-Lan ; Wang, Ching-Ting ; Juang, Hsiao-Ting ; Lin, Yung-Chang ; Lin, Mei-Hsiang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3153~3157
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3153
Background: Incidence and mortality rates for cancer have increased dramatically in the recent 30 years in Taiwan. However, not all patients receive treatment. Treatment refusal might impair patient survival and life quality. In order to improve this situation, we proposed this study to evaluate factors that are related to refusal of treatment in cancer patients via a cancer case manager system. Materials and Methods: This study analysed data from a case management system during the period from 2010 to 2012 at a medical center in Northern Taiwan. We enrolled a total of 14,974 patients who were diagnosed with cancer. Using the PRECEDE Model as a framework, we conducted logistic regression analysis to identify independent variables that are significantly associated with refusal of therapy in cancer patients. A multivariate logistic regression model was also applied to estimate adjusted the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results: A total of 253 patients (1.69%) refused treatment. The multivariate logistic regression result showed that the high risk factors for refusal of treatment in cancer patient included: concerns about adverse effects (p<0.001), poor performance(p<0.001), changes in medical condition (p<0.001), timing of case manager contact (p=.026), the methods by which case manager contact patients (p<0.001) and the frequency that case managers contact patients (
) (p=0.016). Conclusions: Cancer patients who refuse treatment have poor survival. The present study provides evidence of factors that are related to refusal of therapy and might be helpful for further application and improvement of cancer care.
Nedaplatin Salvage Chemotherapy for Cervical Cancer
Li, Wu-Ju ; Jiang, Jia-ying ; Wang, Xian-Lian ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3159~3162
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3159
Purpose: This systematic analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nedaplatin based salvage chemotherapy for treatment of patients with advanced cervical cancer. Methods: Clinical studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of nedaplatin based regimens on response and safety for patients with cervical cancer were identified using a predefined search strategy. Pooled response rates (RRs) were calculated. Results: For nedaplatin based regimens, 5 clinical studies including 264 patients with advanced cervical cancer were considered eligible for inclusion. The analysis showed that, in all patients, pooled RR was 74.6% (197/264). Major adverse effects were leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and nausea/vomiting. No treatment related death occurred with nedaplatin based treatment. Conclusion: This systematic analysis suggests that nedaplatin based regimens are associated with good activity with acceptable tolerability in treating patients with advanced cervical cancer.
Pooled Analysis of Pomalidomide for Treating Patients with Multiple Myeloma
Sun, Jia-Jia ; Zhang, Chi ; Zhou, Jun ; Yang, Hui-Lin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3163~3166
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3163
Background: Patients with refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma are considered to have a very poor prognosis, and new regimens are needed to improve this setting. Pomalidomide is a new immunomodulatory drug with high in vitro potency. Immunomodulatory drugs are hypothesized to act through multiple mechanisms. Here we performed a systemic analysis to evaluate pomalidomide-based chemotherapy (pomalidomide in combination with low-dose dexamethasone) as salvage treatment for patients with refractory and relapsed multiple myeloma. Methods: Clinical studies evaluating the efffectiveness of pomalidomide based regimens on response and safety for patients with refractory and relapsed multiple myeloma were identified using a predefined search strategy. Pooled response rate (RR) of treatment were calculated. Results: For pomalidomide based regimens, 4 clinical studies which including 291 patients with refractory and relapsed multiple myeloma were considered eligible for inclusion. Systemic analysis suggested that, in all patients, pooled RR was 41.2% (120/291). Major adverse effects were hematologic toxicity, including grade 1 or 2 anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia with pomalidomide based treatment. No treatment related death occurred. Conclusion: This pooled analysis suggests that pomalidomide in combination with low-dose dexamethasone is active with good tolerability in treating patients with refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma.
Investigation of Transition Types of HPV DNA Test Results over Time in Korean Women
Ko, Kiwoong ; Kwon, Min-Jung ; Woo, Hee-Yeon ; Park, Hyosoon ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3167~3172
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3167
Background: Understanding the history of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is important for interpretation of a positive HPV DNA screening test, future work-up and treatment. We investigated the transition of HPV DNA test results in Korean women, and analyzed the association of cytology result with transition type. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed annual HPV DNA test results for 5,274 subjects between January 2005 and December 2012. Each subject had a minimum of five annual tests over the eight-year period. Based on the pattern of results, the transition type for each subject was assigned to one of the following: negative, persistent, latent, transient, and unclassifiable. Associations of cytology results with the HPV DNA transition types, number of positive results, and the durations of positive results were also analyzed. Results: The proportion of abnormal cytology findings decreased in the following order of transition patterns: persistent, latent, transient, and negative. Among transient patterns, a duration of three years or more significantly correlated with cytology results of non-high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL; p<0.001). In the persistent group, duration of five years or more correlated with both non-HSIL and HSIL (p<0.001). Latent group showed no correlation with duration. Irrespective of patterns, having five or more positive results was significantly associated with HSIL (p<0.001). Conclusions: Our findings may contribute to better understanding of HPV infection, interpretation of HPV DNA screening results, and prediction of prognosis according to transition type.
Pro-(IL-18) and Anti-(IL-10) Inflammatory Promoter Genetic Variants (Intrinsic Factors) with Tobacco Exposure (Extrinsic Factors) May Influence Susceptibility and Severity of Prostate Carcinoma: A Prospective Study
Dwivedi, Shailendra ; Singh, Sarvesh ; Goel, Apul ; Khattri, Sanjay ; Mandhani, Anil ; Sharma, Praveen ; Misra, Sanjeev ; Pant, Kamlesh Kumar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3173~3181
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3173
Background: It has been hypothesized that IL-18 (pro-) and IL-10 (anti-) inflammatory genetic variants at -607 C/A-137G/C and -819C/T,-592C/A, respectively, may generate susceptibility and severity risk with various modes of tobacco exposure in prostate carcinoma (PCa) patients. IL-18 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine expressed on various cells including prostate gland elements, and is a key mediator of immune responses with anti-cancerous properties. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that is associated with tumour malignancy which causes immune escape. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted with 540 subjects, comprising 269 prostate carcinoma patients and 271 controls. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP and confirmed by real time PCR probe-based methods. Results: The findings indicated that the mutant heterozygous and homozygous genotype CC and GC+CC showed significant negative associations (p=0.01, OR=0.21; 95% CI: 0.08-0.51 and p=0.011, OR=0.43; 95% CI: 0.22-0.81, respectively) thus, less chance to be diagnosed as cancer against GG genotype of tobacco smoking patients. In addition, a heterozygous GC genotype at the same locus of IL-18 pro-inflammatory cytokine may aggravate the severity (OR=2.82; 95%CI 1.09-7.29 :p=001) so that patients are more likely to be diagnosed in advanced stage than with the GG wild homozygous genotype. Our results also illustrated that anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) genetic variants, although showing no significant association with susceptibility to cancer of the prostate, may gave profound effects on severity of the disease, as -819 TC (OR=4.60; 95%CI 1.35-15.73), and -592 AC (OR=5.04; 95%CI 1.08-25.43) of IL-10 in tobacco chewers and combined users (both chewers and smokers) respectively, are associated with diagnosis in more advanced stage than with other variants. Conclusions: We conclude that promoter genetic variants of IL-18 and IL-10 with various modes of tobacco exposure may affect not only susceptibility risk but also severity in prostate cancer.
Assessment of Arsenic Levels in Body Samples and Chronic Exposure in People Using Water with a High Concentration of Arsenic: a Field Study in Kutahya
Arikan, Inci ; Namdar, Nazli Dizen ; Kahraman, Cuneyt ; Dagci, Merve ; Ece, Ezgi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3183~3188
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3183
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of skin lesions, which is a health effect of chronic arsenic (As) exposure, and determine the hair/blood arsenic concentrations of people living in Kutahya villages who are using and drinking tap water with a high concentration of arsenic. Materials and Methods: A total of 303 people were included in the present cross-sectional study. A prepared questionnaire form was used to collect the participants' information and environmental history. Skin examination was performed on all participants. Hair, blood and water samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The cumulative arsenic index (CAI) was calculated for all participants. Results: Villages were divided into two groups according to the arsenic level (<
, Group I; >
, Group II) in their water. The prevalence of skin lesions, hair and blood arsenic level, and CAI were found to be higher in the Group II participants. There was a positive association between body arsenic levels and CAI in the participants of each group. Conclusions: The number of skin lesions and arsenic concentrations in body samples were found to increase with the water arsenic level and exposure time. We hope that sharing this study's results with local administrators will help accelerate the rehabilitation of water sources in Kutahya.
Expression of TS, RRM1, ERCC1, TUBB3 and STMN1 Genes in Tissues of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and its Significance in Guiding Postoperative Adjuvant Chemotherapy
Zou, Zhi-Qiang ; Du, Yi-Ying ; Sui, Gang ; Xu, Shi-Ning ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3189~3194
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3189
Background: To explore the expression of TS, RRM, ERCC1, TUBB3 and STMN1 genes in the tissues of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its significance in guiding the postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to detect the expression of TS, RRM, ERCC1, TUBB3 and STMN1 genes in the tissues of NSCLC patients so as to analyze the relationship between the expression of each gene and the clinical characteristics and to guide the postoperative individualized chemotherapy according to the detection results of NSCLC patients. Results: Expression of TS gene was evidently higher in patients with adenocarcinoma than those with non-adenocarcinoma (P=0.013) and so was the expression of ERCC1 (P=0.003). The expression of TUBB3 gene was obviously higher in NSCLC patients in phases I/II and IV than those in phase III (
), and it was also markedly higher in patients without lymph node metastasis than those with (P=0.008). The expression of STMN1 gene was apparently higher in patients in phase I/II than those in phase IV (P=0.002). There was no significant difference between the rest gene expression and the clinical characteristics of NSCLC patients (P>0.05). Additionally, the diseasefree survival (DFS) was significantly longer in patients receiving gene detections than those without (P=0.021). Conclusions: The selection of chemotherapeutic protocols based singly on patients' clinical characteristics has certain blindness. However, the detection of tumor-susceptible genes can guide the postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and prolong the DFS of NSCLC patients.
Betaine Effects on Morphology, Proliferation, and p53-induced Apoptosis of HeLa Cervical Carcinoma Cells in Vitro
Guo, Yu ; Xu, Li-Sha ; Zhang, Ding ; Liao, Ya-Ping ; Wang, Hai-ping ; Lan, Zhi-Hui ; Guan, Wei-Jun ; Liu, Chang-Qing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3195~3201
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3195
Objectives: To investigate the effects of betaine on HeLa cell growth and apoptosis and molecular mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, 5.0, 20.0, 100.0 mg/ml of betaine were used to evaluate the anticancer efficacy for HeLa cells respectively, and MCF-10A was also detected as a normal diploid cell control. Results: We found that proliferation of HeLa cells was inhibited significantly upon exposure to increasing betaine levels with the MTT test (p<0.05). The percentage of S phase cells in the low dose groups (<5mg/ml) were distinctly higher than in high dose groups, and the rates of Sub-G1 phase were the opposite (p<0.01); A high concentration of betaine (>5.0mg/ml) significantly promoted the apoptosis of HeLa cells (p<0.01). SOD activities of the low dose groups were slightly higher than the control group (p<0.05) and there were obvious synchronicity and correlation among the expression of promoting apoptosis genes Bax, P53, Caspase 3 and apoptosis suppression gene Bcl-2. In response to an apoptosis-inducing stimulus, p53 and cyclin D1 could be activated with blockage of the cell cycle at G1/S or S/G2 checkpoints. Conclusions: Our data showed that betaine could promote HeLa cells proliferation in vitro at low concentrations. In contrast, high concentrations could significantly inhibit cell growth and migration, and induce apoptosis of HeLa cells through caspase 3 signaling and further promoted necrosis. This might imply that betaine exhibits tumoricidal effects and acts as a biological response modifier in cancer treatment by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in a dose and time-dependent manner.
Safety Management Status among Nurses Handling Anticancer Drugs: Nurse Awareness and Performance Following Safety Regulations
Jeong, Kyeong Weon ; Lee, Bo-Young ; Kwon, Myung Soon ; Jang, Ji-Hye ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3203~3211
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3203
This study identified the actual conditions for safe anticancer drug management among nurses and the relationship between level of awareness and performance of anticancer drug safety regulations in terms of preparation, administration, and disposal. The respondents were 236 nurses working with chemotherapy in wards and outpatient clinics in five hospitals in and near Seoul. Safety regulations provided for the anticancer drug the Occupational Safety Health Administration (OSHA, 1999), as modified for an earlier study, were used. The results showed that the level of awareness and performance on the anticancer drug safety regulations indicate their preparation (
), administration (
), general handling and disposal (
) on a scale 0 to 5. Also, there were significant differences in job positions, work experience, type of preparation, and continuing education and a positive relationship between the level of awareness and nursing performance. Thus, nurses should receive continuing education on the handling of anticancer drugs to improve the level of performance following safety regulations.
2-deoxy-D-Glucose Synergizes with Doxorubicin or L-Buthionine Sulfoximine to Reduce Adhesion and Migration of Breast Cancer Cells
Mustafa, Ebtihal H ; Mahmoud, Huda T ; Al-Hudhud, Mariam Y ; Abdalla, Maher Y ; Ahmad, Iman M ; Yasin, Salem R ; Elkarmi, Ali Z ; Tahtamouni, Lubna H ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3213~3222
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3213
Background: Cancer metastasis depends on cell motility which is driven by cycles of actin polymerization and depolymerization. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and metabolic oxidative stress have long been associated with cancer. ROS play a vital role in regulating actin dynamics that are sensitive to oxidative modification. The current work aimed at studying the effects of sub-lethal metabolic oxidative stress on actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion and cell migration. Materials and Methods: T47D human breast cancer cells were treated with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), or doxorubicin (DOX), individually or in combination, and changes in intracellular total glutathione and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. The expression of three major antioxidant enzymes was studied by immunoblotting, and cells were stained with fluorescent-phalloidin to evaluate changes in F-actin organization. In addition, cell adhesion and degradation ability were measured. Cell migration was studied using wound healing and transwell migration assays. Results: Our results show that treating T47D human breast cancer cells with drug combinations (2DG/BSO, 2DG/DOX, or BSO/DOX) decreased intracellular total glutathione and increased oxidized glutathione, lipid peroxidation, and cytotoxicity. In addition, the drug combinations caused a reduction in cell area and mitotic index, prophase arrest and a decreased ability to form invadopodia. The formation of F-actin aggregates was increased in treated T47D cells. Moreover, combination therapy reduced cell adhesion and the rate of cell migration. Conclusions: Our results suggest that exposure of T47D breast cancer cells to combination therapy reduces cell migration via effects on metabolic oxidative stress.
Laparoscopic Retroperitoneal Nephroureterectomy is a Safe and Adherent Modality for Obese Patients with Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma
Matsumoto, Kazumasa ; Hirayama, Takahiro ; Kobayashi, Kentaro ; Hirano, Syuhei ; Nishi, Morihiro ; Ishii, Daisuke ; Tabata, Ken-ichi ; Fujita, Tetsuo ; Iwamura, Masatugu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3223~3227
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3223
Objective: We evaluated the association of body mass index (BMI) with perioperative outcomes in patients who underwent laparoscopic or open radical nephroureterectomy. Materials and Methods: This retrospective single-center study included 113 patients who had been diagnosed with upper urinary tract cancer from January 1998 to June 2013 and were treated with laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (Lap group, n=60) or open nephroureterectomy (Open group, n=53). Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy was performed via a retroperitoneal approach following an open partial cystectomy. The two surgical groups were stratified into a normal-BMI group (<25) and a high-BMI group (
). The high-BMI group included 27 patients: 13 in the Lap group and 14 in the Open group. Results: Estimated blood loss (EBL) in the Lap group was much lower than that in the Open group irrespective of BMI (p<0.01). Operative time was significantly prolonged in normal-BMI patients in the Lap group compared to those in the Open group (p=0.03), but there was no difference in operative time between the Open and Lap groups among the high-BMI patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of the data for all the cohorts revealed that the open procedure was a significant risk factor for high EBL (p<0.0001, hazard ratio 8.02). Normal BMI was an independent predictor for low EBL (p=0.01, hazard ratio 0.25). There was no significant risk factor for operative time in multivariate analysis. There were no differences in blood transfusion rates or adverse event rates between the two surgical groups. Conclusions: Laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy via a retroperitoneal approach can be safely performed with significantly reduced EBL even in obese patients with upper urinary tract cancer.
Ultrasonographic Features of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: a Comparison with Other Breast Cancer Subtypes
Yang, Qi ; Liu, Hong-Yan ; Liu, Dan ; Song, Yan-Qiu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3229~3232
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3229
Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is known to be associated with aggressive biologic features and a poor clinical outcome. Therefore, early detection of TNBC without missed diagnosis is a requirement to improve prognosis. Preoperative ultrasound features of TNBC may potentially assist in early diagnosis as characteristics of disease. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the sonographic features of TNBC compared to ER (+) cancers which include HER(-) and HER2 (+), and HER2 (+) cancers which are ER (-). Materials and Methods: From June 2012 through June 2014, sonographic features of 321 surgically confirmed ER (+) cancers (n=214), HER2 (+) cancers (n=66), and TNBC (n=41) were retrospectively reviewed by two ultrasound specialists in consensus. The preoperative ultrasound and clinicopathological features were compared between the three subtypes. In addition, all cases were analyzed using morphologic criteria of the ACR BI-RADS lexicon. Results: Ultrasonographically, TNBC presented as microlobulated nodules without microcalcification (p=0.034). A lower incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (p<0.001), invasive tumor size that is>2 cm (p=0.011) and BI-RADS category 4 (p<0.001) were significantly associated with TNBC. With regard to morphologic features of 41 TNBC cases, ultrasonographically were most likely to be masses with irregular (70.7%) microlobulated shape (48.8%), be circumscribed (17.1%) or have indistinct margins (17.1%) and parallel orientation (68.9%). Especially TNBC microlobulated mass margins were more more frequent than with ER (+) (2.0%) and HER2 (+) (4.8%) cancers. Conclusions: TNBC have specific characteristic in sonograms. Ultrasonography may be useful to avoid missed diagnosis and false-negative cases of TNBC.
Depression and the Risk of Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies
Sun, Hui-Lian ; Dong, Xiao-Xin ; Cong, Ying-Jie ; Gan, Yong ; Deng, Jian ; Cao, Shi-Yi ; Lu, Zu-Xun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3233~3239
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3233
Background: Whether depression causes increased risk of the development of breast cancer has long been debated. We conducted an updated meta-analysis of cohort studies to assess the association between depression and risk of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Relevant literature was searched from Medline, Embase, Web of Science (up to April 2014) as well as manual searches of reference lists of selected publications. Cohort studies on the association between depression and breast cancer were included. Data abstraction and quality assessment were conducted independently by two authors. Random-effect model was used to compute the pooled risk estimate. Visual inspection of a funnel plot, Begg rank correlation test and Egger linear regression test were used to evaluate the publication bias. Results: We identified eleven cohort studies (182,241 participants, 2,353 cases) with a follow-up duration ranging from 5 to 38 years. The pooled adjusted RR was 1.13(95% CI: 0.94 to 1.36;
, p=0.001). The association between the risk of breast cancer and depression was consistent across subgroups. Visual inspection of funnel plot and Begg's and Egger's tests indicated no evidence of publication bias. Regarding limitations, a one-time assessment of depression with no measure of duration weakens the test of hypothesis. In addition, 8 different scales were used for the measurement of depression, potentially adding to the multiple conceptual problems concerned with the definition of depression. Conclusions: Available epidemiological evidence is insufficient to support a positive association between depression and breast cancer.
Results of Intravesical Chemo-Hyperthermia in High-risk Non-muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer
Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan ; Akarken, Ilker ; Cakmak, Ozgur ; Tarhan, Huseyin ; Celik, Orcun ; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem ; Divrik, Rauf Taner ; Zorlu, Ferruh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3241~3245
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3241
Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of mitomycin-C and chemo-hyperthermia in combination for patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: Between November 2011-September 2013, 43 patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer undergoing adjuvant chemo-hyperthermia in two centers were evaluated retrospectively. Treatment consisted of 6 weekly sessions, followed by 6 sessions. Recurrence and progression rate, recurrence-free interval and side effects were examined. Analyzed factors included age, gender, smoking status, AB0 blood group, body mass index, T stage and grade, concominant CIS assets. The associations between predictors and recurrence were assessed using multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses. Results: A total of 40 patients completed induction therapy. Thirteen (32.5%) were diagnosed with tumor recurrence. Median follow-up was 30 months (range 9-39). Median recurrence-free survival was 23 months (range 6-36). The Kaplan-Meier-estimated recurrence-free rates for the entire group at 12 and 24 months were 82% and 61%. There was no statistically significant difference between patient subgroups. Cox hazard analyses showed that an A blood type (OR=6.23, p=0.031) was an independent predictor of recurrence-free. Adverse effects were seen in 53% of patients and these were frequently grades 1 and 2. Conclusions: Intravesical therapy with combination of mitomycin-C and chemohyperthermia seems to be appropriate in high-risk patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer who cannot tolerate or have contraindications for standard BCG therapy.
Lay Beliefs, Knowledge, and Attitudes Towards Cancer: a Pilot Study in Japan
Tsuchiya, Miyako ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3247~3251
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3247
Background: The attendance rates for cancer screening are low in Japan. Little is actually known about how the Japanese perceive cancer. Since beliefs about illness affect individuals' health care practice, the aim of this study was to explore beliefs about cancer and factors associated with those beliefs, focusing on representative cancer sites. Materials and Methods: Japanese adults (
years old) who had not been diagnosed with any cancers and were not health care professionals were recruited, using a convenience sampling approach. A total of 91 participants completed questionnaires including open-ended questions. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the responses. Results: Five themes were suggested: (i) a threatening illness that might greatly change one's future life; (ii) basic cancer knowledge; (iii) a curable illness with early detection and adequate treatment; (iv) causes of cancer; and (v) anyone can develop cancer. Families or friends' negative consequences of cancer were associated with negative beliefs about the disease. Gestational cancer was the most representative site of most themes. Conclusions: A threatening illness (e.g., death or incurable illness) was the most common belief among the Japanese laypeople. Importance of early detection and treatments should be more emphasized, and future screening programs should include strategies modifying negative cancer beliefs among Japanese laypeople.
CYP2C19 Genotype Could be a Predictive Factor for Aggressive Manifestations of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Related with Chronic Hepatitis B Infection in Thailand
Nun-anan, Pongjarat ; Chonprasertsuk, Soonthorn ; Siramolpiwat, Sith ; Tangaroonsanti, Anupong ; Bhanthumkomol, Patommatat ; Pornthisarn, Bubpha ; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3253~3256
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3253
Background: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem in the Asia-Pacific region including Thailand. Several factors have been proposed as contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis. This study was aimed to investigate the impact of CYP2C19 genotypic polymorphism in HCC related to chronic HBV infection in Thailand. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed between April 2014 and January 2015. Chronic HBV patients with HCC (n=50) and without HCC (n=50) were included. Clinical information and blood samples of all patients were collected. The CYP2C19 genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method, and was classified as rapid metabolizer (RM), intermediate metabolizer (IM) or poor metabolizer (PM). Results: The CYP2C19 genotype frequencies of RM, IM and PM in HBV patients were found to be 19/50 (38%), 25/50 (50%) and 6/50 (12%), respectively. The CYP2C19 genotype frequencies of RM, IM and PM in HBV with HCC patients were 21/50 (42%), 25/50 (50%) and 4/50 (8%), respectively. The distribution of CYP2C19 genotype was not different between patients with and without HCC. Interestingly, among HBV with HCC patients, the RM genotype of CYP2C19 tended to increase risk of aggressive manifestation (OR=2.89, 95%CI=0.76-11.25, P-value=0.07), compared with non RM genotype carriers. Conclusions: CYP2C19 genotype IM was the most common genotype in Thai patients with chronic HBV infection. In addition, genotype RM could be an associated factor for aggressive presentation in HCC related to chronic HBV infection.
Adjuvant Radiotherapy after Breast Conserving Treatment for Breast Cancer:A Dosimetric Comparison between Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy and Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy
Liu, Zhe-Ming ; Ge, Xiao-Lin ; Chen, Jia-Yan ; Wang, Pei-Pei ; Zhang, Chi ; Yang, Xi ; Zhu, Hong-Cheng ; Liu, Jia ; Qin, Qin ; Xu, Li-Ping ; Lu, Jing ; Zhan, Liang-Liang ; Cheng, Hong-Yan ; Sun, Xin-Chen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3257~3265
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3257
Background: Radiotherapy is an important treatment of choice for breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery, and we compare the feasibility of using dual arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT2), single arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT1) and Multi-beam Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (M-IMRT) on patients after breast-conserving surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with breast cancer (half right-sided and half left-sided) treated by conservative lumpectomy and requiring whole breast radiotherapy with tumor bed boost were planned with three different radiotherapy techniques: 1) VMAT1; 2) VMAT2; 3) M-IMRT. The distributions for the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were compared. Dosimetries for all the techniques were compared. Results: All three techniques satisfied the dose constraint well. VMAT2 showed no obvious difference in the homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index (CI) of the PTV with respect to M-IMRT and VMAT1. VMAT2 clearly improved the treatment efficiency and can also decrease the mean dose and V5Gy of the contralateral lung. The mean dose and maximum dose of the spinal cord and contralateral breast were lower for VMAT2 than the other two techniques. The very low dose distribution (V1Gy) of the contralateral breast also showed great reduction in VMAT2 compared with the other two techniques. For the ipsilateral lung of right-sided breast cancer, the mean dose was decreased significantly in VMAT2 compared with VMAT1 and M-IMRT. The V20Gy and V30Gy of the ipsilateral lung of the left-sided breast cancer for VMAT2 showed obvious reduction compared with the other two techniques. The heart statistics of VMAT2 also decreased considerably compared to VMAT1 and M-IMRT. Conclusions: Compared to the other two techniques, the dual arc volumetric modulated arc therapy technique reduced radiation dose exposure to the organs at risk and maintained a reasonable target dose distribution.
Comparative Effectiveness of Risk-adapted Surveillance vs Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection in Clinical Stage I Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Testicular Cancer: A Retrospective Follow-up Study of 81 Patients
Fan, Gang ; Zhang, Lin ; Yi, Lu ; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang ; Ke, Yang ; Wang, Xiao-Shan ; Xiong, Ying-Ying ; Han, Wei-Qin ; Zhou, Xiao ; Liu, Chun ; Yu, Xie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3267~3272
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3267
Purpose: To retrospective assess the potential predictors for relapse and create an effective clinical mode for surveillance after orchidectomy in clinical stage I non-seminomatous germ cell testicular tumors (CSI-NSGCTs). Materials and Methods: We analyzed data for CSI-NSGCTs patients with non-lymphatic vascular invasion, %ECa < 50% (percentage of embryonal carcinoma < 50%), and negative or declining tumor markers to their half-life following orchidectomy (defined as low-risk patients); these patients were recruited from four Chinese centers between January 1999 and October 2013. Patients were divided into active surveillance group and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) group according to different therapeutic methods after radical orchidectomy was performed. The disease-free survival rates (DFSR) and overall survival rates (OSR) of the two groups were compared by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: A total of 121 patients with CSI-NSGCT were collected from four centers, and 81 low-risk patients, including 54 with active surveillance and 27 with RPLND, were enrolled at last. The median follow-up duration was 66.2 (range 6-164) months in the RPLND group and 65.9 (range 8-179) months in the surveillance group. OSR was 100% in active surveillance and RPLND groups, and DFSR was 89.8% and 87.0%, respectively. No significant difference was observed between these two groups (
, P=0.743). No significant difference was observed between the patients with a low percentage of embryonal carcinoma (<50%) and those without embryonal carcinoma (87.0% and 91.9%,
, P=0.645). No treatment-related complications were observed in the active surveillance group whereas minor and major complications were observed in 13.0% and 26.1% of the RPLND group, respectively. Conclusions: Active surveillance resulted in similar DFSR and OSR compared with RPLND in our trial. Patients with low-risk CSI-NSGCTs could benefit from risk-adapted surveillance after these patients were subjected to radical orchidectomy.
Application of a Network Scale-up Method to Estimate the Size of Population of Breast, Ovarian/Cervical, Prostate and Bladder Cancers
Haghdoost, Ali Akbar ; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza ; Haji-Maghsoodi, Saeedeh ; Molavi-Vardanjani, Hossein ; Mohebbi, Elham ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3273~3277
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3273
Network scale up (NSU) is a novel approach to estimate parameters in hard to reach populations through asking people the number of individuals they know in their active social network. Although the method have been used in hidden populations, advantages of NSU indicate that exploration of applicability to disease like cancer might be feasible. The aim of this study was to assess the application of NSU to estimate the size of the population of breast, ovarian/cervical, prostate, and bladder cancers in the South-east of Iran. A total of 3,052 (99% response rate) Kermanian people were interviewed in 2012-2013. Based on NSU, participants were asked about if they know any people on their social network who suffered from breast, ovarian/cervical, prostate, and bladder cancers, if yes, they should enumerate them. A total of 1,650 persons living with four types of cancers (breast, ovary/cervix, prostate, and bladder) were identified by the respondents. Totally, the prevalence of people living with the four types of cancers was 228.4 per 100,000 Kermanian inhabitants. The most prevalent cancer was breast cancer, at 168.9 per 100,000, followed by prostate cancer with 116.9, ovarian/cervical cancer with 99.8, and bladder cancer with 36.3 per 100000 Kerman city population. NSU values provide a usable but not very precise way of estimating the size of subpopulations in the context of the four major cancers (breast, ovary/cervix, prostate, and bladder).
Characteristics of Young Colorectal Cancer in Brunei Darussalam: an Epidemiologic Study of 29 Years (1986-2014)
Koh, Kai Shing ; Telisinghe, Pemasari Upali ; Bickle, Ian ; Abdullah, Muhammad Syafiq ; Chong, Chee Fui ; Chong, Vui Heng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3279~3283
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3279
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common gastrointestinal cancer and the incidence is increasing. CRC is more common with increasing age, but a proportion occurs in young adults, termed young CRC. This study assessed the incidence and the demographic of young CRC in Brunei Darussalam. Materials and Methods: All histologically proven CRC between 1986 and 2014 registered with the Department of Pathology cancer registry were reviewed and data extracted for analyses. Young CRC was defined as cancer in patients aged less than 45 years. The various population groups were categorized into locals (Malays, Chinese and Indigenous) and expatriates. Results: Over the study period, there were 1,126 histologically proven CRC (mean age
years, Male 58.0%, Locals 91.8% and 8.2% expatriates). Young CRC accounted for 15.1% with the proportion declining over the years, from 29% (1986-1990) to 13.2% (2011-2014). The proportion of young CRC was highest among the indigenous (30.8%), followed by the expatriates (29.3%), Malays (14.3%) and lowest among the Chinese (10.8%). The mean age of young CRC was
; lowest among the indigenous (
), expatriate (
) groupd and the Malays (
) compared to the Chinese (
), a similar trend being observed in the non-young CRC groups. There were no difference between the genders and tumor locations (rectum or colon) between the young and the non-young CRC cases. Female young CRC was significantly younger than male (p<0.05) without any significant variation between the various population groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Our study showed that the young CRC accounted for 15.1% of all CRC with declining trend observed over recent years. Young CRC was more common among indigenous, expatriates and Malays and least common among the Chinese. There were no differences in the gender and tumor locations.
Association of XRCC1 Arg399Gln Polymorphism with Colorectal Cancer Risk: A HuGE Meta Analysis of 35 Studies
Forat-Yazdi, Mohammad ; Gholi-Nataj, Mohsen ; Neamatzadeh, Hossein ; Nourbakhsh, Parisa ; Shaker-Ardakani, Hossein ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3285~3291
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3285
Background: Non-synonymous polymorphisms in XRCC1 hase been shown to reduce effectiveness of DNA repair and be associated with risk of certain cancers. In this study we aimed to clarify any association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk by performing a meta-analysis of published case-control studies. Materials and Methods: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched to explore the association between XRCC1 and CRC. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the association strength. Publication bias was assessed by Egger's and Begg's tests. Results: Up to January 2015, 35 case control studies involving 9,114 CRC cases and 13,948 controls were included in the present meta-analysis. The results showed that the Arg399Gln polymorphism only under an allele genetic model was associated with CRC risk (A vs. G: OR 0.128, 95% CI 0.119-0.138, p<0.001). Also, this meta-analysis suggested that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism might associated with susceptibility to CRC in Asians (A vs G: OR 0.124, 95% CI 0.112-0.138, p<0.001) and Caucasian (A vs G: OR 0.132, 95% CI 0.119-0.146, p<0.001) only under an allele genetic model. Conclusions: This meta-analysis confirms the association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism and CRC risk and suggests that the heterogeneity is not strongly modified by ethnicity and deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
ALEX1 Regulates Proliferation and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells
Gao, Yue ; Wu, Jia-Yan ; Zeng, Fan ; Liu, Ge-Li ; Zhang, Han-Tao ; Yun, Hong ; Song, Fang-Zhou ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3293~3299
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3293
Background: Arm protein lost in epithelial cancers, on chromosome X (ALEX) is a novel subgroup within the armadillo (ARM) family, which has one or two ARM repeat domains as opposed to more than six-thirteen repeats in the classical Armadillo family members. Materials and Methods: In the study, we explore the biological functions of ALEX1 in breast cancer cells. Overexpression of ALEX1 and silencing of ALEX1 were performed with SK-BR3 and MCF-7 cell lines. Cell proliferation and colony formation assays, along with flow cytometry, were carried out to evaluate the roles of ALEX1. Results: ALEX1 overexpression in SK-BR3 breast cancer cells inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, depletion of ALEX1 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells increased proliferation and inhibited apoptosis. Additional analyses demonstrated that the overexpression of ALEX1 activated the intrinsic apoptosis cascades through up-regulating the expression of Bax, cytosol cytochrome c, active caspase-9 and active caspase-3 and down-regulating the levels of Bcl-2 and mitochondria cytochrome c. Simultaneouly, silencing of ALEX1 inhibited intrinsic apoptosis cascades through down-regulating the expression of Bax, cytosol cytochrome c, active caspase-9, and active caspase-3 and up-regulating the level of Bcl-2 and mitochondria cytochrome c. Conclusions: Our data suggest that ALEX1 as a crucial tumor suppressor gene has been involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis in breast cancer, which may serve as a novel candidate therapeutic target.
Knocking Down Nucleolin Expression Enhances the Radiosensitivity of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Influencing DNA-PKcs Activity
Xu, Jian-Yu ; Lu, Shan ; Xu, Xiang-Ying ; Hu, Song-Liu ; Li, Bin ; Qi, Rui-Xue ; Chen, Lin ; Chang, Joe Y. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3301~3306
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3301
Nucleolin (C23) is an important anti-apoptotic protein that is ubiquitously expressed in exponentially growing eukaryotic cells. In order to understand the impact of C23 in radiation therapy, we attempted to investigate the relationship of C23 expression with the radiosensitivity of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. We investigated the role of C23 in activating the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), which is a critical protein for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair. As a result, we found that the expression of C23 was negatively correlated with the radiosensitivity of NSCLC cell lines. In vitro clonogenic survival assays revealed that C23 knockdown increased the radiosensitivity of a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, potentially through the promotion of radiation-induced apoptosis and adjusting the cell cycle to a more radiosensitive stage. Immunofluorescence data revealed an increasing quantity of
-H2AX foci and decreasing radiation-induced DNA damage repair following knockdown of C23. To further clarify the mechanism of C23 in DNA DSBs repair, we detected the expression of DNA-PKcs and C23 proteins in NSCLC cell lines. C23 might participate in DNA DSBs repair for the reason that the expression of DNA-PKcs decreased at 30, 60, 120 and 360 minutes after irradiation in C23 knockdown cells. Especially, the activity of DNA-PKcs phosphorylation sites at the S2056 and T2609 was significantly suppressed. Therefore we concluded that C23 knockdown can inhibit DNA-PKcs phosphorylation activity at the S2056 and T2609 sites, thus reducing the radiation damage repair and increasing the radiosensitivity of NSCLC cells. Taken together, the inhibition of C23 expression was shown to increase the radiosensitivity of NSCLC cells, as implied by the relevance to the notably decreased DNA-PKcs phosphorylation activity at the S2056 and T2609 clusters. Further research on targeted C23 treatment may promote effectiveness of radiotherapy and provide new targets for NSCLC patients.
Stromal Modulation and its Role in the Diagnosis of Papillary Patterned Thyroid Lesions
Daoud, Sahar Aly ; Esmail, Reham Shehab El Nemr ; Hareedy, Amal Ahmed ; Khalil, Abdullah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3307~3312
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3307
The papillary patterned lesion of thyroid may be challenging with many diagnostic pitfalls. Tumor stroma plays an important part in the determination of the tumor phenotype. CD34 is thought to be involved in the modulation of cell adhesion and signal transduction as CD34(+) fibrocytes are potent antigen-presenting cells. Smooth muscle actin (SMA) positivity could be diagnostic for fibroblast activation during tumorigenesis. We aimed to examine the expression of CD34 and alphaSMA in the stroma of papillary thyroid hyperplasia, papillary thyroid carcinoma and papillary tumors of uncertain malignant potential in order to elucidate their possible differential distribution and roles. A total number of 54 cases with papillary thyroid lesions were studied by routine H&E staining, CD34 and ASMA immunostaining. ASMA was not expressed in benign papillary hyperplastic lesions while it was expressed in papillary carcinoma, indicating that tumors have modulated stroma. Although the stroma was not well developed in papillary lesions with equivocal features of uncertain potentiality, CD34 was notable in such cases with higher incidence in malignant cases. So ASMA as well as CD34 could predict neoplastic behavior, pointing to the importance of the stromal role. Differences between groups suggest that the presence of CD34 + stromal cells is an early event in carcinogensis and is associated with neoplasia, however ASMA+ cells are more likely to be associated with malignant behavior and metastatic potential adding additional tools to the light microscopic picture helping in diagnosis of problematic cases with H&E.
Caregiver Burden and Perceived Social Support among Caregivers of Patients with Cancer
Kahriman, Fatma ; Zaybak, Ayten ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3313~3317
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3313
The purpose of this study is to describe the relationship between caregiver burden and perceived social support among caregivers of patients with cancer. The research was conducted in a university hospital in
, Turkey. Eighty patient relatives who provided care service to patients with cancer who were admitted at hematology and oncology clinics participated in the study. The findings indicated that the care burden score was mild level. The mean of the perceived social support score was
supporting the conclusion that there is a weak and negative-direct relation between caregiver and perceived social support and that as the perceived social support increased, conversely, care burden decreased.
Impact of Smoking Cessation Training for Community Pharmacists in Indonesia
Kristina, Susi Ari ; Thavorncharoensap, Montarat ; Pongcharoensuk, Petcharat ; Prabandari, Yayi Suryo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3319~3323
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3319
Background: Community pharmacists play an important role in tobacco control and adequate training on smoking cessation is essential. Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design was used. A one-day workshop on smoking cessation organized by Indonesian Pharmacists Association as part of PCE program was offered to 133 community pharmacists. The workshop consisted of a 3-hour lecture and a 3-hour role-play session. Pre-training and post-training surveys assessed the impact of training on parameters including knowledge, perceived role and self-efficacy with respect to smoking cessation counseling practices. Intention and ability to perform counseling using the 5A framework was assessed after training only. Results: After PCE, knowledge score significantly increased from
(p<0.001). Perceived role and self-efficacy in smoking cessation counseling also significantly increased from
, respectively (p<0.001). After the workshop, most participants were willing to ask, advise, and assess patients who ready to quit, but were still less likely to assist in quitting plans and arranging follow up counseling. More than 75% pharmacists were able to perform cessation counseling and 65% of them can completely perform a 5A brief intervention. Conclusions: PCE can enhance pharmacists' knowledge, perceived role, self-efficacy in cessation counseling practices, and create willingness and ability to perform cessation counseling. Future training is recommended to improve skills in assisting quitting plans and arranging follow up.
Aberrant Expression of Pim-3 Promotes Proliferation and Migration of Ovarian Cancer Cells
Zhuang, Hao ; Zhao, Man-Yin ; Hei, Kai-Wen ; Yang, Bai-Cai ; Sun, Li ; Du, Xue ; Li, Yong-Mei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3325~3331
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3325
Pim kinase-3(Pim-3), a member of serine/threonine protein kinases, has been implicated in multiple human cancers and involved in Myc-induced tumorigenesis. However, little is known regarding its expression and biological function in human ovarian cancer. In this study we showed that the clinical significance and biological functions of Pim-3 in ovarian cancer and found that higher Pim-3 mRNA level are detected in ovarian cancer tissues than those in normal ovarian tissues. There are significant correlations between higher Pim-3 expression levels with the FIGO stage, histopathological subtypes, and distant metastasis in ovarian cancer patients. Lentivirus-mediated gene overexpression of Pim-3 significantly promotes the proliferation and migration of SKOV3 cell lines. Furthermore, MACC1 and Pim-3 expression were significantly correlated in human ovarian cancer cells, and overexpression of Pim-3 in ovary cancer cells increased MACC1 mRNA and protein expression. The data indicate that Pim-3 acts as a putative oncogene in ovary cancer and could be a viable diagnostic and therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.
Imaging Anatomy of Waldeyer's Ring and PET/CT and MRI Findings of Oropharyngeal Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Zhang, Chun-Xing ; Liang, Long ; Zhang, Bin ; Chen, Wen-Bo ; Liu, Hong-Jun ; Liu, Chun-Ling ; Zhou, Zheng-Gen ; Liang, Chang-Hong ; Zhang, Shui-Xing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3333~3338
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3333
Background: This study was conducted to analyze positron emission tomography (PET) / computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performance with oropharyngeal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (ONHL).Materials and Methods: The complete image data of 30 ONHL cases were analyzed, all patients were performed PET / CT and MRI examination before the treatment, with the time interval of these two inspections not exceeding 14 days. The distribution, morphology, MRI signal characteristics, enhancement feature, standardized uptake value (SUV) max value and lymph node metastasis way of the lesions were analyzed. Results: Among the 30 cases, 23 cases were derived from the B-cell (76.7%), 5 cases were derived from the peripheral T cells (16.7%) and 2 cases were derived from the NK/T cells (6.7%). 19 cases exhibited the palatine tonsil involvement (63.3%). As for the lesion appearance, 10 cases appeared as mass, 8 cases were the diffused type and 12 cases were the mixed type. 25 cases exhibited the SUVmax value of PET / CT primary lesions as 11 or more (83.3%). MRI showed that all patients exhibited various degrees of parapharyngeal side-compressed narrowing, but MRI still exhibited the high-signal fat, and the oropharyngeal mucosa was intact. 25 cases were associated with the neck lymph node metastasis, among who 22 cases had no necrosis in the metastatic lymph nodes, while the rest 3 cases exhibited the central necrosis in the metastatic lymph nodes. Conclusions: PET / CT and MRI have important value in diagnosing and determining the lesion extent of ONHL.
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Gc Gene for Vitamin D Binding Protein in Common Cancers in Thailand
Maneechay, Wanwisa ; Boonpipattanapong, Teeranut ; Kanngurn, Samornmas ; Puttawibul, Puttisak ; Geater, Sarayut Lucien ; Sangkhathat, Surasak ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3339~3344
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3339
Background: This case-control study aimed to determine if there were any associations between the two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Gc, rs7041 (Asp416Glu) and rs4588 (Thr420Lys) and 3 common cancers (breast, lung and colorectal) in Thai patients. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and eighty two colorectal, 101 breast and 113 lung cancer patients were recruited from one institute during 2011-2013. The controls were age-matched volunteers who had a negative history of index cancers. In addition, vitamin D levels were compared among different genotypes in the 2 SNPs. Results: The minor allele frequencies of rs7041 (G) and rs4588 (A) were 0.32 and 0.24, respectively. Under the dominant model, the study found significant associations between minor-allele genotypes of the SNP rs7041 (TG/GG) and lung cancer (odds ratio [OR] 1.78, 95% CI 1.05-3.03). When subgroup analysis was performed according to sex and age at diagnosis, the study found that the minor-allele genotypes of rs7041 (TG/GG) were significantly associated with colorectal cancer in patients whose age at diagnosis was more than 60 years (OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.06-2.61) and the minor-allele genotypes of rs4588 (CA/AA) were significantly associated with colorectal cancer in males aged 60 years or less (OR 2.34, 95%CI 1.25-4.37). When SNP combinations (rs7041-rs4588) were examined, the TT-CA combination had a significant protective association with lung cancer (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.22-0.85). On evaluation of serum 25(OH)D levels in 205 individuals without cancer (males 144, females 61), the proportion of subjects with low serum vitamin D (< 20 ng/ml) in those harboring CA or AA genotypes of rs4588 (41.7%) was significantly higher than the CC genotype (15.5%, p-value < 0.01). Conclusions: Genetic polymorphisms in Gc were associated with lung and colorectal cancers in Thai patients. Lower serum 25(OH)D in minor variants of rs4588 may explain this association.
Evaluation of Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients with Cervical Cancer in Indonesia
Endarti, Dwi ; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn ; Thavorncharoensap, Montarat ; Praditsitthikorn, Naiyana ; Hutubessy, Raymond ; Kristina, Susi Ari ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3345~3350
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3345
Background: Evaluation of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in cervical cancer patients is important in order to design the interventions for improving patient outcomes. Reports of HRQOL among cervical cancer patients in Indonesia are limited. Moreover, measurement using EQ-5D-3L is to our best knowledge has hitherto not been performed. This study aimed to examine the HRQOL of cervical cancer patients in Indonesia using EQ-5D-3L. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing cervical cancer patients using the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Percentages of patients who reported having problems in each dimension of EQ-5D as well as EQ-5D index score (utility) were calculated. Results: Our findings indicated that the most frequent reported problems were pain/discomfort (67.8%) followed by anxiety/depression (57.5%). The mean of EQ-5D VAS was 75.8 (SD=17.0). The mean (SD) utility scores were 0.85 (0.19), 0.76 (0.20), 0.71 (0.21), and 0.77 (0.13) for cervical cancer patients in stage I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Conclusions: Cervical cancer significantly affects patient HRQOL. Efforts should be made to improve the quality of life of cervical cancer patients especially in terms of pain /discomfort and anxiety/depression reduction.
Replacing Actinomycin-D with Carboplatin for Newly Diagnosed Rhabdomyosarcoma
Sezgin, Gulay ; Acipayam, Can ; Bayram, Ibrahim ; Ozkan, Ayse ; Kupeli, Serhan ; Tanyeli, Atila ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3351~3354
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3351
Background: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in the pediatric age group. All patients with RMS regardless of their initial stage or group receive combination chemotherapy as 'standard therapy' consisting of vincristine, actinomycin-D and cyclophosphamide. Actinomycin-D was not readily available in Turkey at one time. Carboplatin was used instead in order to prevent delays in treatment. The aim of this report is to present the results of patients with rhabdomyosarcoma receiving carboplatin or actinomycin-D therapy. Materials and Methods: Twenty four patients with rhabdomyosarcoma treated between December 2000 and June 2011 were included in this retrospective study. The patients were treated according to International Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group guidelines. Eleven patients were treated with actinomycin-D and 13 with carboplatin (
for 2 days). The two groups were then compared in terms of 2- and 5-year overall survival (OS) and hematological and non-hematological toxicities. Results: Age, sex, stage and the mean duration of follow-up were similar in both groups (p>0.05). Two- and five-year OS levels were 68.2% in the carboplatin group and 78.0% and 40.0%, respectively, in the actinomycin-D group. There was no statistical difference in the number of febrile episodes (p=0.86) and no other hematological and non-hematological adverse effects were recorded in both groups. Conclusions: The findings show that carboplatin can be used as an alternative drug in the primary treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma in the event that actinomycin-D is unavailable or not tolerated.
Expression Profile Analysis of Zinc Transporters (ZIP4, ZIP9, ZIP11, ZnT9) in Gliomas and their Correlation with IDH1 Mutation Status
Kang, Xing ; Chen, Rong ; Zhang, Jie ; Li, Gang ; Dai, Peng-Gao ; Chen, Chao ; Wang, Hui-Juan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3355~3360
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3355
Background: Zinc transporters have been considered as essential regulators in many cancers; however, their mechanisms remain unknown, especially in gliomas. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1(IDH1) mutation is crucial to glioma. This study aimed to investigate whether zinc transporters are correlated with glioma grade and IDH1 mutation status. Materials and Methods: IDH1 mutation status and mRNA expression of four zinc transporters (ZIP4, ZIP9, ZIP11, and ZnT9) were determined by subjecting a panel of 74 glioma tissue samples to quantitative real-time PCR and pyrosequencing. The correlations between the expression levels of these zinc transporter genes and the grade of glioma, as well as IDH1 mutation status, were investigated. Results: Among the four zinc transporter genes, high ZIP4 expression and low ZIP11 expression were significantly associated with higher grade (grades III and IV) tumors compared with lower grade (grades I and II) counterparts (p<0.0001). However, only ZIP11 exhibited weak correlation with IDH1 mutation status (p=0.045). Samples with mutations in IDH1 displayed higher ZIP11 expression than those without IDH1 mutations. Conclusions: This finding indicated that zinc transporters may interact with IDH1 mutation by direct modulation or action in some shared pathways or genes to promote the development of glioma. Zinc transporters may play an important role in glioma. ZIP4 and ZIP11 are promising molecular diagnostic markers and novel therapeutic targets. Nevertheless, the detailed biological function of zinc transporters and the mechanism of the potential interaction between ZIP11 and IDH1 mutation in gliomagenesis should be further investigated.
Risk Factors for Nodal Metastasis in cN0 Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma
Zhang, Li-Yang ; Liu, Zi-Wen ; Liu, Yue-Wu ; Gao, Wei-Sheng ; Zheng, Chao-Ji ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3361~3363
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3361
Background: Despite the majority of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) patients having an excellent prognosis, cervical lymph node metastases are common. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and the predictive risk factors for occult central compartment lymph node metastasis (CLNM) in PTMC patients. Materials and Methods: 178 patients with clinically node-negative (cN0) PTMC undergoing prophylactic central compartment neck dissection in our hospital from January 2008 to Jun 2010 were enrolled. The relationship between CLNM and the clinical and pathological factors such as gender, age, tumor size, tumor number, tumor location, extracapsular spread (ECS), and coexistance of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis was analyzed. Results: Occult CLNM was observed in 41% (73/178) of PTMC patients. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender, tumor size (
) and ECS were independent variables predictive of CLNM in PTMC patients. Conclusions: Male gender, tumor size (
) and ECS were risk factors of CLNM. We recommend a prophylactic central lymph node dissection (CLND) should be considered in PTMC patients with such risk factors.
Comparison of Three Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy, Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Low Radiation Exposure of Normal Tissue in Patients with Prostate Cancer
Cakir, Aydin ; Akgun, Zuleyha ; Fayda, Merdan ; Agaoglu, Fulya ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3365~3370
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3365
Radiotherapy has an important role in the treatment of prostate cancer. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques are all applied for this purpose. However, the risk of secondary radiation-induced bladder cancer is significantly elevated in irradiated patients compared surgery-only or watchful waiting groups. There are also reports of risk of secondary cancer with low doses to normal tissues. This study was designed to compare received volumes of low doses among 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT techniques for prostate patients. Ten prostate cancer patients were selected retrospectively for this planning study. Treatment plans were generated using 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT techniques. Conformity index (CI), homogenity index (HI), receiving 5 Gy of the volume (V5%), receiving 2 Gy of the volume (V2%), receiving 1 Gy of the volume (V1%) and monitor units (MUs) were compared. This study confirms that VMAT has slightly better CI while thev olume of low doses was higher. VMAT had lower MUs than IMRT. 3D-CRT had the lowest MU, CI and HI. If target coverage and normal tissue sparing are comparable between different treatment techniques, the risk of second malignancy should be a important factor in the selection of treatment.
Purple Rice Bran Extract Attenuates the Aflatoxin B1-Induced Initiation Stage of Hepatocarcinogenesis by Alteration of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes
Suwannakul, Nattawan ; Punvittayagul, Charatda ; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan ; Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3371~3376
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3371
Pigmented rice bran has been suggested to be a valuable source of beneficial phytochemicals. We investigated genotoxic and anti-genotoxic effects of purple rice bran extract (PRBE) in rats using a liver micronucleus assay. Purple rice bran was extracted with methanol, obtaining large amounts of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins and small amounts of gamma-oryzanol. The experimental protocols were divided into two sets. Male rats were divided into three groups. Group 1 was a negative control, while Groups 2 and 3 were fed with 100 and 500 mg/kg bw of PRBE, respectively, for 28 days. PRBE had no effect on micronucleus formation or xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in rat liver. Experiments concerning the effect of PRBE on
showed that PRBE significantly lessened the amount of micronucleated hepatocytes in
treated rats. Furthermore, it modulated metabolic activation of
metabolism in the liver by suppressing activity and protein expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A and CYP 450 reductase, and enhancing phase II enzymes including GST and UGT. Overall, purple rice bran extract was not genotoxic in rats. It exhibited anti-genotoxicity by modulation some xenobiotic enzymes active in
Oral Cancer Awareness of the General Public in Saudi Arabia
Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali ; Tarakji, Bassel ; Alsalhani, Anas B ; Al-Shamiri, Hashem M ; Alaizari, Nader Ahmed ; Altamimi, Mohammad Al Sakran ; Darwish, Shourouk ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3377~3381
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3377
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and knowledge about signs and risk factors of oral cancer in the general population in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from Saudi adults aged 15 years and older. A total of 679 persons participated in the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated and chi-square tests, t-tests, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to examine differences between groups. The significance level was set at p<0.05. Results: Only 53.6% of the participants had heard of oral cancer. Smoking and alcohol consumption were identified as the major risk factors by 81.7% and 56.3% of the participants, respectively. Only 22.2% and 18.2%, respectively, were able to correctly identify red and white lesions as early signs of oral cancer. Participants with less than high school education were significantly less aware, and had much less knowledge, of the signs and risk factors of oral cancer (p<0.05). Conclusions: This survey demonstrates a general lack of awareness among the public about oral cancer and a lack of knowledge about its signs and risk factors. There is a clear need to inform and educate the public in matters relating to the known risk factors associated with oral cancer. A media campaign informing the public about oral cancer is clearly required.
Portulaca oleracea Seed Oil Exerts Cytotoxic Effects on Human Liver Cancer (HepG2) and Human Lung Cancer (A-549) Cell Lines
Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad ; Farshori, Nida Nayyar ; Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad ; Musarrat, Javed ; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali ; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3383~3387
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3383
Portulaca oleracea (Family: Portulacaceae), is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, anti-bacterial, and anti-tumor activities. However, cytotoxic effects of seed oil of Portulaca oleracea against human liver cancer (HepG2) and human lung cancer (A-549) cell lines have not been studied previously. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Portulaca oleracea seed oil on HepG2 and A-549 cell lines. Both cell lines were exposed to various concentrations of Portulaca oleracea seed oil for 24h. After the exposure, percentage cell viability was studied by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) assays, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscopy. The results showed a concentration-dependent significant reduction in the percentage cell viability and an alteration in the cellular morphology of HepG2 and A-549 cells. The percentage cell viability was recorded as 73%, 63%, and 54% by MTT assay and 76%, 61%, and 50% by NRU assay at 250, 500, and
, respectively in HepG2 cells. Percentage cell viability was recorded as 82%, 72%, and 64% by MTT assay and 83%, 68%, and 56% by NRU assay at 250, 500, and
, respectively in A-549 cells. The 100
and lower concentrations were found to be non cytotoxic to A-549 cells, whereas decrease of 14% and 12% were recorded by MTT and NRU assay, respectively in HepG2 cells. Both HepG2 and A-549 cell lines exposed to 250, 500, and
of Portulaca oleracea seed oil lost their normal morphology, cell adhesion capacity, become rounded, and appeared smaller in size. The data from this study showed that exposure to seed oil of Portulaca oleracea resulted in significant cytotoxicity and inhibition of growth of the human liver cancer (HepG2) and human lung cancer (A-549) cell lines.
Changes of Plasma Tumor Necrosis Factor α and C-Reactive Protein Levels in Patients with Hypertension Accompanied by Impaired Glucose Tolerance and their Clinical Significance
Xiao, Qiang ; Wang, Lan-Ping ; Ran, Zhang-Shen ; Zhang, Xin-Huan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3389~3393
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3389
Background: Chronic inflammation could affect the occurrence and development of malignant tumors. To explore the levels of tumor necrosis factor
) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients accompanied by impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and their clinical significance. Materials and Methods: A total of 210 patients hospitalized in Affiliated Hospital of Taishan Medical University from Jun., 2013 to Dec., 2014 were selected, in which 92 cases were accompanied by IGT. Meanwhile, 80 randomly-selected healthy people by physical examination were as the control. The levels of routine biochemical indexes, plasma TNF-
and CRP in all subjects were measured. Results: Both systolic and diastolic pressures in hypertension group and hypertension plus IGT group were significantly higher than in control group (p<0.01), but there was no statistical significance between these two groups (p>0.05). The levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and blood glucose 2 h after taking glucose in hypertension plus IGT group were markedly higher than other groups (p<0.01). Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TNF-
and CRP contents were on the progressive increase in control, hypertension and hypertension plus IGT groups, but significant differences were presented among each group (P<0.01). Hypertension accompanied by IGT had a significantly-positive association with CRP, TNF-
, FPG and blood glucose 2h after taking glucose. Conclusions: The levels of plasma TNF-
and CPR in patients with hypertension accompanied by IGT increase significantly, indicating that inflammatory reaction in these patient increases, thus suggesting that these patients should be focused regarding cancer prevention.
Microarray Analysis of Long Non-coding RNA Expression Profile Associated with 5-Fluorouracil-Based Chemoradiation Resistance in Colorectal Cancer Cells
Xiong, Wei ; Jiang, Yong-Xin ; Ai, Yi-Qin ; Liu, Shan ; Wu, Xing-Rao ; Cui, Jian-Guo ; Qin, Ji-Yong ; Liu, Yan ; Xia, Yao-Xiong ; Ju, Yun-He ; He, Wen-Jie ; Wang, Yong ; Li, Yun-Fen ; Hou, Yu ; Wang, Li ; Li, Wen-Hui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3395~3402
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3395
Background: Preoperative 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiotherapy is a standard treatment for locally advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). However, CRC cells often develop chemoradiation resistance (CRR). Recent studies have shown that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays critical roles in a myriad of biological processes and human diseases, as well as chemotherapy resistance. Since the roles of lncRNAs in 5-FU-based CRR in human CRC cells remain unknown, they were investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: A 5-FU-based concurrent CRR cell model was established using human CRC cell line HCT116. Microarray expression profiling of lncRNAs and mRNAs was undertaken in parental HCT116 and 5-FU-based CRR cell lines. Results: In total, 2,662 differentially expressed lncRNAs and 2,398 mRNAs were identified in 5-FU-based CRR HCT116 cells when compared with those in parental HCT116. Moreover, 6 lncRNAs and 6 mRNAs found to be differentially expressed were validated by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis for the differentially expressed mRNAs indicated involvement of many, such as Jak-STAT, PI3K-Akt and NF-kappa B signaling pathways. To better understand the molecular basis of 5-FU-based CRR in CRC cells, correlated expression networks were constructed based on 8 intergenic lncRNAs and their nearby coding genes. Conclusions: Changes in lncRNA expression are involved in 5-FU-based CRR in CRC cells. These findings may provide novel insight for the prognosis and prediction of response to therapy in CRC patients.
Profile of Skin Biopsies and Patterns of Skin Cancer in a Tertiary Care Center of Western Nepal
Kumar, Ajay ; Shrestha, Prashanna Raj ; Pun, Jenny ; Thapa, Pratichya ; Manandhar, Merina ; Sathian, Brijesh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3403~3406
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3403
Background: Skin biopsy is the method to assist clinicians to make definite dermatological diagnosis which further helps in holistic management. Skin cancers are relatively rare clinical diagnosis in developing countries like Nepal, but the prevalence is on rise. Objectives: To investigate the profile of skin biopsies and frequencies and pattern of skin cancers in a tertiary care centre of Western Nepal. Materials and Methods: The materials consisted of 434 biopsies (1.37%) out of 31,450 OPD visits performed in the Department of Dermatology, Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal, during the period of Dec 2011-Nov 2014. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS-16 with reference to incidence, age, sex, race and clinical and histopathological features. Results: The commonest disorders observed in biopsies were papulosquamous lesions, skin tuberculosis of different types, benign skin tumors, leprosy, collagen and fungal diseases. Viral diseases were rarely seen, probably due to straight forward clinical diagnosis. Dermatological malignancies accounted for 55/434 (12.67%) of biopsies. Skin disorders in general were commoner in females 280/434 (64%), including malignancies 32/55(58.2%). Mean age of patients with skin cancer was 54.5 years. Facilities for proper laboratory investigation of dermatological disorders will improve the quality of life. Conclusions: The most prevalent lesion in skin biopsies was papulosquamous disorders followed by skin tuberculosis of different types. Dermatological malignancy constituted 55/434 (12.67%) cases. The prevalence of skin malignancy is on rise in Nepalese society probably due to increase in life expectancy and better diagnostic services.
Differentiation of Benign from Malignant Adnexal Masses by Functional 3 Tesla MRI Techniques: Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and Time-Intensity Curves of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI
Malek, Mahrooz ; Pourashraf, Maryam ; Mousavi, Azam Sadat ; Rahmani, Maryam ; Ahmadinejad, Nasrin ; Alipour, Azam ; Hashemi, Firoozeh Sadat ; Shakiba, Madjid ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3407~3412
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3407
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the accuracy of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, and time-intensity curve (TIC) type analysis derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) in differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses. Materials and Methods: 47 patients with 56 adnexal masses (27 malignant and 29 benign) underwent DWI and DCE-MRI examinations, prior to surgery. DWI signal intensity, mean ADC value, and TIC type were determined for all the masses. Results: High signal intensity on DWI and type 3 TIC were helpful in differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses (p<0.001). The mean ADC value was significantly lower in malignant adnexal masses (p<0.001). An ADC value<
may be the optimal cutoff for differentiating between benign and malignant tumors. The negative predictive value for low signal intensity on DWI, and type 1 TIC were 100%. The pairwise comparison among the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showed that the area under the curve (AUC) of TIC was significantly larger than the AUCs of DWI and ADC (p<0.001 for comparison of TIC and DWI, p<0.02 for comparison of TIC and ADC value). Conclusions: DWI, ADC value and TIC type derived from DCE-MRI are all sensitive and relatively specific methods for differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses. By comparing these functional MR techniques, TIC was found to be more accurate than DWI and ADC.
Re-examination of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection in Northeast Thailand
Yeoh, Kheng-Wei ; Promthet, Supannee ; Sithithaworn, Paiboon ; Kamsaard, Supot ; Parkin, Donald Maxwell ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3413~3418
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3413
Background: Liver fluke infection caused by the parasite Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini), a human carcinogen, is endemic in north-eastern Thailand and remains a major health problem. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to (1) resurvey the prevalence of O. viverrini infection in a field site from the Khon Kaen Cohort Study (in newly recruited subjects as well as previous cohort subjects surveyed in 1992); (2) investigate how subjects' lifestyle habits and their exposure to health promotion initiatives influence changes in prevalence of O. viverrini infection. Materials and Methods: The prevalence of O. viverrini infection in the cohort subjects (as well as new subjects) was investigated using faecal egg counts. Information on demographic factors, lifestyle and awareness of health promotion initiatives were obtained through questionnaires. Results: O. viverrini infection rates in the same individuals of the cohort were lower in 2006 than in 1992. Also, by studying the period effect, the current 35-44 year olds had a 12.4% (95% CI 3.9% to 20.9%) lower prevalence of O. viverrini infection than the 35-44 year olds in 1992 (24.2% versus 11.8%). Lifestyle choices showed that smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with an increased chance of acquiring O. viverrini infection with adjusted odds ratios of 10.1 (95%CI 2.4-41.6) and 5.3 (95%CI 1.2-23.0), respectively. Conclusions: Our study has demonstrated that although the prevalence of O. viverrini infection over a 14-year period has decreased, unhealthy lifestyle was common with smoking and alcohol consumption being associated with increased chances of infection, emphasising the double burden of disease which developing countries are facing.
Organ-sparing Surgery in Treating Patients with Liposarcoma of the Spermatic Cord: Institutional Experience and Pooled Analysis
Cao, Ming-Xin ; Chen, Jie ; Zhang, Jun-Long ; Wei, Xin ; Liang, Yue-You ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3419~3423
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3419
Background: Liposarcoma of the spermatic cord is rare and frequently misdiagnosed. The standard therapeutic approach has been radical inguinal orchiectomy with wide local resection of surrounding soft tissues. The current trend of organ preservation in the treatment of several cancers has started to evolve. Herein we present our testis-sparing surgery experience in the treatment of spermatic cord liposarcoma and a pooled analysis on this topic. Materials and Methods: Clinical information from patient receiving organ-sparing surgery was described. Clinical studies evaluating this issue were identified by using a predefined search strategy, e.g., Pubmed database with no restriction on date of published papers. The literature search used the following terms: epidemiology, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, testis sparing surgery, spermatic cord sarcomas/liposarcomas. Results: Patient received a complete excision of the lesion, preserving the spermatic cord and the testis. The final pathological report showed a well differentiated liposarcoma with negative surgical margins and no signs of local invasion. After 2-year of follow-up, there was no evidence of local recurrence. Since the first case reported in 1952, a total of about 200 well-documented spermatic cord liposarcoma cases have been published in English literature. Among these patients, only three instances were reported to have received an organ-sparing surgery in the treatment of spermatic cord liposarcoma. Conclusions: Radical inguinal orchiectomy and resection of the tumor with a negative microscopic margin is the recommended treatment for liposarcoma of the spermatic cord. But for small, especially well-differentiated, lesions, testis-sparing surgery might be a good option if an adequate negative surgical margin is assured.
Clinical Application of Serum Tumor Abnormal Protein (TAP) in Colorectal Cancer Patients
Wu, Xue-Yan ; Huang, Xin-En ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3425~3428
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3425
Objective: To explore the association of serum tumor abnormal protein (TAP) with other serological biomarkers e.g. carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and its clinical application in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Methods: Patients (N=98) were enrolled into this study with histologically or cytologically confirmed CRC. Using a test kit, the level of TAP was determined, while chemiluminescence was used to measure the levels of some other common serological biomarkers e.g. CEA, CA125 and CA19-9. Results: The area of TAP condensed particulate matter decreased after chemotherapy compared with before chemotherapy when CT or MRI scans showed disease control. In contrast, it increased with disease progression (P<0.05). Furthermore, a statistically significant difference was confirmed in monitoring of TAP and common serological biomarkers e.g. CEA and CA19-9 (p<0.05). Conclusions: Detecting TAP in CRC patients has high sensitivity and specificity and can be used as a new independent indicator for clinically monitoring CRC patients in the course of chemotherapy.
Effects of Attitude, Social Influence, and Self-Efficacy Model Factors on Regular Mammography Performance in Life-Transition Aged Women in Korea
Lee, Chang Hyun ; Kim, Young Im ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3429~3434
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3429
Background: This study analyzed predictors of regular mammography performance in Korea. In addition, we determined factors affecting regular mammography performance in life-transition aged women by applying an attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy (ASE) model. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from women aged over 40 years residing in province J in Korea. The 178 enrolled subjects provided informed voluntary consent prior to completing a structural questionnaire. Results: The overall regular mammography performance rate of the subjects was 41.6%. Older age, city residency, high income and part-time job were associated with a high regular mammography performance. Among women who had undergone more breast self-examinations (BSE) or more doctors' physical examinations (PE), there were higher regular mammography performance rates. All three ASE model factors were significantly associated with regular mammography performance. Women with a high level of positive ASE values had a significantly high regular mammography performance rate. Within the ASE model, self-efficacy and social influence were particularly important. Logistic regression analysis explained 34.7% of regular mammography performance and PE experience (
, p=.003), part-time job (
, p=.050), self-efficacy (
, p=.026) and social influence (
, p=.038) were significant factors. Conclusions: Promotional strategies that could improve self-efficacy, reinforce social influence and reduce geographical, time and financial barriers are needed to increase the regular mammography performance rate in life-transition aged.
Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention
Obel, J ; McKenzie, J ; Buenconsejo-Lum, LE ; Durand, AM ; Ekeroma, A ; Souares, Y ; Hoy, D ; Baravilala, W ; Garland, SM ; Kjaer, SK ; Roth, A ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3435~3442
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3435
Objective : To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccination programmes in the region. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among ministry of health officials from 21 Pacific Island countries and territories (n=21). Results: Cervical cancer prevention was rated as highly important, but implementation of prevention programs were insufficient, with only two of 21 countries and territories having achieved coverage of cervical cancer screening above 40%. Ten of 21 countries and territories had included HPV vaccination in their immunization schedule, but only two countries reported coverage of HPV vaccination above 60% among the targeted population. Key barriers to the introduction and continuation of HPV vaccination were reported to be: (i) Lack of sustainable financing for HPV vaccine programs; (ii) Lack of visible government endorsement; (iii) Critical public perception of the value and safety of the HPV vaccine; and (iv) Lack of clear guidelines and policies for HPV vaccination. Conclusion: Current practices to prevent cervical cancer in the Pacific Region do not match the high burden of disease from cervical cancer. A regional approach, including reducing vaccine prices by bulk purchase of vaccine, technical support for implementation of prevention programs, operational research and advocacy could strengthen political momentum for cervical cancer prevention and avoid risking the lives of many women in the Pacific.
Distribution of Testicular Tumors in Lebanon: A Single Institution Overview
Assi, Tarek ; Rassy, Marc ; Nassereddine, Hussein ; Sader-Ghorra, Claude ; Abadjian, Gerard ; Ghosn, Marwan ; Kattan, Joseph ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3443~3446
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3443
Background: Testicular tumors constitute a rare type of cancer affecting adolescents and young adults with recent reports confirming an increase in incidence worldwide. The purpose of this study was to estimate the epidemiological characteristics and histological subtypes of testicular tumors in the Lebanese population according to the WHO classification of testicular and paratesticular tumors. Materials and Methods: In this single institutional retrospective study, all patients diagnosed with a testicular tumor in Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital University in Beirut between 1992 and 2014 were enrolled. The age, subtype based on the 2004 WHO classification and body side of tumor were analyzed. Results: A total of two hundred and forty-four (244) patients diagnosed with a testicular tumor in our institution were included in the study. Two hundred and one patients (82.4% of all testicular tumors) had germ cell tumors (TGCT). Among TGCT, 50% were seminomatous tumors, 48% non-seminomatous tumors (NST) and 2% were spermatocytic seminomas. The NST were further divided into mixed germ cell tumors (63.9%), embryonic carcinomas (18.6%), teratomas (15.4%) and yolk sac tumors (2.1%). The mean age for testicular tumors was 32 years. The mean age for germ cell tumors was 31 years and further subtypes such as seminomatous tumors had a mean age of 34 years, 28 years in non-seminomatous tumors and 56 years in spermatocytic seminoma. Patients with right testicular tumor were the predominant group with 55% of patients. Three patients (1.2%) presented with bilateral tumors. Conclusions: The distribution of different subgroups and the mean age for testicular tumors proved comparable to most countries of the world except for some Asian countries. Germ cell tumors are the most common subtype of testicular tumors with seminomatous tumors being slightly more prevalent than non-seminomatous tumors in Lebanese patients.
Sensitivity of Gastric Cancer Cells to Chemotherapy Drugs in Elderly Patients and Its Correlation with Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression
Qiu, Zhen-Qin ; Qiu, Zhen-Rong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3447~3450
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3447
Objective: To explore the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs in elderly patients and its correlation with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in cancer tissue. Materials and Methods: Forty-three elderly patients with gastric cancer (observation group) and 31 young patients with gastrointestinal tumors (control group) who were all diagnosed by pathology and underwent surgery in the 89th Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army were selected. Drug sensitivity testing of tumor cells in primary culture was carried out in both groups using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method, and the expression of COX-2 and the factors related to multi-drug resistance (MDR) in cancer tissue were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: The inhibition rates (IR) of vincristine (VCR), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), oxaliplatin (L-OHP), mitomycin (MMC) and epirubicin (eADM) on tumor cells in the observation group were dramatically lower than in the control group, with statistical significance (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The positive rates of COX-2, glutathione s-transferase-
) and P glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in cancer tissue in the observation group were all higher than in control group (P<0.05), while that of DNA topoisomerase
) expression lower than in the control group (P<0.01). In the observation group, COX-2 expression in cancer tissue had a significantly-positive correlation with GST-
and P-gp (r=0.855, P=0.000; r=0.240, P=0.026), but a negative correlation with
(r=-0.328, P=0.002). In the control group, COX-2 expression in cancer tissue was only correlated with P-gp positively (r=0.320, P=0.011). Bivariate correlation analysis displayed that COX-2 expression in cancer tissue in the observation group had a significantly-negative correlation with the IRs of 5-FU, L-OHP, paclitaxel (PTX) and eADM in tumor cells (r=-0.723, P=0.000; r=-0.570, P=0.000; r=-0.919, P=0.000; r=-0.781, P=0.000), but with hydroxycamptothecine (HCPT), VCR and 5-FU in the control group (r=-0.915, P=0.000; r=-0.890, P=0.000; r=-0.949, P=0.000). Conclusions: Gastric cancer cells in elderly patients feature stronger MDR, which may be related to high COX-2 expression.
Application of Joint Detection of AFP, CA19-9, CA125 and CEA in Identification and Diagnosis of Cholangiocarcinoma
Li, Yong ; Li, Da-Jiang ; Chen, Jian ; Liu, Wei ; Li, Jian-Wei ; Jiang, Peng ; Zhao, Xin ; Guo, Fei ; Li, Xiao-Wu ; Wang, Shu-Guang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3451~3455
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3451
Objective: To explore the application of joint detection of serum AFP, CA19-9, CA125 and CEA in identification and diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma (CC). Materials and Methods: The levels of serum AFP, CA19-9, CA125 and CEA of both 30 patients with CC and 30 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were assessed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the diagnostic effects of single and joint detection of those 4 kinds of tumor markers for CC. Results: The levels of serum CA19-9, CA125 and CEA in CC patients were higher than that in HCC patients,whereas that of serum AFP was significantly lower s. The area under ROC curve of single detection of serum AFP, CA19-9, CA125 and CEA were 0.05, 0.86, 0.84 and 0.83, with the optimal cutoff values of 15.4 ng/ml, 125.1 U/ml, 95.7 U/ml and 25.9 ng/ml, correspondingly, and the percentage correct single diagnosis was <79%. With joint detection, the diagnostic effect of combined AFP, CA19-9, CA125 and CEA was the highest, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.94 (95%CI 0.88~0.99). Conclusions: Single detection of serum CA19-9, CA125 and EA is not meaningful. The sensitivity, specificity, the rate of correct diagnosis and the area under ROC curve of joint detection of AFP, CA19-9, CA125 and CEA are highest, indicating that the joint detection of these 4 tumor markers is of great importance in the diagnosis of CC.
Influence of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on Expression of DNA Repair Genes in Cervical Cancer Cells
Gupta, Rakesh Kumar ; Bajpai, Deepti ; Singh, Neeta ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3457~3461
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3457
Background: Previous studies have suggested that Morinda citrifolia (Noni) has potential to reduce cancer risk. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Noni, cisplatin, and their combination on DNA repair genes in the SiHa cervical cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: SiHa cells were cultured and treated with 10% Noni,
cisplatin or their combination for 24 hours. Post culturing, the cells were pelleted, RNA extracted, and processed for investigating DNA repair genes by real time PCR. Results: The expression of nucleotide excision repair genes ERCC1, ERCC2, and ERCC4 and base excision repair gene XRCC1 was increased 4 fold, 8.9 fold, 4 fold, and 5.5 fold, respectively, on treatment with Noni as compared to untreated controls (p<0.05). In contrast, expression was found to be decreased 22 fold, 13 fold, 16 fold, and 23 fold on treatment with cisplatin (p<0.05). However, the combination of Noni and cisplatin led to an increase of 2 fold, 1.6 fold, 3 fold, 1.2 fold, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusions: Noni enhanced the expression of DNA repair genes by itself and in combination with cisplatin. However, high expression of DNA repair genes at mRNA level only signifies efficient DNA transcription of the above mentioned genes; further investigations are needed to evaluate the DNA repair protein expression.
Breast Cancer Screening Barriers from the Womans Perspective: a Meta-synthesis
Azami-Aghdash, Saber ; Ghojazadeh, Morteza ; Sheyklo, Sepideh Gareh ; Daemi, Amin ; Kolahdouzan, Kasra ; Mohseni, Mohammad ; Moosavi, Ahmad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3463~3471
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3463
Background: The principal aim of health service providers in the field of breast cancer is to detect and treat lesions at an appropriate time. Therefore, identification of barriers to screening can be very helpful. The present study aimed to systematically review the qualitative studies for extracting and reporting the barriers of screening for breast cancer from the womans perspective. Materials and Methods: In this systematic review; Pubmed, Google Scholar, Ovid Scopus, Cochrane Library, Iranmedex, and SID were searched using the keywords: screening barriers, cancer, qualitative studies, breast and their Persian equivalents, and the needed data were extracted and analyzed using an extraction table. To assess the quality of the studies, the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool was used. Results: From 2,134 related articles that were found, 21 articles were eventually included in the study. The most important barriers from the point of view of 1,084 women were lack of knowledge, access barriers (financial, geographical, cultural), fear (of results and pain), performance of service providers, women's beliefs, procrastination of screening, embarrassment, long wait for getting an appointment, language problems, and previous negative experiences. Articles' assessment score was 68.9. Conclusions: Increasing women's knowledge, reducing the costs of screening services, cultural promotion for screening, presenting less painful methods, changing beliefs of health service providers, provision of privacy for giving service, decreasing the waiting time, and providing high quality services in a respectful manner can be effective ways to increase breast cancer screening.
Phytonutrient Effects of Date Pit Extract against Azoxymethane-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Colon
Waly, Mostafa Ibrahim ; Al-Ghafri, Bushra Rashid ; Guizani, Nejib ; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3473~3477
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3473
Plants and their by-products offer a diverse mixture of chemical constituents like natural antioxidants. Date-pits are rich in phenolic compounds that have antioxidant potential. The main objective of this study was to investigate the protective effect of a date-pit extract (DPE) against AOM-induced colonic carcinogenicity and oxidative stress. Thirty-two weanling male Sprauge-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (eight rats in each group). All rats were fed basic diet and water ad libitum, and randomly distributed per treatment groups as follows: negative controls injected with normal saline once a week for two weeks, a cancer group injected intra-peritoneally with azoxymethane (15mg/kg body weight) for two consecutive weeks, and DPE treated groups receiving the extract via the oral route (1.5ml/day) for the entire experiment in the presence or absence of AOM injection. Results showed that DPE contained phytonutrients that were capable of inhibiting chemically-induced oxidative stress in the rat colonic cells. In those animals that consumed DPE, a protective effect was observed against AOM-induced oxidative stress in rat colonic cells as evident by a significant decrease in MDA and oxidized DCF formation in AOM injected and DPE fed groups. It is concluded that DPE has potential antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties.
Analysis on Postoperative Efficacy of Radical Hepatectomy for Patients with Non-HBV/HCV Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Zhang, Zhi-Ming ; Zhang, Yu-Mei ; Yao, Feng ; Yi, Ping ; Huang, Shang ; Liu, Jian-Yong ; Xiang, Bang-De ; Yuan, Wei-Ping ; Li, Le-Qun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3479~3483
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3479
Objective: Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in stage Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC)-A were grouped based on whether they were accompanied with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection or not so as to explore the clinical characteristics and prognostic conditions of HCC patients with non-HBV/hepatitis C virus (HCV). Materials and Methods: Clinical data of 64 stage BCLC-A HCC patients with non-HBV/HCV infection (observation group) who received radical hepatectomy in the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Guangxi Medical University from January, 2006 to November, 2014 were retrospectively analyzed and compared with those of 409 stage BCLC-A HCC patients with HBV infection (control group) in corresponding period. Results: The postoperative 1-, 3- and 5-year recurrent rates of the observation group were 25%, 38.6% and 48.8%, with postoperative mean and median disease-free survival time being 49.1 months and 62.0 months, respectively. Additionally, the postoperative 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates of observation group were 90.1%, 72.7% and 62.0%, with the mean and median survival times being 54.4 months and 70.0 months, respectively. Conclusions: The 1-year recurrent rate is the highest in HCC patients with non-HBV/HCV, and almost half of the patients have recurrence within 1 year, after which the recurrent rate decreases along with the time.
Diagnostic Value of Endorectal Ultrasound in Preoperative Assessment of Lymph Node Involvement in Colorectal Cancer: a Meta-analysis
Li, Li ; Chen, Shi ; Wang, Ke ; Huang, Jiao ; Liu, Li ; Wei, Sheng ; Gao, Hong-Yu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3485~3491
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3485
Background: Nodal invasion by colorectal cancer is a critical determinant in estimating patient survival and in choosing appropriate preoperative treatment. The present meta-analysis was designed to evaluate the diagnostic value of endorectal ultrasound (EUS) in preoperative assessment of lymph node involvement in colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases for relevant studies published on or before December 10th, 2014. The sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under the summary receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) were assessed to estimate the diagnostic value of EUS. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were performed to explore heterogeneity across studies. Results: Thirty-three studies covering 3,016 subjects were included. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.69 (95%CI: 0.63-0.75) and 0.77 (95%CI: 0.73-0.82), respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 3.09 (95%CI: 2.52-3.78) and 0.39 (95%CI: 0.32-0.48), respectively. The DOR was 7.84 (95%CI: 5.56-11.08), and AUC was 0.80 (95%CI: 0.77-0.84). Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicated that EUS has moderate diagnostic value in preoperative assessment of lymph node involvement in colorectal cancer. Further refinements in technology and diagnostic criteria are necessary to improve the diagnostic accuracy of EUS.
TP53 Codon 72 Polymorphisms and Lung Cancer Risk in the Bangladeshi Population
Chowdhury, Miraj Kobad ; Moniruzzaman, Md ; Al Emran, Abdullah ; Mostafa, Mohammad Golam ; Kuddus, Ruhul H ; Uddin, M Aftab ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3493~3498
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3493
Objective: To assess associations between codon 72 polymorphisms (Pro or B and Arg or b alleles) of the TP53 gene and lung cancer risk among Bangladeshis. Materials and Methods: The distribution of the BB, Bb, and bb genotypes and the frequencies of the B and b alleles were determined by PCR-RFLP method using DNA extracted from leucocytes of 50 confirmed lung cancer patients and 50 age-matched controls and the data were analysed. Results: The ratio of BB, Bb, and bb genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except for the male patients (
). The B allele is overrepresented among all patients (OR=2.0, p=0.02) and the female patients (OR=4.1,
) compared to the controls. The BB/bb ratio was also higher among the patients (OR=3.0, p=0.03). The relative risk of cancer for having BB over bb genotype was 1.8 (p=0.04) but no effect was observed for the Bb genotype. The B allele was overrepresented among patients with adenocarcinomas (OR=2.4,
) and squamous cell carcinomas (OR=2.7,
) over the controls but the difference was not significant for those with small cell lung carcinomas (OR=1.1, p=0.66). The B allele was overrepresented among patients age 50 or younger (OR=2.7,
), but not for older patients (OR=1.7, p=0.07), and among smokers compared to the controls (OR=1.8-10.0,
). However, no correlation between increasing pack-years and lung cancer was observed. Conclusions: The Pro/Pro (BB) genotype and the B allele are risk factors for lung cancer among Bangladeshis, particularly for people under age 50, women and smokers.
Epidemiological Trends of GI Cancers in Patients Visiting a Tertiary Care Hospital in Chandigarh, North India
Sharma, Munesh K ; Singh, Tarundeep ; Pandey, Avdesh K ; Kankaria, Ankita ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3499~3503
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3499
Background: Cancer has become an epidemic disease. Nearly ten million new cancer cases are diagnosed annually in the world and out of these about half are from the developing world. To appropriately plan for treatment, management and prevention of the disease, it becomes necessary to study the trends about morbidity caused by cancers. Materials and Methods: Data for patients diagnosed with any form of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers was extracted from records maintained in the outpatient department registers of the Oncology Department of Government Medical College and Hospital in Chandigarh from 1999 to 2012. Trends were analysed for different categories of GI cancers for the period of 12 years. Results: In present study GI cancers accounted for 23 % of all registered cases (n-9603) of carcinomas. Males predominated for all GI cancers except in the gall bladder. Gastrointestinal cancers as a proportion of total cancers increased from 21% in 1999 to 25.9% in 2012 with a significant increasing trend in our series (
for linear trend=9.36, p<0.003). Cancers of the tonsil, oral cavity and pharynx taken together showed an increasing trend over the years (
for trend=55.2, p<0.001) whereas cancers of the lower GI (
, p<0.0001) and gall bladder (
, p<0.0001) showed a declining trend in our series. Conclusions: GI cancers form a significant proportion of all cancers reporting to our data. In depth studies to ascertain the reasons for the changing trends are required to design intervention programs. Further information is necessary from cancer registries and from the hospital records of oncology departments.
High Frequency of Codon 12 but not Codon 13 and 61 K-ras Gene Mutations in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of Breast in a South Indian Population
Sushma, C ; Prasad, Shiva ; Devi, Rudrama ; Murthy, Sudha ; Rao, TS ; Naidu, CK ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3505~3508
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3505
Background: Ras genes are thought to play an important role in human cancer since they have been found to be activated frequently in several types of tumors including breast cancer, where the overall incidence of K-RAS oncogene activation is 0-10%. Evaluation of K-RAS gene not only for mutational frequency but also for mutation types in this downstream signaling gene pathway is necessary to determine the mechanisms of action. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that K-RAS activation is involved in breast cancer risk of south Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 paired pathologically confirmed tumor and non-tumor tissues from the same breast cancer patients were analysed for most common K-RAS mutations of codon 12,13 and 61 by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction digestion and direct nucleotide sequencing method. Results: We found that a high rate of homozygous and heterozygous mutations of codon 12, but not codon 13 and 61, may influence the invasive ductal carcinoma of breast risk in this study. Conclusions: Our study indicated that only codon 12 may be involved in initiating breast carcinogenesis in India.
Induction of Apoptosis in Human Leukemic Cell Lines by Diallyl Disulfide via Modulation of EGFR/ERK/PKM2 Signaling Pathways
Luo, Nian ; Zhao, Lv-Cui ; Shi, Qing-Qiang ; Feng, Zi-Qiang ; Chen, Di-Long ; Li, Jing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3509~3515
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3509
Background: Diallyl disulfide (DADS) may exert potent anticancer action both in vitro and in vivo. Although its effects on cancer are significant, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we sought to elucidate possible links between DADS and pyruvate kinase (PKM2). Materials and Methods:
, a leukemia cell line highly expressing PKM2 was used with a cell counting kit (CCK)-8 and flow cytometry (FCM) to investigate the effects of DADS. Relationships between PKM2 and DADS associated with phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK1/2 and MEK, were assessed by western blot analysis. Results: In
cells highly expressing PKM2, we found that DADS could affect proliferation, apoptosis and EGFR/ERK/PKM2 signaling pathways, abrogating EGF-induced nuclear accumulation of PKM2. Conclusions: These results suggested that DADS suppressed the proliferation of
cells, providing evidence that its proapoptotic effects are mediated through the inhibition of EGFR/ERK/PKM2 signaling pathways.
Involvement of GRP78 in the Resistance of Ovarian Carcinoma Cells to Paclitaxel
Zhang, Li-Ying ; Li, Pei-Ling ; Xu, Aili ; Zhang, Xin-Chen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3517~3522
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3517
Background: Glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a type of molecular chaperone. It is a possible candidate protein that contributes to development of drug resistance. We first examined the involvement of GRP78 in chemotherapy-resistance in human ovarian cancer cell. Materials and Methods: The expression of GRP78 mRNA and protein were examined by RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively, in human ovarian cancer cells line (HO-8910). Sensitivity of HO-8910 to paclitaxel was determined with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT). Suppression of GRP78 expression was performed using specific small-interfering RNA (siRNA) in HO-8910 cells, and cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 15.0 statistical package. Results: HO-8910 cells, with high basal levels of GRP78, exhibited low sensitivity to paclitaxel. The mRNA and protein levels of GRP78 were dramatically decreased at 24h, 48h and 72h after transfection and the sensitivity to paclitaxel was increased when the GRP78 gene was disturbed by specific siRNA transfection. Conclusions: The results suggested that high GRP78 expression might be one of the molecular mechanisms causing resistance to paclitaxel, and therefore siRNA of GRP78 may be useful in tumor-specific gene therapy for ovarian cancer.
Promyelocytic Leukemia (PML) Gene Mutations may not Contribute to Gastric Adenocarcinoma Development
Imani-Saber, Zeinab ; Yousefi-Razin, Ehsan ; Javaheri, Mona ; Mirfakhraie, Reza ; Motalleb, Gholamreza ; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3523~3525
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3523
Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Environmental as well as genetic factors have been shown to be involved in its genesis. Among genetic factors, loss of function of a tumor suppressive gene named promyelocytic leukemia (PML) has been demonstrated in gastric cancer. In order to cast light in the mechanism by which PML protein is under-expressed in gastric cancer cells, we analyzed all exons and intron-exon boundaries of PML gene in 50 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from gastric carcinoma tumors by means of PCR-SSCP and CSGE, with direct sequencing of abnormally shifted bands. We found a novel sequence variant of unknown significance localized in intron 5 in 3 samples (c.1398+84delA). We did not detect any deleterious mutations of the PML gene. This study shows that PML mutations may not contribute to gastric adenocarcinoma development. Post-translational modifications or protein degradation might be mechanisms by which PML is not expressed in gastric tumors.
Development of a Risk Index for Prediction of Abnormal Pap Test Results in Serbia
Vukovic, Dejana ; Antic, Ljiljana ; Vasiljevic, Mladenko ; Antic, Dragan ; Matejic, Bojana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3527~3531
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3527
Background: Serbia is one of the countries with highest incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer in Central and South Eastern Europe. Introducing a risk index could provide a powerful means for targeting groups at high likelihood of having an abnormal cervical smear and increase efficiency of screening. The aim of the present study was to create and assess validity ofa index for prediction of an abnormal Pap test result. Materials and Methods: The study population was drawn from patients attending Departments for Women's Health in two primary health care centers in Serbia. Out of 525 respondents 350 were randomly selected and data obtained from them were used as the index creation dataset. Data obtained from the remaining 175 were used as an index validation data set. Results: Age at first intercourse under 18, more than 4 sexual partners, history of STD and multiparity were attributed statistical weights 16, 15, 14 and 13, respectively. The distribution of index scores in index-creation data set showed that most respondents had a score 0 (54.9%). In the index-creation dataset mean index score was 10.3 (SD-13.8), and in the validation dataset the mean was 9.1 (SD=13.2). Conclusions: The advantage of such scoring system is that it is simple, consisting of only four elements, so it could be applied to identify women with high risk for cervical cancer that would be referred for further examination.
Influence of Residential Environment and Lifestyle on Multiple Primary Malignancies in Taiwan
Chang, Chih-Chun ; Chung, Yi-Hua ; Liou, Ching-Biau ; Lee, Yi-Chen ; Weng, Wei-Ling ; Yu, Yun-Chieh ; Yen, Tzung-Hai ; Wu, Jiann-Ming ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3533~3538
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3533
Background: Multiple primary malignancies (MPM) have become increasingly prevalent worldwide. This investigation was aimed at establishing the clinicopathological characteristics of MPM patients and evaluating the impact of the living environment on MPM in the Taiwanese population. Materials and Methods: From January 2009 to December 2013, a total of 8,268 cancer patients were identified in our institutional center. Of these, 125 were diagnosed as MPM and thus enrolled. Data for clinicopathological features and treatment approaches for these MPM patients living in urban or suburb zone were obtained. Findings for the air pollution status in Taiwan were also collected. Results: The most common cancer match of MPM was esophageal cancer with hypopharyngeal cancer (12.8%), followed by colorectal cancer with gastric cancer (6.4%) and colorectal cancer with breast cancer (5.6%). The air quality was significantly worse in the urban than in the suburban zone and there was a remarkably higher portion of MPM patients in the urban zone suffering from grade III and IV post-chemotherapeutic neutropenia (30.8% vs 15.1%, P=0.036). Conclusions: The tumor frequency and site distribution should be taken into the clinical evaluation because there is a relatively high risk of developing MPM. This study also highlighted the potential influence of environmental factors on post-chemotherapeutic neutropenia for patients with MPM.
Parotid Gland Tumours in Turkish Population: Analysis of 165 Patients
Derin, Serhan ; Erdogan, Selvet ; Almac, Ahmet ; Ulubil, Arif ; Iseri, Mete ; Aydin, Omer ; Keskin, I Gurkan ; Oran, Abdulkadir ; Kuru, Fatma Demir ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3539~3542
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3539
Background: Retrospective data on 165 patients who presented with a parotid mass and underwent surgery in our clinics during 2000-2009 were examined. The obtained data (demographic data, surgical procedures, histopathological diagnoses) were compared to similar studies to make contributions to the literature. Materials and Methods: Patients were classified according to their histopathological diagnosis. Surgical procedures and patient follow-up were clarified. The results are presented as means and standard deviations. Results: Of the 165 masses, 134 (81.3%) were benign and 31 (18.7%) were malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (79 patients, 59%). Lymphoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma were equally common and were the most common malignant parotid gland tumours (both 6 patients, 19.3%). The most frequent surgical procedure was superficial parotidectomy (92 patients, 55.7%), and the most commonly encountered surgical complication was facial paralysis (12 patients, 7.2%). Conclusions: Our data are generally in line with the literature but lymphoma was more common than in most previous reports. Although the number of cases was low, the high incidence of parotid gland lymphoma was remarkable.
Differentially Expressed Genes in Metastatic Advanced Egyptian Bladder Cancer
Zekri, Abdel-Rahman N ; Hassan, Zeinab Korany ; Bahnassy, Abeer A ; Khaled, Hussein M ; El-Rouby, Mahmoud N ; Haggag, Rasha M ; Abu-Taleb, Fouad M ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3543~3549
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3543
Background: Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Gene expression profiling using microarray technologies improves the understanding of cancer biology. The aim of this study was to determine the gene expression profile in Egyptian bladder cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Samples from 29 human bladder cancers and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues were analyzed by cDNA microarray, with hierarchical clustering and multidimensional analysis. Results: Five hundred and sixteen genes were differentially expressed of which SOS1, HDAC2, PLXNC1, GTSE1, ULK2, IRS2, ABCA12, TOP3A, HES1, and SRP68 genes were involved in 33 different pathways. The most frequently detected genes were: SOS1 in 20 different pathways; HDAC2 in 5 different pathways; IRS2 in 3 different pathways. There were 388 down-regulated genes. PLCB2 was involved in 11 different pathways, MDM2 in 9 pathways, FZD4 in 5 pathways, p15 and FGF12 in 4 pathways, POLE2 in 3 pathways, and MCM4 and POLR2E in 2 pathways. Thirty genes showed significant differences between transitional cell cancer (TCC) and squamous cell cancer (SCC) samples. Unsupervised cluster analysis of DNA microarray data revealed a clear distinction between low and high grade tumors. In addition 26 genes showed significant differences between low and high tumor stages, including fragile histidine triad, Ras and sialyltransferase 8 (alpha) and 16 showed significant differences between low and high tumor grades, like methionine adenosyl transferase II, beta. Conclusions: The present study identified some genes, that can be used as molecular biomarkers or target genes in Egyptian bladder cancer patients.
Signs, Symptoms and Complications of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma According to Grade and Stage in South Iran
Dehghani, Mehdi ; Haddadi, Sara ; Vojdani, Reza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3551~3557
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3551
Background: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a heterogeneous type of neoplasm of the lymphatic system. To have a more accurate and early diagnosis we need to know signs, symptoms and complications of lymphoma in early stages besides pathology and immunohistochemistry. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 110 cases of NHL that were followed since February 2012 till November 2013. Biopsies were taken from all the patients besides bone marrow study. Signs and symptoms were categorized into "B" symptoms, general, lymphadenopathy and extranodal involvement and we compared the frequencies by stage and grade. Results: Of 110 cases, 88.9% had B-cell and 11.1% T-cell type with mean age
years. "B" symptoms and lymphadenopathy were more common in men. Cervical lymphadenopathy was the most common sign (44.8%). and hematologic, bone marrow, bone and neurologic lesions were the most common complications. All complications were more common in males. "B" symptoms were seen mostly in stage III, general signs and symptoms in stage IV, and lymphadenopathy in stage II. Intermediate grade was also the most common in all signs and symptoms. In this study 12 (10.9%) patients had relapse, with neurologic and bone marrow as the most common sites of tumor recurrence. Conclusions: There is a meaningful relationship between male gender for NHL and anemia that can be due in part to higher incidence of bone marrow involvement and stage IV disease in male cases. We also found a strong relationship between low grade NHL and age. On the other hand extranodal involvement is more common in female groups.
Breast Cancer Association with CYP1A2 Activity and Gene Polymorphisms - a Preliminary Case-control Study in Tunisia
Ayari, I ; Arnaud, MJ ; Mani, A ; Pavanello, S ; Saguem, S ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3559~3563
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3559
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relative contribution of CYP1A2 isoforms (-3860 G/A, -2467T/delT and -163C/A) in control subjects and breast cancer patients to the metabolism of caffeine in human liver. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified Fragments (PCR-RFLP) was used for the genotyping of CYP1A2 SNPs and HPLC allowed the phenotyping through the measurement of CYP1A2 activity using the 17X + 13X + 37X/137X urinary metabolite ratio (CMR) and plasma caffeine half life (T1/2). The CYP1A2 -3860A genotype was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. In contrast, distributions of the CYP1A2 -2467T/delT or -2467delT/delT and -163A/C or A/A genotypes among breast cancer patients and controls were similar. When the genotype and phenotype relationship was measured by comparing the mean CMR ratios and caffeine half life within the genotype groups between subjects and breast cancer patients, there were no significant differences except for -3860 A, most of them being homozygous for the -3860 G/G SNP and had a significant higher mean CMR ratio and half life than those with -3860 G/A (P=0.02). The results of this preliminary study show a significant association between CP1A2 -3860 G variant and CYP1A2 phenotype which must be confirmed by further large-size case-control studies.
Effects of Breast Cancer Fatalism on Breast Cancer Awareness among Nursing Students in Turkey
Kulakci, Hulya ; Ayyildiz, Tulay Kuzlu ; Yildirim, Nuriye ; Ozturk, Ozlem ; Topan, Aysel Kose ; Tasdemir, Nurten ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3565~3572
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3565
Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and leading cause of death worldwide, including in Turkey. High perceptions of cancer fatalism are associated with lower rates of participation in screening for breast cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of breast cancer fatalism and other factors on breast cancer awareness among nursing students in Turkey. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at three universities in the Western Black Sea region. The sample was composed of 838 nursing students. Data were collected by Personal Information Form, Powe Fatalism Inventory (PFI) and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). Results: Breast cancer fatalism perception of the students was at a low level. It was determined that students; seriousness perception was moderate, health motivation, BSE benefits and BSE self-efficacy perceptions were high, and BSE barriers and sensitivity perceptions were low. In addition, it was determined that students awareness of breast cancer was affected by breast cancer fatalism, class level, family history of breast cancer, knowledge on BSE, source of information on BSE, frequency of BSE performing, having breast examination by a healthcare professional within the last year and their health beliefs. Conclusions: In promoting breast cancer early diagnosis behaviour, it is recommended to evaluate fatalism perceptions and health beliefs of the students and to arrange training programs for this purpose.
SIRT7 Exhibits Oncogenic Potential in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells
Wang, Hong-Ling ; Lu, Ren-Quan ; Xie, Su-Hong ; Zheng, Hui ; Wen, Xue-Mei ; Gao, Xiang ; Guo, Lin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3573~3577
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3573
Background: Sirtuin7 (SIRT7) is a type of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidized form (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase and the least understood member of the sirtuins family; it is implicated in various processes, such as aging, DNA damage repair and cell signaling transduction. There is some evidence that SIRT7 may function as a tumor trigger for human malignancy. Here, we aimed to explore the biological function of SIRT7 in ovarian carcinoma cells and its potential mechanism. Materials and Methods: Expression of SIRT7 in ovarian cancer cell lines was detected by western blotting. Transduced cell lines with SIRT7 knockdown or overexpression were constructed. Cell viability, cologenic, apoptosis-associated and motility assays were performed to elucidate the biological function of SIRT7 in ovarian cancer cells. Results: SIRT7 demonstrated a higher level in ovarian cancer cell lines compared with normal cells. On the one hand, down-regulation of SIRT7 significantly reduced ovarian cancer cell growth, repressed colony formation and increased cancer cell apoptosis; on the other hand, up-regulation promoted the migration of cancer cells. Additionally, repression of SIRT7 also induced change in apoptosis-related molecules and subunits of the NF-
family. Conclusions: In the present study, our data indicated that SIRT7 might play a role of oncogene in ovarian malignancy and be a potential therapeutic target.
Anisotropic Patterns of Liver Cancer Prevalence in Guangxi in Southwest China: Is Local Climate a Contributing Factor?
Deng, Wei ; Long, Long ; Tang, Xian-Yan ; Huang, Tian-Ren ; Li, Ji-Lin ; Rong, Min-Hua ; Li, Ke-Zhi ; Liu, Hai-Zhou ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3579~3586
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3579
Geographic information system (GIS) technology has useful applications for epidemiology, enabling the detection of spatial patterns of disease dispersion and locating geographic areas at increased risk. In this study, we applied GIS technology to characterize the spatial pattern of mortality due to liver cancer in the autonomous region of Guangxi Zhuang in southwest China. A database with liver cancer mortality data for 1971-1973, 1990-1992, and 2004-2005, including geographic locations and climate conditions, was constructed, and the appropriate associations were investigated. It was found that the regions with the highest mortality rates were central Guangxi with Guigang City at the center, and southwest Guangxi centered in Fusui County. Regions with the lowest mortality rates were eastern Guangxi with Pingnan County at the center, and northern Guangxi centered in Sanjiang and Rongshui counties. Regarding climate conditions, in the 1990s the mortality rate of liver cancer positively correlated with average temperature and average minimum temperature, and negatively correlated with average precipitation. In 2004 through 2005, mortality due to liver cancer positively correlated with the average minimum temperature. Regions of high mortality had lower average humidity and higher average barometric pressure than did regions of low mortality. Our results provide information to benefit development of a regional liver cancer prevention program in Guangxi, and provide important information and a reference for exploring causes of liver cancer.
Cigarette Alternatives: Are they Safe?
Shantakumari, Nisha ; Muttappallymyalil, Jayakumary ; John, Lisha Jenny ; Sreedharan, Jayadevan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3587~3590
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3587
In spite of limited data regarding the safety or effectiveness of electronic cigarette introduced into the market as a healthier alternative to tobacco smoking, its popularity has increased enormously. E-cigarettes have penetrated the market rapidly owing to the elaborate marketing network and attractive marketing strategies. Stated advantages include the claim that they help quit smoking and produce less exposure than conventional smoking. The list of disadvantages is even more elaborate. While the majority of the studies supporting health claims and efficacy for quitting smoking are not scientifically sound, they are also challenged by studies providing contradictory results. Owing to the limited evidence on the potential advantages and disadvantages of e-cigarettes, the debate on their safety continues.
Have we Comprehensively Evaluated the Effectiveness of Endoscopic Screening for Gastric Cancer?
Hamashima, Chisato ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3591~3592
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3591
Endoscopy has been increasingly used in clinical practice and as a standardized examination procedure for gastrointestinal diseases. However, only a few studies on endoscopic screening for evaluating mortality reduction from gastric cancer have been carried out. Even if a high detection rate is obtained in clinical practice, such a rate cannot be directly accepted as evidence providing the effectiveness of cancer screening. Endoscopic screening for gastric cancer is not an exception of possibility to detect overdiagnosis. If detection rate is used for the evaluation of the effectiveness of cancer screening, the possibility of overestimating the effectiveness of cancer screening cannot be ruled out. To avoid the effect of overdiagnosis and confirm the effectiveness of endoscopic screening, mortality reduction from gastric cancer must be carefully evaluated by conducting reliable studies. The burden of gastric cancer remains real and this cannot be ignored in Eastern Asian countries. To determine the best available method for gastric cancer screening, evaluation of its effectiveness is a must. Endoscopic screening for gastric cancer has shown promising results, and thus deserves further comprehensive evaluation to reliably confirm its effectiveness and how its optimal use can be strategically promoted.
Universal Health Coverage for Cancer in Asia
Krishnatreya, Manigreeva ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 16, issue 8, 2015, Pages 3593~3593
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3593