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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Jun 2016
Volume 17, Issue sup2 - Apr 2016
Volume 17, Issue sup1 - Apr 2016
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Apr 2016
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Mar 2016
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
Volume 16, Issue 18 - Jan 2016
Selecting the target year
Understanding EGFR Signaling in Breast Cancer and Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Overexpression and Therapeutic Implications
Alanazi, Ibrahim O ; Khan, Zahid ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 445~453
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.445
Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs/HERs) and downstream signaling pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several malignancies including breast cancer and its resistance to treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs. Consequently, several monoclonal antibodies as well as small molecule inhibitors targeting these pathways have emerged as therapeutic tools in the recent past. However, studies have shown that utilizing these molecules in combination with chemotherapy has yielded only limited success. This review describes the current understanding of EGFRs/HERs and associated signaling pathways in relation to development of breast cancer and responses to various cancer treatments in the hope of pointing to improved prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Also, we review the role of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) in disease and the potential to target these cells.
Roles of Galectin-7 in Cancer
Kaur, Manpreet ; Kaur, Tarnjeet ; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh ; Singh, Jatinder ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 455~461
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.455
-galactoside binding lectins that contain one or more carbohydrate recognition domains. As a consequence of sugar-binding properties, galectins exhibit a variety of interactions with glycoproteins, thus playing important roles in various pathological processes. A number of studies have shown roles of galectins in cancer. Galectin-7 is a prototype member of the galectin family implicated in epithelial stratification and cell migration. It can act as a potent dual regulator in different types of cancer. Galectin-7 may contribute either to neoplastic transformation and tumour progression through regulation of cell growth, cell cycle, angiogenesis, apoptosis and cell migration or may have a protective effect in cancer depending on the tissue type. A perusal of the literature indicates particular roles of galectin-7 in carcinomas and melanomas, while contributions await greater exploration in other types of cancers including sarcomas and leukemia. This review collectively summarizes available literature on expression and roles of galectin-7 in different cancers.
Roles of Valproic Acid in Improving Radiation Therapy for Glioblastoma: a Review of Literature Focusing on Clinical Evidence
Ochiai, Satoru ; Nomoto, Yoshihito ; Yamashita, Yasufumi ; Watanabe, Yui ; Toyomasu, Yutaka ; Kawamura, Tomoko ; Takada, Akinori ; Ii, Noriko ; Kobayashi, Shigeki ; Sakuma, Hajime ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 463~466
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.463
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain neoplasm. The current standard therapy for GBM consists of maximal surgical resection within safe limits, followed by radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy with temozolomide. Despite advances in treatment, the prognosis of GBM remains poor. Epileptic seizure is one of the most common symptoms in patients with GBM. Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, is often used as an anti-epileptic drug in patients with brain neoplasms due to its effectiveness and low toxicity profile. Several in vivo and in vitro studies have indicated that VPA has radiosensitizing effects for gliomas and radioprotective influence on normal brain tissue or hippocampal neurons. The results of several retrospective studies have also indicated potential benefit to improve survival of patients with GBM. Moreover, the promising treatment results of a phase 2 trial of concurrent radiation therapy, temozolomide, and VPA for patients with GBM have been recently reported. The use of VPA in patients with GBM has thus recently receiving more attention. In this article, we review the role of VPA in radiation therapy for GBM, focusing on the clinical evidence.
Gallstone Etiopathogenesis, Lith and Mucin Genes and New Treatment Approaches
Goral, Vedat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 467~471
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.467
Gallstones constitute one of the more common and relatively costly conditions of the gastrointestinal system and are a major risk factor for gallbladder cancer. Most gallstone cases involve individuals younger than 60 years of age, those older representing 9% of the total in one series. There are many risk factors for gallstones and Lith and Mucin genes, for example, play important roles in their formation. Surgery is one therapeutic approach but in the future it is to be expected that drugs for prevention of gallstones will be developed in the future. This will have clear implications for gallbladder cancer control.
Transarterial Therapies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: a Comprehensive Review with Current Updates and Future Directions
Kumar, Yogesh ; Sharma, Pranav ; Bhatt, Neeraj ; Hooda, Kusum ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 473~478
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.473
Hepatocellular cancer is a very common cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Only 30-40% of patients present with early-stage disease open to curative treatments, such as resection or transplantation, while others can only undergo local therapies or palliative care. Various trans-arterial approaches have been used for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients who need a down-staging to liver transplantation, and who are not candidates for transplantation or radiofrequency ablation. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), transarterial embolization (TAE), drug-eluting beads, and radioembolization have been used for locoregional control, and have been shown to prolong the overall survival when compared with supportive care. In this review, we discuss patient selection, pre- and post-procedure imaging, techniques, safety, and clinical outcomes related to these therapies. Newer advances with future directions in various fields related to trans-arterial therapies are also discussed.
Do VDR Gene Polymorphisms Contribute to Breast Cancer?
Shaikh, Fouzia ; Baig, Saeeda ; Jamal, Qamar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 479~483
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.479
Breast cancer is the first or second leading cancer among females across the globe. A large number of studies have been conducted to assess any relationship between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and breast cancer development. Epidemiological studies have indicated that ethnic traits exhibited by a group of people with a common ancestry and culture, alter the link between VDR gene and breast cancer. It has been hypothesized that VDR polymorphisms have the capacity to impact both on incidence of breast cancer occurrence and to predict its outcome. A survey was here conducted to assess and compare the impact of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1, Apa1 and poly (A) on development of breast cancer. Information was obtained from electronic databases including PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published during the period from 1996 to 2015. This search was achieved by using the terms "genetics", "breast cancer", "VDR gene", "polymorphisms". However, due to inconsistent results, no conclusive statements could be presented about the significance of the VDR genotype as far as the development of breast carcinoma is concerned.
A Clinical Study on Juheli (Recombinant Human Interleukin - 11) in the Second Prevention of Chemotherapy Induced Thrombocytopenia
Xiao, Yang ; Liu, Jun ; Huang, Xin-En ; Guo, Jian-Xiong ; Fu, Peng-Chao ; Huang, Xiao-Hong ; Zhou, Juan ; Ye, Ai-Qin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 485~489
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.485
Objective: to investigate the effect and side effects of recombinant human interleukin - 11 (rhIL - 11, in Chinese Juheli, produced by Qi Lu Biotechnology CO., LTD) in the second prevention of chemotherapy induced thrombocytopenia (CIT). Methods: Cancer patients with CIT were recruited and were treated with rhIL - 11 (treatment phase, TP), and in the following cycle, all these patients administered with rhIL - 11 24 hours immediately after chemotherapy (preventive treatment phase, PTP). Duration and severity of thrombocytopenia between two phases were compared. Results: for patients in TP or PTP, nadir values of platelet were (
, duration of thrombocytopenia in TP and PTP was (
) and (
)days, recovery time was (
)days, duration of rhIL - 11 administration was (
)days, number of patients needing platelet infusion was 16and4 respectively, all differences were statistically significant (p value were 0.007, 0.002, 0.000, 0.000, 0.034 respectively). For TP and PTP, number of patients with hemorrhage was 8 and 4, duration of bleeding was (
) and (
) days respectively, with no statistically significant difference. Adverse reactions mainly included fever, edema, arrhythmia, joint pain, fatigue, skin rash, headache, dizziness, etc., all were not statistically significant between TP and PTP. Conclusion: rhIL - 11 could be well tolerated and is effective that could reduce the duration, severity of CIT, platelet transfusion, and incidence of bleeding, as well as shorten the recovery time, duration of rhIL - 11 administration. Thus, rhIL - 11 could be commended in the second prevention of CIT for patients with cancer.
The Polymerase Chain Reaction in Diagnosis of Small B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas
Antoro, Ester Lianawati ; Dwianingsih, Ery Kus ; Indrawati, Indrawati ; Triningsih, FX Ediati ; Harijadi, Harijadi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 491~495
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.491
Background: Small B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) is difficult to be distinguished from non-neoplastic reactive processes using conventional haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining due to different interpretations among pathologists with diagnosis based on morphologic features. Ancillary examinations such as immunohistochemical (IHC) staining are essential. However, negative or doubtful results are still sometimes obtained due to unsatisfactory tissue processing or IHC technique. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a molecular diagnostic technique is very sensitive and specific. Clonality detection of heavy chain immunoglobulin (IgH) gene rearrangement has been widely used to establish diagnosis of B-cell NHL. Aims: To elaborate interobserver variation in small B-cell NHL diagnosis based on morphologic features only and to confirm sensitivity and specificity of the PCR technique as an ancillary method. Materials and Methods: A toptal of 28 samples of small B cell NHL and suspicious lymphoma were interpreted by 3 pathologists in Sardjito General Hospital based on their morphology only. The reliability of assessment and the coefficient of interobserver agreement were calculated by Fleiss kappa statistics. Interpretation results were confirmed with IHC staining (CD20, CD3, Bcl2). PCR was performed to analyze the clonality of IgH gene rearrangement. Results: Interobserver agreement in morphologic evalution of small B cell NHL and chronic lymphadenitis revealed kappa coefficient 0.69 included in the substantial agreement category. The cases were divided into 3 groups based on morphology and IHC results; lymphoma, reactive process and undetermined group. PCR analysis showed 90% sensitivity and 60% specificity. Conclusions: The present study revealed a substantial agreement among pathologists in small B-cell NHL diagnosis. For difficult cases, PCR is useful as complementary method to morphologic and IHC examinations to establish definitive diagnosis.
The Value of Preoperative CA 125 Levels in Prediction of Myometrial Invasion in Patients with Early-stage Endometrioid-type Endometrial Cancer
Atguden, Zeynep ; Yildiz, Askin ; Aksut, Hayri ; Yalcin, Serenat Eris ; Yalcin, Yakup ; Uysal, Dilek ; Yetimalar, Hakan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 497~501
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.497
Aim: To evaluate the relationship between pre-operative CA-125 levels and myometrial invasion in patients with early-stage endometrioid-type endometrial cancer. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred and sixty patients were diagnosed with endometrial cancer between January 2007 and December 2012. Of these, 136 patients with stage 1 endometrioid histologic-type and documented pre-operative serum CA-125 levels were included in the study. Age, preoperative CA-125 level, histologic grade, surgical grade, and presence of deep myometrial invasion were recorded. Additionally, 16, 20, and 35 IU/ml cutoff values were used and compared to evaluate the relationship between pre-operative CA-125 levels and myometrial invasion. Results: The average serum CA-125 level was
in patients with deep myometrial invasion, and
in cases without deep myometrial invasion. The relationship between the presence of deep myometrial invasion and CA-125 cut-off values (16, 20, 35 IU/ml) was statistically significant, although the correlation was weak (p<0.05). When the relationship between 16, 20 and 35 IU/ml CA-125 cut-off values and the presence of deep myometrial invasion was studied, specifity and sensitivity values were identified as: 0.60-0.68 for 16 IU/ml; 0.73-0.48 for 20 IU/ml; and 0.89-0.33 for 35 IU/ml. The sensitivity of 16 IU/ml cut-off value was higher when compared to other values. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that preoperative serum CA-125 values maybe used as a predictive test in patients with early stage endometrioid-type endometrium cancer, and as a prognostic factor alone. Further studies should be conducted to identify different CA-125 cut-off values in patients with low risk endometrial cancer.
Social Perceptions of Breast Cancer by Women Still Undergoing or Having Completed Therapy: a Qualitative Study
Mermer, Gulengul ; Nazli, Aylin ; Ceber, Esin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 503~510
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.503
Background: Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer is a crisis situation which effects women's lives physically, socially and spiritually. Investigating women's perceptions of this disease is crucially important for treatment decisions. We therefore determined social perceptions and interpretations of women diagnosed with breast cancer during therapy and in the post-treatment period. Materials and Methods: In the study, focus group and in-depth interviews were made with women still undergoing or having completed breast cancer treatment. Some 25 women were included in the research. Content analysis was used in the analysis of the qualitative data obtained after the focus group and in-depth interviews. Results: Some of the women demonstrated positive perceptions towards accepting the disease, whereas others had emotions such as rebellion and anger. The loss of a breast is important with different interpretations. Conclusions: Women's acceptance or rebellion against the disease varies within their social interpretations after the treatment, as at the stage of diagnosis/treatment. All stages of breast cancer negatively affect the social life of the affected individual as much as her body. Nurses assume crucial roles in coping with these negative effects. Thus, it is necessary to know, and sociologically interpret, what is indicated by the information on what the negative effects concerning the disease are and how they are interpreted.
Scabraside D Extracted from Holothuria scabra Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Growth of Human Cholangiocarcinoma Xenografts in Mice
Assawasuparerk, Kanjana ; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun ; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj ; Nobsathian, Saksit ; Rawangchue, Thanakorn ; Wittayachumnankul, Boonsirm ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 511~517
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.511
Scabraside D, a sulfated triterpene glycoside extract from sea cucumber Holothulia scabra, shows various biological activities, but effects on human cholangiocarcinoma cells have not previously been reported. In the present study, we investigated the activity of scabraside D against human cholangiocarcinoma (HuCCA) both in vitro and for tumor growth inhibition in vivo using a xenograft model in nude mice. Scabraside D (
) significantly decreased the viability and the migration of the HuCCA cells in a dose-dependent manner, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of
at 24 h. It induced signs of apoptotic cells, including shrinkage, pyknosis and karyorrhetic nuclei and DNA fragmentation on agarose gel electrophoresis. Moreover, by quantitative real-time PCR, scabraside D effectively decreased Bcl-2 while increasing Bax and Caspase-3 gene expression levels suggesting that the scabraside D could induce apoptosis in HuCCA cells. In vivo study demonstrated that scabraside D (1 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 21 days) significantly reduced growth of the HuCCA xenografts without adverse effects on the nude mice. Conclusively, scabraside D induced apoptosis in HuCCA cells and reduced the growth of HuCCA xenographs model. Therefore, scabraside D may have potential as a new therapeutic agent for cholangiocarcinoma.
Relative Frequency of Oral Malignancies and Oral Precancer in the Biopsy Service of Jazan Province, 2009-2014
Idris, AM ; Vani, NV ; Saleh, Sanna ; Tubaigy, Faisal ; Alharbi, Fahd ; Sharwani, Abubkr ; Tadrus, Nabil ; Warnakulasuriya, Saman ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 519~525
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.519
Background: The objective of this study was to report the types and relative frequency of oral malignancies and precancer in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia during the period 2009-2014. Materials and Methods: Pathology reports were retrieved from the archives of Histopathology Department, King Fahd hospital in Jazan. Demographic data on tobacco habits, clinical presentation and histologic grading of oral precancer and cancer cases were transcribed from the files. Results: 303 (42.7%) oral pre-malignant and malignant cases were found out of 714 oral biopsy lesions. A pathology diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma (85.1%) was most frequent, followed by premalignant lesions/epithelial dysplasia (8.6%), verrucous carcinoma (3.3%) and malignancy of other histological types (3%) such as ameloblastic carcinoma, salivary gland malignancy and sarcomas. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was predominant in females with a male to female ratio of 1:1.9. Patient age ranged from 22 to 100 years with a mean of
. Almost 44.6% of oral cancer had occurred after 65 years of age. Only 16.3% cases were reported in patients younger than 50 years, predominantly females. The majority of female patients had the habit of using shammah with a long duration of usage for more than 45 years. Buccoalveolar mucosa (52.3%) was the common site of involvement followed by tongue/floor of the mouth (47.7%) and clinically presented mostly as ulceration/swelling clinically. Moderately differentiated tumours (53.9%) were common followed by well differentiated (32.2%) and poorly differentiated tumours (5.8%). The prevalence of oral verrucous carcinoma (3.3%) was comparatively low with an equal distribution in both males and females. Both bucco-alveolar mucosa and tongue were predominantly affected. Oral precancer/epithelial dysplasia (8.6%) was common in females with a shammah habit. Bucco-alveolar mucosa was commonly involved and clinically presented mostly as white/red patches. Most cases were mild followed by moderate and severe dysplasia. Tumours of other histological types (3%) include 1 ameloblastic carcinoma, 3 malignant salivary gland tumours and 5 sarcomas. Conclusions: In this study, it was found that oral cancers reported in the pathology service to be a common occurrence. This study reconfirms previous reports of the high burden of oral cancer in this population This indicates that conventional preventive programs focused on oral cancer are in need of revision. In addition, further research into identifying new risk factors and molecular markers for oral cancer are needed for screening high risk individuals.
Rethinking Anti-tobacco Health Education in an Eastern Mediterranean Country with Growing Tobacco Use
Obeidat, NA ; Ayub, HS ; Shtaiwi, AS ; Hawari, FI ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 527~533
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.527
Background: In Jordan, a developing country with a high tobacco burden and where roughly 40% of cancers are tobacco-related, limited knowledge exists on public awareness regarding tobacco. This is a hindrance for experts seeking to strengthen anti-tobacco health promotion and counter growing tobacco use. We sought to evaluate public awareness regarding tobacco; to gauge exposure to anti-tobacco public messages; and to draw attention to the lay public's informational needs. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of lay public in the capital, Amman, capturing knowledge regarding tobacco harms and anti-tobacco laws, perceptions regarding tobacco use and control, and exposure to and recall of anti-tobacco messages, was conducted. Statistics on perceptions were generated and analyzed by smoking status and sociodemographic factors. Multivariate regression was performed to estimate independent associations of smoking and sociodemographic factors with knowledge. Results: Of 1,169 respondents, 17.8% could recall specific anti-tobacco messages. With regard to knowledge, despite high proportions of respondents exhibiting knowledge for individual statements regarding tobacco health harms, variables capturing breadth of knowledge showed that much lower proportions could correctly identify all the listed health harms of tobacco, and all listed Jordanian anti-tobacco regulations (47.5% and 36.2%, respectively). On multivariate analysis, breadth of knowledge varied by smoking status, age and educational level. Conclusions: There is need for more salient, evocative and multi-faceted anti-tobacco messages in Jordan, tailored to subgroups, given detected variability in knowledge across smoking status and sociodemographic characteristics.
COX-2 Expression in Renal Cell Carcinoma and Correlations with Tumor Grade, Stage and Patient Prognosis
Tabriz, Hedieh Moradi ; Mirzaalizadeh, Marzieh ; Gooran, Shahram ; Niki, Farzaneh ; Jabri, Maryam ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 535~538
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.535
Background: Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is important as an enzyme in the pathway leading to the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and arachidonic acid. This pathway is known to play a role in inflammation, tumor growth, invasiveness and metastasis, inhibition of apoptosis and angiogenesis. Inhibition of COX-2 has been shown to be a promising antitumor and antiangiogenic strategy in several tumor types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Therefore, we decided to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of this marker and its association with several clinicopathological characteristics in a series of cases. Materials and Methods: COX-2 expression was examined immunohistochemically in tumor tissues obtained from 96 patients who underwent radical (94 cases) or partial (2 cases) nephrectomy. Correlations between COX-2 expression and clinicopathologic findings including pathologic stage, nuclear grade and other indicator of prognosis were examined. Results: Of 96 tumors, 20.9% were positive for COX-2 expression. A correlation was found between COX-2 expression and tumor histological subtype (P=0.03).The papillary subtype showed maximum expression of this marker (43.8%) and the clear subtype minimum (14.7%). There were also possible links between COX-2 expression and pathologic stage, nuclear grade and nodal involvement but the results were not statistically significant (P=0.8, P= 0.14 and P=0.06, respectively). No correlation was found between COX2 expression and patient age, gender, tumor size, metastasis or survival. Conclusions: In our study, COX-2 expression was correlated with the histological subtype of RCC. Additional research is required to determine the link between COX-2 expression and prognosis and also evaluation of probable effectiveness of COX-2 inhibitor drugs in treatment of RCC patients.
Value of KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA Mutations and Survival Benefit from Systemic Chemotherapy in Colorectal Peritoneal Carcinomatosis
Sasaki, Yusuke ; Hamaguchi, Tetsuya ; Yamada, Yasuhide ; Takahashi, Naoki ; Shoji, Hirokazu ; Honma, Yoshitaka ; Iwasa, Satoru ; Okita, Natsuko ; Takashima, Atsuo ; Kato, Ken ; Nagai, Yushi ; Taniguchi, Hirokazu ; Boku, Narikazu ; Ushijima, Toshikazu ; Shimada, Yasuhiro ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 539~543
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.539
Background: It is well known that peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with a poor prognosis. However, data on the prognostic significance of modern chemotherapy containing bevacizumab, cetuximab or panitumumab are not available. Materials and Methods: This retrospective review concerned 526 patients with metastatic CRC who were classified into two groups according to the presence or absence of PC, and were treated with systemic chemotherapy, with or without bevacizumab or anti-EGFR antibodies. The genetic background, in particular KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA gene mutations, and overall survival (OS) were compared between the two groups. Results: The median OS values were 23.3 and 29.1 months for PC and non-PC patients, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]=1.20; p=0.17). Among all patients, tumor location, number of metastatic sites and BRAF mutation status were significant prognostic factors, whereas the presence of PC was not. In the PC group, chemotherapy with bevacizumab resulted in a significantly longer OS than forchemotherapy without bevacizumab (HR=0.38, p<0.01), but this was not the case in the non-PC group (HR=0.80, p=0.10). Furthermore, the incidence of the BRAF V600E mutation was significantly higher in PC than in non-PC patients (27.7% versus 7.3%, p<0.01). BRAF mutations displayed a strong correlation with shorter OS in non-PC (HR=2.26), but not PC patients (HR=1.04). Conclusions: Systemic chemotherapy, especially when combined with bevacizumab, improved survival in patients with PC from CRC as well as non-PC patients. While BRAF mutation demonstrated a high frequency in PC patients, but it was not associated with prognosis.
Spiritual Care Training for Mothers of Children with Cancer: Effects on Quality of Care and Mental Health of Caregivers
Borjalilu, Somaieh ; Shahidi, Shahriar ; Mazaheri, Mohammad Ali ; Emami, Amir Hossein ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 545~552
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.545
Background: The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a spiritual care training package in maternal caregivers of children with cancer. Materials and Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental study with pretest and posttest design consisting of a sample of 42 mothers of children diagnosed as having cancer. Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. The training package consisted of seven group training sessions offered in a children's hospital in Tehran. All mothers completed the Spirituality & Spiritual Care Rating Scale (SSCRS) and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) at pre and post test and after a three month follow up. Results: There was significant difference between anxiety and spiritual, religious, Personalized care and total scores spiritual care between the intervention and control groups at follow-up (P<0.001).There was no statistically significant difference in stress and depression scores between the intervention and the control groups at follow-up. Conclusions: Findings show that spiritual care training program promotes spirituality, personalized care, religiosity and spiritual care as well as decreasing anxiety in mothers of children with cancer and decreases anxiety. It may be concluded that spiritual care training could be used effectively in reducing distressful spiritual challenges in mothers of children with cancer.
Diagnostic importance of Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration in Diagnosing Hepatic Lesions among Sudanese Patients 2015
Edris, Ali Mahmoud Mohammed ; Ali, Imtithal Mohamed ; Bakeit, Shaimaa Bushra ; Abashar, Mohamed ; Siddig, Emmanuel Edwar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 553~555
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.553
Background: Liver cytology is indicated and requested for evaluating hepatic masses in symptomatic or serendipitous cryptic discovered lesions. Objective: To determine the cytomorphological patterns of hepatic lesions identified among a group of Sudanese patients. Materials and Methods: This is an analytical descriptive hospital-based study included 165 patients undergoing ultrasound-guided fine needle is an aspiration cytology (FNAC)for hepatic lesions, at Al-Amal Military Hospital & Khartoum Teaching Hospital in Khartoum, Sudan. Clinical data were reviewed. Air dried Diff Quick stained smears were grouped into unsatisfactory samples, benign lesions, and malignant neoplasms. Results: Our population were consisted of 35 (21.2%) females and 130 (78.8%) males, with a male to female ratio 3.7:1 and an age ranged between 47 to 80, and a mean age
. Of 165 cases, 57 (34.5%) were benign, no atypia were noticed, 101 (61.2%) were malignant. Most investigated patients were found to have metastatic lesions. Conclusion: FNAC is a useful tool for investigating hepatic lesions.
Epidemiology Characteristics and Trends of Lung Cancer Incidence in Iran
Almasi, Zeinab ; Salehiniya, Hamid ; Amoori, Neda ; Enayatrad, Mostafa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 557~562
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.557
Background: Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and a major cause of death from cancer. One of the important indicators to compare the prevalence and incidence of the disease is a change in the trend. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the incidence of lung cancer in Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted based on existing data obtained from a national registry of cancer cases and the Disease Management Center of Ministry of Health in Iran. All cases registered in the country were included during 2003-2008. Incidence rates were reported based on the direct method and standard population of World Health Organization. The study also examined the morphology of common lung cancers. Trends in incidence underwent joinpoint regression analysis. Results: Based on the results of this study, 14,403 cases of lung cancer have been recorded of which 10,582 cases were in men and 3,821 in women. Highest incidence rates were observed in the 80-84 age group. Considerable variation across provinces was evident. In females squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) demonstrated a reduction from 24% to 16% of lesions over the period of study, while adenocarcinoma rose from 21% to 29%. In males a similar reduction in SCC was apparent (42% to 29%, again with increase in AC (13 % to 18%). Conclusions: The results show that the increase in the incidence of lung cancer the trend is that more men than women and in men and may be caused by changes in smoking pattern. The incidence of lung cancer in the North West and West provinces was higher than in other regions.
Prevalence of Known Risk Factors in Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer at Inmol Hospital, Lahore, Punjab
Mansha, Muhammad ; Saleem, Maryam ; Wasim, Muhammad ; Tariq, Muhammad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 563~568
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.563
Background: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide and its frequency is increasing gradually in many countries. Over the last three decades an increase in the breast cancer has been witnessed in the earlier low-risk Asian countries including Pakistan. Purpose: The objective of the current study was to assess the prevalence of known risk factors like early menarche, late menopause, socio economic, reproductive and demographic factors, among women diagnosed with breast cancer at INMOL hospital, Lahore, Punjab, as little information exists in this regard. Materials and Methods: A survey study was conducted on 200 women diagnosed with breast cancer who were seen at Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology (INMOL) hospital, Lahore. A structured questionnaire was administered to these patients regarding the known risk factors through face to face interviews after obtaining appropriate consent. Results: Regarding non-modifiable risk factors, our study showed that majority of the breast cancer patients were diagnosed at 35-45 years (32.5%) or at older age (
) and experienced menarche at 12 years or older (66 %). Likewise, a large number of patients reached menopause at the age of 45 years (60%), had no family and personal history of breast cancer (80%) and hence fell in a low risk category. Regarding modifiable risk factors in women diagnosed with breast cancer, most of the patients fell in low risk strata as the majority were married (98%) at young age, breastfed their children for 12 months or more (88%) and bore two to three children (80%). Considering income criteria, the majority of the patients had a low risk profile as they belonged to middle class (70%), urban area (60%) and were house wives (80%). However, it was noted that a considerable number of women (34%) diagnosed with breast cancer experienced menarche at an early age (<12) and reached menopause after the age of 45 years. This situation is further augmented by environmental changes and dietary habits and places them in a high risk category.
Evaluation of a Colorectal Carcinoma Screening Program in Kota Setar and Kuala Muda Districts, Malaysia
Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi ; Leong, Tan Wei ; Andu, Delarina Frimawati Othman ; Hat, Habshoh ; Mustapha, Nik Raihan Nik ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 569~573
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.569
Background: A colorectal cancer screening program was piloted in two districts of Kedah in 2013. There is scarcity of information on colorectal cancer screening in Malaysia. Objective: Thus, this research was conducted to evaluate the colorectal cancer screening program in the districts to provide insights intop its efficacy. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted using data on the colorectal cancer screening program in 2013 involving Kota Setar and Kuala Muda districts in Malaysia. We determined the response rate of immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT), colonoscopy compliance, and detection rates of neoplasia and carcinoma. We also compared the response of FOBT by demographic background. Results: The response rate of FOBT for first iFOBT screening was 94.7% while the second iFOBT screening was 90.7%. Participants from Kuala Muda district were 27 times more likely to default while Indians had a 3 times higher risk of default compared to Malays. The colonoscopy compliance was suboptimal among those with positive iFOBT. The most common finding from colonoscopy was hemorrhoids, followed by tubular adenoma. Detection rate of carcinoma and neoplasia for our program was 1.2%. Conclusions: In summary, the response rate of iFOBT was encouraging but the colonoscopy compliance was suboptimal which led to a considerably low detection rate.
Disorder of Endothelia Vessels' Functional State with Malignant Tumors in Patients Exposed Anthropogenic Radiation
Pak, Laura ; Noso, Yoshihiro ; Chaizhunusova, Nailya ; Manambaeva, Zukhra ; Adylkhanov, Tasbolat ; Takeichi, Nobuo ; Olzhaev, Sayakhat ; Aldyngurov, Daniyar ; Tuleutayeva, Raikhan ; Argynbekova, Ainur ; Tanysheva, Gulyash ; Zhazykbayeva, Lashyn ; Baissalbayeva, Ainur ; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 575~579
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.575
The aim of this research is to determine the characteristics of endothelial factors and the hemostatic system conditions with malignant neoplasms patients, which were exposed to ionizing radiation. Total number of examined people is 223, 153 of them are patients with gastrointestinal tract oncopathology. The article presents the results of the analysis of numerical indicators of endothelial condition and platelet hemostasis of patients, who had cancer. They lived in the regions of Kazakhstan, subjected to contamination of radionuclides as a result of nuclear weapons tests, which took place in this region from 1949 to 1989. These results then were compared to cancer patients and healthy individuals with no radiation risk. The study revealed the presence of higher levels of endothelial dysfunction and following trigger of the hemostatic system in patients with malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, the defined high degree of endothelial dysfunction include endothelium-dependent vasodilation, content desquamated endothelial cells in peripheral blood and von Willebrand factor. These indicators have a clear correlation with the degree of disorder of studied parameters of the hemostasis, which can cause the development of thrombotic complications.
Protein Profiles Associated with Anoikis Resistance of Metastatic MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells
Akekawatchai, Chareeporn ; Roytrakul, Sittiruk ; Kittisenachai, Suthathip ; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Patcharee ; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 581~590
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.581
Resistance to anoikis, a cell-detachment induced apoptosis, is one of the malignant phenotypes which support tumor metastasis. Molecular mechanisms underlying the establishment of this phenotype require further investigation. This study aimed at exploring protein expression profiles associated with anoikis resistance of a metastatic breast cancer cell. Cell survival of suspension cultures of non-metastatic MCF-7 and metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells were compared with their adherent cultures. Trypan blue exclusion assays demonstrated a significantly higher percentage of viable cells in MDA-MB-231 than MCF-7 cell cultures, consistent with analysis of annexin V-7-AAD stained cells indicating that MDA-MB-231 possess anti-apoptotic ability 1.7 fold higher than MCF-7 cells. GeLC-MS/MS analysis of protein lysates of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells grown under both culture conditions identified 925 proteins which are differentially expressed, 54 of which were expressed only in suspended and adherent MDA-MB-231 but not in MCF-7 cells. These proteins have been implicated in various cellular processes, including DNA replication and repair, transcription, translation, protein modification, cytoskeleton, transport and cell signaling. Analysis based on the STITCH database predicted the interaction of phospholipases, PLC and PLD, and 14-3-3 beta/alpha, YWHAB, with the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling network, suggesting putative roles in controlling anti-anoikis ability. MDA-MB-231 cells grown in the presence of inhibitors of phospholipase C, U73122, and phospholipase D, FIPI, demonstrated reduced ability to survive in suspension culture, indicating functional roles of PLC and PLD in the process of anti-anoikis. Our study identified intracellular mediators potentially associated with establishment of anoikis resistance of metastatic cells. These proteins require further clarification as prognostic and therapeutic targets for advanced breast cancer.
Genetic Variations in XRCC4 (rs1805377) and ATF6 (rs2070150) are not Associated with Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Thai Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection
Makkoch, Jarika ; Praianantathavorn, Kesmanee ; Sopipong, Watanyoo ; Chuaypen, Natthaya ; Tangkijvanich, Pisit ; Payungporn, Sunchai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 591~595
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.591
The liver is one of the most common sites of cancer in the world, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) predominating. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB) is considered as an important potential risk factors for HCC. Different people have diverse responses to HBV infection regarding the likelihood of HCC development, and host factors such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) might account for this. The present study was conducted to evaluate any association between SNP frequencies in two genes, XRCC4 (rs1805377) and ATF6 (rs2070150), and the risk of CHB and HCC development in Thai patients. The study covered 369 subjects including 121 HCC patients, 141 with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB) and 107 healthy controls. With TaqMan real-time PCR, the results showed that no significant association between XRCC4 (rs1805377) and ATF6 (rs2070150) and risk of HCC in the Thai population. From this first study of the 2 polymorphisms and HCC in Thailand it can concluded that rs1805377 and rs2070150 polymorphisms may not be applicable as genetic markers in the Thai population for HCC assessment.
New Prognostic Scoring System for Incurable Stage IV Colorectal Cancer
Kishiki, Tomokazu ; Masaki, Tadahiko ; Mastuoka, Hiroyoshi ; Abe, Nobustugu ; Mori, Toshiyuki ; Sugiyama, Masanori ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 597~601
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.597
Background: Components of the systemic inflammatory response, combined to form inflammation-based prognostic scores (mGPS, NLR, PLR, PI, PNI) have been associated with overall survival. The aim of the present study was to compare various prognostic factors including many previously established parameters and such systemic inflammation-based prognostic scores in a series of incurable stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Materials and Methods: Patients (n=167) with stage IV CRC undergoing surgical procedures between 2005 and 2013 were enrolled. Preoperatively (7-30 days before surgery), routine laboratory examinations were performed on the same day. We calculated scores using these data and analyzed the association with cancer specific survival (CSS) statistically. Results: Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between CSS and WBC, albumin, CRP, CEA values, mGPS, PNI, and PI values among preoperative factors. On multivariate analysis, high mGPS and high CEA independently predicted shorter CSS (p=0.001 and p=0.018). A new scoring system was constructed using mGPS and CEA. When patients were separated into three categorized using this system, the new score accurately predicted CSS (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The present study indicates that a new scoring system, consisting of mGPS and CEA, is a simple and useful tool in predicting the survival of patients with incurable stage IV CRC, and should be included in the routine assessment of these patients for decision making of appropriate treatment.
Mutation Analysis of KRAS and BRAF Genes in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: a First Large Scale Study from Iran
koochak, Aghigh ; Rakhshani, Nasser ; Niya, Mohammad Hadi Karbalaie ; Tameshkel, Fahimeh Safarnezhad ; Sohrabi, Masoud Reza ; Babaee, Mohammad Reza ; Rezvani, Hamid ; Bahar, Babak ; Imanzade, Farid ; Zamani, Farhad ; Khonsari, Mohammad Reza ; Ajdarkosh, Hossein ; Hemmasi, Gholamreza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 603~608
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.603
Background: The investigation of mutation patterns in oncogenes potentially can make available a reliable mechanism for management and treatment decisions for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). This study concerns the rate of KRAS and BRAF genes mutations in Iranian metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients, as well as associations of genotypes with clinicopathological features. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,000 mCRC specimens collected from 2008 to 2012 that referred to the Mehr Hospital and Partolab center, Tehran, Iran enrolled in this cross sectional study. Using HRM, Dxs Therascreen and Pyrosequencing methods, we analyzed the mutational status of KRAS and BRAF genes in these. Results: KRAS mutations were present in 33.6% cases (n=336). Of KRAS mutation positive cases, 85.1% were in codon 12 and 14.9% were in codon 13. The most frequent mutation at KRAS codon 12 was Gly12Asp; BRAF mutations were not found in any mCRC patients (n=242). In addition, we observed a strong correlation of KRAS mutations with some clinicopathological characteristics. Conclusions: KRAS mutations are frequent in mCRCs while presence of BRAF mutations in these patients is rare. Moreover, associations of KRAS genotypes with non-mucinous adenocarcinoma and depth of invasion (pT3) were remarkable.
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Breast Cancer Screening in Rural Iran
Zehtab, Nooshin ; Jafari, Mohammad ; Barooni, Mohsen ; Nakhaee, Nouzar ; Goudarzi, Reza ; Zadeh, Mohammad Hassan Larry ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 609~614
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.609
Background: Although breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, economic evaluation of breast cancer screening is not fully addressed in developing countries. The main objective of the present study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of breast cancer screening using mammography in 35-69 year old women in an Iranian setting. Materials and Methods: This was an economic evaluation study assessing the cost-effectiveness of a population-based screening program in 35-69 year old women residing in rural areas of South east Iran. The study was conducted from the perspective of policy-makers of insurance. The study population consisted of 35- to 69-year old women in rural areas of Kerman with a population of about 19,651 in 2013. The decision tree modeling and economic evaluation software were used for cost-effectiveness and sensitivity analyses of the interventions. Results: The total cost of the screening program was 7,067.69 US$ and the total effectiveness for screening and no-screening interventions was 0.06171 and 0.00864 disability adjusted life years averted, respectively. The average cost-effectiveness ratio DALY averted US$ for screening intervention was 7,7082.5 US$ per DALY averted and 589,027 US $ for no-screening intervention. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio DALY averted was 6,264 US$ per DALY averted for screening intervention compared with no-screening intervention. Conclusions: Although the screening intervention is more cost-effective than the alternative (noscreening) strategy, it seems that including breast cancer screening program in health insurance package may not be recommended as long as the target group has a low participation rate.
Pyrophen Produced by Endophytic Fungi Aspergillus sp Isolated from Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav Exhibits Cytotoxic Activity and Induces S Phase Arrest in T47D Breast Cancer Cells
Astuti, Puji ; Erden, Willy ; Wahyono, Wahyono ; Wahyuono, Subagus ; Hertiani, Triana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 615~618
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.615
Ethyl acetate extracts obtained from culture of endophytic fungi Aspergillus sp isolated from Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav, have been shown to possess cytotoxic activity against T47D breast cancer cells. Investigations were here conducted to determine bioactive compounds responsible for the activity. Bioassay guided fractionation was employed to obtain active compounds. Structure elucidation was performed based on analysis of LC-MS,
-NMR, COSY, DEPT, HMQC, HMBC data. Cytotoxity assays were conducted in 96 well plates against T47D and Vero cell lines. Bioassay guided isolation and chemical investigation led to the isolation of pyrophen, a 4-methoxy-6-(1'-acetamido-2'-phenylethyl)-2H-pyran-2-one. Further analysis of its activity against T47D and Vero cells showed an ability to inhibit the growth of T47D cells with IC50 values of
but less cytotoxicity to Vero cells with an
. This compound at a concentration of 400 ng/mL induced S-phase arrest in T47D cells.
A 40-year Retrospective Clinicopathological Study of Ameloblastoma in Iran
Saghravanian, Nasrollah ; Salehinejad, Jahanshah ; Ghazi, Narges ; Shirdel, Mohammad ; Razi, Mahsa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 619~623
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.619
Ameloblastoma is the most common epithelial odontogenic tumor. It may show locally invasive behavior resulting in recurrence and malignancy. Therefore, appropriate diagnosis of this tumor is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathological characteristics of ameloblastomas in an Iranian population. We present a 40-year retrospective study of patients diagnosed from 1971 to 2010 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad, Iran. Information gathered from patient records included age, gender, tumor location and histologic type. The frequency of odontogenic tumors among all lesions was 2.08% and ameloblastoma with 88 samples demonstrated the greatest prevalence (41.5%). Regarding gender, 60% of samples occurred in males. The mean age of studied patients was
with a peak of occurrence in the third decade of life. The most frequent location of tumor was the mandibles (93.2%). Eighty five (96.6%) tumors were recorded as benign and 3 (3.4%) as malignant. Of benign tumors, 62 (72.9%), 20 (23.5%) and 3 (3.6%) cases were of conventional, unicyctic and peripheral types, respectively. In contrast to most previous studies, the most common histologic subtype in the present study was plexiform. Knowledge of the incidence of ameloblastoma and its clinicopathologic features including most common location, gender and age distribution in different ethnogeographic backgrounds is necessary for accurate diagnosis and proper treatment.
Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Sudanese Women Regarding the Pap Smear Test and Cervical Cancer
Almobarak, Ahmed O ; Elbadawi, Ayman A ; Elmadhoun, Wadie M ; Elhoweris, Mohammed H ; Ahmed, Mohammed H ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 625~630
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.625
Background: Despite the established role of the Pap smear test (PST) in prevention and early detection of cervical cancer, it is still rarely practiced in Sudan. Many challenges hinder the establishment of an effective cervical cancer screening program, including socio-cultural factors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of Sudanese women with regard to the Pap smear test and cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 married women aged 14 to 58 years were recruited from obstetric clinics, hospitals and universities in Khartoum in 2014. Data were collected using a standardized, pretested questionnaire that inquired socio-demographic characteristics and their KAP about cervical cancer and the PST. Results: More than 52% of participating women were above 30 years of age, and the majority (78.8%) were university degree holders. A total of 486 (97.2 %) of participants were resident in urban areas of Khartoum State. However about 48% of the respondents had never heard about PST, and only 15.8% of the participants had undergone a Pap smear test previously; 46.6% (233/500) knew that the human papilloma virus (HPV) was the causative agent, but only 39.2% (196/500) had heard about HPV vaccination, and only 11.4% (57/500) had received the vaccine. However 68% of the respondents agreed to do Pap smear if properly informed about the test and 75.4% of the respondents agreed to participate in a cervical cancer screening program. Conclusions: Despite a high educational level, less than half of our participants had accurate knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, and cervical cancer screening. Health education about cervical cancer, HPV and sexually transmitted infections and the role of PST in cervical cancer prevention are crucial when designing interventions aimed at improving cervical cancer screening for Sudanese women.
Novel and Effective Almagate Enema for Hemorrhagic Chronic Radiation Proctitis and Risk Factors for Fistula Development
Yuan, Zi-Xu ; Ma, Teng-Hui ; Zhong, Qing-Hua ; Wang, Huai-Ming ; Yu, Xi-Hu ; Qin, Qi-Yuan ; Chu, Li-Li ; Wang, Lei ; Wang, Jian-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 631~638
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.631
Radiation proctitis is a common complication after radiotherapy for pelvic malignant tumors. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of novel almagate enemas in hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis (CRP) and evaluate risk factors related to rectal deep ulcer or fistula secondary to CRP. All patients underwent a colonoscopy to confirm the diagnosis of CRP and symptoms were graded. Typical endoscopic and pathological images, risk factors, and quality of life were also recorded. A total of 59 patients were enrolled. Gynecological cancers composed 93.1% of the primary malignancies. Complete or obvious reduction of bleeding was observed in 90% (53/59) patients after almagate enema. The mean score of bleeding improved from 2.17 to 0.83 (P<0.001) after the enemas. The mean response time was 12 days. No adverse effects were found. Moreover, long-term successful rate in controlling bleeding was 69% and the quality of life was dramatically improved (P=0.001). The efficacy was equivalent to rectal sucralfate, but the almagate with its antacid properties acted more rapidly than sucralfate. Furthermore, we firstly found that moderate to severe anemia was the risk factor of CRP patients who developed rectal deep ulcer or fistulas (P= 0.015). We also found abnormal hyaline-like thick wall vessels, which revealed endarteritis obliterans and the fibrosis underlying this disease. These findings indicate that almagate enema is a novel effective, rapid and well-tolerated method for hemorrhagic CRP. Moderate to severe anemia is a risk factor for deep ulceration or fistula.
Establishment and Clinical Application of an Electronic Database for Breast Cancer in China
Lv, Yong-Gang ; Huang, Mei-Ling ; Xiao, Jing-Jing ; Ling, Rui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 639~641
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.639
Purpose: To establish a database for breast cancer patients to save and manage clinical data and to preliminarily investigate its clinical application. Materials and Methods: Information on breast cancer patients hospitalized in our department from 2008.01 to 2013.01 were input into our breast cancer management system. SPSS 16.0 software was used as a convenient reference to evaluate the accuracy of the newly built database. Results: A database of 2403 breast cancer patients was successfully established. Information in the database clearly displayed capabilities of storage, addition, retrieval, statistical analysis and other functions. As the continuously updated database showed, the distribution of age, sex, nationality, allergy history, pausimenia and marriage of patients was identical to that achieved by SPSS analysis, indicating reliable and accurate data analysis. Conclusions: The described database is easy and convenient to operate and manage, and should prove suitable for application in clinical research and treatment.
Studying the Amount of Depression and its Role in Predicting the Quality of Life of Women with Breast Cancer
Shakeri, Jalal ; Golshani, Sanobar ; Jalilian, Elham ; Farnia, Vahid ; Nooripour, Roghieh ; Alikhani, Mostafa ; Yaghoobi, Kianoosh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 643~646
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.643
Background: Depression is the most common psychological reactions in women with breast cancer. This study aimed at investigating the amount of depression and its role in predicting the quality of life of women suffering from breast cancer. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive study in volved a correlation method with 98 women living in Kermanshah-Iran with breast cancer. According to the access to the patients and the condition of conducting the research, they were chosen by available sampling. Life quality inventory (World Health Organization, 1989) and depression inventory (Beck et al., 2000) were used to gather the data. Moreover, to analyze the relationships among the variables correlation analysis with Pearson method, as well as multiple regression with the enter method and frequency analysis were applied. Results: The findings revealed that not only is depression high, but also there is a negative significant relationship between depression and the quality of life, with predictive potential. Conclusions: The finding of a relationship between depression and the quality of life points to the need for addressing psychological problems of the affected individuals more appropriately. It is suggested that we consider psychological and educational services for patients in treatment planning to make people aware of different psychological aspects of their disease and ways of struggling and overcoming the problems.
Association of CYP2E1, STK15 and XRCC1 Polymorphisms with Risk of Breast Cancer in Malaysian Women
Chong, Eric Tzyy Jiann ; Goh, Lucky Poh Wah ; See, Edwin Un Hean ; Chuah, Jitt Aun ; Chua, Kek Heng ; Lee, Ping-Chin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 647~653
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.647
Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer affecting Malaysian women. Recent statistics revealed that the cumulative probability of breast cancer and related deaths in Malaysia is higher than in most of the countries of Southeast Asia. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP2E1 (rs6413432 and rs3813867), STK15 (rs2273535 and rs1047972) and XRCC1 (rs1799782 and rs25487) have been associated with breast cancer risk in a meta-analysis but any link in Southeast Asia, including Malaysia, remained to be determined. Hence, we investigated the relationship between these SNPs and breast cancer risk among Malaysian women in the present case-control study. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood of 71 breast cancer patients and 260 healthy controls and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Results: Our study showed that the c1/c2 genotype or subjects with at least one c2 allele in CYP2E1 rs3813867 SNP had significantly increased almost 1.8-fold higher breast cancer risk in Malaysian women overall. In addition, the variant Phe allele in STK15 rs2273535 SNP appeared to protect against breast cancer in Malaysian Chinese. No significance association was found between XRCC1 SNPs and breast cancer risk in the population. Conclusions: This study provides additional knowledge on CYP2E1, STK15 and XRCC1 SNP impact of risk of breast cancer, particularly in the Malaysian population. From our findings, we also recommend Malaysian women to perform breast cancer screening before 50 years of age.
Patterns of Use, Cessation Behavior and Socio-Demographic Factors Associated with Smoking in Saudi Arabia: a Cross-Sectional Multi-Step Study
Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibarhim ; El-Setohy, Maged ; Alsharqi, Abdalla ; Elsanosy, Rashad ; Mohammed, Umar Yagoub ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 655~660
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.655
Smoking is accountable for the fatality of a substantial number of persons and increases the likelihood of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Although data have shown high prevalence rates of cigarette smoking in Saudi Arabia, relatively little is known about the broader scope. The objectives of this study were to investigate socio-demographic factors, patterns of use and cessation behavior associated with smoking in Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study utilized a cross-sectional, multi-step design of sampling. Residents (N=1,497; aged 15 years and older) were recruited from seven administrative areas in Southwest Saudi Arabia. A pretested questionnaire was utilized to obtain data on participant cigarette smoking, including their daily use, age, education, income, marital status and employment status. The current study is the first of its kind to gather data cessation behavior of Saudi subjects. With the exception of 1.5% females, all the respondents were male. The majority of the respondents were married, had a university level of education, were employed, and were younger than 34 years old. The same trends were also observed among smokers' samples. The current prevalence of cigarette smoking was 49.2% and 65.7% of smokers had smoking at less than 18 years of age. The mean daily use amongst smokers was 7.98 cigarettes (SD=4.587). More than 50% of the study sample had tried at least once to quit smoking. However, 42% of the smokers participating had never. On the other hand, about 25% of the respondents were willing to consider quitting smoking in the future. Modeling of cigarette smoking suggested that the most significant independent predictors of smoking behavior were geographic area, gender, marital status, education, job and age. Considerable variation in smoking prevalence was noted related with participant sociodemographics. Findings recommend the necessity for control and intervention programs in Saudi community.
Evaluation of the Trends of Stomach Cancer Incidence in Districts of Iran from 2000-2010: Application of a Random Effects Markov Model
Zayeri, Farid ; mansouri, Anita ; Sheidaei, Ali ; Rahimzadeh, Shadi ; Rezaei, Nazila ; Modirian, Mitra ; khademioureh, Sara ; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza ; Farzadfar, Farshad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 661~665
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.661
Background: Stomach cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of death among cancers throughout the world. Therefore, stomach cancer outcomes can affect health systems at the national and international levels. Although stomach cancer mortality and incidence rates have decreased in developed countries, these indicators have a raising trend in East Asian developing countries, particularity in Iran. In this study, we aimed to determine the time trend of age-standardized rates of stomach cancer in different districts of Iran from 2000 to 2010. Materials and Methods: Cases of cancer were registered using a pathology-based system during 2000-2007 and with a population-based system since 2008 in Iran. In this study, we collected information about the incidence of stomach cancer during a 10 year period for 31 provinces and 376 districts, with a total of 49,917 cases. We employed two statistical approaches (a random effects and a random effects Markov model) for modeling the incidence of stomach cancer in different districts of Iran during the studied period. Results: The random effects model showed that the incidence rate of stomach cancer among males and females had an increasing trend and it increased by 2.38 and 0.87 persons every year, respectively. However, after adjusting for previous responses, the random effects Markov model showed an increasing rate of 1.53 and 0.75 for males and females, respectively. Conclusions: This study revealed that there are significant differences between different areas of Iran in terms of age-standardized incidence rates of stomach cancer. Our study suggests that a random effects Markov model can adjust for effects of previous responses.
Oridonin Suppresses Proliferation of Human Ovarian Cancer Cells via Blockage of mTOR Signaling
Xia, Rong ; Chen, Sun-Xiao ; Qin, Qin ; Chen, Yan ; Zhang, Wei-Wei ; Zhu, Rong-Rong ; Deng, An-Mei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 667~671
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.667
Oridonin, an ent-kaurane diterpenoid compound isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Rabdosia rubescens, has shown various pharmacological and physiological effects such as anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of oridonin on human ovarian cancer cell lines has not been determined. In this study, we demonstrated that oridonin inhibited ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we showed oridonin inhibited tumor growth of ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3) in vivo. We then assessed mechanisms and found that oridonin specifically abrogated the phosphorylation/activation of mTOR signaling. In summary, our results indicate that oridonin is a potential inhibitor of ovarian cancer by blocking the mTOR signaling pathway.
Mast Cell Concentrations in Peripheral and Central Giant Cell Granulomas: Is there any Angiogenetic Role?
Farhadi, Sareh ; Shahsavari, Fatemeh ; Taleghani, Ferial ; Komasi, Elaheh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 673~676
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.673
Background: In the maxillofacial region, giant cell granulomas occur in 2 clinical forms, central and peripheral. Despite histopathological similarity between these 2 forms totally different clinical behaviors have been reported. The present study was undertaken to compare mast cell and vascular concentrations in these pathologic lesions. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 20 pathological samples of central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) and 20 samples of peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) were selected and examined through toluidine blue staining for mast cell assessment and immunohistochemical staining by VEGEF antibody for comparing the number of mast cells. T-test, chi-squared test and backward multivariate linear regression were used for statistical analysis using SPSS 20. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results: This study showed significantly greater VEGF expression and mast cell concentrations in CGCG compared to PGCG cases. Also there was a significant correlation between VEGF expression and the concentration of mast cells. No relation was found between age, sex and site of the lesion and concentration of mast cells or VEGF expression. Conclusions: It is feasible that higher concentrations of mast cells in CGCG versus PGCG samples might lead to more aggressive clinical behavior via vascular proliferation and angiogenesis. However, other biologic mechanisms should be considered in this situation.
Multiplex RT-PCR Assay for Detection of Common Fusion Transcripts in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cases
Limsuwanachot, Nittaya ; Siriboonpiputtana, Teerapong ; Karntisawiwat, Kanlaya ; Chareonsirisuthigul, Takol ; Chuncharunee, Suporn ; Rerkamnuaychoke, Budsaba ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 677~684
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.677
Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous disease which requires a risk-stratified approach for appropriate treatment. Specific chromosomal translocations within leukemic blasts are important prognostic factors that allow identification of relevant subgroups. In this study, we developed a multiplex RT-PCR assay for detection of the 4 most frequent translocations in ALL (BCR-ABL, TEL-AML1, MLL-AF4, and E2A-PBX1). Materials and Methods: A total of 214 diagnosed ALL samples from both adult and pediatric ALL and 14 cases of CML patients (154 bone marrow and 74 peripheral blood samples) were assessed for specific chromosomal translocations by cytogenetic and multiplex RT-PCR assays. Results: The results showed that 46 cases of ALL and CML (20.2%) contained the fusion transcripts. Within the positive ALL patients, the most prevalent cryptic translocation observed was mBCR-ABL (p190) at 8.41%. In addition, other genetic rearrangements detected by the multiplex PCR were 4.21% TEL-AML1 and 2.34% E2A-PBX1, whereas MLL-AF4 exhibited negative results in all tested samples. Moreover, MBCR-ABL was detected in all 14 CML samples. In 16 samples of normal karyotype ALL (n=9), ALL with no cytogentic result (n=4) and CML with no Philadelphia chromosome (n=3), fusion transcripts were detected. Conclusions: Multiplex RT-PCR provides a rapid, simple and highly sensitive method to detect fusion transcripts for prognostic and risk stratification of ALL and CML patients.
Population-Based Intervention for Liver Fluke Prevention and Control in Meuang Yang District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand
Kompor, Pontip ; Karn, Rattikarn Muang ; Norkaew, Jun ; Kujapun, Jirawoot ; Photipim, Mali ; Ponphimai, Sukanya ; Chavengkun, Wasugree ; Paew, Somkiat Phong ; Kaewpitoon, Soraya ; Rujirakul, Ratana ; Wakhuwathapong, Parichart ; Phatisena, Tanida ; Eaksanti, Thawatchai ; Joosiri, Apinya ; Polsripradistdist, Poowadol ; Padchasuwan, Natnapa ; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 685~689
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.685
Opisthorchiasis is still a major health problem in rural communities of Thailand. Infection is associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), which is found frequently in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of health intervention in the population at risk for opisthorchiasis and CCA. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in Meuang Yang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeastern Thailand, between June and October 2015. Participants were completed health intervention comprising 4 stations; 1, VDO clip of moving adult worm of liver fluke; 2, poster of life cycle of liver fluke; 3, microscopy with adult and egg liver fluke; and 4, brochure with the knowledge of liver fluke containing infection, signs, symptoms, related disease, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control. Pre-and-post-test questionnaires were utilized to collect data from all participants. Students paired t-tests were used to analyze differences between before and after participation in the health intervention. Knowledge (mean difference=-7.48, t=-51.241, 95% CI, -7.77, -7.19, p-value =0.001), attitude (mean difference=-9.07, t=-9.818, 95% CI=-10.9, -7.24, p-value=0.001), and practice (mean difference=-2.04, t=-2.688, 95% CI=-3.55, -0.53, p-value=0.008), changed between before and after time points with statistical significance. Community rules were concluded regarding: (1) cooked cyprinoid fish consumption; (2) stop under cooked cyprinoid fish by household cooker; (3) cooked food consumption; (4) hygienic defecation; (5) corrected knowledge campaign close to each household; (6) organizing a village food safety club; (7) and annual health check including stool examination featuring monitoring by village health volunteers and local public health officers. The results indicates that the present health intervention program was effective and easy to understand, with low cost and taking only a short time. Therefore, this program may useful for further work at community and provincial levels for liver fluke prevention and control.
Differential Expression of O-glycoprotein Glycans in Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Lines
Talabnin, Krajang ; Talabnin, Chutima ; Ishihara, Mayumi ; Azadi, Parastoo ; Wongkham, Sopit ; Sripa, Banchob ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 691~695
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.691
Protein glycosylation is the most common posttranslational modification in mammalian cells. Aberrant protein glycosylation has been reported in various diseases, including cancer. We identified and quantified the glycan structures of O-linked glycoprotein from cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell lines from different histological types and compared their profiles by nanospray ionization-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (NSI-
). Five human CCA cell lines, K100, M055, M139, M213 and M214 were characterized. The results showed that the O-linked glycans of the CCA cell lines comprised tri- to hexa-saccharides with terminal galactose and sialic acids: NeuAc1Gal1GalNAc1, Gal2GlcNAc1GalNAc1, NeuAc2Gal1GalNAc1 NeuAc1Gal2GlcNAc1GalNAc1 and NeuAc2Gal2GlcNAc1GalNAc1 All five CCA cell lines showed a similar glycan pattern, but with differences in their quantities. NeuAc1Gal1GalNAc1 proved to be the most abundant structure in poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (K100; 57.1%), moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (M055; 42.6%) and squamous cell carcinoma (M139; 43.0%), while moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (M214; 40.1%) and adenosquamous cell carcinoma (M213; 34.7%) appeared dominated by
. These results demonstrate differential expression of the O-linked glycans in the different histological types of CCA. All five CCA cell lines have abundant terminal sialic acid (NeuAc) O-linked glycans, suggesting an important role for sialic acid in cancer cells. Our structural analyses of glycans may provide important information regarding physiology of disease-related glycoproteins in CCA.
Safety Analysis of Adjuvant Chemotherapy with Docetaxel Administered with or without Anthracyclines to Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients: Combined Results from the Asia-Pacific Breast Initiatives I and II
Kim, Sung Bae ; Sayeed, Ahmed ; Villalon, Antonio H ; Shen, Zhen Zhou ; Yau, Tsz Kok ; Shah, Mazhar Ali ; Hou, Meng Feng ; Thuan, Tran Van ; Ba, Duc Nguyen ; Chao, Tsu-Yi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 697~702
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.697
Background: The Asia-Pacific Breast Initiatives (APBI) I and II registries were established to collect safety data for patients with early stage breast cancer receiving adjuvant docetaxel-based regimens in the Asia-Pacific region. Materials and Methods: Data from the two registries were combined to perform a safety analysis. Participants in the registry were women with early stage operable breast cancer with an intermediate or high risk of recurrence. These women received adjuvant chemotherapy that included docetaxel between 2006 and 2011. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded and analyzed. Results: Data were collected from 3,224 patients from 13 countries. The mean dose intensity of docetaxel was 24.1, 22.7,
among patients receiving docetaxel-based monotherapy, combination therapy and sequential therapy, respectively. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was given with docetaxel to 41.8% of women and 20.6% of women receiving prophylactic antibiotics. Adverse events were reported in 86% of patients (anthracycline-containing regimens vs. non-anthracycline regimens; 87% vs. 80%). The most common adverse events were alopecia, nausea, neutropenia, vomiting, and myalgia. Adverse events NCI CTCAE
Grade 3 were reported in 45.4% of patients. Serious adverse events were reported in 13% of patients, of which 2.5% led to study discontinuation. Forty-six deaths (1.4%) were reported, with no significant difference between regimens. Conclusions: The safety parameters of adjuvant docetaxel therapy used to treat sequential Asian women were comparable to those reported in clinical trials evaluating the role of adjuvant docetaxel. No unusual adverse events linked to Asia-Pacific region patients were observed.
mRNA Expression of Bax, Bcl-2, p53, Cathepsin B, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in the HepG2 Cell Line Following Induction by a Novel Monoclonal Ab Hep88 mAb: Cross-Talk for Paraptosis and Apoptosis
Mitupatum, Thantip ; Aree, Kalaya ; Kittisenachai, Suthathip ; Roytrakul, Sittiruk ; Puthong, Songchan ; Kangsadalampai, Sasichai ; Rojpibulstit, Panadda ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 703~712
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.703
Monoclonal antibodies with specific antigens have been widely used as targeted therapy for cancer. Hep88 mAb is a monoclonal antibody which shows specific binding with anti-cancer effects against the HepG2 cell line. However, its mechanisms of action are still not completely understood. We examined cell cycling and apoptosis by flow cytometry and mRNA expression of factors involved in apoptosis and paraptosis in Hep88 mAb-treated HepG2 cells by real-time PCR. The cell-cycle analysis demonstrated that growth-inhibitory activity was associated with G2/M cell cycle arrest. Hep88 mAb induced a significant increase in apoptotic cell populations in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The mRNA expression results also suggested that the process triggered by Hep88 mAb involved up-regulation of tumor suppressor p53, pro-apoptotic Bax, Cathepsin B, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, with a decrease of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 - thus confirming paraptosis and apoptosis programmed cell death. These findings represent new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer properties of Hep88 mAb in liver cancer cells.
Other Gynecologic Pathology in Endometrial Cancer Patients
Khunnarong, Jakkapan ; Tangjitgamol, Siriwan ; Srijaipracharoen, Sunamchok ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 713~717
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.713
Background: To evaluate the prevalence and features of other gynecologic or surgical lesions in endometrial cancer (EMC) patients. Materials and Methods: Clinico-pathological data of EMC patients who were treated in the institution from 1995 to 2012 were collected. Data collected were age, stage of disease according to the FIGO 2009 criteria (FIGO), histopathology, tumor grade, adjuvant therapy, other gynecologic or surgical lesions, follow-up period, and living status. Results: The mean age of 396 patients was
. Abnormal uterine bleeding was the most common presenting symptom (90.1%). Bleeding was accompanied with pelvic mass in 7.7% and 5.4% had only a pelvic mass. Abnormal cervical cytology was found in 3.8%. Approximately 75% had early stage diseases and 86% had endometrioid histology. We found 55.8% of EMC patients had other gynecologic lesions: 89.6% benign and 9.5% malignant. Some 4.5% had pre-invasive cervical/vulva/vagina lesions. The two most common gynecologic lesions were myoma uteri and ovarian tumors. Focusing on the latter, approximately 14% were benign while 8% were malignant. Among 364 patients with available data, surgical lesions were found in 11.8%, 5.7% benign and 9.2% malignant. The most common benign surgical condition was chronic appendicitis while breast and colon cancers were the two most common malignant lesions found. Conclusions: More than half of EMC patients had other gynecologic lesions including benign and malignant tumors. Surgical lesions were also found in more than one-tenth of patients. Careful pre-operative evaluation and intra-operative inspection are advised for proper management and better prognosis.
Spatial Distribution of the Population at Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma in Chum Phaung District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province of Thailand
Kaewpitoon, Soraya J ; Rujirakul, Ratana ; Loyd, Ryan A ; Matrakool, Likit ; Sangkudloa, Amnat ; Kaewthani, Sarochinee ; Khemplila, Kritsakorn ; Eaksanti, Thawatchai ; Phatisena, Tanida ; Kujapun, Jirawoot ; Norkaew, Jun ; Joosiri, Apinya ; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 719~722
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.719
Background: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a serious health problem in Thailand, particularly in northeastern and northern regions, but epidemiological studies are scarce and the spatial distribution of CCA remains to be determined. A database for the population at risk is required for monitoring, surveillance and organization of home health care. This study aim was to geo-visually display the distribution of CCA in northeast Thailand, using a geographic information system and Google Earth. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 9 sub-districts and 133 villages in Chum Phuang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province during June and October 2015. Data on demography, and the population at risk for CCA were combined with the points of villages, sub-district boundaries, district boundaries, and points of hospitals in districts, then fed into a geographical information system. After the conversion, all of the data were imported into Google Earth for geo-visualization. Results: A total of 11,960 from 83,096 population were included in this study. Females and male were 52.5%, and 47.8%, the age group 41-50 years old 33.3%. Individual risk for CCA was identifed and classified by using the Korat CCA verbal screening test as low (92.8%), followed by high risk (6.74%), and no (0.49%), respectively. Gender (
-test=1143.63, p-value= 0.001), age group (
-test==211.36, p-value=0.0001), and sub-district (
-test=1471.858, p-value=0.0001) were significantly associated with CCA risk. Spatial distribution of the population at risk for CCA in Chum Phuang district was viewed with Google Earth. Geo-visual display followed Layer 1: District, Layer 2: Sub-district, Layer 3: Number of low risk in village, Layer 4: Number of high risk in village, and Layer 5: Hospital in Chum Phuang District and their related catchment areas. Conclusions: We present the first risk geo-visual display of CCA in this rural community, which is important for spatial targeting of control efforts. Risk appears to be strongly associated with gender, age group, and sub-district. Therefor, spatial distribution is suitable for the use in the further monitoring, surveillance, and home health care for CCA.
Anxiety, Depression Levels and Quality of Life in Patients with Gastrointestinal Cancer in Turkey
Bektas, Didem Kat ; Demir, Sati ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 723~731
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.723
Background: Cancer is a major public health problem in many parts of the world. Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are responsible for 20% of all cancer-related deaths. In Turkey, stomach cancers account for 8.9%, colon cancer for 6.9%, and pancreatic cancer for 5.9%. This study examined the anxiety-depression levels and the quality of life of patients with GI cancer. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out on 335 adult patients who had gastrointestinal cancer and who were hospitalized in medical oncology clinics. Data were collected by using hospital anxiety and depression scale, EORTC QLQ C-30 and a patient information form. Results: Patients who were male and secondary school graduates/graduates/postgraduates experienced more functional difficulties. Patients with poor economic status experienced more symptoms. Patient general wellbeing decreased with increase disease duration. The level of functional difficulties decreased with an increasing number of hospital stays. Anxiety scores increased with decreasing age. Both anxiety and depression scores increased with increasing disease duration. Patients who were female, single/widowed/divorced, and literate/elementary school graduates had higher anxiety and depression scores. Life quality decreased with increasing anxiety and depression. Conclusions: Patients should be supported to prevent anxiety and depression, and should be followed up with this in mind.
Helicobacter pylori babA2 Positivity Predicts Risk of Gastric Cancer in Ardabil, a Very High-Risk Area in Iran
Abdi, Esmat ; Latifi-Navid, Saeid ; Yazdanbod, Abbas ; Zahri, Saber ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 733~738
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.733
Background: Ardabil, a Northwestern province of Iran, was found to have the highest rate of gastric cancer (GC) in the country (ASRs = 51.8/100,000 for males and 24.9/100,000 for females) and one of the highest gastric cardia cancer rates in the world. The aim of the present study was to assess the associations of the cagA and babA2 status of Helicobacter pylori with GC in the Ardabil population. Materials and Methods: A total of 103 patients with non-atrophic gastritis (56) and GC (47), who underwent endoscopy at the Imam Khomeini Hospital in Ardabil, were assessed. The status of 16S rDNA, cagA and babA2 genes was determined using PCR and histopathological assessment was performed. Results: The following genotypic frequency was observed: cagA+ (50.6%), cagA-(49.4%), babA2+ (26.5%), babA2- (73.5%) cagA+/babA2+ (19.3%), cagA-/babA2+ (7.2%), cagA+/babA2-(31.3%), cagA-/babA2-(42.2%). Although the frequency of the cagA+, cagA+/babA2+ and cagA-/babA2+ genotypes in patients with GC (55.6%, 25.9%, and 14.8%, respectively) was higher than in those with NAG (48.2%, 16.1%, and 3.6%, respectively), the difference did not reach significance. In contrast, the presence of the babA2 gene (40.7% vs 19.6%) significantly increased the risk of GC; the age-sex-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 5.068 (1.506-17.058; P=0.009), by multiple logistic regression. Conclusions: It is proposed that the H. pylori babA2 positivity might be considered as an important determinant of GC risk in Ardabil.
Preliminary Study of the GSTM1 Null Polymorphism and History of Tobacco Smoking among Oral Cancer Patients in Northeastern Thailand
Natphopsuk, Sitakan ; Settheetham-Ishida, Wannapa ; Phuthong, Sophida ; Ishida, Takafumi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 739~742
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.739
Risks with GSTM1 genotypes and potential roles of smoking in the susceptibility to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were studied in Northeastern Thailand. Study subjects were 79 histologically-confirmed OSCC cases (31 men, 48 women) and 79 age- and sex-matched healthy controls ranging in age from 25 to 84 years. GSTM1 genotyping was achieved by two independent PCR assays. The GSTM1 null allele and the homozygous genotype did not increase risk of OSCC vs the wild type allele and the remaining genotypes. When the focus was on the smoking habit, male subjects who smoked
years were at significantly increased risk for OSCC with adjusted ORs of 4.88 [95%CI, 1.41-16.87, p=0.012] or 4.94 [95%CI, 1.62-15.12, p=0.005], respectively. A higher risk for OSCC was found for smoking amount; those who smoked >5 or >10 pack-years were at a higher risk with adjusted OR of 4.46 [95%CI; 1.45-13.74, p=0.009] or 3.89 [95%CI; 1.34-11.28, p=0.012], respectively. There are certain smoking patterns that give greater risks and thus both smoking duration and pack-years should be taken into consideration in tobacco related cancer prevention.
Impact of Cellular Genetic Make-up on Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines Response to Ellagic Acid: Implications of small interfering RNA
Yousef, Amany I ; El-Masry, Omar S ; Abdel Mohsen, Mohamed A ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 743~748
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.743
activation is an early event in colorectal carcinogenesis and associated mutations have been reported in about 40% of colorectal cancer patients. These mutations have always been responsible for enhancing malignancy and silencing them is associated with attenuation of tumorigenicity. Among downstream effectors are the RAF/MEK/ERK and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. PI3K/Akt signaling leads to reduction of apoptosis, stimulated cell growth and enhanced proliferation. Ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring antioxidant, has recently emerged as a promising anti-cancer agent. Purpose: To evaluate the impact of cellular genetic makeup of two colon cancer cell lines with different genetic backgrounds, HCT-116 (
) and Caco-2 (
), on response to potential anti-tumour effects of EA. In addition, the influence of
silencing in HCT-116 cells was investigated. Materials and Methods: Cellular proliferation, morphology and cell cycle analysis were carried out in addition to Western blotting for detecting total Akt and p-Akt (at Thr308 and Ser473) in the presence and absence of different concentrations of EA. Cell proliferation was also assessed in cells transfected with different concentrations of
siRNA or incubated with ellagic acid following transfection. Results: The results of the present study revealed that EA exerts anti-proliferative and dose-dependent pro-apoptotic effects. Cytostatic and cytotoxic effects were also observed. p-Akt (at Thr308 and Ser473) was downregulated. Moreover, EA treatment was found to (i) reduce
protein expression; (ii) in cells transfected with siRNA and co-treated with EA, pronounced anti-proliferative effects as well as depletion of p-Akt (at Thr308) were detected. Conclusions: Cellular genetic makeup (
) was not likely to impose limitations on targeting EA in treatment of colon cancer. EA had a multi-disciplinary pro-apoptotic anti-proliferative approach, having inhibited Akt phosphorylation, induced cell cycle arrest and showed an anti-proliferative potential in HCT-116 cells (expressing mutant
Effects of Radiotherapy on the Risk of Developing Secondary Malignant Neoplasms in Hodgkin's Lymphoma Survivors
Abou-Antoun, Tamara ; Mikhael, Rachelle ; Massoud, Marcel ; Chahine, Georges ; Saad, Aline ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 749~754
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.749
Extended follow-up of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors indicates that these patients are at high risk of secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs) contributing to increased morbidity and mortality. This study examined the characteristics of HL survivors who developed SMNs with the aim to report any correlation with radiotherapy (RT) dose. In this retrospective multi-center cohort study of HL patients treated between 1990 and 2011 at three major teaching hospitals in Lebanon, classification was into two groups including those treated with combined modality (RT and chemotherapy-CHT) and those treated with CHT alone. Approval from the University Institutional Review Board (IRB) was obtained. Of the 112 patients evaluated, 52.7% (59) received the combined modality while 47.3% (53) received CHT alone. There were 6 cases of SMNs in the combined modality cohort and 5 cases in the CHT cohort. The mean RT dose in the combined modality cohort was 34.5 Gray (Gy) (
). A statistically significant increase (1.5 fold) in the risk of developing SMNs was observed among patients who received a dose higher than 41 Gy compared to a dose between 20 to 30 Gy (OR= 1.5; 95% confidence interval= 0.674 to 3.339, p=0.012). The risk of SMNs was not significantly higher among patients who received extended field compared to involved field RT (p=0.964). This study showed that the risk of developing SMNs is higher among patients treated with RT dose greater than 31 Gy, independent of the RT type used.
Viewpoints of Family Caregivers about Posttraumatic Growth in Cancer Patients
Tahory, Hale ; Mohammadian, Robab ; Rahmani, Azad ; Seyedrasooli, Alehe ; Lackdezajy, Sima ; Heidarzadeh, Mehdi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 755~758
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.755
Background: There is little information about the objectivity of posttraumatic growth experienced by cancer patients. So, the aim of present study was to investigate the viewpoints of family caregivers regarding posttraumatic growth in cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in one referral medical center in East Azerbaijan Province in northwest of Iran. 120 primary family caregivers of cancer patients participated with a convenience sampling method. The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) and Perception about Prognosis Scale (PPS) were applied for data collection with analysis performed using SPSS statistical software. Results: Family caregivers believed that their patients had a good prognosis (score 3.95 from 5). The total score of PTGI was 60.7 (SD=18.8) that indicates a moderate level of growth as reported by family caregivers. Conclusions: Family caregivers of cancer patients have incorrect viewpoints about the prognosis of their patients and reported moderate levels of growth. These findings showed that posttraumatic growth among cancer patients is an objective phenomenon.
Determinants of Advanced Stage at Initial Diagnosis of Breast Cancer in Pakistan: Adverse Tumor Biology vs Delay in Diagnosis
Khokher, Samina ; Qureshi, Muhammad Usman ; Mahmood, Saqib ; Sadiq, Sadia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 759~765
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.759
Background: Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer of women in Pakistan with the majority presenting with stage III or IV lesionsat initial diagnosis. Patient and health system related factors are well known determinants of delay in presentation and diagnosis. Additionally, breast cancer being a heterogeneous disease, the various molecular subtypes featuring different aggressiveness also need to be considered. The present study evaluated the association of stage at initial diagnosis of breast cancer with these two factors in local women at a tertiary level health care facility in Lahore, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: Patient and tumor features were recorded separately during diagnostic workup in Breast Clinics at INMOL and at Services Hospital, Lahore. Data were entered in MS Excel and analyzed by descriptive statistics and Chi-Square test. Results: Among the 261 patients, 64% were staged as late breast cancer (LBC), the mean age was 46.8 with standard deviation of 13 years. Some 92% had invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), 61% had luminal types (LT) of non-aggressive tumor while 39% had the non-luminal types (NLT) of of HER2-enriched or basal aggressive tumors. While 70% of patients presented within one year of symptomatic disease (early report group "ERG"), 30% reported after a mean delay of 4 years with a standard deviation of 3.75 years. The stage distribution among ERG patients was not statistically different from those reporting late (P=0.123). Statistically larger proportion of patients with NLT presented as LBC as compared to the LT (P =0.034). Among the ERG, statistically different stage distribution of disease was observed for the NLT versus LT (P=0.047). Among those presenting late, this difference was insignificant (P=0.416). Conclusions: Breast cancer is a distinct disease in Pakistan with a high frequency of aggressive molecular types affecting younger women, with the majority presenting as LBC. Association of NLT with higher stage at diagnosis is statistically significant whereas time delay in diagnosis is not. Further research is required to define the risk profile and features in local patients. The burden of LBC can be reduced by promoting breast health awareness and by establishing easily accessible dedicated breast care set ups in the hospitals.
Hospital-based Population of Elderly Cancer Cases in Northeastern Thailand
Wirasorn, K ; Suwanrungruang, K ; Sookprasert, A ; Limpawattana, P ; Sirithanaphol, W ; Chindaprasirt, J ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 767~770
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.767
Background: The proportion of aged Thais (
years old) is expected to be 30% by 2030, leading to an increased number of elderly cancer cases. Older individuals have distinct patterns of cancer and treatment needs. We therefore conducted the present study of new cancer cases and trends to get a perspective on the elderly cancer situation in Northeast Thailand. Materials and Methods: All new elderly cancer cases (
years) registered in the hospital-based cancer registry at the Faculty of Medicine, Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University during 1993-2012 were included in the study. Results: Elderly patients accounted for 31.6% of all cancer patients and new cancer cases in the older age group increased 46% from the first to second decades. The absolute number of oldest old (80+ years) doubled. The top three cancers in males were liver and bile duct, lung, and colorectal. In females, the three most common cancers were liver and bile duct, oral cavity, and cervix. Cancers with the highest percentages of increase were thyroid, prostate, and colorectal. Conclusions: Elderly cancer cases are increasing. Treatment modalities and palliative care for older populations are urgently needed.
Single Institution Experience of Thymic Tumor Treatment and Survival in Egypt
Darwish, Dalia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 771~774
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.771
Thymic tumors are the most common tumors in the anterior mediastinum. Total resection is the main treatment and predictor of longer survival. Adjuvant radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy is recommended with incomplete excision or advanced disease. Thirty seven patients with thymic tumors were included in this retrospective study from January 2001 till December 2012. They were studied regarding age, sex, performance status, tumor size and invasion, stage, pathology, treatment given, overall and progression free survival. Myasthenia gravis was present in 18.1% of the patients. Masaoka stage III was diagnosed in 40.5% of the cases followed by stage II in 24.3% and the other stages with lower percentages. Pathology type B3 was the most frequent followed by B2 and B1 with percentages of 27, 24.3 and 21.7 respectively. Complete resection was conducted in 11 cases (29.75%). Partial resection or debulking was done in 15 (40.5%) and a biopsy was taken in 11 cases (29.8%) Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to 14 patients (37.8%) and neoadjuvant to 13 (35.2%). Adjuvant radiotherapy was given to 17 patients (46%) and neoadjuvant to 14 (37.8%). The 5-year overall survival by was 83% for stage I, 71% for stage II, 60% for stage III, and 44% for stage IV (p=0.0426). Five year progression free survival was 71% for stage I, 62% stage II, 42% stage III, and 37% for stage IV (p=0.0532). In conclusion with the rare thymic tumors early stage and complete resection have the highest impact on overall and progression free survival.
A Strategy Using Photodynamic Therapy and Clofibric Acid to Treat Peritoneal Dissemination of Ovarian Cancer
Yokoyama, Yoshihito ; Shigeto, Tatsuhiko ; Miura, Rie ; Kobayashi, Asami ; Mizunuma, Makito ; Yamauchi, Aisa ; Futagami, Masayuki ; Mizunuma, Hideki ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 775~779
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.775
Background: The current study examined the effectiveness of concurrent therapy using photodynamic therapy (PDT) and clofibric acid (CA) to treat peritoneal carcinomatosis resulting from ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods: Nude rats were used to create a model of peritoneal carcinomatosis resulting from ovarian cancer and the effectiveness of PDT with 5-aminolevulinic acid methyl ester hydrochloride (methyl-ALA-PDT) was determined. The survival time of rats receiving that therapy was compared to the survival time of a control group. Rats with peritoneal carcinomatosis resulting from ovarian cancer were divided into 3 groups: a group that received debulking surgery (DS) alone, a group that received DS+methyl-ALA-PDT, and a group that received DS+methyl-ALA-PDT+CA. The survival time of the 3 groups was compared. Protoporphyrin, a metabolite of methyl-ALA, produces a photochemical action when activated by light. The level of protoporphyrin (the concentration) that reached organs in the abdomen was measured with HPLC. Results: Rats receiving methyl-ALA-PDT had a significantly longer survival time compared to the controls. Rats with peritoneal carcinomatosis that received DS+methyl-ALA-PDT+CA had a significantly longer survival time compared to the rats that received DS alone. Some of the rats that received concurrent therapy survived for a prolonged period. Protoporphyrin was highly concentrated in peritoneal metastases, but only small amounts reached major organs in the abdomen. PDT was not found to result in necrosis in the intestines. Conclusions: The results indicated that concurrent therapy consisting of PDT with methyl-ALA and CA is effective at treating peritoneal carcinomatosis resulting from ovarian cancer without damaging organs.
CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and TP53 Polymorphisms and Risk of Gallbladder Cancer in Bolivians
Sakai, Kazuaki ; Loza, Ernesto ; Roig, Guido Villa-Gomez ; Nozaki, Ryoko ; Asai, Takao ; Ikoma, Toshikazu ; Tsuchiya, Yasuo ; Kiyohara, Chikako ; Yamamoto, Masaharu ; Nakamura, Kazutoshi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 781~784
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.781
The Plurinational State of Bolivia (Bolivia) has a high incidence rate of gallbladder cancer (GBC). However, the genetic and environmental risk factors for GBC development are not well understood. We aimed to assess whether or not cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1), glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1), theta 1 (GSTT1) and tumor suppressor protein p53 (TP53) genetic polymorphisms modulate GBC susceptibility in Bolivians. This case-control study covered 32 patients with GBC and 86 healthy subjects. GBC was diagnosed on the basis of histological analysis of tissues at the Instituto de Gastroenterologia Boliviano-Japones (IGBJ); the healthy subjects were members of the staff at the IGBJ. Distributions of the CYP1A1 rs1048943 and TP53 rs1042522 polymorphisms were assayed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion polymorphisms were detected by a multiplex PCR assay. The frequency of the GSTM1 null genotype was significantly higher in GBC patients than in the healthy subjects (odds ratio [OR], 2.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-5.37; age-adjusted OR, 3.53; 95% CI, 1.29-9.66; age- and sex-adjusted OR, 3.40; 95% CI, 1.24-9.34). No significant differences were observed in the frequencies of CYP1A1, GSTT1, or TP53 polymorphisms between the two groups. The GSTM1 null genotype was associated with increased GBC risk in Bolivians. Additional studies with larger control and case populations are warranted to confirm the association between the GSTM1 deletion polymorphism and GBC risk suggested in the present study.
Low-dose Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition of EGFR Mutation-positive Lung Cancer: Therapeutic Benefits and Associations Between Dosage, Efficacy and Body Surface Area
Hirano, Ryosuke ; Uchino, Junji ; Ueno, Miho ; Fujita, Masaki ; Watanabe, Kentaro ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 785~789
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.785
A key drug for treatment of EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer is epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI). While the dosage of many general anti-tumor drugs is adjusted according to the patient body surface area, one uniform dose of most TKIs is recommended regardless of body size. In many cases, dose reduction or drug cessation is necessary due to adverse effects. Disease control, however, is frequently still effective, even after dose reduction. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the characteristics of 26 patients at Fukuoka University Hospital between January 2004 and January 2015 in whom the EGFR-TKI dose was reduced with respect to progression free survival and overall survival. There were 10 and 16 patients in the gefitinib group and the erlotinib group, respectively. The median progression-free survival in the gefitinib group and the erlotinib group was 22.4 months and 14.1 months, respectively, and the median overall survival was 30.5 months and 32.4 months, respectively. After stratification of patients by body surface area, the overall median progression-free survival was significantly more prolonged in the low body surface area (<1.45 m2) group (25.6 months) compared to the high body surface area (>1.45 m2) group (9.7 months) (p=0.0131). These results indicate that low-dose EGFR-TKI may sufficiently control disease without side effects in lung cancer patients with a small body size.
Costing of a State-Wide Population Based Cancer Awareness and Early Detection Campaign in a 2.67 Million Population of Punjab State in Northern India
Thakur, JS ; Prinja, Shankar ; Jeet, Gursimer ; Bhatnagar, Nidhi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 791~797
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.791
Background: Punjab state is particularly reporting a rising burden of cancer. A 'door to door cancer awareness and early detection campaign' was therefore launched in the Punjab covering about 2.67 million population, wherein after initial training accredited social health activists (ASHAs) and other health staff conducted a survey for early detection of cancer cases based on a twelve point clinical algorithm. Objective: To ascertain unit cost for undertaking a population-based cancer awareness and early detection campaign. Materials and Methods: Data were collected using bottom-up costing methods. Full economic costs of implementing the campaign from the health system perspective were calculated. Options to meet the likely demand for project activities were further evaluated to examine their worth from the point of view of long-term sustainability. Results: The campaign covered 97% of the state population. A total of 24,659 cases were suspected to have cancer and were referred to health facilities. At the state level, incidence and prevalence of cancer were found to be 90 and 216 per 100,000, respectively. Full economic cost of implementing the campaign in pilot district was USD 117,524. However, the financial cost was approximately USD 6,301. Start-up phase of campaign was more resource intensive (63% of total) than the implementation phase. The economic cost per person contacted and suspected by clinical algorithm was found to be USD 0.20 and USD 40 respectively. Cost per confirmed case under the campaign was 7,043 USD. Conclusions: The campaign was able to screen a reasonably large population. High to high economic cost points towards the fact that the opportunity cost of campaign put a significant burden on health system and other programs. However, generating awareness and early detection strategy adopted in this campaign seems promising in light of fact that organized screening is not in place in India and in many developing countries.
Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Different Management Strategies between Best Supportive Care and Second-line Chemotherapy for Platinum-resistant or Refractory Ovarian Cancer
Luealon, Phanida ; Khempech, Nipon ; Vasuratna, Apichai ; Hanvoravongchai, Piya ; Havanond, Piyalamporn ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 799~805
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.799
Background: There is no standard treatment for patients with platinum-resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer. Single agent chemotherapies have evidence of more efficacy and less toxicity than combination therapy. Most are very expensive, with appreciable toxicity and minimal survival. Since it is difficult to make comparison between outcomes, economic analysis of single-agent chemotherapy regimens and best supportive care may help to make decisions about an appropriate management for the affected patients. Objective: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of second-line chemotherapy compared with best supportive care for patients with platinum-resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods: A Markov model was used to estimate the effectiveness and total costs associated with treatments. The hypothetical patient population comprised women aged 55 with platinum-resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer. Four types of alternative treatment options were evaluated: 1) gemcitabine followed by BSC; 2) pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) followed by BSC; 3) gemcitabine followed by topotecan; and 4) PLD followed by topotecan. Baseline comparator of alternative treatments was BSC. Time horizon of the analysis was 2 years. Health care provider perspective and 3% discount rate were used to determine the costs of medical treatment in this study. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) were used to measure the treatment effectiveness. Treatment effectiveness data were derived from the literature. Costs were calculated from unit cost treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer patients at various stages of disease in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital (KCMH) in the year 2011. Parameter uncertainty was tested in probabilistic sensitivity analysis by using Monte Carlo simulation. One-way sensitivity analysis was used to explore each variable's impact on the uncertainty of the results. Results: Approximated life expectancy of best supportive care was 0.182 years and its total cost was 26,862 Baht. All four alternative treatments increased life expectancy. Life expectancy of gemcitabine followed by BSC, PLD followed by BSC, gemcitabine followed by topotecan and PLD followed by topotecan was 0.510, 0.513, 0.566, and 0.570 years, respectively. The total cost of gemcitabine followed by BSC, PLD followed by BSC, gemcitabine followed by topotecan and PLD followed by topotecan was 113,000, 124,302, 139,788 and 151,135 Baht, respectively. PLD followed by topotecan had the highest expected quality-adjusted life-years but was the most expensive of all the above strategies. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of gemcitabine followed by BSC, PLD followed by BSC, gemcitabine followed by topotecan and PLD followed by topotecan was 344,643, 385,322, 385,856, and 420,299 Baht, respectively. Conclusions: All of the second-line chemotherapy strategies showed certain benefits due to an increased life-year gained compared with best supportive care. Moreover, gemcitabine as second-line chemotherapy followed by best supportive care in progressive disease case was likely to be more effective strategy with less cost from health care provider perspective. Gemcitabine was the most cost-effective treatment among all four alternative treatments. ICER is only an economic factor. Treatment decisions should be based on the patient benefit.
Response of Triple Negative Breast Cancer to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Correlation between Ki-67 Expression and Pathological Response
Elnemr, Gamal M ; El-Rashidy, Ahmed H ; Osman, Ahmed H ; Issa, Lotfi F ; Abbas, Osama A ; Al-Zahrani, Abdullah S ; El-Seman, Sheriff M ; Mohammed, Amrallah A ; Hassan, Abdelghani A ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 807~813
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.807
Triple-negative breast cancers constitute about 15% of all cases, but despite their higher response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the tumors are very aggressive and associated with a poor prognosis as well as a higher risk of early recurrence. This study was retrospectively performed on 101 patients with stage II and III invasive breast cancer who received 6-8 cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Out of the total, 23 were in the triple negative breast cancer subgroup. Nuclear Ki-67 expression in both the large cohort group (n=101) and triple negative breast cancer subgroup (n=23) and its relation to the pathological response were evaluated. The purpose of the study was to identify the predictive value of nuclear protein Ki-67 expression among patients with invasive breast cancers, involving the triple negative breast cancer subgroup, treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy in correlation to the rate of pathological complete response. The proliferation marker Ki-67 expression was highest in the triple negative breast cancer subgroup. No appreciable difference in the rate of Ki-67 expression in triple negative breast cancer subgroup using either a cutoff of 14% or 35%. Triple negative breast cancer subgroup showed lower rates of pathological complete response. Achievement of pathological complete response was significantly correlated with smaller tumor size and higher Ki-67 expression. The majority of triple negative breast cancer cases achieved pathological partial response. The study concluded that Ki-67 is a useful tool to predict chemosensitivity in the setting of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for invasive breast cancer but not for the triple negative breast cancer subgroup.
Significance of ATM Gene Polymorphisms in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia - a Case Control Study from India
Gorre, Manjula ; Mohandas, Prajitha Edathara ; Kagita, Sailaja ; Cingeetham, Anuradha ; Vuree, Sugunakar ; Jarjapu, Sarika ; Nanchari, Santhoshirani ; Meka, Phanni Bhushann ; Annamaneni, Sandhya ; Dunna, Nageswara Rao ; Digumarti, Raghunadharao ; Satti, Vishnupriya ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 815~821
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.815
Background: Development of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) involves formation of double strand breaks (DSBs) which are initially sensed by the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) signal kinase to induce a DNA damage response (DDR). Mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms in ATM gene are known to influence the signaling capacity resulting in susceptibility to certain genetic diseases such as cancers. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we have analyzed -5144A>T (rs228589) and C4138T (rs3092856) polymorphisms of theATM gene through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 925 subjects (476 CML cases and 449 controls). Results: The A allele of -5144A>T polymorphism and T allele of C4138T polymorphism which were known to be influencing ATM signaling capacity are significantly associated with enhanced risk for CML independently and also in combination (evident from the haplotype and diplotype analyses). Significant elevation in the frequencies of both the risk alleles among high risk groups under European Treatment and Outcome Study (EUTOS) score suggests the possible role of these polymorphisms in predicting the prognosis of CML patients. Conclusions: This study provides the first evidence of association of functional ATM gene polymorphisms with the increased risk of CML development as well as progression.
Colorectal Cancer Staging Using Three Clustering Methods Based on Preoperative Clinical Findings
Pourahmad, Saeedeh ; Pourhashemi, Soudabeh ; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 823~827
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.823
Determination of the colorectal cancer stage is possible only after surgery based on pathology results. However, sometimes this may prove impossible. The aim of the present study was to determine colorectal cancer stage using three clustering methods based on preoperative clinical findings. All patients referred to the Colorectal Research Center of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences for colorectal cancer surgery during 2006 to 2014 were enrolled in the study. Accordingly, 117 cases participated. Three clustering algorithms were utilized including k-means, hierarchical and fuzzy c-means clustering methods. External validity measures such as sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were used for evaluation of the methods. The results revealed maximum accuracy and sensitivity values for the hierarchical and a maximum specificity value for the fuzzy c-means clustering methods. Furthermore, according to the internal validity measures for the present data set, the optimal number of clusters was two (silhouette coefficient) and the fuzzy c-means algorithm was more appropriate than the k-means clustering approach by increasing the number of clusters.
Work-Associated Stress and Nicotine Dependence among Law Enforcement Personnel in Mangalore, India
Priyanka, R ; Rao, Ashwini ; Rajesh, Gururaghavendran ; Shenoy, Ramya ; Pai, BH Mithun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 829~833
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.829
Purpose: To investigate the work associated stress and nicotine dependence among law enforcement personnel in Mangalore, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among law enforcement personnel in Mangalore, India. Demographic details, stress factors experienced at work and nicotine dependency were the variables studied. The extent of stress factors experienced at work was assessed using the Effort-Reward Imbalance scale (ERI). Nicotine dependence was measured using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence-Smokeless Tobacco (FTND-ST). Logistic regression was used for the statistical analysis. Results: Three hundred and four law enforcement personnel participated in the study, among whom 68 had the presence of one or more habits like tobacco smoking, tobacco chewing and alcohol use. The mean effort score was
and the mean reward and mean overcommitment scores were
respectively. Effort/Reward ratio for the total participants was 1.0073 and for those with nicotine habit was 1.0850. Results of our study demonstrated no significant association between domains of ERI scale and presence of habits but work associated stress was associated with the presence of one or more habits. Compared to constables, head constables had 1.12 times higher risk of having a nicotine habit. Conclusions: Our study implies job designation is associated with nicotine habits. However, there was no association between work associated stress and nicotine dependence among law enforcement personnel in Mangalore.
Evaluation of Machine Learning Algorithm Utilization for Lung Cancer Classification Based on Gene Expression Levels
Podolsky, Maxim D ; Barchuk, Anton A ; Kuznetcov, Vladimir I ; Gusarova, Natalia F ; Gaidukov, Vadim S ; Tarakanov, Segrey A ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 835~838
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.835
Background: Lung cancer remains one of the most common cancers in the world, both in terms of new cases (about 13% of total per year) and deaths (nearly one cancer death in five), because of the high case fatality. Errors in lung cancer type or malignant growth determination lead to degraded treatment efficacy, because anticancer strategy depends on tumor morphology. Materials and Methods: We have made an attempt to evaluate effectiveness of machine learning algorithms in the task of lung cancer classification based on gene expression levels. We processed four publicly available data sets. The Dana-Farber Cancer Institute data set contains 203 samples and the task was to classify four cancer types and sound tissue samples. With the University of Michigan data set of 96 samples, the task was to execute a binary classification of adenocarcinoma and non-neoplastic tissues. The University of Toronto data set contains 39 samples and the task was to detect recurrence, while with the Brigham and Women's Hospital data set of 181 samples it was to make a binary classification of malignant pleural mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma. We used the k-nearest neighbor algorithm (k=1, k=5, k=10), naive Bayes classifier with assumption of both a normal distribution of attributes and a distribution through histograms, support vector machine and C4.5 decision tree. Effectiveness of machine learning algorithms was evaluated with the Matthews correlation coefficient. Results: The support vector machine method showed best results among data sets from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital. All algorithms with the exception of the C4.5 decision tree showed maximum potential effectiveness in the University of Michigan data set. However, the C4.5 decision tree showed best results for the University of Toronto data set. Conclusions: Machine learning algorithms can be used for lung cancer morphology classification and similar tasks based on gene expression level evaluation.
Prostate Cancer in Iran: Trends in Incidence and Morphological and Epidemiological Characteristics
Pakzad, Reza ; Rafiemanesh, Hosein ; Ghoncheh, Mahshid ; Sarmad, Arezoo ; Salehiniya, Hamid ; Hosseini, Sayedehafagh ; Sepehri, Zahra ; Afshari-Moghadam, Amin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 839~843
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.839
Background: Prostate cancer is second most common cancer in men overall in the world, whereas it is the third most common cancer in men and the sixth most common cancer in Iran. Few studies have been conducted on the epidemiology of prostate cancer in Iran. Since ethnicity of Iranian men is different from Asian people and given the epidemiologic and demographic transition taking place in Iran, this study aimed to investigate trends of incidence and morphology of prostate cancer during 2003 - 2008 in the country. Materials and Methods: Data were collected retrospectively reviewing all new prostate cancer patients in the Cancer Registry Center of the Health Deputy for Iran during a 6-year period. Also carcinoma, NOS and adenocarcinoma, NOS morphology were surveyed. Trends analysis of incidence and morphology was by joinpoint regression. Results: During the six years a total of 16,071 cases of prostate cancer were recorded in Iran. Most were adenocarcinomas at 95.2 percent. Trend analysis of incidence (ASR) There was a significant increase incidence, with annual percentage change (APC) of 17.3% and for morphology change percentage trends there was a significant decrease in adenocarcinoma with an APC of -1.24%. Conclusions: Prostate cancer is a disease of older men and the incidence is increasing in Iran. The most common morphology is adenocarcinoma this appears to be decreasing over time. Due to the changing lifestyles and the aging of the population, epidemiological studies and planning assessment of the etiology of prostate cancer and its early detection are essential.
Cancers among South-East Asian Nationals in Brunei Darussalam
Chong, Vui Heng ; Telisinghe, Pemasari Upali ; Lim, Edwin ; Tan, Jackson ; Chong, Chee Fui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 845~849
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.845
Background: Worldwide, the incidence of cancers is increasing and is becoming a major public health issue, including those in the Asia Pacific region. South-East Asia is a region with diverse populations with different disease spectra. This study looked at the spectrum of cancers among South-East Asians working in Brunei Darussalam. Materials and Methods: The cancer registry from 1994 to 2012 maintained by the State Laboratory was retrospectively reviewed. Crude incidence rates were calculated based on the population census of 2010. Results: Altogether, there was a total of 418 cancer cases diagnosed among South-East Asians, giving an incidence of 5.1% (n=418/8,253). The affected nationals in decreasing frequency were Malaysians (53.1%), followed by Filipinos (25.8%), Indonesians (15.3%), Thais (3.8%), Myanmese (1.7%) and Vietnamese (0.2%) with no recorded cases for Singapore and the People's Republic of Laos. The overall mean age of diagnosis was
years old, with an increasing trend over the years (p<0.05 ANOVA). The overall gender ratio was 42.3:57.7 (male:female), more females among the Filipinos and Indonesians, more males among the Thais, and equal representation among the Malaysians and the Myanmese. The most common were cancers of the digestive system (19.9%), followed by female reproductive/gynecologic system (16.0%), breast (15.6%), hematological/lymphatic (12.0%) and head/neck (8.1%). There were differences in the prevalence of cancers among the various nationalities with highest crude incidence rate among the Myanmese (141.2/100,000), followed by the Malaysian (88.5/100,000), and the Filipinos (40.6/100,000) and the lowest among the Thais (18.4/100,000), Indonesians (10.5/100,000) and the Vietnamese (6.3/100,000). Conclusions: Cancers among South-East Asian residing in Brunei Darussalam accounted for 5.1% of all cancers. The most common cancers were cancers of the digestive, gynecologic/female reproductive system and breast with certain types slowly increasing in proportions. There mean age of diagnoses was increasing.
Development of a Breast Cancer Awareness Scale for Thai Women: Moving towards a Validated Measure
Rakkapao, Nitchamon ; Promthet, Supannee ; Moore, Malcolm A ; Hurst, Cameron P ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 851~856
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.851
Background: Breast cancer is a major health problem among women around the world. Recent developments in screening and treatment have greatly improved the prognosis of patients with breast cancer in developed countries. However, in developing countries breast cancer mortality remains high.Breast cancer awareness is a first and important step in reducing breast cancer mortality. The development of a validated instrument to measure breast cancer awareness is crucial for the understanding and implementation of suitable health education programs to facilitate early deletion and minimize mortality. Objective: The objective of this study was to develop an instrument for the assessment of breast cancer awareness in Thai women. Materials and Methods: This methodological study was conducted in two stages: (1) literature searches and semi-structured interviews were conducted to generate items of the breast cancer awareness scale (B-CAS) which were subsequently examined for content and face validity, and (2) an exploration of the factor structure of the resulting instrument and an examination of its reliability. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire in Thai women aged 20-64 in August, 2015. Results: A total of 219 women (response rate 97.4 %) participated in this validation study. The B-CAS contains five domains with 53 items on breast cancer awareness: 1) knowledge of risk factors, 2) knowledge of signs and symptoms, 3) attitude to breast cancer prevention, 4) barriers of breast screening, and 5) health behavior related to breast cancer awareness. Items with a content validity index < 0.80 were excluded, and factor structure for the remaining items reflected the hypothesized five factor model. The scales based on all retained items was shown to have strongly internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's
). Conclusions: The B-CAS provides good psychometric properties to assess breast cancer awareness in women. It can be used to examine breast cancer awareness in Thai women and it could lead to the development and evaluation of suitable educational interventions for raising breast cancer awareness. Future research should focus on further validating the B-CAS including an assessment of construct and criterion-based validity.
Reinfection by Opisthorchis Viverrini after Treatment with Praziquantel
Saengsawang, Phubet ; Promthet, Supannee ; Bradshaw, Peter ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 857~862
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.857
Background: The prevalence of infection by the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini), has remained high in Northeast Thailand where it is a major risk factor for the eventual development of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The infection is acquired by the consumption of dishes containing unsafely prepared freshwater fish, a dietary tradition which has proved resistant to change. Since many people are aware that dosing with praziquantel (PZQ) is a successful treatment for an episode of the infection, there is a risk that, to avoid the long term consequences, they will engage in a cycle of infection, dosing and reinfection. Objectives: There is a dearth of studies of reinfection by O. viverrini, and the aims of this study were to assess re-infection rates in a typical province of Northeastern Thailand where O. viverrini infection is likely and to investigate factors associated with reinfection. Materials and Methods: A total of infected 607 villagers were treated with PZQ, and those found to be no longer infected were followed up at six-monthly intervals over 12 months. Results: At the end of this period data on 457 subjects were available for analysis using descriptive statistics and logistic regression, and 50 were found to have become reinfected, giving a cumulative reinfection rate of 10.9%. The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the only factor found to be associated with reinfection was past use of PZQ. Conclusions: Recommendations are made for future larger scale and better designed reinfection studies in the light of limitations of the current study. Further efforts are needed to discourage people from eating fish dishes likely to contain viable metacariae.
Accuracy of c-KIT in lung cancer prognosis; a systematic review protocol" instead of c-KIT Expression in Lung Cancer Prognostic Evaluation - a Systematic Review Protocol
Roudi, Raheleh ; Kalantari, Elham ; Keshtkar, Abbas ; Madjd, Zahra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 863~866
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.863
Background: Extensive efforts have been made to investigate c-KIT expression in lung cancer specimens and its correlation with clinical outcomes, but the issue remains unresolved. Thus, this study will be conducted to clarify the prognostic value of c-KIT expression in lung cancer patients. Materials and Methods: We will search Pubmed, SCOPUS, and ISI web of sciences with no restriction of language. Studies with any design (except case reports or case series) evaluating correlations of c-KIT expression with survival or outcome in patients with lung cancer will be included. The outcome measures will include all types of survival indexes, including overall survival rate and disease free survival using Kaplan-Meier analysis and hazard ratios. Study selection and data extraction will be performed by two independent researchers. Quality assessment (assessment of risk of bias) and data synthesis will be implemented using Stata software version 11.1. Results: No ethical issues are predicted. These findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at national and international conferences. Conclusions: This systematic review protocol is registered in the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, registration number = CRD42015023391.
Simultaneous Comparison of Efficacy and Adverse Events of Interventions for Patients with Esophageal Cancer: Protocol for a Systematic Review and Bayesian Network Meta-analysis
Doosti-Irani, Amin ; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali ; Rahimi-Foroushani, Abbas ; Cheraghi, Zahra ; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 867~872
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.867
Background: Esophageal cancer is one of the most serious malignancies. Due to the aggressive nature of this cancer, the prognosis is poor. A network meta-analysis with simultaneous comparison of multiple treatments can help determine better treatment options that have higher effects on overall survival of patients with lower adverse events. The aim of this review is to simultaneously compare efficacy and adverse events of treatment interventions for esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: In this review, only randomized control trials (RCT) will be considered for network meta-analysis. All international electronic databases including Medline, Web of Sciences, Scopus, Cochran's library, EMBASE and Cancerlit will be searched to find randomized control trials which compared two or more treatment interventions for esophageal cancer. A network plot will be drawn for visual representation of all available treatment interventions. Bayesian approach will be used to combine the direct and indirect evidence. Treatment effects (e.g. hazard ratio for time to event outcomes, risk ratio for binary outcomes, and rate ratio for count outcomes with 95% credible interval) will be reported. Moreover, cumulative probability of the treatment ranks will be reported using the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) graphs. Consistency assumption will be assessed by the loop-specific and design-by-treatment interaction approaches. Conclusions: The results of this study may be helpful for the patients, clinicians and health policy makers in selecting treatments that have the best effect on survival and lowest adverse events.
Introduction of Questionnaires for Quality of Life of Patients with Malignant Tumors of the Central Nervous System into Neurosurgical Practice in the Republic of Kazakhstan
Akshulakov, Serik ; Aldiyarova, Nurgul ; Ryskeldiyev, Nurzhan ; Akhmetzhanova, Zauresh ; Gaitova, Kamila ; Auezova, Raushan ; Doskaliyev, Aidos ; Kerimbayev, Talgat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 873~876
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.873
Background: Studies of quality of life (QoL) of oncological patients is carried out using questionnaires approved in many international clinical studies. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer EORTC QLQ-C30 (Quality of Life Questionnary-Core 30) and its special brain cancer module EORTC QLQ-BN20 are widely used in the world neurooncologic practice. They are available in more than 80 official versions of 30 languages of the world. Previously we used the official versions in Russian, which often causes difficulty in understanding for native Kazakh language speakers, who comprise more than 60% of our respondents. This was the reason for creating a version of Kazakh language. Therefore, in 2014 for the first time the process of adaptation of questionnaires to the Kazakh language was initiated. Materials and Methods: The translation process of questionnaires to Kazakh language was held in accordance with the requirements of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer EORTC on QoL and consisted of the following stages: preparation - translation - pilot testing - approval. The official permission of authors and "Guideline on translation" was obtained which was developed by the working group of the EORTC on QoL. The pilot testing of EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BN20 questionnaires was conducted on the basis of the Department of Central Nervous System Pathology of the "National Centre for Neurosurgery" in patients with malignant tumors of the central nervous system. Results: The official versions of the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BN20 questionnaires in Kazakh language were introduced and adapted in practical neurosurgical operations in Kazakhstan. Conclusions: The approved versions of the questionnaires in Kazakh language are now available for mainstream use on the official website EORTC.com. The versions of these questionnaires can be used in domestic cohort studies and clinical practice in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The use of these tools for assessing QoL will help professionals in the planning of individual treatment strategies and selection of the necessary therapy.
Re: Role of Electromagnetic Field Exposure in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and No Impact of Urinary Alpha-Amylase - a Case Control Study in Tehran, Iran
Dechent, Dagmar ; Driessen, Sarah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 2, 2016, Pages 877~877
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.877