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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Jun 2016
Volume 17, Issue sup2 - Apr 2016
Volume 17, Issue sup1 - Apr 2016
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Apr 2016
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Mar 2016
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
Volume 16, Issue 18 - Jan 2016
Selecting the target year
In Search for a Common Pathway for Health Issues in Men - the Sign of a Holmesian Deduction
Aoun, Fouad ; Chemaly, Anthony Kallas ; Albisinni, Simone ; Zanaty, Marc ; Roumeguere, Thierry ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 1~13
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.1
The evidence for the existence of a common pathway for health issues in men is presented in this review. Several epidemiological studies have shown that conditions like cardiovascular diseases (CVD), metabolic syndrome, diabetes, lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS), erectile dysfunction (ED), prostate cancer, hypogonadism, depression and suicide can be associated as risk factors for each other. Thus, the risk of CVD is significantly increased in men with metabolic syndrome, ED, hypogonadism, prostate cancer and/or LUTS. In addition, the above mentioned conditions are more prevalent in atherosclerotic patients. In addition, growing evidence indicates that low androgen levels can cause metabolic syndrome. In addition, obesity, dyslipidaemia and diabetes can further reduce androgen levels potentiating their adverse effect. Low testosterone levels are also associated with a higher incidence of aggressive prostate cancer on biopsy and on definitive pathology, and lower probability of abiraterone response in the metastatic setting. Several recent studies point towards diffuse endothelial dysfunction and dysregulated pro-inflammatory state as the biological link between all these disorders. Our current hypothesis is that oxidative stress caused by these dysfunctions explains the pathogenesis of each of these conditions.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their Bioaccessibility in Meat: a Tool for Assessing Human Cancer Risk
Hamidi, Elliyana Nadia ; Hajeb, Parvaneh ; Selamat, Jinap ; Razis, Ahmad Faizal Abdull ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 15~23
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.15
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are primarily formed as a result of thermal treatment of food, especially barbecuing or grilling. Contamination by PAHs is due to generation by direct pyrolysis of food nutrients and deposition from smoke produced through incomplete combustion of thermal agents. PAHs are ubiquitous compounds, well-known to be carcinogenic, which can reach the food in different ways. As an important human exposure pathway of contaminants, dietary intake of PAHs is of increasing concern for assessing cancer risk in the human body. In addition, the risks associated with consumption of barbecued meat may increase if consumers use cooking practices that enhance the concentrations of contaminants and their bioaccessibility. Since total PAHs always overestimate the actual amount that is available for absorption by the body, bioaccessibility of PAHs is to be preferred. Bioaccessibility of PAHs in food is the fraction of PAHs mobilized from food matrices during gastrointestinal digestion. An in vitro human digestion model was chosen for assessing the bioaccessibility of PAHs in food as it offers a simple, rapid, low cost alternative to human and animal studies; providing insights which may not be achievable in in vivo studies. Thus, this review aimed not only to provide an overview of general aspects of PAHs such as the formation, carcinogenicity, sources, occurrence, and factors affecting PAH concentrations, but also to enhance understanding of bioaccessibility assessment using an in vitro digestion model.
MicroRNAs and Lymph Node Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Cancers
Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima Ab ; Yusof, Azliana Mohamad ; Mokhtar, Norfilza Mohd ; Harun, Roslan ; Muhammad, Rohaizak ; Jamal, Rahman ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 25~35
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.25
Lymph node metastasis (LNM) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has been shown to be associated with increased risk of locoregional recurrence, poor prognosis and decreased survival, especially in older patients. Hence, there is a need for a reliable biomarker for the prediction of LNM in this cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene translation or degradation and play key roles in numerous cellular functions including cell-cycle regulation, differentiation, apoptosis, invasion and migration. Various studies have demonstrated deregulation of miRNA levels in many diseases including cancers. While a large number of miRNAs have been identified from PTCs using various means, association of miRNAs with LNM in such cases is still controversial. Furthermore, studies linking most of the identified miRNAs to the mechanism of LNM have not been well documented. The aim of this review is to update readers on the current knowledge of miRNAs in relation to LNM in PTC.
Helicobacter Species are Possible Risk Factors of Cholangiocarcinoma
Kaewpitoon, Soraya J ; Loyd, Ryan A ; Rujirakul, Ratana ; Panpimanmas, Sukij ; Matrakool, Likit ; Tongtawee, Taweesak ; Kootanavanichpong, Nusorn ; Pengsaa, Prasit ; Kompor, Ponthip ; Chavengkun, Wasugree ; Kujapun, Jirawoot ; Norkaew, Jun ; Ponphimai, Sukanya ; Padchasuwan, Natnapa ; Polsripradist, Poowadol ; Eksanti, Thawatchai ; Phatisena, Tanida ; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 37~44
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.37
Several infectious agents are considered to be causes of cancer in human, mainly hepatitis B and C viruses, high-risk human pailloma viruses, Helicobacter pylori, Clonorchis sinensis, and Opisthorchis viverrini. Here we described the evident research and the association between Helicobacter spp. and biliary tract cancer particularly cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Global epidemiological studies have suggested that Helicobacter spp. are possible risk factors for biliary tract diseases. Molecular studies support a linkage of Helicobacter spp. with CCA development. H. pylori, H. bilis, and H. hepaticus, are found in CCA, but the most common species are H. pylori and H. bilis. The type of CCA are associated with Helicobacter spp. include extrahepatic CCA, and common bile duct cancer. Up to the present, however, the results from different regions, materials and methods, sub-sites of cancer, and controls have not been consistent, thus introducing heterogeneity. Therefore, a comparison between co-Helicobacter spp.-CCA in the countries with low and high incident of CCA is required to settle the question. Furthermore, clarifying variation in the role of Helicobacter species in this CCA, including pathogenesis of CCA through enhanced biliary cell inflammation and proliferation, is necessary.
Predictors of Cigarette Smoking among Young Adults in Mangalore, India
Lalithambigai, G ; Rao, Ashwini ; Rajesh, G ; Ramya, Shenoy ; Pai, BH Mithun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 45~50
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.45
Background: The tobacco epidemic is a heralding health menace, particularly among college students. Tobacco usage among young can have an especially devastating effect as they can be exposed for longer periods. Data to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use in young adults will be a valuable addition to the existing resources. Materials and Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was therefore carried out in Mangalore city using a pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) with a representative sample of 720 students aged 18-20 years selected from degree colleges by multi-stage random sampling. Results: Prevalence of 'ever users' and 'current users' of smoking were 20.4% and 11.4%, respectively. The mean age at initiation of cigarette smoking was 16 years and the majority (31 %) smoked in public places. Interestingly, 84% of them knew about the harmful effects of cigarette smoking. About one half of smokers had some or most of their friends smoking. Multivariate analysis revealed gender (OR=8.585: CI-3.26-22.5), pocket money (OR=4.165; CI=1.76-9.82) and peer's smoking habit (OR= 5.15; CI-2.21-11.9) have higher odds as correlates of tobacco usage among college students. Conclusions: It is of prime importance to highlight the role of prevention of smoking initiation rather than subsequently trying to stop the habit. Comprehensive interventions embracing family, friends and social milieu are needed to reduce tobacco use among students in India.
Reversal of Multidrug Resistance in Mouse Lymphoma Cells by Extracts and Flavonoids from Pistacia integerrima
Rauf, Abdur ; Uddin, Ghias ; Raza, Muslim ; Ahmad, Bashir ; Jehan, Noor ; Siddiqui, Bina S ; Molnar, Joseph ; Csonka, Akos ; Szabo, Diana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 51~55
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.51
Phytochemical investigation of Pistacia integerrima has highlighted isolation of two known compounds naringenin (1) and dihydrokaempferol (2). A crude extract and these isolated compounds were here evaluated for their effects on reversion of multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein is a target for chemotherapeutic drugs from cancer cells. In the present study rhodamine-123 exclusion screening test on human mdr1 gene transfected mouse gene transfected L5178 and L5178Y mouse T-cell lymphoma cells showed excellent MDR reversing effects in a dose dependent manner. In-silico molecular docking investigations demonstrated a common binding site for Rhodamine123, and compounds naringenin and dihydrokaempferol. Our results showed that the relative docking energies estimated by docking softwares were in satisfactory correlation with the experimental activities. Preliminary interaction profile of P-gp docked complexes were also analysed in order to understand the nature of binding modes of these compounds. Our computational investigation suggested that the compounds interactions with the hydrophobic pocket of P-gp are mainly related to the inhibitory activity. Moreover this study s a platform for the discovery of novel natural compounds from herbal origin, as inhibitor molecules against the P-glycoprotein for the treatment of cancer.
CYP1A1 MspI Polymorphism and Cervical Carcinoma Risk in the Multi-Ethnic Population of Malaysia: a Case-Control Study
Tan, Yee Hock ; Sidik, Shiran Mohd ; Husain, Sharifah Noor Akmal Syed ; Lye, Munn Sann ; Chong, Pei Pei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 57~64
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.57
Background: Tobacco smoking is considered a risk factor for cervical cancer development due to the presence of tobacco based carcinogenic metabolites in cervical cells of female smokers. In this study, we investigated the role of the T3801C (MspI) polymorphism of CYP1A1, a gene encoding an enzyme necessary for the initiation of tobacco based carcinogen metabolism, on cervical cancer risk. The T to C substitution may alter CYP1A1 activities, potentially elevating cervical cancer risk. Since results of gene-disease association studies vary according to the study population, the multi-ethnic population of Malaysia provides an excellent representative cohort for identifying and comparing the cervical cancer risk among the 3 major ethnics in Southeast Asia in relation to CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism. Materials and Methods: A total of 195 Thin Prep Pap smear samples from HPV negative and cancer free females were randomly selected as controls while 106 formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples from females with invasive cervical cancer were randomly selected for the cases group. The polymorphisms were identified using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) PCR. Results: We found no significant associations between CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism and cervical cancer in the general Malaysian female population. However, upon ethnic stratification, the variant C/C genotype was significantly associated with a 4.66-fold increase in cervical cancer risk in Malay females (95% CI= 1.21-17.9; p=0.03). No significant association was observed in the Chinese and Indian females. Additionally, there were no significant associations in the dominant model and allele frequency model analysis in both the general and ethnically stratified female population of Malaysia. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the C/C genotype of CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism is associated with the development of cervical carcinoma in the Malay females of Malaysia.
Bioimpedence to Assess Breast Density as a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer in Adult Women and Adolescent Girls
Maskarinec, Gertraud ; Morimoto, Yukiko ; Laguana, Michelle B ; Novotny, Rachel ; Guerrero, Rachael T Leon ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 65~71
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.65
Although high mammographic density is one of the strongest predictors of breast cancer risk, X-ray based mammography cannot be performed before the recommended screening age, especially not in adolescents and young women. Therefore, new techniques for breast density measurement are of interest. In this pilot study in Guam and Hawaii, we evaluated a radiation-free, bioimpedance device called Electrical Breast Densitometer
(EBD; senoSENSE Medical Systems, Inc., Ontario, Canada) for measuring breast density in 95 women aged 31-82 years and 41 girls aged 8-18 years. Percent density (PD) was estimated in the women's most recent mammogram using a computer-assisted method. Correlation coefficients and linear regression were applied for statistical analysis. In adult women, mean EBD and PD values of the left and right breasts were
, respectively. The EBD measurements were inversely correlated with PD (
, p<0.0001); the correlation was stronger in Caucasians (
, p<0.0001) than Asians (
, p<0.01) and Native Hawaiian/Chamorro/Pacific Islanders (
, p=0.06). Using 4 categories of PD (<10, 10-25, 26-50, 51-75%), the respective mean EBD values were
(p<0.0001). In girls, the mean EBD values in the left and right breast were
; EBD values decreased from Tanner stages 1 to 4 (
for stages 1-4, respectively) but were higher at Tanner stage 5 (
). With further development, this bioimpedance method may allow for investigations of breast development among adolescent, as well as assessment of breast cancer risk early in life and in populations without access to mammography.
Anti-proliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Basella rubra (L.) Against 1, 2-Dimethyl Hydrazine-induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats
Kilari, Bhanu Priya ; Kotakadi, Venkata Subbaiah ; Penchalaneni, Josthna ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 73~80
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.73
Colorectal cancer is a very prevalent diagnosed cancer. The current study was performed in order to examine the role of BRAE (Basella rubra aqueous extract) in regulating aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis in a colon carcinogenesis model in male Wistar rats. Rats were randomly allocated into six groups. Group I served as control, and group II acted as a drug control administered BRAE (250mg/kg b.w.) orally for 30 weeks. Rats in group III-VI were given subcutaneous injections of DMH (25mg/kg b.w. weekly) for 15 weeks to initiate colon carcinogenesis. Those in group IV and VI were administered BRAE along with DMH injections. Rats in group V were administered with BRAE after cessation of DMH injection. After 30 weeks of experimental period colons were obtained from experimental groups and analyzed for ACF incidence, argyrophilic nucleolar organizing region-associated proteins (AgNOR) count, histopathological and immunohistochemical changes. Only in DMH exposed groups were ACF and AgNOR numbers increased. Administration of BRAE appreciably decreased the numbers of ACF and AgNOR in BRAE treated groups. Histopathological findings revealed a high level of dysplastic changes with decreased number of goblet cells found only in only DMH injected rats. Administration of BRAE in treated group rats reversed these changes. Expression markers for cell proliferation (PCNA and Ki67) were elevated in DMH treated rats, but reduced with BRAE treatement. This expression was reversed with apoptosis markers (p53 and Caspase-3). Thus the results results of the present study were found to be significant and confirmed the potential efficacy of BRAE against colon carcinogenesis.
Evaluation of the Histo-Epidemiological Profile of Solid Childhood Cancers in Togo
Darre, Tchin ; Maneh, Nidain ; Kpatcha, Matchonna ; Boume, Azanledji ; Padaro, Essohana ; Amegbor, Koffi ; Napo-Koura, Gado ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 81~83
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.81
Background: Cancer is a subject of continuing concern, more common in adults than in children, but often with a poor outcome in the latter. Our study set itself the objective to describe the epidemiological and histological aspects of solid cancers in children in Togo. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study focused on cases of solid cancers in children diagnosed from 2010 to 2014 (5 years) at the pathology laboratory of the Tokoin teaching hospital. Data were collected from the records of that laboratory. Results: We collected 66 cases of childhood cancer representing 5% of all solid cancers. The annual incidence was 13.2 cases. The sex ratio (M/F) was 1.4; mean age was of
. The age group most affected was that of 5-9 years (40.9%). Four histological groups of solid childhood cancers were listed: lymphoma (n=34 cases; 51.5%), embryonic cancer (n=17 cases; 25.8%), sarcomas (n=13 cases; 19.7%) and carcinoma (n=2 cases; 3%). The most common histological types were Burkitt lymphoma (36.4%), nephroblastoma (10.6%) and retinoblastoma (10.6%). Conclusions: This study shows that solid cancers in children are relatively frequent in Togo with a male predominance. They are still largely dominated by Burkitt lymphoma, followed by retinoblastoma and nephroblastoma.
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Regarding Cervical Cancer among Rural Community Women in Northeast Thailand
Mongsawaeng, Cholticha ; Kokorn, Nawaporn ; Kujapun, Jirawoot ; Norkaew, Jun ; Kootanavanichpong, Nusorn ; Chavenkun, Wasugree ; Ponphimai, Sukanya ; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J ; Tongtawee, Taweesak ; Padchasuwan, Natnapa ; Pengsaa, Prasit ; Kompor, Pontip ; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 85~88
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.85
Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy among women worldwide, and women of reproductive age in Thailand. However, information on the behavior regarding cervical cancer in rural community Thailand is sparse. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding cervical cancer (CC) among rural community women in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand, using predesigned structured questionnaires. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 villages of Non Sung district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand, during January to April 2015. Bloom's taxonomy was used as a framework for the study. 265 women aged between 30-60 years old were selected by simple random sampling. All participants completed predesigned questionnaires with 4 parts: demographic data, knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding cervical cancer. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis in this study. Results: The majority of participants were in the age group of 41-50 years old (42.6%) with senior secondary school level of education (32.1%), marriage status (85.0%), agricultural employment (59.6%), and family income between 6,000-10,000 baht per month (54.3%). Some 63.4% and 68.7% participants had high knowledge and moderate level of attitudes regarding CC, while 41.1%, 48.7%, and 10.2% had neem regularly, irregularly or never screened for CC, respectively. The main reasons for not screening were were shyness (44.4%) and no time (55.6%). Vaginal discharge and itching were the common signs and symptoms of participants who were screened at a health promotion hospital of sub-district. Conclusions: CC is still a health problem in the rural community. Therefore, health education is required, particularly for those who have never undergone screening.
Impact of Time Interval Between Chemoradiation and Surgery on Pathological Complete Response and Survival in Rectal Cancer
Akbar, Ali ; Bhatti, Abu Bakar Hafeez ; Niazi, Samiullah Khan ; Syed, Amir Ali ; Khattak, Shahid ; Raza, Syed Hassan ; Kazmi, Ather Saeed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 89~93
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.89
Background: Limited data are available regarding the impact of time duration between chemoradiation (CRT) and surgery on pathological complete response (PCR). A PCR translates into better overall and disease free survival. The objective of this study was to determine effect of time duration on outcome after preoperative CRT in rectal cancer. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of patients undergoing operations for rectal adenocarcinoma between January 2005 and December 2010 was performed. Patients were divided in two groups: Group 1 underwent surgery in
post neoadjuvant CRT and Group 2 after 8 weeks. Patient characteristics, surgical procedure, histopathological details and number of loco-regional and distant failures were compared. Expected 5 year overall survival and disease free survival was calculated using Kaplan Meier curves and significance was determined using the log rank test. Results: There were 66 patients in group 1 and 93 in group 2. No significant difference in PCR was observed between the two. However, estimated 5 year DFS was significantly higher in Group 1 (66.7%) as compared to Group 2 (53.8%) (P=0.04). Estimated overall 5 year overall survival was not significantly different at 68.2% versus 54.3% (P= 0.09). Conclusions: Delaying surgery more than 8 weeks after preoperative CRT does not impact for PCR in rectal cancer.
Bayesian Survival Analysis of High-Dimensional Microarray Data for Mantle Cell Lymphoma Patients
Moslemi, Azam ; Mahjub, Hossein ; Saidijam, Massoud ; Poorolajal, Jalal ; Soltanian, Ali Reza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 95~100
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.95
Background: Survival time of lymphoma patients can be estimated with the help of microarray technology. In this study, with the use of iterative Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) method, survival time of Mantle Cell Lymphoma patients (MCL) was estimated and in reference to the findings, patients were divided into two high-risk and low-risk groups. Materials and Methods: In this study, gene expression data of MCL patients were used in order to select a subset of genes for survival analysis with microarray data, using the iterative BMA method. To evaluate the performance of the method, patients were divided into high-risk and low-risk based on their scores. Performance prediction was investigated using the log-rank test. The bioconductor package "iterativeBMAsurv" was applied with R statistical software for classification and survival analysis. Results: In this study, 25 genes associated with survival for MCL patients were identified across 132 selected models. The maximum likelihood estimate coefficients of the selected genes and the posterior probabilities of the selected models were obtained from training data. Using this method, patients could be separated into high-risk and low-risk groups with high significance (p<0.001). Conclusions: The iterative BMA algorithm has high precision and ability for survival analysis. This method is capable of identifying a few predictive variables associated with survival, among many variables in a set of microarray data. Therefore, it can be used as a low-cost diagnostic tool in clinical research.
Treating Adults with Hodgkin Lymphoma in the Developing World: a Hospital-Based Cohort Study from Armenia
Avagyan, Armen ; Danielyan, Samvel ; Voskanyan, Astghik ; Sargsyan, Lilit ; Hakobyan, Lusine ; Zohrabyan, Davit ; Safaryan, Liana ; Harutyunyan, Lilit ; Bardakchyan, Samvel ; Iskanyan, Samvel ; Arakelyan, Samvel ; Tamamyan, Gevorg ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 101~104
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.101
Background: With advances in diagnostics and treatment approaches, patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) in developed countries can nowadays expect to have excellent outcomes. However, information about the characteristics and outcomes in the developing world is very scarce, and this is important given the fact that there are several reports about differences of disease characteristics depending on geographic location and the development level of the country. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study we assessed the features of 36 adult (
years old) patients with HL and their diagnosis and treatment and outcomes in the Clinic of Chemotherapy of Muratsan University Hospital of Yerevan State Medical University, Armenia, between 2008-2014. Results: All patients had classic HL and among them 19 (53%) had nodular sclerosis subtype, 8 (22%) mixed cellularity and 9 (25%) lymphocyte-rich. 16 (44.5%) patients were at stage II, 13 (36%) stage III and 7 (19.5%) stage IV. Median follow-up time was 24.5 months (range 1-71 months) and during the whole follow-up period only two relapses (early) were documented and there were no deaths. Twenty-three (64%) patients received a BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) regimen, and 13 (36%) ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine) regimen. A total of 25 (69.5%) patients received radiation in addition to chemotherapy. Conclusions: Although the number of patients involved in the study is small and the median follow-up time was just two years, this retrospective study shows that treatment of HL can be successfully organized in a resource-limited setting.
Diabetes is an Important Risk Factor for Metastasis in Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer
Ozer, Kutan ; Horsanali, Mustafa Ozan ; Gorgel, Sacit Nuri ; Ozbek, Emin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 105~108
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.105
Background: Epidemiological evidence indicates that individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) may have a modestly increased risk of bladder cancer. In the present study, we aimed to show any association between DM and risk of metastasis in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 698 patients between January 2007 and December 2014 who were diagnosed with and underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TUR-BT). Comparisons of means was conducted by independent samples t test, and relations between categorical variables were investigated by non-parametric chi-square test. A p value of 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant in comparisons. Results: We analyzed 418 patients with non muscle invasive bladder cancer. 123 of whom were diabetic and 295 non-diabetic. In diabetic patients, 13 were N1 stage and 11 M1 stage. When compared with non diabetic patients that was statistically significant (p<0.001). TNM stages were more advanced in diabetic patients (p<0.001), but concurrent CIS (p=0.1) and squamous metaplasia did not significantly differ between diabetic and non-diabetic cases (p=1). Conclusions: Diabetic patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer may suffer metastases earlier than expected although they are non invasive. Therefore such patients must be followed-up carefully and early cystectomy decision may be necessary. Further prospective studies with more patients are needed to confirm these findings.
Are p53 Antibodies a Diagnostic Indicator for Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma? Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Yang, Zhi-Cheng ; Ling, Li ; Xu, Zhi-Wei ; Sui, Xiao-Dong ; Feng, Shuang ; Zhang, Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 109~115
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.109
Background: P53 has been reported to be involved with tumorigenesis and has also been implicated as a significant biomarker in oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC). However, the diagnostic value of p53 antibodies remains controversial; hence, we comprehensively and quantitatively assessed the potential in the present systematic review. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search was performed using PubMed and Embase, up to October 31, 2014, without language restriction. Studies were assessed for quality using QUADAS (quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy). The positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were pooled separately and compared with overall accuracy measures using diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) and symmetric summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves. Results: Of 150 studies initially identified, 7 eligible regarding serum p53 antibodies met the inclusion criteria. Some 85.7% (6/7) were of relatively high quality (QUADAS
). The summary estimates for quantitative analysis of serum p53 antibody in the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma were: PLR 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI) : 1.35-3.15], NLR 0.85 (95%CI: 0.80-0.90) and DOR 2.47 (95%CI: 1.49-4.12). Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that the use of s-p53-antibodies has potential diagnostic value with relatively high sensitivity and specificity for OSCC particularly with serum specimens for discrimination of OSCCs from healthy controls. However, its discrimination power is not perfect because of low sensitivity.
Combination between Taxol-Encapsulated Liposomes and Eruca sativa Seed Extract Suppresses Mammary Tumors in Female Rats Induced by 7,12 Dimethylbenz(α)anthracene
Shaban, Nadia ; Abdel-Rahman, Salah ; Haggag, Amany ; Awad, Doaa ; Bassiouny, Ahmad ; Talaat, Iman ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 117~123
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.117
Taxol (paclitaxel) is a powerful anti-cancer drug widely used against several types of malignant tumors. Because Taxol may exert several side effects, a variety of formulations have been developed. One of these features liposomes, regarded as one of the most promising drug carriers, biocompatible and best able to reduce drug toxicity without changing efficacy against tumor cells. Eruca sativa seed extract (SE) is considered a promising natural product from cruciferous vegetables against breast cancer, increasing chemotherapeutic and eliminating harmful side effects. The effects of Taxol-encapsulated liposomes (T) alone and in combination between Eruca sativa seed extract on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-
), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) gene expression levels were investigated in rat mammary gland carcinogenesis induced by 7,12 dimethylbenz(
) anthracene (DMBA) using qRT-PCR. The results showed that DMBA increased NF-
, COX-2 and Bcl-2 gene expression levels and lipid peroxidation (LP), while decreasing glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and total antioxidant concentration (TAC) compared to the control group. T and T-SE treatment reduced NF-
, COX-2 and Bcl-2 gene expression levels and LP. Hence, T and T-SE treatment appeared to reduce inflammation and cell proliferation, while increasing apoptosis, GST and SOD activities and TAC.
Factors Predicting Early Release of Thyroid Cancer Patients from the Isolation Room after Radioiodine-131 Treatment
Fatima, Nosheen ; Zaman, Maseeh uz ; Zaman, Areeba ; Zaman, Unaiza ; Tahseen, Rabia ; Shahid, Wajiha ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 125~129
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.125
Background: Patients with differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) who receive radioactive iodine-131 (RAI) are released from isolation when their dose rate is below the regulatory requirements. The purpose of this study was establish predicting factors for early release from the isolation facility after RAI administration in patients with DTC. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study which included 96 (58 females and 38 males) patients with DTC who had received RAI from April 2013 till August 2015. The study was duly approved by the ethical committee of the institute. Patients who had complete information of primary tumor size (PTS), serum TSH, stimulated thyroglobulin level [sTg] with antibodies (IU/ml) at the time of RAI treatment were included. All had a normal serum creatinine level. To attain lower effective half-life good hydration and administration of soft laxative were ensured. Dose rate was measured (immediately, 24 h and 36 h) at 1 meter distance from anterior mid trunk and a dose rate <
was considered as the releasing criterion. At 24 h 50 patients were released while the remaining 46 patients were released at 36 h. A post-ablative whole body scan (PA-WBIS) was performed 5-8 days after RAI ablation in all patients. Results: Patients released after 24 h were significantly younger, had smaller lesions with higher proportion of papillary cancer, lower sTg, lower sTg/TSH ratio and had received a lower dose of RAI as comapred to those who were discharged after 36 h. Serum TSH and gender were not found to have any significant correlation between two cohorts. ROC and multivariate analysis have shown age
as strong indepedent predictors for early release. Conclusions: We conclude that younger age (
), smaller tumor size (
), lower RAI dose (
), lower sTg (
) and a lower sTg/TSH ratio (
) are significant independent predictors for release at 24 h after RAI treatment in DTC patients. Effective utilization of these factors could help the treating physicians to use limited number of internment facilities with higher throughput, lower cost and lower psychological stress to patients.
Effect of First Line Gastric Cancer Chemotherapy Regime on the AGS Cell Line - MTT Assay Results
Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Rafiei, Alireza ; Abedian-Kenari, Saeid ; Asgarian-Omran, Hossein ; Valadan, Reza ; Hedayatizadeh-Omran, Akbar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 131~133
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.131
Background: Combination chemotherapy regimes are common treatments for cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluation the effect of individual chemotherapeutic agents in comparison with a first line chemotherapy regime treatment in the AGS gastric cancer cell line by MTT assay. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, AGS cells were grown in RPMI-1640 supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and 100 IU/ml penicillin, and
streptomycinin, under a humidified condition at
with 5% CO2. All cells were washed with PBS and detached with trypsin, centrifuged and 8000 cells re-plated on to 96- well plates. LD50 doses of Epirubicin, Cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil were added to each well in mono or triple therapy. Anti-proliferative activities were determined by MTT assay after 24, 48 or 72 h. Results: Results of MTT assays showed that there were no significant differences among 3 drugs in monotherapy (p=0.088), but there was significant difference between combination therapy with epirubicin (P=0.031) and 5FU (p=0.013) on cell survival at 24 h. After 48 and 72 hours, cell viability showed significant differences between the 3 drugs (p=0.048 and P=0.000 for 48 and 72 h, respectively) and there was significant difference between combination therapy with epirubicin (P=0.035 and P=0.002 for 48 and 72 h, respectively). Conclusions: The results showed no significant differences between these chemotherapy drugs each given alone, but combination therapy with 3 drugs had significant effects on cell viability in comparison with epirubicin alone.
High-grade Cervical Histopathology in Women with Atypical Glandular Cell Cytology
Watcharanon, Waranya ; Luanratanakorn, Sanguanchoke ; Kleebkaow, Pilaiwan ; Chumworathayi, Bandit ; Temtanakitpaisan, Amornrat ; Kietpeerakool, Chumnan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 135~138
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.135
This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of underlying significant lesions among women referred for colposcopy after atypical glandular cell (AGC) smears and the associated risks. The present study reviewed data from women with AGC smears undergoing colposcopy at the Colposcopy Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand between January 2001 to December 2014. Significant lesions included cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2-3, adenocarcinoma in situ, endometrial hyperplasia, and cancer. During the study period, 170 women with AGC cytology were reviewed. The mean age was 45.7 years. Thirty-eight women (22.4%) were postmenopausal. Eighteen smears (10.6%) were further subclassified as AGC-favor neoplasia (AGC-FN). In total, significant lesions were noted in 27 women (15.9%; 95%CI, 7.8%-18.3%). Thirteen women (7.6%, 95%CI, 4.1%-12.7%) were found to have cervical cancer or endometrial cancer. Two variables were independently associated with an increased risk of significant histopathology results: level of educational attainment (secondary level or lower versus bachelor degree or higher) and types of AGC (AGC versus AGC-FN). Women who had low level of education and those with AGC-FN were at the higher risk of significant lesions (OR, 3.16; 95%CI 1.10-9.11 and OR, 4.62; 95%CI, 1.54-13.85, respectively). In conclusion, the rate of significant lesions among women referred for colposcopy after AGC smears is considerably high. Low education and smear subtypes appear independently associated with a higher risk of significant lesions.
The Relation between Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and the Quantity of Cotinine in the Urine of School Children in Taif City, Saudi Arabia
Desouky, Dalia El Sayed ; Elnemr, Gamal ; Alnawawy, Ali ; Taha, Azza Ali ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 139~145
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.139
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major public health problem for all ages. Despite the high prevalence of smoking among the Saudi population, there is limited information about levels of urinary cotinine in Saudi children exposed to SHS. The aim of the study was to assess the exposure of schoolchildren to ETS, and measure their urinary cotinine levels. Multistage cluster sampling was carried out, where schoolchildren from 4 schools were randomly chosen from primary schools in Taif city. A questionnaire including questions on SHS exposure and smoking rules in the residence were sent to students parents/guardians. Urine samples were taken and analyzed for total cotinine using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Of the studied children, 38.4% had a smoking father, 61.8%, 41.2% and 49.3% of them were exposed to ETS indoors, outdoors and both indoors and outdoors respectively. The mean urinary cotinine was significantly higher among children exposed to ETS compared to unexposed children. Urinary cotinine levels in children with both indoor and outdoor exposure was significantly higher compared with its level in children with single exposure. A significant positive correlation was found between urinary cotinine concentrations and the number of cigarette packs smoked by parents, and the number of smokers in the residence. The mean urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in children who reported no smoking rules at the residence.. The study revealed a high exposure of Saudi children to ETS. An antismoking media awareness campaign on the harmful effects of ETS should be carried out, in addition to family counseling programs targeted to parents to protect their children from ETS.
Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Glucose Transporter Type 1 in Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves ; Feitosa, Sthefane Gomes ; Lima, Ana Thayssa Tomaz ; Luna, Ealber Carvalho Macedo ; Cavalcante, Roberta Barroso ; Lima, Kenio Costa de ; Chaves, Filipe Nobre ; Costa, Fabio Wildson Gurgel ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 147~151
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.147
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of the oral cavity and some of these have been documented in association or preceded by oral epithelial dysplasia (OED). Aggressive cancers with fast growth have demonstrated overexpression of some glucose transporters (GLUTs). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the immunohistochemical expression of the glucose transporter, GLUT-1, in OEDs and OSCCs, seeking to better elucidate the biological behavior of neoplasias. Fifteen cases were selected this research of both lesions. Five areas were analyzed from each case by counting the percentage of positive cells at 400x magnification. Immunoreactivity of GLUT-1 was observed in 100% of the samples ranging from 54.2% to 86.2% for the OSCC and 73.9% to 97.4% for the OED. Statistical test revealed that there was greater overexpression of GLUT-1 in OED than the OSCC (p=0.01). It is believed the high expression of GLUT-1 may reflect the involvement of GLUT-1 in early stages of oral carcinogenesis.
Analytical Consideration of Surface Dose and Kerma for Megavoltage Photon Beams in Clinical Radiation Therapy
Birgani, Mohammad Javad Tahmasebi ; Behrooz, Mohammad Ali ; Razmjoo, Sasan ; Zabihzadeh, Mansour ; Fatahiasl, Jafar ; Maskni, Reza ; Abdalvand, Neda ; Asgarian, Zeynab ; Shamsi, Azin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 153~157
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.153
Background: In radiation therapy, estimation of surface doses is clinically important. This study aimed to obtain an analytical relationship to determine the skin surface dose, kerma and the depth of maximum dose, with energies of 6 and 18 megavoltage (MV). Materials and Methods: To obtain the dose on the surface of skin, using the relationship between dose and kerma and solving differential equations governing the two quantities, a general relationship of dose changes relative to the depth was obtained. By dosimetry all the standard square fields of
, an equation similar to response to differential equations of the dose and kerma were fitted on the measurements for any field size and energy. Applying two conditions: a) equality of the area under dose distribution and kerma changes in versus depth in 6 and 18 MV, b) equality of the kerma and dose at
and using these results, coefficients of the obtained analytical relationship were determined. By putting the depth of zero in the relation, amount of PDD and kerma on the surface of the skin, could be obtained. Results: Using the MATLAB software, an exponential binomial function with R-Square >0.9953 was determined for any field size and depth in two energy modes 6 and 18MV, the surface PDD and kerma was obtained and both of them increase due to the increase of the field, but they reduce due to increased energy and from the obtained relation, depth of maximum dose can be determined. Conclusions: Using this analytical formula, one can find the skin surface dose, kerma and thickness of the buildup region.
Factors Affecting Survival in Patients with Colorectal Cancer in Shiraz, Iran
Zare-Bandamiri, Mohammad ; Khanjani, Narges ; Jahani, Yunes ; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 159~163
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.159
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world, and the fourth in Iran in both genders. The aim of this study was to find predictive factors for CRC survival. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 570 patients referred to the radiotherapy oncology department of Shiraz Namazi hospital from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively analysed. Data were collected by reviewing medical records, and by telephone interviews with patients. Survival analysis was performed using the Cox's regression model with survival probability estimated with Kaplan-Meier curve. The log-rank test was used to compare survival between strata. Data was analyzed with Stata 12. Results: The five-year survival rate and the mean survival time after cancer diagnosis were 58.5% and
. On multivariate analysis, age of diagnosis, disease stage and primary tumor site, lymphovascular invasion and type of treatment (in colon cancer) were significant factors for survival. Conclusions: Age of diagnosis and type of treatment (adjuvant therapy in patients with colon cancer) were two modifiable factors related to survival of CRC patients. Therefore earlier diagnosis might help increase survival.
Factors Predicting Nurse Intent and Status Regarding Pap Smear Examination in Taiwan: a Cross-sectional Survey
Chen, Shu-Ling ; Tsai, Shu-Fang ; Hsieh, Mei-Mei ; Lee, Lin-Lin ; Tzeng, Ya-Ling ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 165~170
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.165
Background: Nurses are the most visible, frontline personnel providing health education to patients. In particular, nurse experience with Pap examinations have the potential to influence women's attitudes toward screening for cervical cancer. However, nurses in Taiwan have lower rates of Pap testing than the general population. Understanding the factors predicting nurse intent to have a Pap exam and Pap exam status would inform interventions and policies to increase their Pap exam uptake. Therefore, the present study was undertaken. Materials and Methods: Data were collected by questionnaire from a convenient sample of 504 nurses at a regional hospital in central Taiwan between August and October 2011 and analyzed by descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis, and logistic regression. Results: Nurse intention to have a Pap exam was predicted by younger age, less negative attitudes toward Pap exams, and greater influence of others recommendations. However, nurses were more likely to actually have had a Pap exam if they were older, married, had sexual experience, and had a high intention to have a Pap exam. Conclusions: Nurses who are younger than 34 years old, unmarried, sexually inexperienced, and with low intention to have a Pap exam should be targeted with interventions to educate them not only about the importance of Pap exams in detecting cervical cancer, but also about strategies to decrease pain and embarrassment during exams. Nurses with less negative attitudes and experiences related to Pap exams would serve as role models to persuade women to have Pap exams, thus increasing the uptake rate of Pap exams in Taiwan.
Symptom Prevalence and Related Distress in Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy
Thiagarajan, Muthukkumaran ; Chan, Caryn Mei Hsien ; Fuang, Ho Gwo ; Beng, Tan Seng ; Atiliyana, MA ; Yahaya, NA ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 171~176
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.171
Background: Much has been done to examine the psychological impact of cancer treatment, but it remains unclear to what extent anxiety and depression is related to symptom prevalence. The present study concerned the characteristics and frequency of distress as related to symptom prevalence in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Participants were 303 consecutive adult cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in an academic medical center. The short form Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS-SF), which covers three domains of symptoms (global distress, physical- and psychological symptoms) was used to cross-sectionally measure symptom frequency and associated distress via self-reporting. One-way ANOVA and t-tests were used to test mean differences among MSAS-SF subscale scores. Results: Complete data were available for 303 patients. The mean number of symptoms was 14.5. The five most prevalent were fatigue, dry mouth, hair loss, drowsiness and lack of appetite. Overall, symptom burden and frequency were higher than in other published MSAS-SF studies. Higher symptom frequency was also found to be significantly related to greater distress in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Conclusions: Patients undergoing chemotherapy suffer from multiple physical and psychological symptoms. Better symptom control or palliative care is needed. Greater frequency of reported symptoms may also indicate a subconscious bid by patients for care and reassurance - thus tailored intervention to manage distress should be offered.
People Participation Towards Opisthorchis viverrini Prevention and Control in Chaiyaphum Province, Northeastern Thailand
Phongsiripapat, Rutjirapat ; Chimplee, Kanokporn ; Rujirakul, Ratana ; Kaewpitoon, Soraya ; Keawpitoon, Natthawut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 177~181
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.177
This cross-sectional descriptive and qualitative study was aimed to study the people participation and their approaches toward the human carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, prevention and control in Ban Chaun sub-district administrative organization (BCSAO) and Bamnet Narong sub-district municipality (BNSM), Bamnet Narong district, Chaiyaphum Province, Thailand between June 2013 and February 2014. Participants were purposive selected, included chiefs of sub-district administrative organizations, sub-district municipalities, sub-district health promotion hospitals (SHPHs), heads of village, and a further sample was selected with a multi-stage random sampling for public health volunteers, and villagers. The pre-designed questionnaire contained items for individualized status and the participatory steps of sharing ideas, decision-making, and planning, procession, evaluation, and mutual benefit, for the project O. viverrini prevention and control (POPC). In-depth interviews were used for collection of need approaches to POPC. With 375 participants who completed the questionnaire, it was found that people had a high level regarding to participate in the POPC, particularly in the process stage (
, S.D. = 0.56), but the lowest level was found in sharing ideas, decision making, and planning step (
, S.D. = 0.63). By comparison, participant status and organization did not significantly differ with people participation. In each step, Ban Chaun sub-district had a high level of participation in the step of sharing ideas, decision making, and planning toward POPC, more than Bamnet Narong sub-district municipality (t=2.20, p=0.028). Approaches for POPC in Ban Chaun sub-district and Bamnet Narong sub-district municipality included requirements for budget support, annual campaigns for liver fluke prevention and control, campaign promotion, risk group observation, home visiting, community rules regarding reducing raw fish consumption in their communities, and a professional public health officer for working in their communities, BCSAO, BNSM, and SHPH, for O. viverrini prevention and control. This study indicates that people realize that eradication of the liver fluke needs a continuous people participation for O. viverrini prevention and control in their communities.
Anti-Proliferative Activity and Apoptosis Induction of an Ethanolic Extract of Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schlecht. against HeLa and Vero Cell Lines
Listyawati, Shanti ; Sismindari, Sismindari ; Mubarika, Sofia ; Murti, Yosi Bayu ; Ikawati, Muthi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 183~187
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.183
Rhizomes of Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schlecht have been reported to contain active compounds with anticancer properties. This research was carried out to examine anti-proliferative and apoptotic induction against HeLa and Vero cells-line. Dried powder of B. pandurata rhizomes was extracted by a maceration method using 90% ethanol. Cytotoxic assays to determine
and anti-proliferative effects were carried out by MTT methods. Observation of apoptosis was achieved with double staining using acridine orange and ethidium bromide. The results showed that ethanolic extract of B. pandurata was more cytotoxic against HeLa cells (
) than Vero cells (
). The extract had higher anti-proliferative activity as well as apoptotic induction in HeLa than Vero cells. Therefore, it was concluded that the ethanolic extract of B. pandurata had anti-proliferative as well as apoptosis induction activity dependent on the cell type.
p53 Expression Helps Identify High Risk Oral Tongue Premalignant Lesions and Correlates with Patterns of Invasive Tumour Front and Tumour Depth in Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cases
Viveka, Thangaraj Soundara ; Shyamsundar, Vidyarani ; Krishnamurthy, Arvind ; Ramani, Pratibha ; Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 189~195
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.189
Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is the most common oral cancer subtype with a maximum propensity for regional spread. Our objective was to study if p53 expression might have any correlation with aggressive patterns of invasion within oral tongue cancers as well as with the histologically identified degree of oral tongue dysplasia. p53 immunoexpression was studied using immunohistochemistry in early staged OTSCCs (n=155), oral tongue dysplasias, (n=29) and oral tongue normal specimens (n=10) and evaluated for correlations with histological and clinicopathological parameters. Our study (n=194) showed a pattern of p53 expression increasing with different grades of tongue dysplasia to different grades of invasive OTSCC (p=0.000). Among the OTSCC tumours, positive p53 expression was seen in 43.2% (67/155) and a higher p53 labelling index was significantly associated with increased Bryne's grade of the tumour invasive front (p=0.039) and increased tumour depth (p=0.018). Among the OTSCC patients with tobacco habits, (n=91), a higher p53 labelling index was significantly associated with increased risk of local recurrence (p=0.025) and with lymphovascular space involvement (p=0.014). Evaluation of p53 through varying degrees of dysplasia to oral tongue cancer indicates that p53 expression is linked to aggressive features of oral tongue cancers and tongue precancers entailing a closer monitoring in positive cases. Among the OTSCCs, p53 expression is associated with tumour aggressiveness correlating with increased grading of invasive tumour front and tumour depth.
Determination of an Effective Wedge Angle by Combination of Two Arbitrary Universal Wedge Fields in Radiation Therapy of Cancer Patients with Megavoltage Photon Beams
Shamsi, Azin ; Birgani, Mohammad Javad Tahmasebi ; Behrooz, Mohammad Ali ; Arvandi, Sholeh ; Fatahiasl, Jafar ; Maskny, Reza ; Abdalvand, Neda ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 197~200
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.197
Background: Wedge filters are commonly used in radiation oncology for eliminating hot spots and creating a uniform dose distribution in optimizing isodose curves in the target volume for clinical aspects. These are some limited standard physical wedges (
),or creating an arbitrary wedge angle, like motorized wedge or dynamic wedge,
The new formulation is presented by the combination of wedge fields for determining an arbitrary effective wedge angles. The isodose curves also are derived for these wedges. Materials and Methods: we performed the dosimetry of Varian Clinac 2100C/D with Scanditronix Wellhofer water blue phantom, CU500E, OmniPro - Accept software and 0.13cc ionization chamber for 6Mv photon beam in depth of 10cm (reference depth) for universal physical wedges (
) and reference field
. By combining the isodose curve standard wedge fields with compatible weighting dose for each field, the effective isodose curve is calculated for any wedge angle. Results: The relation between a given effective wedge angle and the weighting of each combining wedge fields was derived. A good agreement was found between the measured and calculated wedge angles and the maximum deviation did not exceed
. The difference between the measured and calculated data decreased when the combined wedge angles were closer. The results are in agreement with the motorized single wedge appliance in the literature. Conclusions: This technique showed that the effective wedge angle that is obtained from this method is adequate for clinical applications and the motorized wedge formalism is a special case of this consideration.
Clinicopathological Significance of Osteopontin in Cholangiocarcinoma Cases
Laohaviroj, Marut ; Chamgramol, Yaovalux ; Pairojkul, Chawalit ; Mulvenna, Jason ; Sripa, Banchob ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 201~205
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.201
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is generally a rare primary liver tumor of the bile duct with extremely poor clinical outcomes due to late diagnosis. Osteopontin (OPN) is the most abundant expressed gene in intrahepatic CCA and its involvement in tumor aggressiveness suggests it could be a useful prognostic biomarker. However, the prognostic significance of OPN expression in CCA is still controversial. We therefore immunohistochemically studied OPN expression in 354 resected CCAs and correlated the results with patient clinicopathological parameters. OPN expression was separately scored according to the percentage of cancer cells or degree of stromal tissue staining and classified as low (score 0-1) and high (score 2-3). OPN expression in CCA cells was found in 177 out of 354 patients (56.5%), whereas stroma was positive in 185 out of 354 patients (52.3%). Univariate analysis with several of the aforementioned parameters revealed that stromal but not cancer cell OPN expression was significantly associated with tumor size, tumor direct invasion into normal liver parenchyma, regional lymph node metastasis and higher staging. The combination of cancer cell and stromal OPN expression demonstrated a positive trend for linkage with lymph node metastasis. Multivariate analysis identified gender, the presence of lymphatic permeation and lymph node metastasis, but not OPN expression, as independent prognostic factors. This study confirms the presence of stromal OPN expression in tumor aggressiveness but not survival in CCA patients.
Suitability of a Group Behavioural Therapy Module for Workplace Smoking Cessation Programs in Malaysia: a Pilot Study
Maarof, Muhammad Faizal ; Ali, Adliah Mhd ; Amit, Noh ; Bakry, Mohd Makmor ; Taha, Nur Akmar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 207~214
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.207
In Malaysia, data on components suitability the established smoking cessation module is limited. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate the suitability of the components developed in the module for group behavioural therapy in workplace smoking cessation programs. Twenty staff were identified but only eight individuals were selected according to the study criteria during the recruitment period in May 2014. Focus group discussion was conducted to identify themes relevant to the behavioural issues among smokers. Thematic analysis yielded seven major themes which were reasons for regular smoking, reasons for quitting, comprehending smoking characteristics, quit attempt experiences, support and encouragement, learning new skills and behaviour, and preparing for lapse/relapse or difficult situations. As a result, the developed module was found to be relevant and suitable for use based on these themes.
Watch and Wait in Lebanese Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients: How Relevant is it?
Lutfallah, Antoine Abi ; Kourie, Hampig Raphael ; Eid, Roland ; Farhat, Fadi ; Ghosn, Marwan ; Kattan, Joseph ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 215~217
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.215
Background: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most frequent form of leukemia in Europe and North America, and it mainly affects older individuals. Many approaches are implemented in the management of CLL from a watch and wait (W&W) strategy to chemotherapeutic regimens. We here reviewed our clinical practice for the relevance of the W&W strategy in Lebanese CLL patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 95 patients with CLL diagnosed in four institutions in Lebanon, between 1992 and 2013, were selected and their files were reviewed. Characteristics of these patients were noted including age, sex, RAI and Binet scores, CBC values, presence of hepatomegaly or splenomegaly, performance of bone marrow biopsy or peripheral blood flux cytometry for diagnosis, adoption of W&W strategy, different chemotherapeutic regimens and the indications for treatment. Results: Some 38 patients (40%) diagnosed with CLL were women and 57 (60%) were men with a mean age of 65.1 years [36-89]. Of the total, 50.5%, 17.2%, 14%, 7.5% and 10.8% had an RAI score at diagnosis of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, while 65.6%, 17.2% and 17.2% had Binet scores of I, II and III. The mean lymphocyte count at diagnosis was
[1596-290000], the mean hemoglobin level was 12.7 g/dl [6.2-17] and the mean platelet count was
[14000-458000]. While 26.3% of patients with CLL had splenomegaly, only 7.4% had hepatomegaly. Some 33.7% had undergone a bone marrow biopsy, 66.3% flow cytometry of circulating blood and 5.3% a lymph node biopsy. Overall, the W&W was adopted in 62.4% (58) of patients with a mean duration of 37.7 months [3-216]. The W&W was used in 82.6%, 73.3%, 46.2%, 14.3% and 0% of patients having RAI scores of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, and, it was used in 80%, 46.7% and 6.25% with Binet scores of I, II and III. The most frequent indication for treatment was anemia and thrombocytopenia, accounting for 32.7% of cases. The most frequently used chemotherapeutical regimens were chlorambucil until the end of the last century and flufarabine-cyclophosphamide-rituximab during the last decade. Conclusions: This retrospective review of CLL clinical practice showed an important implementation of the W&W strategy with a long duration, especially in early stage cases with low RAI or Binet scores.
Involvement of CELSR3 Hypermethylation in Primary Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Khor, Goot Heah ; Froemming, Gabrielle Ruth Anisah ; Zain, Rosnah Binti ; Abraham, Thomas Mannil ; Lin, Thong Kwai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 219~223
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.219
Background: Promoter hypermethylation is a frequent epigenetic mechanism for gene transcription repression in cancer and is one of the hallmarks of the disease. Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 3 (CELSR3) contributes to cell contact-mediated communication. Dysregulation of promoter methylation has been reported in various cancers. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to investigate the CELSR3 hypermethylation level in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting analysis (MS-HRM) and to correlate CELSR3 methylation with patient demographic and clinicopathological parameters. Materials and Methods: Frozen tissue samples of healthy subjects' normal mucosa and OSCCs were examined with regard to their methylation levels of the CELSR3 gene using MS-HRM. Results: MS-HRM analysis revealed a high methylation level of CELSR3 in 86% of OSCC cases. Significant correlations were found between CELSR3 quantitative methylation levels with patient ethnicity (P=0.005), age (P=0.024) and pathological stages (P=0.004). A moderate positive correlation between CELSR3 and patient age was also evident (R=0.444, P=0.001). Conclusions: CELSR3 promoter hypermethylation may be an important mechanism involved in oral carcinogenesis. It may thus be used as a biomarker in OSCC prognostication.
Psychometric Evaluation of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Belief Scale Based on Health Belief Model's Constructs for the Fecal Occult Blood Test
Tahmasebi, Rahim ; Noroozi, Azita ; Dashdebi, Kamel Ghobadi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 225~229
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.225
Background: It is important to validate scales related to cancer screening beliefs in order to better understand perceptions. The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the colorectal cancer screening belief scale based on Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 600 persons referred to outpatient laboratory units in Iran through a convenience sampling procedure. In this cross-sectional study, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine construct validity of scale. Results: Through exploratory factor analysis, 52 items of the scale converged to five constructs of HBM with 4 items omission. Construct validity was determined by confirmatory factor analysis through which correlated model was supported. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the whole scale was obtained as 0.78, which indicates reliability of the scale. Conclusions: The study findings showed that this scale is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used for measuring HBM constructs about colorectal cancer screening with the fecal occult blood test.
Re-Examination of Opisthorchis viverrini in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeastern Thailand, Indicates Continued Needs for Health Intervention
Kaewpitoon, Soraya J ; Rujirakul, Ratana ; Loyd, Ryan A ; Panpimanmas, Sukij ; Matrakool, Likit ; Tongtawee, Taweesak ; Kompor, Porntip ; Norkaew, Jun ; Chavengkun, Wasugree ; Kujapan, Jirawoot ; Polphimai, Sukanya ; Phatisena, Tanida ; Eaksunti, Thawatchai ; Polsripradist, Poowadol ; Padchasuwan, Natnapa ; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 231~234
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.231
Opisthorchis viverrini infection is associated with cholangiocarcinoma particularly in the cases of chronic or re-infection. This presents a serious health problem in northeastern and northern Thailand. A community base approach is required for surveillance. Therefore, in a pilot project, re-examination of O. viverrini infection was conducted in the 3 districts of Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand, during June and October 2015. A total of 355 participants from a 194,152 population, was selected through multi-stage sampling. O. viverrini infection was determined using modified Kato Katz thick smear technique. Participants were 229 males and 126 females, and aged
years old. Prevalence of O. viverrini infection was 2.25% (8/355 participants). O. viverrini infection was slightly higher in females (3.17%), and age group between 41-50 years (4.49%). Mueang Yang district had a highest of O. viverrini infection rate (2.82%), and followed by Bua Yai (2.48%), and Chum Phuang (1.84%), respectively. O. viverrini infection rate was increased from year 2012 to 2015 particularly in Bua Yai and Mueang Yang. These re-examinion results indicate that opisthorchiasis is still problem in community of Nakhon Ratchasima province, therefore, the provincial-wide scale is need required. Furthermore health education is need intervened in the infected group, and screening of cholangiocarcinoma is urgently concerned.
Incidence of Active HCV infection amongst Blood Donors of Mardan District, Pakistan
Karim, Fawad ; Nasar, Abu ; Alam, Ibrar ; Alam, Iftikhar ; Hassan, Said ; Gul, Rahmat ; Ullah, Sana ; Rizwan, Muhammad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 235~238
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.235
Hepatitis C is an ailment of liver caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. About 3% of the world population is infected by this virus. HCV infection is a leading reason for liver cirrhosis and therefore a major source of hepatocellular carcinoma. The study focused on the incidence of active HCV infection in blood donors of Mardan district of KPK, Pakistan. A total of 5318 blood donors were inspected for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies and HCV-RNA using ICT (immune-chromatographic test), ELISA and RT-PCR at Mardan Medical Complex (MMC), Mardan. Out of these, 157 (2.95%) were positive by ICT, 60 (1.12%) by ELISA and 56 (1.05%) for HCV-RNA. The frequency of active HCV infectivity amongst the blood donors from district Mardan, KPK Pakistan was 1.05 %. Application of strict measures during blood donor selection and use of proper screening assays such as ELISA in place of ICT devices can give a more accurate picture so that the incidence of this viral infection in HCV negative blood recipients can be reduced.
Cervical Cancer Screening: Recommendations for Muslim Societies
Khodakarami, Nahid ; Farzaneh, Farah ; Yavari, Parvin ; Akbari, Mohamad Esmaeil ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 239~247
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.239
Background: The overall cervical cancer incidence rate is low in Iran; however, because of a higher risk of death for cervical cancer, a disease that kills women in middle age, a cervical cancer control program is needed. The aim of this study was to provide consensus recommendation for cervical cancer prevention in Iran and other Muslim societies with low incidences of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Through a practical guideline development cycle, we developed six questions that were relevant to produce the recommendation. We reviewed 190 full text records of cervical cancer in Iran (1971 to 2013) of which 13 articles were related to the data needed to answer the recommendation questions. We also reviewed World Health Organization, IARC, GLOBOCAN report, Iran Ministry of Health cancer registry report and 8 available foreign countries guidelines. Lastly, we also evaluated the Pap smear results of 825 women who participated in the Iranian HPV survey, of whom 328 were followed-up after a 5-year interval. Results: The obtained data highlighted the burden of HPV and cervical cancer situation in Iran. Experts emphasized the necessity of a cervical cancer screening program for Iranian women, and recommended an organized screening program with a cytological evaluation (Pap smear) that would start at the age of 30 years, repeated every 5 years, and end at the age of 69 years. Meanwhile, there is no need for screening among women with a hysterectomy, and screening should be postponed to post-partum among pregnant women. Conclusions: An organized cervical cancer screening is a necessity for Iran as more than 500-900 women in middle age diagnosed with an invasive cervical cancer every year cannot be ignored. This recommendation should be taken into account by the National Health System of Iran and Muslim countries with shared culture and behavior patterns. CUBA HPV test could be consideration in countries Muslim country with appropriate budget, resources and facility.
Relationship between erb-B2 mRNA Expression in Blood and Tissue of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Breast Cancer Patients and Clinicopathological Characteristics of the Tumors
Moazzezy, Neda ; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh ; Sisakht, Mahsa Mollapour ; Yahyazadeh, Hossein ; Bouzari, Saeid ; Oloomi, Mana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 249~254
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.249
Molecular detection methods such as RT-PCR for detecting breast cancer-associated gene expression in the peripheral blood have the potential to modify breast cancer (BC) staging and therapy. In this regard, we evaluated the potential of erb-B2 molecular marker in BC detection and analyzed the expression of erb-B2 mRNA in the peripheral blood and fresh tissue samples of 50 pretreated female BC patients and 50 healthy females by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) method. We also assessed the correlation of erb-B2 mRNA marker positivity in peripheral blood and tumor tissue samples with clinical and pathological factors in BC patients in order to evaluate its prognostic value. It was shown that there is a significant difference between healthy females and BC patients with expression of the erb-B2 molecular marker (p<0.01). A significant difference between the expression of erb-B2 in the peripheral blood and tissue samples of BC patients (p<0.01) and the frequency of circulating erb-B2 mRNA expression in peripheral blood and in tissue was detected by RT-PCR. No correlation was found between erb-B2 mRNA expression in blood or tumor tissue samples and lymph node, tumor grade, tumor stage, tumor size, patient's age, ki67, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PGR), P53, and HER-2 status. However, in a small subset of 31 BC patients we found that expression of erb-B2 in peripheral blood or in both peripheral blood and tumor tissue was directly correlated with lympho-vascular invasion and perineural invasion as poor prognostic features. The highest rates of erb-B2 expression in peripheral blood or tumor tissue were in the ER and PR negative and HER-2 positive group. This study suggests that the application of the RT-PCR and immunohistochemical methods for erb-B2 molecular marker detection would provide a higher detection rate, especially in early stage BC.
Reliability and Validity of an Iranian Version of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire for Patients with Multiple Myeloma: the EORTC QLQ-MY20
Ahmadzadeh, Ahmad ; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed ; Saffari, Mohsen ; Pakpour, Amir H ; Aaronson, Neil K ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 255~259
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.255
Background: Reliable and validated instruments are needed in order to study the quality of life in myeloma patients. This study aimed to translate and explore the psychometric properties of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) myeloma module (QLQ-MY20) in Iranian patients. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifteen patients with multiple myeloma (MM) were recruited from Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran. A standard forward-backward translation procedure was implemented. Participating patients were asked to complete the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the QLQ-MY20 three times, at study entry, after two weeks, and again after three months. Data were tested for the range of measurement, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, known group comparison, responsiveness and factor structure. Results: Mean age of the patients was 60.7 years. No floor and ceiling effects were seen for the QLQ-MY20. Cronbach's
was greater than 0.80 for all three multi-item scales (ranging from 0.82 to 0.93). All four scales had test-retest reliability of 0.85 or greater. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis that the hypothesized 3-scale measurement model of the QLQ-MY20. Moreover, the Persian version for the QLQ-MY20 differentiated between subgroups of the patients in terms of beta-2 microglobulin, fracture and performance status. The responsiveness of the QLQ-MY20 to change over time was confirmed within 3 months. Conclusions: the results of our study indicate that our Iranian version of the QLQ-MY20 is a feasible, reliable and valid questionnaire for assessing the condition-specific quality of life of patients with MM.
Influence of Genotype and Haplotype of MDR1 (C3435T, G2677A/T, C1236T) on the Incidence of Breast Cancer - a Case-Control Study in Jordan
Abuhaliema, Ali M ; Yousef, Al-Motassem F ; El-Madany, Nirmeen N ; Bulatova, Nailya R ; Awwad, Nemah M ; Yousef, Muhammad A ; Al Majdalawi, Khalil Z ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 261~266
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.261
Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women and the second in humans worldwide. Many published studies have suggested an association between MDR1 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Our aim was to study the association between genetic polymorphism of MDR1 at three sites (C3435T, G2677A/T, and C1236T) and their haplotype and the risk of breast cancer in Jordanian females. Materials and Methods: A case-control study involving 150 breast cancer cases and 150 controls was conducted. Controls were age-matched to cases. The polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique and sequencing were performed to analyse genotypes. Results: The distribution of MDR1 C3435T genotypes differed between cases and controls [cases, CC 45.3%, CT 41.3%, and TT 13.3%; controls, CC 13.4%, CT 43.3%, and TT 30.2%, p < 0.001]. Similarly, the distribution of G2677A/T significantly differed [cases, GG 43.1 %, GT+GA 50.9% and AA+TT 6%; controls, GG 29.6 %, GT+GA 50.9%, and AA+TT 19.4%, p = 0.004]. On the other hand, genotype and allelotype distribution of C1236T was not statistically different between cases and controls (p=0.56 and 0.26, respectively). The CGC haplotype increased the risk to breast cancer by 2.5-fold compared to others, while TGC and TTC haplotypes carried 2.5- and 5-fold lower risk of breast cancer, respectively. Conclusions: Genetic polymorphisms of MDR1 C3435T and G2677A/T, but not C1236T, are associated with increased risk of breast cancer. In addition, CGC, TGC and TTC haplotypes have different impacts on the risk of breast cancer. Future, larger studies are needed to validate these findings.
Effect of an Educational Intervention on Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination among Pre-University Students in Malaysia
Kwang, Ng Beng ; Mahayudin, Tasneem ; Yien, Hii Ling ; Abdul Karim, Abdul Kadir ; Teik, Chew Kah ; Shan, Lim Pei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 267~274
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.267
Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Studies evaluating the effect of health education on knowledge and perception of cervical cancer have generated conflicting results. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of educational intervention towards knowledge of HPV vacccination for cervical cancer prevention among pre-university students in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental before and after study performed between October 2014 and March 2015. Five hundred and eighty students were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. All were required to complete both pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaires. Those in the intervention group were given an information leaflet to read before answering the post-intervention questionnaire. Results: Almost half (48.3%) of the students had poor knowledge, with a score less than 5, and only 51 (8.8%) exhibited good knowledge, with a score of 11 and above. After educational intervention, the number of students with poor knowledge was reduced to 177 (29.3%) and the number of students who exhibited good knowledge increased to 148 (25.5%). Students from the intervention group demonstrated significant higher total scores in knowledge regarding 'HPV infection and cervical cancer' (p=0.000) and 'HPV vaccination and cervical cancer prevention' (p=0.000) during post-intervention as compared to the control group. Conclusions: Knowledge on HPV infection and vaccination is low among pre-university students. Educational intervention in the form of information leaflets appears effective in creating awareness and improving knowledge.
Support for a Campus Tobacco-Free Policy among Non-Smokers: Findings from a Developing Country
Yasin, Siti Munira ; Isa, Mohamad Rodi ; Fadzil, Mohd Ariff ; Zamhuri, Mohammad Idris ; Selamat, Mohamad Ikhsan ; Ruzlin, Aimi Nadira Mat ; Ibrahim, Nik Shamsidah Nik ; Ismail, Zaliha ; Majeed, Abu Bakar Abdul ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 275~280
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.275
Background: A tobacco-free workplace policy is identified as an effective means to reduce tobacco use and protect people from second-hand smoke; however, the number of tobacco-free policies (TFP) remains very low in workplaces in Malaysia. This study explored the factors affecting support for a tobacco-free policy on two healthcare campuses in Malaysia, prior to the implementation of TFP. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 286 non-smokers from two healthcare training centres and two nearby colleges in Malaysia from January 2015 to April 2015. A standardized questionnaire was administered via staff and student emails. The questionnaire collected information on sociodemographic characteristics, support for a tobacco-free policy and perceived respiratory and sensory symptoms due to tobacco exposure. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the independent effects of supporting a tobacco-free campus. Results: The percentage of individuals supporting completely tobacco-free facilities was 83.2% (N=238), as opposed to 16.7% (N=48) in support of partially tobacco-free facilities. Compared to the supporters of partially tobacco-free facilities, non-smokers who supported completely tobacco-free health facilities were more likely to be female, have higher education levels, to be very concerned about the effects of other people smoking on their health and to perceive a tobacco-free policy as very important. In addition, they perceived that tobacco smoke bothered them at work by causing headaches and coughs and, in the past 4 weeks, had experienced difficulty breathing. In the multivariate model, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and other factors, only experiencing coughs and headaches increased the odds of supporting a completely tobacco-free campus, up to 2.5- and 1.9-fold, respectively. Conclusions: Coughs and headaches due to other people smoking at work enhances support for a completely tobacco-free campus among non-smokers.
Serum Antibody Ig G and Ig M Titers for Opisthorchis felineus Correlate with Eggs in Faeces - a Comprehensive Study in Chuvash Republic, Russia
Emelianov, Vladimir U ; Skvortsova, Tatiana ; Mikhailova, Lilia V ; Shamitova, Elena N ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 281~283
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.281
The Cholangiocarcinoma is a. The risk of development of cholangiocarcinoma, generally a rare type of a liver tumor, increases during infection of Opisthorchiasis. For this reason the timely detection of Opisthorchiasis is important for Cholangiocarcinoma prevention. There are many studies which concern the detection of pathogenesis of Opisthorchis viverrini infection but a little known about Opisthorchis felineus. In this study we investigate a correlation of the eggs which are found in a faeces and are comparable with a serum Ig G and Ig M antibody level that were detected with ELISA test in a large group of patients. The result is showing positive correlation between evidence of the Opisthorchis felineus eggs that were found in a faeces and antibody Ig G and Ig M level in a serum. Moreover the combination of two methods can improve the Opisthorchiasis diagnostic: the serum antibody and faeces investigation of eggs.
Antibiotic Resistant Pattern of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Based on Molecular Tests in Laos
Vannarath, Sengdao ; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn ; Rasachak, Bouachanh ; Mairiang, Pisaln ; Yamaoka, Yoshio ; Mahachai, Varocha ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 285~287
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.285
Background: The efficacy of standard treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is declining because of antibiotic resistance. Clarithromycin resistance is also increasing in many Asian countries. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of H. pylori infection and clinical association in Laos. Materials and Methods: A total of 329 Lao dyspeptic patients who underwent gastroscopy at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos during December 2010-March 2012 were enrolled in this study. During gastroscopy, 4 biopsies were collected (2 each from the antrum and body) for CLO-test and histopathology. Only the positive CLO-test gastric tissues was stored at
in a freezer until DNA was extracted and a GenoType
HelicoDR test was conducted for detecting mutations in the rrl gene encoding 23S rRNA (clarithromycin resistance) and mutations in gyrA gene (fluoroquinolone resistance). Results: Of the total, 119 Lao patients (36.2%) were infected with H. pylori including 59 males (49.6%) and 60 females (50.4%) with a mean age of 46 years. Clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance of H. pylori infection was demonstrated in 15 (12.6%) and 16 strains (13.4%) respectively. In clarithromycin resistance, the number of patients who had education above primary school and
were significantly higher than those who had education below primary school and BMI<
(23.1% vs 7.5%, P-value= 0.036 and 20.5% vs 8%, P-value= 0.048, respectively). In fluoroquinolone resistance, the number of lowland Lao was significantly higher than those of non-lowland (highland and midland) Lao ethnic groups (16.7% vs 0%, P-value= 0.039). Conclusions: H. pylori infections remain common in Laos. Clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance with H. pylori infection are growing problems. Education above primary school and
might be predictors for clarithromycin resistance and lowland Lao ethnicity might be predictors for fluoroquinolone resistance with H. pylori infection in Laos.
Clinicopathological Significance of S100A10 Expression in Lung Adenocarcinomas
Katono, Ken ; Sato, Yuichi ; Jiang, Shi-Xu ; Kobayashi, Makoto ; Saito, Keita ; Nagashio, Ryo ; Ryuge, Shinichiro ; Satoh, Yukitoshi ; Saegusa, Makoto ; Masuda, Noriyuki ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 289~294
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.289
Background: S100A10, of the S100 protein family, is reported to be involved in cancer cell invasion and metastasis. The aims of the present study were to immunohistochemically examine S100A10 expression in surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas, and evaluate any relationships with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis of patients. Materials and Methods: S100A10 expression was immunohistochemically studied in 202 consecutive resected lung adenocarcinomas, and its associations with clinicopathological parameters were evaluated. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the effect of S100A10 expression on survival. Results: S100A10 expression was detected in 65 of the 202 (32.2%) lung adenocarcinomas, being significantly correlated with poorer differentiation (P =0.015), a higher pathological TNM stage (stages II and III) (P=0.004), more frequent and severe intratumoral vascular invasion (P=0.001), and a poorer prognosis (P=0.030). However, S100A10 expression was not an independent predictor of survival after controlling for clinicopathological factors. Conclusions: The present study reveals that S100A10 is expressed in a subset of lung adenocarcinomas, and this is related to some clinicopathological parameters, although further studies are required to confirm the correlation between S100A10 expression and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients.
Relationship between HER2 Proto-oncogene Status and Prognostic Factors of Breast Cancer in the West of Iran
Amirifard, Nasrin ; Sadeghi, Edris ; Payandeh, Mehrdad ; Mohebbi, Hossain ; Sadeghi, Masoud ; Choubsaz, Mansour ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 295~298
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.295
Background: Breast cancer is a very common health problem in Iranian women. The HER2-neu gene is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase with homology to members of the EGF receptor family. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between HER2-neu oncogene status with prognostic factors of breast cancer in Kermanshah province, Iran. Materials and Methods: Relationship between HER2-neu and prognostic factors of 130 cases of breast cancer were evaluated during two years in Imam Reza hospital in Kermanshah, Iran. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the T-test and Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test using SPSS 19. Results: The mean age for the patients was
, all being female. Among the predictive factors for breast cancer were family history, stage of disease, involvement of the lymphovascular system, number of involved lymph nodes in axillaries, grading and hormone receptor status with HER2-neu oncogene had direct correlation and between factors, tumor location, patient age and histological characteristics and HER2-neu oncogene had no significant relationship. We found significant correlation between HER2 with ER and PR and also HER2 with ER, PR negative. Conclusions: HER2-neu is risk factor that can be a good prognostic and also predictive factor. For these reasons, we recommend that it be evaluated for all types of BC.
Knowledge and Attitudes of Medical and Non-Medical Turkish University Students about Cervical Cancer and HPV Vaccination
Borlu, Arda ; Gunay, Osman ; Balci, Elcin ; Sagiroglu, Mehmet ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 299~303
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.299
Background: This study was conducted to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices about cervical cancer and HPV vaccination of students studying in various faculties of Erciyes University. Materials and Methods: The study was performed among the first and fourth grade students of Medicine, Theology, Education and Economics and Administrative Sciences (FEAS) faculties of Erciyes University. It was aimed to reach 1,073 students and 718 were evaluated. A questionnaire consisting of 48 questions related to the socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices about cervical cancer and HPV vaccination was administered to the students. The chi-square test and logistic regression were used for the statistical analyses. Results: Of the students, 78.3% were aware of cervical cancer, while 36.1% of them were aware of the HPV vaccine. The percentage hearing about cervical cancer and HPV vaccination was significantly higher among the students of the medical faculty than the others and among fourth grade students comparing with the first grade. The marital status and the presence of a health worker in the family had no significant impact on the knowledge level of the students. The acceptability of the HPV vaccination was low among all students. Conclusions: The knowledge levels of the university students about cervical cancer and HPV vaccination are inadequate. This deficiency is more pronounced among the non-medical students and there is no significant increase during the faculty years. Non-medical students must be provided with information about important public health issues by elective courses. HPV vaccination could provide many benefits for men and women by decreasing the morbidity and mortality of cervical, anal, and penile cancers.
Prevention of Esophageal Cancer: Experience of an Educational Campaign for Reducing Hot Tea Consumption in Iran
Mirzaei, Farahnaz ; Dehdari, Tahereh ; Malehi, Amal Saki ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 305~310
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.305
Background: Given the association between drinking hot tea and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, this study was designed to determine the effectiveness of an educational campaign based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in reducing hot tea consumption among a sample of Iranian female students. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 130 primary-school female students in Salas Babajani, Kermanshah, Iran were randomly selected. A two-month campaign based on TPB constructs was developed and conducted for the intervention group. Combined mass media approaches (such as posters, pamphlet, and brochure) with small group and individual activities were used to transfer the campaign messages. Also, five 40-minute instructional sessions for the students and one session for their parents and teachers were held. The hot tea consumption, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and no intention to drink hot tea were variables which were measured at baseline and again after 4 weeks. Results: There was a significant improvement in the perceived behavioral control and intention to drink no hot tea variables in the intervention group as compared to the control group following the campaign. In addition, significant reductions were found for the hot tea consumption and favorable attitude toward drinking hot tea in the intervention group as compared to the control group. Conclusions: Conducting educational campaigns based on TPB variables may reduce hot tea consumption among Iranian students.
Nurses, Healthy Women and Preventive Gynecological Examinations - Vlora City Scenario, Albania
Kamberi, Fatjona ; Theodhosi, Gjergji ; Ndreu, Vjollca ; Sinaj, Enkeleda ; Stramarko, Yllka ; Kamberi, Leonard ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 311~314
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.311
Background: Nurses play an important role in preventive medicine because they represent the largest sector of health professionals. This role is very crucial in developing countries, which are going through rapid societal and economic changes, associated with a rising burden of cancers due to different risk factors. The current study aimed to compare health awareness between nurses and healthy women regarding preventive gynecological examinations and to answer the question - can nurses make a difference in women's health? Materials and Methods: This cross sectional research included a total of 150 women, 70 nurses and 80 healthy women, randomly selected. Data were collected in 2014 in Vlora city through a self-administered questionnaire that assessed different variables about preventive gynecological examinations. Results: Cervical screening rates were 20.3% and 41.8%, respectively, for nurses and healthy women, despite the former having a statistical significant greater knowledge of risk factors and symptoms. Conclusions: Even if the health awareness of nurse participants can be considered good, they need themselves to increase participation rates in cervical screening if they are to provide role models for health education/promotion addressing misconceptions and barriers.
Antiproliferative Evaluation and Apoptosis Induction in MCF-7 Cells by Ziziphus spina christi Leaf Extracts
Farmani, Fatemeh ; Moein, Mahmoodreza ; Amanzadeh, Amir ; Kandelous, Hirsa Mostafapour ; Ehsanpour, Zahra ; Salimi, Mona ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 315~321
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.315
Background: Herbal medicine has becoming a potential source of treatment for different types of cancer including breast cancer. It has been shown that plants from the family Rhamnaceae possess anticancer activity. Objective: In this study, we determined the antiproliferative influence of Ziziphus spina christi- a species from this family- on the MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) cell line. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxicity of the total extract, ethanol, ethanol-aqueous (1:1) as well as aqueous fractions of Ziziphus spina christi leaves was evaluated through MTT assay against MCF-7 cell line. Cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis induction were assessed by flowcytometry cycle RNase/PI analysis and Annexin V-FLUOS, respectively. Apoptosis was also analyzed by immunoblotting assay. Results: Our results indicated that the ethanolic fraction had the lowest
value (0.02 mg/ml), induced cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase as well as apoptosis after a 48h of treatment. Conclusions: This is the first report on anticancer effect of Ziziphus spina christi ethanolic fraction on breast cancer cells, providing a scientific basis for its utility in traditional medicine. However, further in-depth studies are needed to confirm the precise mechanisms.
Tissue CA125 and HE4 Gene Expression Levels Offer Superior Accuracy in Discriminating Benign from Malignant Pelvic Masses
Fawzy, Amal ; Mohamed, Mohamed R ; Ali, Mohamed AM ; El-Magied, Mohamed H Abd ; Helal, Amany M ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 323~333
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.323
Background: Ovarian cancer remains a major worldwide health care issue due to the lack of satisfactory diagnostic methods for early detection of the disease. Prior studies on the role of serum cancer antigen 125 (CA125) and human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in detecting ovarian cancer presented conflicting results. New tools to improve the accuracy of identifying malignancy are urgently needed. We here aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of tissue CA125 and HE4 gene expression in comparison to serum CA125 and HE4 in discriminating benign from malignant pelvic masses. Materials and Methods: One-hundred Egyptian women were enrolled in this study, including 60 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients and 20 benign ovarian tumor patients, as well as 20 apparently healthy women. Preoperative serum levels of CA125 and HE4 were measured by immunoassays. Tissue expression levels of genes encoding CA125 and HE4 were determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The diagnostic performance of CA125 and HE4, measured either as mRNA or protein levels, was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: The serum CA125+HE4 combination and serum HE4, with area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.935 and 0.932, respectively, performed significantly better than serum CA125 (AUC=0.592; P<0.001). Tissue CA125 and HE4 (AUC=1) performed significantly better than serum CA125 (P<0.001), serum HE4 (P=0.016) and the serum CA125+HE4 combination (P=0.018). Conclusions: Measurement of tissue CA125 and HE4 gene expression not only improves discriminatory performance, but also broadens the range of differential diagnostic possibilities in distinguishing EOC from benign ovarian tumors.
Usefulness of Salivary and Serum Auto-antibodies Against Tumor Biomarkers HER2 and MUC1 in Breast Cancer Screening
Laidi, Fatna ; Bouziane, Amal ; Errachid, Abdelhamid ; Zaoui, Fatima ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 335~339
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.335
Background: The aim of this work was to investigate if serum and salivary auto-antibodies, isotypes IgG and IgM, against HER2 and MUC1 tandem repeat fragments could play a role in breast cancer screening. Materials and Methods: Our case-control study was conducted in breast cancer patients, in early stages (n=29), at the gynecology service, Maternity Souissi Hospital, Rabat, Morocco and healthy woman (n=31). Salivary and serum auto-antibodies against HER2 and MUC1 (tandem repeat) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared between patients and healthy women using the Mann-Whitney U test. A P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Our data showed higher expression of all serum and salivary autoantibodies in patients as compared to healthy women p<0.05. However, serum IgM anti-MUC1 expression did not show a significant difference between cases and controls (p=0.79). Similarly, salivary IgG anti-HER2 expression did not differ (p=0.15). The correlation between the different isotypes of antibodies revealed that the highest correlation was between salivary IgG anti-HER2 and salivary IgG anti-MUC1(r=0.65). In fact, we have found in saliva the correlation between autoantibodies anti-MUC1 and anti-HER2 more important than in serum (r=0.59 and r=0. 55). However, the correlation between serum and saliva values for all antibodies was weak. Conclusions: Autoantibodies against HER2 and MUC1 may provide a useful approach in breast cancer screening when using both serum and saliva values.
Helicobacter Pylori Associated Gastritis Increases Risk of Colorectal Polyps: a Hospital Based-Cross-Sectional Study in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeastern Thailand
Tongtawee, Taweesak ; Kaewpitoon, Soraya ; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut ; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon ; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat ; Loyd, Ryan A ; Matrakool, Likit ; Panpimanmas, Sukij ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 341~345
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.341
Background: Colorectal polyps are common in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern region. The present study aimed to determine any correlation between Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and colorectal polyps in the Thai population. Materials and Methods: A total of 303 patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy with colonoscopy for investigation of chronic abdominal pain participated in this study from November 2014 to October 2015. A diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis was made if the bacteria were seen on histopathological examination and a rapid urease test was positive. Colorectal polyps were confirmed by histological examination of colorectal biopsies. Patient demographic data were analyzed for correlations. Results: The prevalence of colorectal polyps was 77 (25.4%), lesions being found more frequently in Helicobacter pylori infected patients than non-infected subjects [38.4% vs. 12.5%; Odds Ratio (OR) (95% CI): 2.26 (1.32 - 3.86), p < 0.01]. Patients with Helicobacter pylori - associated gastritis were at high risk of having adenomas featuring dysplasia [OR (95% CI): 1.15 (1.16 - 7.99); P = 0.02]. There was no varaition in location of polyps, age group, sex and gastric lesions with respect to Helicobacter pylori status. Conclusions: This study showed that Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis is associated with an increased risk of colorectal polyps, especially adenomas with dysplasia in the Thai population. Patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis may benefit from concurrent colonoscopy for diagnosis of colorectal polyps as a preventive and early treatment for colorectal cancer.
Analysis of SEER Adenosquamous Carcinoma Data to Identify Cause Specific Survival Predictors and Socioeconomic Disparities
Cheung, Rex ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 347~352
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.347
Background: This study used receiver operating characteristic curve to analyze Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) adenosquamous carcinoma data to identify predictive models and potential disparities in outcome. Materials and Methods: This study analyzed socio-economic, staging and treatment factors available in the SEER database for adenosquamous carcinoma. For the risk modeling, each factor was fitted by a generalized linear model to predict the cause specific survival. An area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was computed. Similar strata were combined to construct the most parsimonious models. Results: A total of 20,712 patients diagnosed from 1973 to 2009 were included in this study. The mean follow up time (S.D.) was 54.2 (78.4) months. Some 2/3 of the patients were female. The mean (S.D.) age was 63 (13.8) years. SEER stage was the most predictive factor of outcome (ROC area of 0.71). 13.9% of the patients were un-staged and had risk of cause specific death of 61.3% that was higher than the 45.3% risk for the regional disease and lower than the 70.3% for metastatic disease. Sex, site, radiotherapy, and surgery had ROC areas of about 0.55-0.65. Rural residence and race contributed to socioeconomic disparity for treatment outcome. Radiotherapy was underused even with localized and regional stages when the intent was curative. This under use was most pronounced in older patients. Conclusions: Anatomic stage was predictive and useful in treatment selection. Under-staging may have contributed to poor outcome.
Analysis of SEER Glassy Cell Carcinoma Data: Underuse of Radiotherapy and Predicators of Cause Specific Survival
Cheung, Rex ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 353~356
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.353
Background: This study used receiver operating characteristic curve to analyze Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) for glassy cell carcinoma data to identify predictive models and potential disparities in outcome. Materials and Methods: This study analyzed socio-economic, staging and treatment factors. For risk modeling, each factor was fitted by a generalized linear model to predict the cause specific survival. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs) were computed. Similar strata were combined to construct the most parsimonious models. A random sampling algorithm was used to estimate modeling errors. Risk of glassy cell carcinoma death was computed for the predictors for comparison. Results: There were 79 patients included in this study. The mean follow up time (S.D.) was 37 (32.8) months. Female patients outnumbered males 4:1. The mean (S.D.) age was 54.4 (19.8) years. SEER stage was the most predictive factor of outcome (ROC area of 0.69). The risks of cause specific death were, respectively, 9.4% for localized, 16.7% for regional, 35% for the un-staged/others category, and 60% for distant disease. After optimization, separation between the regional and unstaged/others category was removed with a higher ROC area of 0.72. Several socio-economic factors had small but measurable effects on outcome. Radiotherapy had not been used in 90% of patients with regional disease. Conclusions: Optimized SEER stage was predictive and useful in treatment selection. Underuse of radiotherapy may have contributed to poor outcome.
Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia - Tertiary Care Experience
Sultan, Sadia ; Zaheer, Hasan Abbas ; Irfan, Syed Mohammed ; Ashar, Sana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 357~360
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.357
Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an acquired clonal frequent malignant disorder of myeloid progenitor cells. Our aim was to study demographical and clinicopathological features of adult Pakistani AML patients at presentation. Materials and Methods: In this single centre study extending from January 2010 to December 2014, data were retrieved from the patient records with a predetermined performa and analyzed with SPSS version 22. Results: Overall 125 patients were diagnosed at our institution with de novo AML during the study period. There were 76 males and 49 females (ratio 1.5:1), with an age range between 15 and 85 years and a mean age of
. The major complaints were fever (72.8%), generalized weakness (60%), bleeding (37.6%) and dyspnea (12%). Physical examination revealed pallor in 56.8%, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly in 16% and 12.8%, respectively, and lymphodenopathy in 10.4%. The mean hemoglobin was
with a mean MCV of
, a mean total leukocyte count of
, an ANC of
and a mean platelet count of
. Conclusions: AML in Pakistani patients is seen in a relatively very young population with male preponderance, compared with the west. However, clinico-pathological features appear comparable to published data.
High Incidence of Breast Cancer in Light-Polluted Areas with Spatial Effects in Korea
Kim, Yun Jeong ; Park, Man Sik ; Lee, Eunil ; Choi, Jae Wook ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 361~367
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.361
We have reported a high prevalence of breast cancer in light-polluted areas in Korea. However, it is necessary to analyze the spatial effects of light polluted areas on breast cancer because light pollution levels are correlated with region proximity to central urbanized areas in studied cities. In this study, we applied a spatial regression method (an intrinsic conditional autoregressive [iCAR] model) to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and artificial light at night (ALAN) levels in 25 regions including central city, urbanized, and rural areas. By Poisson regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between ALAN, alcohol consumption rates, and the incidence of breast cancer. We also found significant spatial effects between ALAN and the incidence of breast cancer, with an increase in the deviance information criterion (DIC) from 374.3 to 348.6 and an increase in
from 0.574 to 0.667. Therefore, spatial analysis (an iCAR model) is more appropriate for assessing ALAN effects on breast cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show spatial effects of light pollution on breast cancer, despite the limitations of an ecological study. We suggest that a decrease in ALAN could reduce breast cancer more than expected because of spatial effects.
Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Clinical Spectrum of 125 Patients
Sultan, Sadia ; Zaheer, Hasan Abbas ; Irfan, Syed Mohammed ; Ashar, Sana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 369~372
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.369
Background: Acute myeloid leukemia is an acquired clonal heterogeneous stem cell disorder. Hence, various parameters are sought out to categorize this disease into subtypes, so that as a consequence specific treatment modalities can be offered. Conventionally, the practically used method for classification utilizes French American British (FAB) criteria based on morphology and cytochemistry. The aim of present study was to determine the current spectrum of AML sub types in patients in Karachi. Materials and Methods: This single centre cross sectional study was conducted at Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, extending from January 2010 to December 2014. Data were retrieved from archives were analyzed with SPSS version 22. Results: A total of 125 patients were diagnosed at our institution with de novo AML during five years period, 76 males and 49 females. Median age was 34.5 years. AML-M1 was the predominant FAB subtype (23.2%) followed by M2 (18.4%), M3 and M4 (16% each), M0 (14.4%), M5 (7.2%), M6 (3.2%) and M7 (1.6%). Conclusions: AML in Pakistani patients is seen in a relatively young population. The most common FAB subtype observed in our study was acute myeloblastic leukemia, without maturation (M1).
Detection of the Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Opisthorchis viverrini Using a Mini Parasep SF Faecal Parasite Concentrator
Kaewpitoon, Soraya J ; Rujirakul, Ratana ; Tongtawee, Taweesak ; Matrakul, Likit ; Panpimanmas, Sukij ; Wakkuwattapong, Parichart ; Loyd, Ryan A ; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 373~376
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.373
The Mini Parasep SF fecal parasite concentrator (MPSFC) is a new modification of the closed concentration system, which can easily be adopted in any routine clinical pathology laboratory. Here we describe our experience with the system in diagnosing Opisthorchis viverrini. A total of 199 fecal samples was submitted for routine examination in the clinical pathology laboratory of Suranaree University of Technology hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand, during August to October 2015. Out of all samples examined, 10 (5.03%) were positive with intestinal parasites including O. viverrini (2.01%), followed by Strongyloided stercoralis (1.51%), Hookworm (0.5%), Taenia spp. (0.5%), and Entamoeba coli (0.5%). Regarding the distribution of intestinal parasites in relation to the methods used, and found that 4 samples (2.01%) were positive using the direct wet smear method while 10 (5.03%) were positive with the Mini Parasep SF method; the difference was statistically significant (
-test = 116.506, p-value =0.001). Mean time for processing using the Parasep system was 6.03 min/sample, the conventional direct wet smear method at 0.3 min/sample. Cost per test, conventional direct wet smear method costing less than the Parasep method at USD 0.74/sample versus USD 1.47/sample. This first report of O. viverrini detection using MPSFC indicates that Parasep concentration test is useful in the routine laboratory, increasing the yield of parasites as compared to direct microscopy, but with greater processing time and cost. Further comparisons between the Parasep concentration test and common methods for O. viverrini detection are required, particularly concerning use in epidemiological surveys.
Risk Factors Associated with Thyroid Carcinoma in North Pakistan
Khan, Muhammad Aleem ; Khan, Kamran Hakeem ; Shah, Sajid Ali ; Mir, Kahkashan Ali ; Khattak, Mubarik ; Shahzad, Muhammad Faheem ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 377~380
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.377
Background: Epidemiological data on thyroid cancer and associated risk factors are scarce in our setting. The present study was therefore designed to gather data which could be helpful in providing insights to thyroid physicians and surgeons for better management of affected patients. Purpose: To determine the frequency of carcinoma thyroid among patients presenting with goiter and its association with TSH, Tg/ATg and other demographic factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 73 adult patients of either gender with solitary solid cold nodules and/or multi-ndoular goiter (MNG) with predominant solid cold nodules were enrolled. All surgically resected samples were sent for histopathology. The frequency of thyroid cancer and its subtypes was noted and tested for association with gender, age (< or
), recent increase in swelling size, TSH, Tg and ATg. Results: Thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 26% (n=19) of the patients, 14 (73.7%) being diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer and 5 (26.3%) with follicular thyroid cancer. No other subtypes were noted. Presence of thyroid cancer was significantly associated with recent increase in swelling size and higher TSH Values mean TSH values (P<0.05). No significant association was found with gender, age, Tg and ATg values (P>0.05). Conclusions: Overall percentage of thyroid cancer in our study sample was found to be 26%, with a predominance of papillary over follicular lesions. Rates were significantly higher in patients who had history of recent increase in swelling size and higher and higher pre-surgery TSH values.
Epidemiology, Incidence and Mortality of Bladder Cancer and their Relationship with the Development Index in the World
Mahdavifar, Neda ; Ghoncheh, Mahshid ; Pakzad, Reza ; Momenimovahed, Zohre ; Salehiniya, Hamid ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 381~386
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.381
Background: Bladder cancer is an international public health problem. It is the ninth most common cancer and the fourteenth leading cause of death due to cancer worldwide. Given aging populations, the incidence of this cancer is rising. Information on the incidence and mortality of the disease, and their relationship with level of economic development is essential for better planning. The aim of the study was to investigate bladder cancer incidence and mortality rates, and their relationship with the the Human Development Index (HDI) in the world. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from incidence and mortality rates presented by GLOBOCAN in 2012. Data on HDI and its components were extracted from the global bank site. The number and standardized incidence and mortality rates were reported by regions and the distribution of the disease were drawn in the world. For data analysis, the relationship between incidence and death rates, and HDI and its components was measured using correlation coefficients and SPSS software. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: In 2012, 429,793 bladder cancer cases and 165,084 bladder death cases occurred in the world. Five countries that had the highest age-standardized incidence were Belgium 17.5 per 100,000, Lebanon 16.6/100,000, Malta 15.8/100,000, Turkey 15.2/100,000, and Denmark 14.4/100,000. Five countries that had the highest age-standardized death rates were Turkey 6.6 per 100,000, Egypt 6.5/100,000, Iraq 6.3/100,000, Lebanon 6.3/100,000, and Mali 5.2/100,000. There was a positive linear relationship between the standardized incidence rate and HDI (r=0.653, P<0.001), so that there was a positive correlation between the standardized incidence rate with life expectancy at birth, average years of schooling, and the level of income per person of population. A positive linear relationship was also noted between the standardized mortality rate and HDI (r=0.308, P<0.001). There was a positive correlation between the standardized mortality rate with life expectancy at birth, average years of schooling, and the level of income per person of population. Conclusions: The incidence of bladder cancer in developed countries and parts of Africa was higher, while the highest mortality rate was observed in the countries of North Africa and the Middle East. The program for better treatment in developing countries to reduce mortality from the cancer and more detaiuled studies on the etiology of are essential.
Lack of Association between CYP1A1 M2 and M4 Polymorphisms and Breast Carcinoma in Jordanian Women: a Case-Control Study
Amrani, Iman ; Bulatova, Nailya ; Awidi, Abdalla ; Yousef, Al-Motassem ; Melhem, Jamal Masad ; Al-Masri, Mahmoud ; Tahoun, Laila Abu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 387~393
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.387
Background: CYP1A1 is a candidate gene for low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility, as it plays an important role in the metabolism of carcinogens and estrogens. Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the association between M2 (A2455G, Ile462Val) and M4 (C2453A, Thr461Asn) polymorphisms in CYP1A1 and breast cancer risk among Jordanian women and in subgroups stratified by menopausal status and smoking history. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 112 breast cancer female patients and 115 age-matched controls who underwent breast cancer screening with imaging and showed negative results (BI-RADS I or BI-RADS II). Genotyping was performed using the PCR-RFLP technique. Results: No statistically significant overall association was found between breast cancer risk and CYP1A1 M2 genotypes (p= 0.55; OR = 0.77; 95% CI= 0.32 - 1.83) nor with the M4 polymorphism (p= 0.95; OR= 0.95; 95% CI= 0.51 - 1.88). Analysis of subgroups defined by menopausal status or smoking history also revealed no association with these polymorphisms. Furthermore, the four identified haplotypes (AC; AA; GC and GA) were equally distributed among cases and controls, and haplotype analysis showed a strong linkage disequilibrium of both studied loci in either cases or controls (D'=1). Conclusions: Based on the study results, CYP1A1 M2 and M4 polymorphisms do not seem to play a major role in breast cancer risk among Jordanian females.
The Immunotyping Distribution of Serum Monoclonal Paraprotein and Environmental Impact on Multiple Myeloma (MM) and Monoclonal Gammopathy of Uncertain Significance (MGUS) in Taiwan: A Medical Center-Based Experience
Chang, Chih-Chun ; Su, Ming-Jang ; Lee, Shu-Jene ; Tsai, Yu-Hui ; Kuo, Lin-Yin ; Lin, I-Hsin ; Huang, Hui-Ling ; Yen, Tzung-Hai ; Chu, Fang-Yeh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 395~399
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.395
Background: Whether ambient exposure to environmental pollutants leads to hematopoietic malignancies such as multiple myeloma (MM) remains to be ascertained. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the immunotyping distribution of serum monoclonal paraprotein and the environmental influence on MM and monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS) in the Taiwanese population. Materials and Methods: Serum protein electrophoresis with immunosubtraction by the capillary zone electrophoresis method was performed as primary screening for MM and MGUS. Clinical, pathological, and residence data of patients were also obtained. Results: From August, 2013 to June, 2015, a total of 327 patients underwent serum protein electrophoresis with immunosubtraction. Among these, 281 demonstrated no remarkable findings or non-malignant oligoclonal gammopathy, 23 were detected to have MGUS, 18 were identified as MM, and a further 5 were found as other malignancies. The most frequent immunotyping distribution of serum monoclonal paraprotein was IgG kappa (54.3%, n=25), followed by IgA lambda (15.2%, n=7) and IgG lambda (10.9%, n=5) in subjects with gammopathy. Additionally, it was shown that the elderly (OR: 4.61, 95% CI: 1.88-11.30, P<0.01) and males (OR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.04-4.02, P=0.04) had significantly higher risk of developing MM and MGUS. There was no obvious impact of environmental factors on the health risk of MM and MGUS evolution (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.40-1.50, P=0.49). Conclusions: The most frequent immunotyping distribution of serum monoclonal paraprotein included IgG kappa, IgA lambda and IgG lambda in MM and MGUS in the Taiwanese population. The elderly and male subjects are at significantly higher risk of MM and MGUS development, but there was no obvious impact of environmental factors on risk.
Cholangiocarcinoma Patient Outcome in Northeastern Thailand: Single-Center Prospective Study
Luvira, Vor ; Nilprapha, Kasama ; Bhudhisawasdi, Vajarabhongsa ; Pugkhem, Ake ; Chamadol, Nittaya ; Kamsa-ard, Supot ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 401~406
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.401
Background: Cholangiocarcinoma is relatively rare worldwide. Most previous reports collected only patients with pathological diagnosis. In fact, however, many patients coming to hospital are diagnosed by clinical suspicion with radiologic imaging and receive treatment without histological confirmation. Real survival data and outcome of each treatment, especially for patients that do not have histologic confirmation, are lacking. In this study, therefore, we aimed to analyze the survival rates of CCA patients and the proportions of patients receiving different treatments. Materials and Methods: A total of 270 patients clinically suspected of CCA and visiting Srinagarind Hospital in May-July 2010, were prospectively followed until December 2014. After checking their clinical records, 163 of 270 patients were finally diagnosed as having CCA, and the data of this group were analyzed for survival rate and received treatments. Results: Of the 163 patients, 96 (58.9%) had intrahepatic, 56 (34.4%) had perihilar and 11 (6.7%) had distal CCA. The majority [107 (65.6%, 95%CI, 57.8-73.0)] received only supportive care. Overall median survival was 4 months (95%CI, 3.3-4.7), and 2-years survival was only 8.1% (95%CI,4.5-12.9). However, the 4 year survival of the R0 resection group was 100%. Conclusions: The present results show that the prognosis of CCA is very poor in North-east Thailand. Most CCA patients receive only treatment to alleviate symptoms due to their advanced stage of disease. Complete surgical resection at the early stage is the only treatment that significantly improves patient survival.
Thyroid Cancer Epidemiology in Iran: a Time Trend Study
Safavi, Ali ; Azizi, Fereidoun ; Jafari, Rozita ; Chaibakhsh, Samira ; Safavi, Amir Ali ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 407~412
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.407
Background: Considering the rising incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide, the aim of our study was to investigate the temporal trends in the incidence of this cancer in a large population of Iranian patients. Materials and Methods: We used the Iran Cancer Data System (ICDS) Registry to assess the thyroid cancer trend from 2004 to 2010 with regard to different genders, age groups, and morphologies. To do this we analyzed the data of 10,913 new cases of thyroid cancer that occurred during these years. Results: The incidence rate (per one year) of thyroid cancer was 2.20 per 100,000 persons between 2004 and 2010 in Iran. Papillary thyroid cancer was the most common histology type, with an annual rate of 0.29 in Iran. The highest rate of prevalence in thyroid cancer was observed at the age of 45 years at the time of diagnosis. We found a female-to-male ratio of 2 in Iran. A significant decrease was detected in the trend of thyroid cancer in children <19y, which was not correlated to the trend of older patients. Conclusions: As expected, the trend of thyroid cancer increased over the 7 years, primarily contributed by papillary thyroid cancer. A rising pattern of incidence was seen in all the age groups except patients aged under 19 years.
Safety and Efficacy of a Mouth-Rinse with Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor in Patients with Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis
Wang, Lin ; Huang, Xin-En ; Ji, Zhu-Qing ; Liu, Meng-Yan ; Qian, Ting ; Li, Li ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 413~418
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.413
Objective: To assess the safety and effectiveness of a mouth-rinse with G-CSF (JiSaiXin, produced by NCPC Biotechnology Co., Ltd) in treating patients with chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (CIM). Method: A consecutive cohort of patients with advanced cancers and CIM were treated with mouth-rinse G-CSF. All chemotherapy for patients with advanced cancers was adopted from regimens suggested by NCCN guidelines. The mouth-rinse with G-CSF at a dose of 150-300ug plus 100ml-500ml normal saline was started from the time of oral mucositis was confirmed and continuously used for at least 7 days as one course. After at least two courses of treatment, safety and efficacy were evaluated. Results: There were 7 female and 7 male patients with advanced cancer and CIM recruited into this study, including 5 with colorectal, 2 with lung, 1 patient with gastric, 1 with cervical and 1 with pancreatic cancer, as well as 2 patients with diffuse large B cell lymphomas, 1 with nasopharyngeal and 1 with gastric cancer. The median age was 57 (41-79) years. Grade 1 to 2 myelosuppression was observed in 3/14 patients, and Grade 4 myelosuppression in 1/14. Adverse effects on the gastrointestinal tract were documented in 5/14 patients, and were Grade 1 to Grade 3. No treatment related death was documented. Regarding CIM, the median response time to mouth rinse of G-CSF was 2 (1-5) days, and all patients with CIM demonstrated a positive response. Conclusions: Mouth-rinse with G-CSF proved to be safe and effective in treating patients with advanced cancers and CIM. However, further randomized controlled studies should be conducted to clarify the effectiveness of this treatment with other lesions.
Correlation Between Nitrogen Dioxide as an Air Pollution Indicator and Breast Cancer: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Keramatinia, Aliasghar ; Hassanipour, Soheil ; Nazarzadeh, Milad ; Wurtz, Morten ; Monfared, Ayad Bahadori ; Khayyamzadeh, Maryam ; Bidel, Zeinab ; Mhrvar, Narges ; Mosavi-Jarrahi, Alireza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 419~424
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.419
Background: The aim of this systematic review was to study the relationship between exposure to nitrogen dioxide (
) in the ambient air and breast cancer incidence. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was performed based on the MOOSE guideline for review of observational studies. We searched five online databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, EBSCO, and Scopus) from their conception to June 2014. A pooled estimate of the correlation between
exposure and breast cancer incidence was calculated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: A total of 654 titles were retrieved in the initial search of the databases. Further refinement and screening of the retrieved studies produced a total of five studies from four countries. The studies included three ecological studies (aggregate level) and two individual based studies (one prospective cohort and the other one a case-control study). The ecological studies were pooled and the meta-analysis of correlation coefficient without z transformation showed a pooled estimate of r = 0.89 with 95% CI of 0.84 to 0.95. Using z transformation, the pooled r was 1.38 with 95%CI of 1.11 to 1.59. No significant heterogeneity between studies was observed. Following a sensitivity analysis and the removal of each study from pooled analysis we did not see any significant change in the pooled estimate. Conclusions: It was concluded that there is a tendency toward a weak association between exposure to
in ambient air and breast cancer at the individual level and a significant association at the aggregate level.
Comparative Study of Dermatoscopic and Histopathologic Results in Facial Basal Cell Carcinoma and Melanocytic Nevi
Amirnia, Mehdi ; Ranjkesh, Mohammad-Reza ; Azimpouran, Mahzad ; Karkon-Shayan, Farid ; Alikhah, Hossein ; Jafari-Asl, Mohammadali ; Piri, Reza ; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 425~429
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.425
Background: Dermatoscopy can be applied to diagnose pigmented skin lesions. The aim of the present study was to compare dermatoscopic and histopathologic results in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and melanocytic nevus of theface. Materials and Methods: In an analytical-descriptive study, 61 patients suspected of BCC or melanocytic nevi of face were randomly selected. The skin lesions of patients were evaluated with dermatoscopic method from February 2012 to February 2014 and results were compared with pathological features of samples. Results: In this study, mean age of patients was
. Some 25 (41%) were men and 36 (59%) were women. In 27 cases (44.3%) there was diagnosis of melanocytic nevus, in 28 cases (45.9%) diagnosis of BCC, and in 3 cases (4.9%) there was mixed diagnosis. The relationship between patients' gender and dermatoscopic diagnosis of the patients was statistically significant (P=0.001). For BCC the sensitivity and specificity of dermatoscopic method were 100% and 97% respectively and for melanocytic nevi 96.4% and 97%. Conclusions: Dermatoscopic study not only can be helpful in improving clinical diagnosis while guiding missed malignant lesions to pathologic evaluations, but also could be useful in evaluating further suspicious or recurrent cases.
Impact of Global and Gene-Specific DNA Methylation in de Novo or Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Treated with Decitabine
Zhang, Li-Ying ; Yuan, You-Qing ; Zhou, Dong-Ming ; Wang, Zi-Yan ; Ju, Song-Guang ; Sun, Yu ; Li, Jun ; Fu, Jin-Xiang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 431~437
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.431
In this investigation, global DNA methylation patterns and the specific methylation status of 5 genes were studied in DNA from peripheral blood (PB) and impact on progression free survival (PFS) and overall-survival (OS) in patients with de novo or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated with decitabine-based regimens waas assessed. DNA was isolated from PB samples at the time of -1, 1, and 7 days of chemotherapy. Global methylation was determined by ELISA, and the CpG island DNA methylation profile of 5 genes using a DNA methylation PCR system. Our data demonstrated that patients with a high level of 5-mC had a poor prognosis after demethylation therapy and those who have low levels of 5-mC in PB achieved higher CR and better SO, but there was no significant correlation found between the 5-mC levels and other clinical features before treatment except the disease status. Higher methylation status of Sox2 and Oct4 genes was associated with differential response to demethylation therapy. A relatively low methylation percentage in one or both of these two genes was also associated with longer OS after decitabine based chemotherapy. We also suggest that global DNA and Oct-4/Sox2 methylation might impact on the pathogenesis of leukemia and play an important role in the initiation and progression. Moreover, dynamic analysis of 5-mC and Oct-4/Sox2 in peripheral blood nucleated cells of leukemia patients may provide clues to important molecular diagnostic and prognostic targets.
Impact of an Information Leaflet on Knowledge of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Hepatitis B among Chinese Youth
Ouyang, Jun-Jie ; He, Wen-Jing ; Zheng, Kai-Xin ; Chen, Geng-Zhen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 1, 2016, Pages 439~443
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.439
Background: To assess the effect of an information leaflet on the level of Chinese youth's knowledge about hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of primary liver cancer (PLC). Materials and Methods: A total of 500 students, from two universities in the Chaoshan area of China, were randomly divided into an intervention group of 280 participants and a control group of 220. Baseline knowledge of HCC and hepatitis B was evaluated by questionnaire interview. Subsequently, only the intervention group was given an information leaflet of HCC and hepatitis B. Three months later, the two groups were contacted for a second interview. Changes in knowledge from baseline of HCC and hepatitis B were compared between the two groups. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in mean PRE-questionnaire scores between the intervention and control groups. However, the mean POST-questionnaire score was significantly higher in the intervention group after the intervention. The leaflet had the greatest effect on the participants' questionnaire score, and raised their level of knowledge about HCC and hepatitis B. Conclusions: The information leaflet intervention is significantly effective in improving the knowledge of HCC and hepatitis B among the youth.