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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Jun 2016
Volume 17, Issue sup2 - Apr 2016
Volume 17, Issue sup1 - Apr 2016
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Apr 2016
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Mar 2016
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
Volume 16, Issue 18 - Jan 2016
Selecting the target year
Recent Progress in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Research
Mouh, Fatima Zahra ; El Mzibri, Mohammed ; Slaoui, Meriem ; Amrani, Mariam ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1595~1608
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1595
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined as a type of breast carcinoma that is negative for expression of oestrogene and progesterone hormone receptors (ER, PR) and HER2. This form of breast cancer is marked by its aggressiveness, low survival rate and lack of specific therapies. Recently, important molecular characteristics of TNBC have been highlighted and led to the identification of some biomarkers that could be used in diagnosis, as therapeutic targets or to assess the prognosis. In this review, we summarize recent progress in TNBC research focusing on the genetic and epigenetic alterations of TNBC and the potential use of these biomarkers in the targeted therapy for better management of TNBC.
HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer - a Mini-Review
Asif, Hafiz Muhammad ; Sultana, Sabira ; Ahmed, Saeed ; Akhtar, Naheed ; Tariq, Muhammad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1609~1615
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1609
Breast cancer is one of among all cancers with increased incidence, high mortality rate, and high economic and social costs. The the most common type of cancer among females worldwide, breast cancer is actually the uncontrolled proliferation of cells which attain malignancy. Recently it has shown that breast cancer contributes 11% among all types of cancer diagnosed globally on an annual basis and it is one of the leading causes of death among women. The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) is a receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 normally involved in the proliferation and division of breast cells. In some abnormal cases the HER2 gene does not work correctly and makes too many copies of itself. HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancers constitute an aggressive type of breast cancer and tend to grow faster and are more likely to spread. However, therapies that specifically target HER2, such as Herceptin
(traztuzumab), are very effective. HER2 targeted therapies, has significantly improved the therapeutic outcome for patients with HER2 positive breast cancer.
Three Weekly Versus Weekly Cisplatin as Radiosensitizer in Head and Neck Cancer: a Decision Dilemma
Negi, Preety ; Kingsley, Pamela Alice ; Srivastava, Himanshu ; Sharma, Surender Kumar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1617~1623
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1617
Cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiation plays an undisputed key role as definitive treatment in unresectable patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma head and neck or as an organ preservation strategy. Treatment with 100 mg/m2 3-weekly cisplatin is considered the standard of care but is often associated with several adverse events. The optimum drug schedule of administration remains to be defined and presently, there is insufficient data limiting conclusions about the relative tolerability of one regimen over the other. This review addresses regarding the optimal dose schedule of cisplatin focusing mainly on three-weekly and weekly dose of cisplatin based concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer with an emphasis on mucositis, dermatitis, systemic toxicity, compliance, and treatment interruptions. To derive a definitive conclusion, large prospective randomized trials are needed directly comparing standard 3-weekly cisplatin (
) with weekly schedule (
) of concurrent cisplatin based chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma head and neck.
Multimodality Treatment for Patients with Node-Positive Prostate Cancer: the Role of Radiation Therapy
Ochiai, Satoru ; Nomoto, Yoshihito ; Kobayashi, Shigeki ; Yamashita, Yasufumi ; Watanabe, Yui ; Toyomasu, Yutaka ; Kawamura, Tomoko ; Takada, Akinori ; II, Noriko ; Sakuma, Hajime ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1625~1630
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1625
Prostate cancer is the secondary most frequently diagnosed cancer in the world. Although numerous prospective randomized trial have been conducted to guide the management of patients with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer, few clinical trials targeting node-positive prostate cancer have been reported. Therefore, there are still controversies in the optimal management of node-positive prostate cancer. Recently, efficacy of multimodality treatment, including radiation therapy (RT), for such patients has been reported in several articles. The results indicate potential benefit of RT both in adjuvant therapy after prostatectomy and in definitive therapy for node-positive prostate cancer. The aim in this article was to summarize the current evidence for RT and evaluate the role in multimodality treatment for patients with node-positive prostate cancer.
Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection
Tongtawee, Taweesak ; Kaewpitoon, Soraya ; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut ; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon ; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat ; Loyd, Ryan A ; Matrakool, Likit ; Panpimanmas, Sukij ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1631~1635
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1631
Helicobacter pylori infection plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy. A diagnosis of infection is thus an important part of a treatment strategy of many gastrointestinal tract diseases. Many diagnostic tests are available but all have some limitations in different clinical situations and laboratory settings. A single gold standard cannot available, but be used for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in daily clinical practice in all areas, so several techniques have been developed to give reliable results, especially focusing on real time endoscopic features. The narrow band imaging system (NBI) and high resolution endoscopy are imaging techniques for enhanced visualization of infected mucosa and premalignant gastric lesions. The aim of this article is to review the current diagnostic options and possible future developments detection of Helicobacter pylori infection.
Clinical Features of Oxaliplatin Induced Hypersensitivity Reactions and Therapeutic Approaches
Bano, Nusrat ; Najam, Rahila ; Qazi, Faaiza ; Mateen, Ahmed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1637~1641
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1637
Oxaliplatin, a third generation novel platinum compound is the most effective first line chemotherapeutic agent for colorectal cancer (CRC) in combination with 5FU and leucovorin. It is indicated for pancreatic, gastric and testicular cancers combined with bevacuzimab, capecitabine, irinotecan and other cytotoxic agents. However, moderate to severe hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) during or after oxaliplatin infusion usually require cessation of chemotherapy or substitution of the key therapeutic drug which largely interferes with improved patient prognosis. This mini- review showcases recent and accepted opinions/approaches in oxaliplatin induced HSR management. Physicians and oncologists have varying attitudes regarding the decision to rechallenge the patient after an HSR experience, efficacy of desensitization protocols, effectiveness and selection of drugs for premedication and possibilities of cross sensitivity to other platinum agents (e.g. carboplatin). A brief insight into underlying molecular mechanisms and clinical manifestations of oxaliplatin induced HSR is offered. We have also discussed the management of oxaliplatin induced HSR and risk stratification for a successful and complete chemotherapeutic plan.
Ganglioside as a Therapy Target in Various Types of Cancer
Qamsari, Elmira Safaie ; Nourazarian, Alireza ; Bagheri, Salman ; Motallebnezhad, Morteza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1643~1647
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1643
Since their discovery in 1940, it has been well established that gangliosides are associated with a number of biological pathways and cellular processes such as growth, differentiation and toxin uptake. Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids containing neuraminic acid which are expressed on the plasma membrane of cells particularly in the nervous system. Heterogeneity and structural variation in the carbohydrate chains of gangliosides contributes to unique features of each of these molecules. Thirty five years ago it was discovered that aberrant glycosylation occurs in a variety of human cancers, including aberrant glycosylation of gangliosides. Ganglioside expression in terms of quality and quantity varies in different cancers and different roles may be played. Gangliosides, by affecting the immune system, including esxpression of cytokines and adhesion molecules, may inhibit anti-tumor mechanisms, as well as having direct impact on angiogenesis, cell movement and metastasis. It should be noted that different kinds of gangliosides do not all act by the same mechanisms.
Anti-Cancer Effects of Green Tea by Either Anti- or Pro-Oxidative Mechanisms
Hayakawa, Sumio ; Saito, Kieko ; Miyoshi, Noriyuki ; Ohishi, Tomokazu ; Oishi, Yumiko ; Miyoshi, Mamoru ; Nakamura, Yoriyuki ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1649~1654
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1649
Tea derived from the leaves and buds of Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) is consumed worldwide. Green tea contains various components with specific health-promoting effects, and is believed to exert protective effects against diseases including cancer, diabetes and hepatitis, as well as obesity. Of the various tea components, the polyphenol catechins have been the subject of extensive investigation and among the catechins, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate has the strongest bioactivity in most cases. Our research group has postulated that hepatocyte nuclear factor-
, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins, and tumor necrosis factor-
are targets of green tea constituents including (-)-epigallocatechin gallate for their anti-diabetes, anti-obesity, and anti-hepatitis effects, respectively. Published papers were reviewed to determine whether the observed changes in these factors can be correlated with anti-cancer effects of green tea. Two major action mechanisms of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate have been proposed; one associated with its anti-oxidative properties and the other with its pro-oxidative activity. When reactive oxygen species are assumed to be involved, our findings that (-)-epigallocatechin gallate downregulated hepatocyte nuclear factor-
, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins, and tumor necrosis factor-
may explain the anti-cancer effect of green tea as well. However, further studies are required to elucidate which determinant directs (-)-epigallocatechin gallate action as an anti-oxidant or a pro-oxidant for favorable activity.
Celecoxib, a COX-2 Selective Inhibitor, Induces Cell Cycle Arrest at the G2/M Phase in HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells
Setiawati, Agustina ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1655~1659
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1655
Celecoxib, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, showed cytotoxic effects in many cancer cell lines including cervical cancer cells. This study investigated the effect of celecoxib on cell cycle arrest in HeLa cervical cancer cells through p53 expression. In vitro anticancer activity was determined with the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. A double staining method was applied to investigate the mechanism of cell death, cell cycling was analyzed by flow cytometryand immunocytochemistry was employed to stain p53 expression in cells. Celecoxib showed strong cytotoxic effects and induced apoptosis with an
. It induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase by increasing level of p53 expression on HeLa cells.
Efficacy and Safety of Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists for Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Yuan, Dong-Mei ; Li, Qian ; Zhang, Qin ; Xiao, Xin-Wu ; Yao, Yan-Wen ; Zhang, Yan ; Lv, Yan-Ling ; Liu, Hong-Bin ; Lv, Tang-Feng ; Song, Yong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1661~1675
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1661
Objectives: Can addition of neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK1-RAs) be considered as an ideal strategy for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV)? Researchers differ on this question. Materials and Methods: Electronic databases were searched for randomized control trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effectiveness and safety of NK1-RAs in preventing CINV. The primary end point was complete response (CR) in the acute, delayed, and overall phases after chemotherapy. Subgroup analyses evaluated the types of NK1-RAs, routines of administration, types of malignancies, regimens used in combination with NK1-RAs, and age of patients included in the studies. The incidences of different types of adverse events were also extracted to estimate the safety of NK1-RAs. Results: A total of 38 RCTs involving 13,923 patients were identified. The CR rate of patients receiving NK-RAs was significantly higher than patients in the control groups during overall phase (70.8% vs 56.0%, P<0.001), acute phase (85.1% vs 79.6%, P<0.001), and delayed phase (71.4% vs 58.2%, P<0.001). There were three studies including patients of children or adolescents, the CR rate was also significantly higher in the treatment group (overall phase: OR=2.807, P<0.001; acute phase: OR=2.863, P =0.012; delayed phase: OR=2.417, P<0.001). For all the other outcomes, patients in the NK1-RAs groups showed improvements compared to the control groups (incidence of nausea: 45.2% vs 45.9%, P<0.001; occurrence of vomiting: 22.6% vs 38.9%, P<0.001; usage of rescue drugs: 23.5% vs 34.1%, P<0.001). The pooled side effects from NK1-RAs did not significantly differ from previous reports and the toxicity rates in patients less than eighteen years old also did not diff between the two groups (P=0.497). However, we found that constipation and insomnia were more common in the patients of control groups, whereas diarrhea and hiccups were more frequently detected in patients receiving NK1-RAs. Conclusions: NK1-RAs improved the CR rate of CINV. They are effective for both adults and children. The use of NK1-RAs might be associated with the appearance of diarrhea and hiccups, while decreasing the possibility of constipation and insomnia.
Quality of Life among Breast Cancer Patients In Malaysia
Ganesh, Sri ; Lye, Munn-Sann ; Lau, Fen Nee ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1677~1684
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1677
Background: Among the factors reported to determine the quality of life of breast cancer patients are socio-demographic background, clinical stage, type of treatment received, and the duration since diagnosis. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the quality of life (QOL) scores among breast cancer patients at a Malaysian public hospital. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study of breast cancer patients was conducted between March to June 2013. QOL scores were determined using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its breast cancer supplementary measure (QLQ-BR23). Both the QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 assess items from functional and symptom scales. The QLQ-C30 in addition also measures the Global Health Status (GHS). Systematic random sampling was used to recruit patients. Results: 223 breast cancer patients were recruited with a response rate of 92.1%. The mean age of the patients was 52.4 years (95% CI = 51.0, 53.7, SD=10.3). Majority of respondents are Malays (60.5%), followed by Chinese (19.3%), Indians (18.4%), and others (1.8%). More than 50% of respondents are at stage III and stage IV of malignancy. The mean Global Health Status was 65.7 (SD = 21.4). From the QLQ-C30, the mean score in the functioning scale was highest for 'cognitive functioning' (84.1, SD=18.0), while the mean score in the symptom scale was highest for 'financial difficulties' (40.1, SD=31.6). From the QLQ-BR23, the mean score for functioning scale was highest for 'body image' (80.0, SD=24.6) while the mean score in the symptom scale was highest for 'upset by hair loss' (36.2, SD=29.4). Two significant predictors for Global Health Status were age and employment. The predictors explained 10.6% of the variation of global health status (
). Conclusions: Age and employment were found to be significant predictors for Global Health Status (GHS). The Quality of Life among breast cancer patients reflected by the GHS improves as age and employment increases.
Dosimetric Characteristics of 6 MV Modified Beams by Physical Wedges of a Siemens Linear Accelerator
Zabihzadeh, Mansour ; Birgani, Mohammad Javad Tahmasebi ; Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi, Mojtaba ; Arvandi, Sholeh ; Hoseini, Seyed Mohammad ; Fadaei, Mahbube ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1685~1689
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1685
Physical wedges still can be used as missing tissue compensators or filters to alter the shape of isodose curves in a target volume to reach an optimal radiotherapy plan without creating a hotspot. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric properties of physical wedges filters such as off-axis photon fluence, photon spectrum, output factor and half value layer. The photon beam quality of a 6 MV Primus Siemens modified by 150 and 450 physical wedges was studied with BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) code. The calculated present depth dose and dose profile curves for open and wedged photon beam were in good agreement with the measurements. Increase of wedge angle increased the beam hardening and this effect was more pronounced at the heal region. Using such an accurate MC model to determine of wedge factors and implementation of it as a calculation algorithm in the future treatment planning systems is recommended.
Data Mining for Identification of Molecular Targets in Ovarian Cancer
Villegas-Ruiz, Vanessa ; Juarez-Mendez, Sergio ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1691~1699
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1691
Ovarian cancer is possibly the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, in Mexico representing the fourth leading cause of gynecological cancer death more than 70% being diagnosed at an advanced stage and the survival being very poor. Ovarian tumors are classified according to histological characteristics, epithelial ovarian cancer as the most common (~80%). We here used high-density microarrays and a systems biology approach to identify tissue-associated deregulated genes. Non-malignant ovarian tumors showed a gene expression profile associated with immune mediated inflammatory responses (28 genes), whereas malignant tumors had a gene expression profile related to cell cycle regulation (1,329 genes) and ovarian cell lines to cell cycling and metabolism (1,664 genes).
Global Incidence and Mortality Rates of Stomach Cancer and the Human Development Index: an Ecological Study
Khazaei, Salman ; Rezaeian, Shahab ; Soheylizad, Mokhtar ; Khazaei, Somayeh ; Biderafsh, Azam ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1701~1704
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1701
Background: Stomach cancer (SC) is the second leading cause of cancer death with the rate of 10.4% in the world. The correlation between the incidence and mortality rates of SC and human development index (HDI) has not been globally determined. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the association between the incidence and mortality rates of SC and HDI in various regions. Materials and Methods: In this global ecological study, we used the data about the incidence and mortality rate of SC and HDI from the global cancer project and the United Nations Development Programme database, respectively. Results: In 2012, SCs were estimated to have affected a total of 951,594 individuals (crude rate: 13.5 per 100,000 individuals) with a male/female ratio of 1.97, and caused 723,073 deaths worldwide (crude rate: 10.2 per 100,000 individuals). There was a positive correlation between the HDI and both incidence (r=0.28, P<0.05) and mortality rates of SC (r=0.13, P = 0.1) in the world in 2012. Conclusions: The high incidence and mortality rates of SC in countries with high and very high HDI is remarkable which should be the top priority of interventions for global health policymakers. In addition, health programs should be provided to reduce the burden of this disease in the regions with high incidence and mortality rates of SC.
Association of Viral Infections with Risk of Human Lymphomas, Egypt
Kadry, Dalia Y ; Khorshed, Amira M ; Rashed, Reham A ; Mokhtar, Nadia M ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1705~1712
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1705
Background: The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the association of different viral infections, with hepatitis B and C viruses, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and human herpes virus-8 (HBV, HCV, EBV, CMV, HHV-8) with the risk of lymphomas (Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin) among Egyptian patients, and correlate with the histopathological staging and typing as well as the prevalence of combined infections. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 newly diagnosed lymphoma patients with 100 healthy age and sex matched normal controls were assayed for viral infection using enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Our results showed a high statistical significant difference between cases and controls as regards clinical and laboratory findings (P<0.001 and=0.003). A high statistical difference was seen for the association of most viruses and lymphoma cases (p<0.001) except for positive HBs Ag, positive CMV IgG and HHV-8 (p=0.37, 0.70 and 1.0 respectively). No statistical significant difference was found between Hodgkin (HL) and non-Hodgkin (NHL) as regards viral prevalence except HCV antigen, 57.1% for HL and 26.5% for NHL (p = 0.03). Only, HBV DNA showed a high significant value among infiltrated bone marrow cases (p=0.003) and finally, a high significant association of 2 combined viral infections with infiltrated bone marrow lymphoma cases (p=0.04). Conclusions: Our results showed that infection with HBV, HCV, CMV and EBV were associated with increased risk of lymphoma among the Egyptian population. Detection of new associations between infectious agents and risk of cancer development will facilitate progress in elaboration of prophylactic measures, early diagnostic methods and, hopefully, novel therapy of malignant tumours.
Implementation of Health Behavior Education Concerning Liver Flukes among Village Health Volunteers in an Epidemic Area of Thailand
Kaewpitoon, Soraya J ; Rujirakul, Ratana ; Wakkuwattapong, Parichart ; Matrakool, Likit ; Tongtawee, Taweesak ; Norkaew, Jun ; Kujapun, Jirawoot ; Kampangsri, Wilas ; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1713~1716
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1713
Background: Liver fluke infection is associated with cholangiocarcinoma; the bile duct cancer found frequently in the northeast and north of Thailand. Prevention and control particularly requires health education and behavior change. Objective: This study aimed to improve health behavior among village health volunteers (VHV) regarding liver fluke exposure in an epidemic area. Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was performed during July 2015 to January 2016 in Sang Kha district of Surin province, Thailand. A total of 67 VHVs underwent a health education program (HEP) and data were collected on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) before and after participation for HEP 3 months with a pre-designed questionnaire. The Students paired T-test was used for comparisons of mean KAP levels before/after the intervention. Results: The results revealed that knowledge (P-value=0.004), attitude (P-value=0.004), and practice level (P-value=0.000) were significantly improved after participation in the HBP. Attitude was significantly associated with knowledge (r=0.266, p<0.05), and practice (r=0.348, p<0.01). Conclusions: The implementation of health education among VHVs is feasible and increases their KAP. This improvement should have potential in liver fluke prevention and control in local communities in rural Thailand.
Parental Experiences with Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia among Childhood Cancer Patients in Indonesia
Gunawan, Stefanus ; Broeke, Chloe ten ; Ven, Peter van de ; Arnoldussen, Marijn ; Kaspers, Gertjan ; Mostert, Saskia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1717~1723
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1717
Background: This study assessed parental experiences with chemotherapy-induced alopecia among children with cancer treated at an Indonesian academic hospital. Materials and Methods: Fifty parents of childhood cancer patients were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Results: The moment that hair fell out was the moment that parents (84%) had to admit their child had cancer. Alopecia was a traumatizing painful experience (46%). Active strategies to hide alopecia, mainly hats, were used by 66% of children, while 34% never covered their bald head. If money had not been an issue, 40% would use another strategy. Alopecia made children limit outdoor daily activities (78%) and engagement with others (60%). Significantly more children from high-educated (95%) than low-educated (60%) parents received sympathy from other people (P=0.012). Significantly more Christian (29%) than Muslim (0%) families confirmed that alopecia lowered the quality of life (P=0.046). Most parents (82%) had no prior plans about alopecia management, yet for significantly more girls (26%) than boys (0%) such plans existed (P=0.044). Parents received most information about alopecia from other parents (66%). Parents (92%) needed more alopecia education from doctors. Of all school-attending children, 53% were bullied and 47% did not want to attend school due to alopecia. Significantly more high-educated than low-educated families received pity from teachers and pupils (94% vs. 0%, P=0.004), and acceptance by pupils (81% vs. 0%, P=0.021). Conclusions: Alopecia is a severe, far-stretching side-effect of chemotherapy with physical, psychological and social consequences for children and parents. Parents should be better informed about occurrence and impact of alopecia. Extra attention is required to facilitate children's return to school. Healthcare providers should facilitate optimal supportive care through open dialogue and provision of educational m aterials for parents, children and their community.
Screening for Del 185 AG and 4627C>A BRCA1 Mutations in Breast Cancer Patients from Lahore, Pakistan
Aziz, Faiza ; Fatima, Warda ; Mahmood, Saqib ; Khokher, Samina ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1725~1727
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1725
Breast cancer contributes to approximately 23% of the cancer cases identified and 14% of cancer related deaths worldwide. Including a strong association between genetic and environmental factors, breast cancer is a complex and multi factorial disorder. Two high penetration breast cancer susceptibility genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) have been identified, and germ line mutations in these are thought to account for between 5% and 10% of all breast cancer cases. The human BRCA1 gene, located on 17q, is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation by aiding in DNA repair, transcriptional responses to DNA damage and cell cycle check points. Mutations in this gene enhance cell proliferation and facilitate formation of tumors. Two mutations, the 185 deletion of AG and the 4627 substitution from C to A, are founder mutations in the BRCA1 gene for breast cancer in Asian populations. Allele specific PCR was performed to detect these selected mutations in 120 samples. No mutation of 4627 C to A was detected in the samples and only one of the patients had the 185 del AG mutation in the heterozygous condition. Our collected samples had lower consanguinity and family history indicating the greater involvement of environmental as compared to genetic factors.
Correlation between RAS Test Results and Prognosis of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients: a Report from Western Iran
Payandeh, Mehrdad ; Shazad, Babak ; Sadeghi, Masoud ; Shahbazi, Maryam ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1729~1732
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1729
In the patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), RAS testing is the first step to identify those that could benefit from anti-EGFR therapy. This study examined associations between KRAS mutations and clinicopathological and survival data in Iranian patients with mCRC. Between 2008 to2015 in a retrospective study, 83 cases of mCRC were referred to the Clinic of Medical Oncology. The mean follow-up was 45 months that there were 27 deaths. The 3 patients that did not complete follow-up were censored from the study. KRAS and NRAS were analyzed using allele-specific PCR primers and pyrosequencing in exons 2, 3 and 4. Multivariate survival analysis using Cox's regression model was used for affecting of variables on overall survival (OS). The mean age at diagnosis for patients was 57.7 (range, 18 to 80 years) and 61.4% were male. There was no significant different between prognostic factors and KRAS mutation with wild-type. Also, There was no significant different between KRAS mutation and KRAS wild-type for survival, but there was a significant different between KRAS 12 and 13 mutations for survival (HR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.66, P=0.01). In conclusion, the prevalence of KRAS mutations in CRC patients was below 50% but higher than in other studies in Iran. As in many studies, patients with KRAS 12 mutations had better OS thn those with KRAS 13 mutation. In addition to KRAS testing, other biomarkers are needed to determine the best treatment for patients with mCRC.
Prevalence of Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption among Fishermen in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka, India: a Cross-Sectional Study
Rane, Prasad Pramod ; Narayanan, Prakash ; Binu, VS ; Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1733~1737
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1733
Background: Stress associated with fishing is known to trigger consumption of alcohol and tobacco among fishermen. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol consumption among fishermen in Udupi Taluk in the state of Karnataka, India, and to study associations with health status and job stress. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 825 fishermen in Udupi Taluk of Karnataka between January-June 2015, using a two stage cluster sampling procedure. Associations between variables of interest were assessed using multivariable analysis and logistic regression models. Results: The prevalences of consumption of tobacco, alcohol and either of these substances were 64.2%, 45.6% and 86.9% respectively. There was a positive association between alcohol and any form of tobacco consumption with income but none with respondent's job stress and health status. Conclusions: Our study concluded that fishermen with poor health status are seen more among tobacco and alcohol users.
Evaluation of Anticancer Activity of Curcumin Analogues Bearing a Heterocyclic Nucleus
Ahsan, Mohamed Jawed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1739~1744
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1739
We report herein an in vitro anticancer evaluation of a series of seven curcumin analogues (3a-g). The National Cancer Institute (NCI US) Protocol was followed and all the compounds were evaluated for their anticancer activity on nine different panels (leukemia, non small cell lung cancer, colon cancer, CNS cancer, melanoma, ovarian cancer, renal cancer, prostate cancer and breast cancer) represented by 60 NCI human cancer cell lines. All the compounds showed significant anticancer activity in one dose assay (drug concentration
) and hence were evaluated further in five dose assays (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and
) and three dose related parameters
, TGI and
were calculated for each (3a-g) in micro molar drug concentrations (
). The compound 3d (NSC 757927) showed maximum mean percent growth inhibition (PGI) of 112.2%, while compound 3g (NSC 763374) showed less mean PGI of 40.1% in the one dose assay. The maximum anticancer activity was observed with the SR (leukemia) cell line with a
. The calculated average sensitivity of all cell lines of a particular subpanel toward the test agent showed that all the curcumin analogues showed maximum activity on leukemia cell lines with
values between 0.23 and
Survival in Head and Neck Cancers - Results of A Multi-Institution Study
Nandakumar, Ambakumar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1745~1754
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1745
Background: The prime output of Hospital Based Cancer Registries is stage and treatment based survival to evaluate patient care, but because of challenges of obtaining follow-up details a separate study on Patterns of Care and Survival for selected sites was initiated under the National Cancer Registry Programme of India. The results of stage and treatment based survival for head and neck cancers by individual organ sites are presented. Materials and Methods: A standardized Patient Information Form recorded the details and entered on-line at www.hbccrindia.org to a central repository - National Centre for Disease Informatics and Research. Cases from 12 institutions diagnosed between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2008 comprised the study subjects. The patterns of treatment were examined for 14053 and survival for 4773 patients from five institutions who reported at least 70% follow-up as of 31 December 2012. Results: Surgical treatment with radiation for cancer tongue and mouth showed five year cumulative survival (FCS) of 67.5% and 60.4% respectively for locally advanced stage. Chemo-radiation compared to radiation alone showed better survival benefit of around 15% in both oro and hypo-pharyngeal cancers and their FCS was 40.0%; Hazard Ratio (HR):1.5;CI=1.2-1.9) and 38.7%; (HR):1.7; CI=1.3-2.2). Conclusions: The awareness about the requirement of concurrent chemo-radiation in specifically cancers of the oro and hypopharynx has to be promoted in developing countries. The annual (2014) estimate number of new Head and Neck cancers with locally advanced disease in India is around 140,000 and 91,000 (65%) patients do not receive the benefit of optimal treatment with ensuing poorer survival.
Predictive Effect of Preoperative Anemia on Long-Term Survival Outcomes with Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer
Celik, Orcun ; Akand, Murat ; Keskin, Mehmet Zeynel ; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan ; Yoldas, Mehmet ; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1755~1758
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1755
Background: Anemia is the most common hematologic abnormality in bladder cancer (BC) patients. We evaluated the impact of preoperative anemia on oncologic outcomes in BC undergoing transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TURBT) for the first time diagnosis. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the data collected from 639 patients who underwent TURBT between January 2006 and September 2014 in our department. Of these patients, 320 qualified for inclusion in the study. The primary efficacy endpoint was the effect of preoperative anemia status on cancer-specific and overall survival. Independent t-test and chi-square analyses were performed to assess the effects of anemia on oncologic outcomes. Survival was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier test. Results: There were 118 (36.9%) and 202 (63.1%) patients in the anemia (Group-1) and non-anemia groups (Group-2), respectively. The median follow-up duration was 68 months. Anemia was associated with decreased overall survival (p<0.001). Comparison between cancer-specific survival of two groups did not show any statistically significant difference (p=0.17). Conclusions: Preoperative anemia status of BC patients according to World Health Organization classification is associated with decreased overall survival, but not with cancer-specific survival. We think that preoperative hemoglobin levels should be considered in patient counseling and decision-making for additional therapy.
Uterine Sarcoma: Clinical Presentation, Treatment and Survival Outcomes in Thailand
Potikul, Chalermrat ; Tangjitgamol, Siriwan ; Khunnarong, Jakkapan ; Srijaipracharoen, Sunamchok ; Thavaramara, Thaovalai ; Pataradool, Kamol ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1759~1767
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1759
Background: Uterine sarcoma is a group of rare gynecologic tumors with various natures, and different lines of treatment. Most have a poor treatment outcome. This study targeted clinical characteristics, treatment, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and prognostic factors in uterine sarcoma patients in one tertiary center for cancer care. Materials and Methods: Uterine sarcoma patients who were treated at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital between January 1994 and December 2014 were identified. Clinico-pathological data were analyzed. Prognostic outcomes were examined by Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis. Results: We identified 46 uterine sarcoma patients: 25 carcinosarcoma (CS) (54.3%), 15 leiomyosarcoma (LMS) (32.6%), and 6 undifferentiated uterine sarcoma (UUS) (13.1%) cases. Mean age was
(range 25-82 years). Abnormal uterine bleeding was the most common presenting symptom (63.0%). Among 33 patients (71.7%) who had pre-operative tissue collected, diagnosis of malignancy was correct in 29 (87.9%). All patients received primary surgery and retroperitoneal lymph nodes were resected in 34 (73.9%). After surgery, 5 (10.9%) had gross residual tumors. Stage I disease was most commonly found (56.5%). Adjuvant treatment was given to 27 (58.7%), most commonly chemotherapy. After a median follow-up of 16.0 months (range 0.8-187.4 months), recurrence was encountered in 22 patients (47.8%). Median time to recurrence was 5.8 months (range1.0-105.5 months). Distant metastasis was more common than local or locoregional failure. The 2-year PFS was 45.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.6%-59.7%) and the 2-year OS was 48.3% (95% CI, 33.3%-60.7%). Multivariable analyses found residual disease after surgery as a significant factor only for PFS. Conclusions: Uterine sarcoma is a rare tumor entity. Even with multimodalities of treatment, the prognosis is still poor. Successful cytoreductive surgery is a key factor for a good survival outcome.
Immunohistochemical Differentiation between Urothelial Papillomas and Papillary Neoplasms of Low Malignant Potential of the Urinary Bladder
Alrashidy, Mohammed ; Atef, Aliaa ; Baky, Tarek Abdel ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1769~1772
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1769
Background: Urothelial papilloma and non-invasive papillary carcinoma are common neoplasms of the urinary bladder. Distinguishing papillomas and papillary carcinomas, especially the low grade type, is often debatable on the basis of histological features alone. Materials and Methods: We investigated immunohistochemical expression of cytokeratin 20 (CK20), p53, and Ki-67 in a group of 20 urothelial papilloma cases and 30 noninvasive papillary neoplasms of low malignant potential (PNLMP) of the urinary bladder. Whole tissue sections were examined. Results: Among the 30 carcinoma cases, 12 (40%) showed strong reactivity for the whole panel, 16 (53%) reacted positively for two markers, and 2 (7%) reacted just to one of them. Ki-67 was considered positive in 27 cases (90%) and p53 in 24 (80%), CK20 showed positive reactivity in 21 cases (70%). Only small percentages of papillomas were positive, and then only weakly. Conclusions: We concluded that the intense positivity of suspicious cells for at least one of these markers would confirm the presence of malignant changes and favours the diagnosis of carcinoma.
Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes as In Vitro Model to Evaluate Genomic Instability Caused by Low Dose Radiation
Tewari, Shikha ; Khan, Kainat ; Husain, Nuzhat ; Rastogi, Madhup ; Mishra, Surendra P ; Srivastav, Anoop K ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1773~1777
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1773
Diagnostic and therapeutic radiation fields are planned so as to reduce side-effects while maximising the dose to site but effects on healthy tissues are inevitable. Radiation causes strand breaks in DNA of exposed cells which can lead to chromosomal aberrations and cause malfunction and cell death. Several researchers have highlighted the damaging effects of high dose radiation but still there is a lacuna in identifying damage due to low dose radiation used for diagnostic purposes. Blood is an easy resource to study genotoxicity and to estimate the effects of radiation. The micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberration can indicate genetic damage and our present aim was to establish these with lymphocytes in an in vitro model to predict the immediate effects low dose radiation. Blood was collected from healthy individuals and divided into 6 groups with increasing radiation dose i.e., 0Gy, 0.10Gy, 0.25Gy, 0.50Gy, 1Gy and 2Gy. The samples were irradiated in duplicates using a LINAC in the radiation oncology department. Standard protocols were applied for chromosomal aberration and micronucleus assays. Metaphases were stained in Giemsa and 200 were scored per sample for the detection of dicentric or acentric forms. For micronuclei detection, 200 metaphases. Giemsa stained binucleate cells per sample were analysed for any abnormality. The micronuclei (MN) frequency was increased in cells exposed to the entire range of doses (0.1-2Gy) delivered. Controls showed minimal MN formation (
) with triple MN (
) frequency at the lowest dose. MN formation increased exponentially with the radiation dose thereafter with a maximum at 2Gy. Significantly elevated numbers of dicentric chromosomes were also observed, even at doses of 0.1-0.5Gy, compared to controls, and acentric chromosomes were apparent at 2Gy. In conclusion we can state that lymphocytes can be effectively used to study direct effect of low dose radiation.
Breaking Bad News: Patient Preferences and the Role of Family Members when Delivering a Cancer Diagnosis
Rao, Abha ; Sunil, Bhuvana ; Ekstrand, Maria ; Heylen, Elsa ; Raju, Girish ; Shet, Arun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1779~1784
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1779
Background: Western physicians tend to favour complete disclosure of a cancer diagnosis to the patient, while non-Western physicians tend to limit disclosure and include families in the process; the latter approach is prevalent in clinical oncology practice in India. Few studies, however, have examined patient preferences with respect to disclosure or the role of family members in the process. Materials and Methods: Structured interviews were conducted with patients (N=127) in the medical oncology clinic of a tertiary referral hospital in Bangalore, India. Results: Patients ranged in age from 18-88 (M=52) and were mostly male (59%). Most patients (72%) wanted disclosure of the diagnosis cancer, a preference significantly associated with higher education and English proficiency. A majority wanted their families to be involved in the process. Patients who had wanted and not wanted disclosure differed with respect to their preferences regarding the particulars of disclosure (timing, approach, individuals involved, role of family members). Almost all patients wanted more information concerning their condition, about immediate medical issues such as treatments or side effects, rather than long-term or non-medical issues. Conclusions: While most cancer patients wanted disclosure of their disease, a smaller group wished that their cancer diagnosis had not been disclosed to them. Regardless of this difference in desire for disclosure, both groups sought similar specific information regarding their cancer and largely favoured involvement of close family in decision making. Additional studies evaluating the influence of factors such as disease stage or family relationships could help guide physicians when breaking bad news.
Lack of Utility of Cytokeratins in Differentiating Pseudocarcinomatous Hyperplasia of Granular Cell Tumors from Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Al-Eryani, Kamal ; Karasneh, Jumana ; Sedghizadeh, Parish P ; Ram, Saravanan ; Sawair, Faleh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1785~1787
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1785
Granular cell tumor (GCT) of the oral cavity is a benign lesion. Half of oral GCTs demonstrate pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia (PCH) of the mucosa which can mimic invasive islands of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Such similarity can be confusing when diagnosing or evaluating the two conditions, potentially leading to misdiagnosis or misclassification. Indeed, several misdiagnosed cases of oral GCT have been reported in the literature as OSCC or malignant oral GCT that resulted in unnecessary aggressive treatment for the affected patients. The aim of this study was to investigate if the cytokeratin pattern of the PCH can help in differentiating GCT from oral SCC. To distinguish between these two entities, we examined 12 patient specimens of oral GCT-PCH and oral SCC histologically and via immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CK13, CK17 and P75. The results suggest that the cytokeratin profile of PCH is similar to that of oral SCC. Therefore, consideration of IHC findings for epithelial markers alone may lead to erroneous diagnosis; thus, the presence of the granular tumor underneath the PCH and its immunopositivity for P75 or other neural definition markers can be essential to identify the underlying tumor and exclude oral SCC. Finally we recommend more studies on the molecular biology of PCH to understand how it can mimic oral SCC histologically without harboring its malignant phenotype clinically, which could have significant translational potential for understanding invasive oral SCC.
Evaluation of KiSS1 as a Prognostic Biomarker in North Indian Breast Cancer Cases
Singh, Richa ; Bhatt, Madan Lal Brahma ; Singh, Saurabh Pratap ; Kumar, Vijay ; Goel, Madhu Mati ; Mishra, Durga Prasad ; Kumar, Rajendra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1789~1795
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1789
Background: Breast cancer is the commonest female cancer worldwide and its propensity to metastasize negatively impacts on therapeutic outcome. Several clinicopathological parameters with prognostic/predictive significance have been associated with metastatic suppressor expression levels. The role of metastatic suppressor gene (MSG) KiSS1 in breast cancer remains unclear. Our goal was to investigate the possible clinical significance of KiSS1 breast cancer. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 87 histologically proven cases of breast cancer and background normal tiisue. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to investigate KiSS1 at gene and protein levels, respectively, for correlation with several patient characteristics including age, family history, hormonal receptor status, stage, tumor size, nodal involvement and metastatic manifestation and finally with median overall survival (OS). Results: Our study revealed (i) KiSS1 levels were generally elevated in breast cancer vs normal tissue (P < 0.05). (ii) however, a statistically significant lower expression of KiSS1 was observed in metastatic vs non metastatic cases (P = 0.04). (iii) KiSS1 levels strongly correlated with T,N,M category, histological grade and advanced stage (p<0.001) but not other studied parameters. (iv) Lastly, a significant correlation between expression of KiSS1 and median OS was found (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Conclusively, less elevated KiSS1 expression is a negative prognostic factor for OS, advancing tumor stage, axillary lymph node status, metastatic propensity and advancing grade of the breast cancer patient. Patients with negative KiSS1 expression may require a more intensive therapeutic strategy.
Informational Needs of Women with Breast Cancer Treated with Chemotherapy
Abi Nader, Elie ; Kourie, Hampig Raphael ; Ghosn, Marwan ; El Karak, Fadi ; Kattan, Joseph ; Chahine, Georges ; Nasr, Fadi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1797~1800
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1797
Background: Research in the field of informational needs of breast cancer patients is scarce. In the few published articles, these needs were usually not satisfied. The main objective of this study was to evaluate satisfaction regarding informational needs in women with breast cancer. The long-term goal was to guide physician-patient communication to meet these needs. Materials and Methods: A survey with 21 questions was completed by 84 female patients receiving chemotherapy in a one-day hospital in Beirut, Lebanon. All patients were aware of their disease and agreed to participate in the survey. Results: The doctor was the major source of information for patients followed by media (radio and television). The level of knowledge of patients concerning their disease was proportional to the number of information sources. Women aged younger than 45 years, diagnosed during the last three months before the survey and certified from high school were less satisfied with information given by the oncologist. The missing information was in relation with the steps of the treatment after the chemotherapy regimen, the risk of a family member (sisters and daughters) of developing the disease and management of lymphedema. Conclusions: This study generated a scale for the degree of satisfaction of information received by women with breast cancer from their oncologist. The physician can use this scale to improve his or her skills of communication to patients and diminish their level of fear and anxiety.
Circulating Cell-free miRNA Expression and its Association with Clinicopathologic Features in Inflammatory and Non-Inflammatory Breast Cancer
Hamdi, K ; Blancato, J ; Goerlitz, D ; Islam, MD ; Neili, B ; Abidi, A ; Gat, A ; Ayed, F Ben ; Chivi, S ; Loffredo, CA ; Jillson, I ; Elgaaied, A Benammar ; Marrakchi, R ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1801~1810
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1801
Recent discovery showing the presence of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the circulation sparked interest in their use as potential biomarkers. Our previous studies showed the diagnostic potential of miR-451 as a serological marker for inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), miR-337-5p and miR-30b for non-inflammatory breast cancer (non-IBC). The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic values of circulating miRNAs by comparing the amounts of 12 circulating miRNAs in the serum of IBC and non-IBC from Tunisian breast cancer patients, and by determinating whether correlated pairs of miRNAs could provide useful information in the diagnosis of IBC and non-IBC patients. TaqMan qPCR was performed to detect circulating expression of miRNAs in serum of 20 IBC, 20 non-IBC and 20 healthy controls. Nonparametric rank Spearman rho correlation coefficient was used to examine the prognostic value of miRNAs and to assess the correlation profile between miRNAs expression. Further, a large number of miRNAs were highly correlated (rho>0.5) in both patients groups and controls. Also, the correlations profiles were different between IBC, non-IBC and healthy controls indicating important changes in molecular pathways in cancer cells. Our results showed that miR-335 was significantly overexpressed in premenopausal non-IBC patients; miR-24 was significantly overexpressed in non-IBC postmenopausal patients. Patients with previous parity had higher serum of miR-342-5p levels than those without. Furthermore, patients with HER2+ IBC present lower serum levels of miR-15a than patients with HER2-disease. Together, these results underline the potential of miRNAs to function as diagnostic and prognostic markers for IBC and non-IBC, with links to the menopausal state, Her2 status and parity.
Evaluation of Cholangiocarcinoma Risk and its Related Factors In Wetland Geographical Communities of Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand
Songserm, Nopparat ; Woradet, Somkiattiyos ; Bureelerd, Onanong ; Charoenbut, Pattaraporn ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1811~1815
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1811
Wetland geographical areas have a higher incidence of Opisthorchis viverrini-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), confirmed by data from geographic information systems, than other areas. Behavioral data also indicate that people in these areas traditionally eat uncooked freshwater fish dishes, a vehicle for O. viverrini infection. The best approach to reducing CCA incidence is decreasing risk factors together with behavior alteration. Evaluation of CCA risk and its related factors are first needed for planning the prevention and control programs in the future. We therefore aimed to evaluate the CCA risk and explore its related factors among people in wetland communities of Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and August 2014. In total 906 participants, with informed consent, completed questionnaires. Overall risk of CCA was determined by multiplying odds ratios (ORs) of the risk factors for CCA from literature reviews. A mean score of 5.95 was applied as the cut-off point. Assessment of factors related to overall risk of CCA was accomplished using conditional logistic regression. Of all participants, 60.15% had a high level of the overall risk of CCA. Factors related to the overall risk of CCA were gender (p<0.001), marital status (p<0.001), perceived susceptibility (p=0.043) and prevention behavior for CCA (p<0.001). In conclusion, most participants in this community had a high level of overall risk of CCA. Therefore, integrated prevention and control programs continue to be urgently required.
Ginsenoside-Rh2 Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis of Human Gastric Cancer SGC-7901 Side Population Cells
Qian, Jun ; Li, Jing ; Jia, Jian-Guang ; Jin, Xin ; Yu, Da-Jun ; Guo, Chen-Xu ; Xie, Bo ; Qian, Li-Yu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1817~1821
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1817
Objectives: To observed the effects of ginsenoside -Rh2 (GS-Rh2) on proliferation and apoptosis of side population (SP) human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Materials and Methods: SGC-7901 SP and Non-SP cells were sorted by flow cytometry and assessed using the cck-8 method. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-2 of SP before and after the intervention was determined by Western-blotting. Results: It was found that the proliferation of SP was significantly faster than that of NSP (P<0.05). In addition, GS-Rh2 inhibited proliferation of gastric cancer SP cells, induced cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis, and changed the expression of BAX/Bcl-2 proteins in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions: With increase of GS-Rh2 dose, GS-Rh2 gradually inhibit the proliferation of SGC-7901 SP cells, which have high proliferation rate, through G1/G0 phase arrest, followed by apoptosis which involves the up-regulation of Bax and the down-regulation of Bcl-2.
Dryocrassin ABBA Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells Through a Caspase-Dependent Mitochondrial Pathway
Jin, Zhe ; Wang, Wen-Fei ; Huang, Jian-Ping ; Wang, He-Meng ; Ju, Han-Xun ; Chang, Ying ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1823~1828
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1823
Background: Biological and pharmacological activities of dryocrassin ABBA, a phloroglucinol derivative extracted from Dryopteris crassirhizoma, have attracted attention. In this study, the apoptotic effect of dryocrassin ABBA on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells was investigated. Materials and Methods: We tested the effects of dryocrassin ABBA on HepG2 in vitro by MTT, flow cytometry, real-time PCR, and Western blotting. KM male mice were used to detect the effect of dryocrassin ABBA on H22 cells in vivo. Results: Dryocrassin ABBA inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. After treatment with 25, 50, and
dryocrassin ABBA, the cell viability was 68%, 60% and 49%, respectively. Dryocrassin ABBA was able to induce apoptosis, measured by propidium iodide (PI)/annexin V-FITC double staining. The results of real-time PCR and Western ting showed that dryocrassin ABBA up-regulated p53 and Bax expression and inhibited Bcl-2 expression which led to an activation of caspase-3 and caspase-7 in the cytosol, and then induction of cell apoptosis. In vivo experiments also showed that dryocrassin ABBA treatment significantly suppressed tumor growth, without major side effects. Conclusions: Overall, these findings provide evidence that dryocrassin ABBA may induce apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells through a caspase-mediated mitochondrial pathway.
A Pilot Study on Screening of BRCA1 Mutations (185delAG, 1294del40) in Nepalese Breast Cancer Patients
Bhatta, Bibek ; Thapa, Roshina ; Shahi, Sanjay ; Bhatta, Yogesh ; Pandeya, Dipendra Raj ; Poudel, Bal Hari ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1829~1832
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1829
Background: Breast cancer is the second most common malignancy among Nepalese women, accounting for 60% of the total cancer cases in females. Women diagnosed with germline mutations in BRCA1 like 185delAG, 1294del40 develop breast and/or ovarian cancer with a lifelong likelihood of up to 85% whereas presence of a mutation increases the risk for mutations to occur in other genes. The major objective of this study was to find the prevalence of these mutations in Nepalese cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out at two cancer hospitals in the Kathmandu valley over a period of 11 months. Irrespective of age group and stage of canceran appropriate amount of blood was withdrawn from 50 breast cancer patients and 20 controls. DNA was extracted manually and subjected to PCR using primers for 185delAG and 1294del40 mutations. PCR products were then digested with restriction enzyme (DdeII) followed by electrophoresis. Results: Prevalence of 185delAG in reference breast cancer patients was found to be 4/50 (8%) but no 1294del40 was apparent. Conclusions: Several mutations occurring in different exons of BRCA1 as well as mutations in other genes like BRCA2, for example, should also be taken in account.
Multiple Myeloma: a Retrospective Analysis of 61 Patients from a Tertiary Care Center
Sultan, Sadia ; Irfan, Syed Mohammed ; Parveen, Saira ; Ali, Hamza ; Basharat, Maria ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1833~1835
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1833
Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is an acquired clonal B-cell malignancy which primarily affects elderly individuals with an annual incidence of approximately 1% of all malignancies. Our aim is to study demographic and clinicopathological features of adult Pakistani MM patients at presentation. Materials and Methods: This single centre retrospective study extended from January 2010 to December 2014. Data were retrieved from the patients' maintained records on predetermined performa. Results: Overall, 61 patients were diagnosed at our institution with MM during the study period. There were 43 males and 18 females. Age ranged between 34 and 81 years with a mean of
and a median of 57 years. The male to female ratio was ~2:1. Common presenting complaints included fatigue (81.9%), backache (80.3%) and bone pain (67.2%). Physical findings revealed pallor (44.2%) as a presenting clinical feature. The mean hemoglobin value was
with a mean MCV of
. Severe anemia with hemoglobin <8.5 gm/dl was seen in 40.9%. The mean total leukocyte count was
, the ANC was
and the mean platelet count was
. Conclusions: MM in Pakistani patients is seen in a relatively young population with male preponderance. The majority of patients present with symptomatic anemia and backache to seek medical attention. However, clinico-pathological features appear comparable to the published literature.
Colon Cancer among Older Saudis: Awareness of Risk Factors and Early Signs, and Perceived Barriers to Screening
Galal, Yasmine Samir ; Amin, Tarek Tawfik ; Alarfaj, Abdulelah Khalid ; Almulhim, Abdulaziz Abdullah ; Aljughaiman, Abdullah Abdulmohsen ; Almulla, Abdulrhaman Khaled ; Abdelhai, Rehab Ahmed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1837~1846
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1837
Background: Colon cancer screening (CRCS) uptake is markedly affected by public awareness of the disease. This study was conducted to assess levels of knowledge of CRC, to explore the pattern of CRCS uptake and identify possible barriers to screening among Saudis older than 50 years of age and primary care providers (PCPs) in Al Hassa region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected primary health care (PHC) centers, 884 Saudis and 39 PCPs being enrolled for data collection. Structured interviews were conducted to obtain information regarding socio-demographic characteristics, personal information relevant to CRC, awareness about early signs/symptoms and risk factors, and barriers to CRCS. Also, a self- administered data collection form was used to assess barriers to CRCS from the physicians' perspectives. Results: More than 66% of participants were lacking knowledge about CRC. Participants with higher educational levels, having ever heard about CRC, and having relatives with CRC had a significantly higher awareness of the disease. The rate of reported CRCS was low (8.6%). After conducting a logistic regression analysis, it was observed that female gender (OR=0.28; 95% CI=0.14-0.57; P=0.001), being unmarried (OR=0.11; 95% CI=0.10-0.23; P=0.001), lower levels of education (OR=0.36; 95% CI=0.16-0.82; P=0.015), and having no relatives with CRC (OR=0.30; 95% CI=0.17-0.56; P=0.001) were significantly associated with a lower CRCS uptake. There was a significant difference between most of the perceived barriers to CRCS and gender. Exploratory factor analysis showed that personal fear (especially fear of the screening results and shyness) was the major factor that hindered CRCS with high loading Eigen value of 2.951, explaining 34.8% of the barriers of the included sample toward utilization of CRCS, followed by lack of awareness of both person and providers (high Eigen value of 2.132, and explaining 23.7% of the barriers). The most frequently cited barriers to CRCS from the physicians' perspectives were lack of public awareness, lack of symptoms and signs, and fear of painful procedures. Conclusions: Poor levels of knowledge about CRC were found among older Saudis attending PHC centers in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. It is crucial to implement an organized national screening program in Saudi Arabia to increase public awareness.
Clinical Significance of Smudge Cells in Peripheral Blood Smears in Hematological Malignancies and Other Diseases
Chang, Chih-Chun ; Sun, Jen-Tang ; Liou, Tse-Hsuan ; Kuo, Chin-Fu ; Bei, Chia-Hao ; Lin, Sheng-Jun ; Tsai, Wei-Ting ; Tan, N-Chi ; Liou, Ching-Biau ; Su, Ming-Jang ; Yen, Tzung-Hai ; Chu, Fang-Yeh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1847~1850
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1847
Background: It is reported that the percentage of smudge cells in the blood smear could be a prognostic indicator in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. However, the clinical significance of smudge cells in other hematological malignancies, solid tumors or non-malignant diseases is less clear. Hence, this study was conducted to survey the clinical significance of smudge cells in hematological cancers and other disorders. Materials and Methods: From January to November, 2015, the clinical data of patients who received blood examination with differential counts for clinical purpose and were found to have smudge cells in the peripheral blood film in Far Eastern Memorial Hospital were selected. The percentage of smudge cells and patient outcomes were evaluated for further univariate and survival analyses. Results: A total of 102 patients with smudge cells in their blood smears were included. Smudge cells were frequently presented in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA; n=30), infections (n=23), hematological cancers (n=23) and solid cancers (n=10). There was no relationship between the percentage of smudge cells and the patient mortality in all diseases (OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 0.47-2.48, P=1.000) as well as the OHCA group (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 0.38-9.60, P=0.694). It was observed that in patients with all cancers with the percentage of smudge cells less than 50% had a lower mortality rate in comparison with those who had the percentage of smudge cells of 50% or more (OR: 22.29, 95% CI: 2.38-208.80, P<0.001). Additionally, it was seemingly that patients with smudge cells of 50% or more had a lower survival rate than those with smudge cells less than 50% in all cancers with follow-up at 2-month intervals, but without statistical significance (P=0.064). Conclusions: Our survey indicated that in all cancers, those who had higher percentage of smudge cells were prone to have poor outcomes when compared with the subjects with lower percentage of smudge cells. This finding was quite different from the results of previous studies in which the race-ethnicity of most study populations was non-Asian; hence, further investigations are required. Besides, there was no apparent association of the percentage of smudge cells with patient outcomes in all diseases, including OHCA.
Effects of SULT1A1 Copy Number Variation on Estrogen Concentration and Tamoxifen-Associated Adverse Drug Reactions in Premenopausal Thai Breast Cancer Patients: A Preliminary Study
Charoenchokthavee, Wanaporn ; Ayudhya, Duangchit Panomvana Na ; Sriuranpong, Virote ; Areepium, Nutthada ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1851~1855
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1851
Tamoxifen is a pharmacological estrogen inhibitor that binds to the estrogen receptor (ER) in breast cells. However, it shows an estrogenic effect in other organs, which causes adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) enzyme encoded by the SULT1A1 gene is involved in estrogen metabolism. Previous research has suggested that the SULT1A1 copy number is linked with the plasma estradiol (E2) concentration. Here, a total of 34 premenopausal breast cancer patients, selected from the Thai Tamoxifen (TTAM) Project, were screened for their SULT1A1 copy number, plasma E2 concentration and ADRs. The mean age was
, and they were subtyped as ER+/progesterone receptor (PR)+ (28 patients), ER+/PR- (5 patients) and ER-/PR- (1 patient). Three patients reported ADRs, which were irregular menstruation (2 patients) and vaginal discharge (1 patient). Most (33) patients had two SULT1A1 copies, with one patient having three copies. The median plasma E2 concentration was 1,575.6 (IQR 865.4) pg/ml. Patients with ADRs had significantly higher plasma E2 concentrations than those patients without ADRs (p = 0.014). The plasma E2 concentration was numerically higher in the patient with three SULT1A1 copies, but this lacked statistical significance.
Frequency and Pattern of Bone Marrow Infiltration in Classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Experience from Southern Pakistan
Sultan, Sadia ; Irfan, Syed Mohammed ; Parveen, Saira ; Haider, Syeda Amna ; Masood, Mahira ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1857~1859
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1857
Background: Hodgkin's lymphoma (formerly, Hodgkins disease) is a potentially curable malignancy with distinctive biological behavior and specific clinical characteristics. Limited information is available from developing countries for patients with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL). Therefore we reviewed the demographical and clinico-hematological profiles along with bone marrow infiltration patterns in adult patients presenting at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 62 adult (
) patients with cHL were enrolled from January 2010 to December 2014. Results: The mean age was
with a median of 30 years. The male to female ratio was 2:1. B symptoms were present in 72.5% of patients and lymph node enlargement in 85.4%. The frequency of bone marrow infiltration in our cHL patients was found to be 27.4%, the pattern being predominantly focal followed by diffuse. The mean hemoglobin was
with a mean MCV of
, a mean total leukocyte count of
and a mean platelet count of
. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that clinico-pathological features of cHL in Pakistan are comparable to published data. Peripheral lymphodenopathy associated with B symptoms is the commonest presentation. Bone marrow involvement is more common in our setup as patients usually presented at an advanced stage of disease.
Improving the Accuracy of Early Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodule Type Based on the SCAD Method
Shahraki, Hadi Raeisi ; Pourahmad, Saeedeh ; Paydar, Shahram ; Azad, Mohsen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1861~1864
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1861
Although early diagnosis of thyroid nodule type is very important, the diagnostic accuracy of standard tests is a challenging issue. We here aimed to find an optimal combination of factors to improve diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid nodules before surgery. In a prospective study from 2008 to 2012, 345 patients referred for thyroidectomy were enrolled. The sample size was split into a training set and testing set as a ratio of 7:3. The former was used for estimation and variable selection and obtaining a linear combination of factors. We utilized smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD) logistic regression to achieve the sparse optimal combination of factors. To evaluate the performance of the estimated model in the testing set, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was utilized. The mean age of the examined patients (66 male and 279 female) was
(range 15- 90 years). Some 54.8% of the patients (24.3% male and 75.7% female) had benign and 45.2% (14% male and 86% female) malignant thyroid nodules. In addition to maximum diameters of nodules and lobes, their volumes were considered as related factors for malignancy prediction (a total of 16 factors). However, the SCAD method estimated the coefficients of 8 factors to be zero and eliminated them from the model. Hence a sparse model which combined the effects of 8 factors to distinguish malignant from benign thyroid nodules was generated. An optimal cut off point of the ROC curve for our estimated model was obtained (p=0.44) and the area under the curve (AUC) was equal to 77% (95% CI: 68%-85%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values for this model were 70%, 72%, 71% and 76%, respectively. An increase of 10 percent and a greater accuracy rate in early diagnosis of thyroid nodule type by statistical methods (SCAD and ANN methods) compared with the results of FNA testing revealed that the statistical modeling methods are helpful in disease diagnosis. In addition, the factor ranking offered by these methods is valuable in the clinical context.
Adenosine Deaminase - a Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Kelgandre, Deepak Chandrakant ; Pathak, Jigna ; Patel, Shilpa ; Ingale, Pramod ; Swain, Niharika ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1865~1868
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1865
Background: The number of patients with oral cancer in India is increasing gradually (especially in younger people). Although the diagnostic modalities and therapeutic management of oral cancer are improving, the treatment outcome and prognosis of oral cancer remain poor. The absence of definite early warning symptoms for most head and neck cancers suggests that sensitive and specific biomarkers are likely to be important in screening for high-risk patients. Aims: To analyze serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cases who reported to our institute. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was performed on 100 histopathologically proven cases of OSCC (study group) and 100 normal healthy individuals (control group). Independent sample and one sample t-tests and one way ANOVA followed by Tuckey's POST HOC test were conducted for analysis. Results: Statistically significant increase in serum ADA levels was observed in OSCC cases compared to the control group. Also serum ADA level increased significantly with the histopathological grade. Conclusions: Serum ADA levels in OSCC may be a useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in clinical practice and our findings suggest that a large-scale study is warranted to confirm clinical utility as a prognostic and diagnostic biomarker.
Errors in Surgical Pathology Reports: a Study from a Major Center in Pakistan
Ahmad, Zubair ; Idrees, Romana ; Uddin, Nasir ; Ahmed, Arsalan ; Fatima, Saira ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1869~1874
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1869
Background: Errors in surgical pathology diagnosis can have serious consequences for the patient. Since the final product of a surgical pathology lab is the report, errors can be picked by reviewing reports of cases. Aim: To determine the frequency and types of error in surgical pathology reports of cases signed out in 2014 in a laboratory in Karachi, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: All surgical pathology reports in which changes were made in the original report after sign out and an amended report was issued were included. Errors included: (1) misinterpretations; (2) missing critical information; (3) erroneous critical information; (4) misidentification; and (5) typographic errors. Results: Errors were identified in 210 cases (0.37%). These comprised 199 formalin fixed specimens and 11 frozen sections. The latter represented 3.8% of a total of 2,170 frozen sections. Of the 11 frozen section errors, 10 were misinterpretations. Of the 199 permanent specimens, 99 (49.7%) were misinterpretations, 65 (32.7%) belonged to missing critical information category, 8 (4%) belonged to erroneous critical information category, 8(4%) were misidentifications, 16(8%) were typographic errors while 3 cases (1.5%) were other errors. Most misinterpretations occurred in the gastro intestinal, liver and pancreato biliary tract (23.2%) and breast (13.1%). Another 87 cases were reviewed on the clinicians' request. However diagnosis after review remained the same as the original diagnosis. In 49 out of these (56.3%), additional workup was performed at the time of the review. Conclusions: Our findings were similar to other published studies. We need to develop documented procedures for timely review of cases to detect errors.
Rural Women's Awareness about Breast Cancer in Southeastern Iran: a Cross-Sectional Study
Balouchi, Abbas ; Shahdadi, Hosien ; AlKhasawneh, Esra ; Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani ; Firouzkouhi, Mohammadreza ; Sarani, Hamed ; Gorgij, Afsaneh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1875~1879
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1875
Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. A very important factor in the timely treatment and prevention of progression is high breast cancer awareness. Rural women are at risk of latte stage breast cancer due to poor education and lack of access to medical facilities. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional-descriptive study was conducted on 266 women (out of 300) aged over 18 in rural areas of Zabol, Southeastern Iran during July 2015 to October 2015. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire that measured participant knowledge of breast cancer in four aspects (general awareness, risk factors, mammography, and symptoms). SPSS 22 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of 266 participants, age information was available for 261. The age range was between 19 and 62, with a mean of
. Most participants (154, 57.9%) had an average overall awareness of breast cancer. In the general awareness dimension, most participants (130, 48.9%) had poor scores. Most (166, 62.4%) also had average awareness about risk factors and many (137, 51.5%) had good awareness about mammography. Most participants did not know that changes in breast shape (232, 88.2%), dimpling of breast skin (192, 72.3%) and nipple discharge (183, 69.6%) are the main symptoms of breast cancer. ANOVA statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between awareness level and participant education and occupation (P<0.05). Conclusions: This study indicated average awareness of participants about breast cancer. Since rural women have lower levels of education, it is recommended that educational courses with contents about breast cancer, its risk factors, and symptoms be held for these women.
Impact of Preoperative Serum Levels of CA 125 on Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Survival
Pradjatmo, Heru ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1881~1886
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1881
Background: CA125 is very helpful in treatment monitoring and detection of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) recurrence. However there is controversy as to its accuracy and optimal usage. What is the impact of the CA125 levels before primary surgery treatment to the survival of patients? This study aimed to detect any association of preoperative serum levels with prognosis and survival in EOC patients. Materials and Methods: Our cohort comprised EOC patients in Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, who complied with follow up. To explore the effect of preoperative CA125 levels and other variables on survival Cox's regression models were applied. Results: A total of 90 cases of EOC who had surgery were available for follow up. The level of CA125 proved to be a prognostic factor for overall survival of EOC patients, with an adjusted HR of 4.10 (p = 0.03). Adjuvant chemotherapy was another prognostic factor, 1 - 2 cycles having an adjusted HR of 0.17 (p = 0.04) and 3 - 8 cycles HR 0.39 (p = 0.06). Other factors such as age of patients adjusted HR 1.54 (p = 0.32), moderate differentiation (adjusted HR 1.61, p = 0.51) poor differentiation (adjusted HR 3.41, p = 0.15), and stage of disease (adjusted HR 1.98,p=0.27) were statistically not significant. However, this might have been because the power of the study was low. Conclusions: Preoperative level of CA125 is a prognostic factor for overall survival in EOC patients. The best cut-off for prognostic classification of CA125 serum level is 70 U/ml.
Micro RNA 34a and Let-7a Expression in Human Breast Cancers is Associated with Apoptotic Expression Genes
Behzad, Mansoori ; Ali, Mohammadi ; Solmaz, Shirjang ; Elham, Baghbani ; Behzad, Baradaran ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1887~1890
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1887
Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death among women in the whole world. MiR- 34a and let-7a are well known tumor suppressors that participate in the regulation of apoptosis, invasion and other cellular functions. In this study, expression of miR-34a, let-7a and apoptosis pathway genes such as Bcl-2, Caspase-3 and P53 were evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR in 45 paired samples of normal margin and tumor tissue collected from breast cancer patient at advanced stage (3-4). MiR-34a, let-7a, caspase-3 and P53 expression are reduced and Bcl-2 expression is increased within tumoral tissues in comparison with normal margin tissues. P53 expression directly or indirectly was correlated with miR-34a, let-7a, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 expression. In This study we found that MiR-34a and let-7a expression are reduced in the tumoral tissues. Down-regulation of these two molecules correlated with expression of genes associated with apoptosis. These results suggest that due to the correlation of miR-34a and let-7a with apoptotic and anti-apoptotic pathways these molecules could participate as regulators in advanced clinical stages of breast cancer and should be considered as markers for diagnosis, prognostic assessment and targeted therapy.
Anti-Cancer Effects of Imperata cylindrica Leaf Extract on Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma cell line SCC-9 in Vitro
Keshava, Rohini ; Muniyappa, Nagesh ; Gope, Rajalakshmi ; Ramaswamaiah, Ananthanarayana Saligrama ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1891~1898
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1891
Imperata cylindrica, a tall tufted grass which has multiple pharmacological applications is one of the key ingredients in various traditional medicinal formula used in India. Previous reports have shown that I. cylindrica plant extract inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. To our knowledge, no studies have been published on the effect of I. cylindrica leaf extract on human oral cancers. The present study was undertaken in order to evaluate the anticancer properties of the leaf extract of I. cylindrica using an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line SCC-9 as an in vitro model system. A methanol extract from dried leaves of I. cylindrica (ICL) was prepared by standard procedures. Effects of the ICL extract on the morphology of SCC-9 cells was visualized by microscopy. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay. Effects of the ICL extract on colony forming ability of SCC-9 cells was evaluated using clonogenic assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry and induction of apoptosis was determined by DNA fragmentation assay. The ICL extract treatment caused cytotoxicity and induced cell death in vitro in SCC-9 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This treatment also significantly reduced the clonogenic potential and inhibited cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. Furthermore, DNA fragmentation assays showed that the observed cell death was caused by apoptosis. This is the first report showing the anticancer activity of the methanol extracts from the leaves of I. cylindrica in human oral cancer cell line. Our data indicates that ICL extract could be considered as one of the lead compounds for the formulation of anticancer therapeutic agents to treat/manage human oral cancers. The natural abundance of I. cylindrica and its wide geographic distribution could render it one of the primary resource materials for preparation of anticancer therapeutic agents.
Characteristics of Incident Testicular Cancer in Lebanon - 1990-2015 Single Institutional Experience
Assi, Tarek ; Nasr, Fadi ; El Rassy, Elie ; Ibrahim, Toni ; Jabbour, Hicham ; Chahine, Georges ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1899~1902
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1899
Background: Despite the fact that testicular cancer is a major health issue with its increasing incidence, very few studies have described its characteristics in the Middle East, particularly in Lebanon. Materials and Methods: We report in this paper a retrospective pilot study of the characteristics of testicular cancer in Lebanon. The demographic, epidemiologic and survival characteristics of 178 patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2015 at an oncology clinic affiliated to Hotel Dieu de France Hospital were analyzed. Results: The mean age at diagnosis was
. The most prevalent testicular tumor was the germ cell type (GCT) (95.2%) of which non-seminomatous tumors (NST) were the commonest (64.7%). Most of our patients were diagnosed at an early stage. Lymph node spread affected most commonly the retroperitoneal region and distant visceral metastases occurred in 14.6%. All patients underwent orchiectomy with 67% receiving adjuvant treatment, mainly chemotherapy. After a median follow up of 2,248 days (75.9 months) 16 patients were reported dead. Two, five and ten-year overall survival rates were 96%, 94% and 89% respectively. The median overall survival rate was not reached. Conclusions: Despite being part of the developing world, demographic, epidemiologic and survival analyses of testicular cancer reported in our study are in line with those reported from developed countries and would allow us to extrapolate management plans from these populations.
Effect of IL-1 Polymorphisms, CYP2C19 Genotype and Antibiotic Resistance on Helicobacter pylori Eradication Comparing Between 10-day Sequential Therapy and 14-day Standard Triple Therapy with Four-Times-Daily-Dosing of Amoxicillin in Thailand: a Prospective Randomized Study
Phiphatpatthamaamphan, Kittichet ; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn ; Siramolpiwat, Sith ; Tangaroonsanti, Anupong ; Chonprasertsuk, Soonthorn ; Bhanthumkomol, Patommatat ; Pornthisarn, Bubpha ; Mahachai, Varocha ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1903~1907
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1903
Background: Studies of effects of IL-1 polymorphisms, CYP2C19 genotype together with antibiotic resistance for H. pylori eradication are rare worldwide. The present study was designed to evaluate efficacy of 10-day sequential therapy (SQT) and 14-day standard triple therapy (STT) with four- times-daily dosing of amoxicillin for H. pylori eradication related to these important host and bacterial factors in Thailand. Materials and Methods: This prospective randomized study was performed during March 2015 to January 2016. H. pylori infected gastritis patients were randomized to receive 10-day sequential therapy and 14-day standard triple therapy. CYP2C19 genotyping, IL1 polymorphism (IL-1B and IL-1RN genotypes) and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed in all patients. 13C-UBT was conducted to confirm H. pylori eradication at least 4 weeks after treatment. Results: A total of 100 patients (33 males and 67 females, mean age=51.1 years) were enrolled. Eradication rate by PP analysis was 97.9% (47/48) with the 10-day SQT regimen and 87.8% (43/49) with 14-day STT regimen (97.9% vs 87.8%; p-value=0.053). Antibiotic susceptibility testing demonstrated 45% resistance to metronidazole, 14.8% to clarithromycin, and 24.1% to levofloxacin. CYP2C19 genotyping revealed 44.9% RM, 49% IM and 6.1% PM. IL-1B and IL-1RN genotypes were demonstrated as 21.4% for CC, 48.1% for TC, 36.8% for TT, 72.7% for 1/1, and 21.2% for 1/2 genotypes, respectively. The 10-day SQT regimen provided 100% eradication in patients with clarithromycin or dual clarithromycin and levofloxacin H. pylori resistant strains. Moreover, the 10-day SQT regimen resulted in a 100% eradication rate in all patients with CYP2C19 genotype RM and almost type of IL-1B (TC and TT) and IL1-RN genotypes ( 1/2 and other). Conclusions: Treatment with 10-day sequential therapy is highly effective for H. pylori eradication regardless of the effects of clarithromycin resistance, dual clarithromycin and levofloxacin resistance, CYP2C19 genotype, IL-1B and IL1-RN genetic polymorphisms and can be used as effective first line therapy in Thailand.
Tertiary Cytoreduction for Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: a Multicenter Study in Turkey
Arvas, Macit ; Salihoglu, Yavuz ; Sal, Veysel ; Gungor, Tayfun ; Sozen, Hamdullah ; Kahramanoglu, Ilker ; Topuz, Samet ; Demirkiran, Fuat ; Iyibozkurt, Cem ; Bese, Tugan ; Ozgu, Burcin Salman ; Vatansever, Dogan ; Tokgozoglu, Nedim ; Berkman, Sinan ; Turan, Hasan ; Bengisu, Ergin ; Sofiyeva, Nigar ; Demiral, Irem ; Meydanli, Mutlu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1909~1915
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1909
Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the benefit of tertiary cytoreductive surgery (TC) for secondary recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), focusing on whether optimal cytoreduction has an impact on disease-free survival, and whether certain patient characteristics could identify ideal candidates for TC. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of secondary recurrent EOC patients undergoing TC at three Turkish tertiary institutions from May 1997 to July 2014 was performed. All patients had previously received primary cytoreduction followed by intravenous platinum-based chemotherapy and secondary cytoreduction for first recurrence. Clinical and pathological data were obtained from the patients' medical records. Survival analysis was caried out using the Kaplan Meier method. Actuarial curves were compared by the two tailed Logrank test with a statistical significance level of 0.05. Results: Median age of the patients was 49.6 years (range, 30-67) and thirty-eight (72%) had stage III-IV disease at initial diagnosis. Twenty six (49%) had optimal and 27 (51%) suboptimal cytoreduction during tertiary debulking surgery. Optimal initial cytoreduction, time to first recurrence, optimal secondary cytoreduction, time interval between secondary cytoreduction and secondary recurrence, size of recurrence, disease status at last follow-up were found to be significant risk factors to predict optimal TC. Optimal cytoreduction in initial and tertiary surgery and serum CA-125 level prior to TC were independent prognostic factors on univariate analysis. Conclusions: Our results and a literature review clearly showed that maximal surgical effort should be made in TC, since patients undergoing optimal TC have a better survival. Thus, patients with secondary recurrent EOC in whom optimal cytoreduction can be achieved should be actively selected.
Screening for Lynch Syndrome in Young Colorectal Cancer Patients from Saudi Arabia Using Microsatellite Instability as the Initial Test
Alqahtani, Masood ; Grieu, Fabienne ; Carrello, Amerigo ; Amanuel, Benhur ; Mashour, Miral ; Alattas, Rabab ; Al-Saleh, Khalid ; Alsheikh, Abdulmalik ; Alqahtani, Sarah ; Iacopetta, Barry ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1917~1923
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1917
Background: Lynch Syndrome (LS) is a familial cancer condition caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. Individuals with LS have a greatly increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) and it is therefore important to identify mutation carriers so they can undergo regular surveillance. Tumor DNA from LS patients characteristically shows microsatellite instability (MSI). Our aim here was to screen young CRC patients for MSI as a first step in the identification of unrecognized cases of LS in the Saudi population. Materials and Methods: Archival tumor tissue was obtained from 284 CRC patients treated at 4 institutes in Dammam and Riyadh between 2006 and 2015 and aged less than 60 years at diagnosis. MSI screening was performed using the BAT-26 microsatellite marker and positive cases confirmed using the pentaplex MSI analysis system. Positive cases were screened for BRAF mutations to exclude sporadic CRC and were evaluated for loss of expression of 4 DNA mismatch repair proteins using immunohistochemistry. Results: MSI was found in 33/284 (11.6%) cases, of which only one showed a BRAF mutation. Saudi MSI cases showed similar instability in the BAT-26 and BAT-25 markers to Australian MSI cases, but significantly lower frequencies of instability in 3 other microsatellite markers. Conclusions: MSI screening of young Saudi CRC patients reveals that approximately 1 in 9 are candidates for LS. Patients with MSI are strongly recommended to undergo genetic counselling and germline mutation testing for LS. Other affected family members can then be identified and offered regular surveillance for early detection of LS-associated cancers.
Variant Alleles in XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln Polymorphisms Increase Risk of Gastrointestinal Cancer in Sabah, North Borneo
Halim, Noor Hanis Abu ; Chong, Eric Tzyy Jiann ; Goh, Lucky Poh Wah ; Chuah, Jitt Aun ; See, Edwin Un Hean ; Chua, Kek Heng ; Lee, Ping-Chin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1925~1931
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1925
Background: The XRCC1 protein facilitates various DNA repair pathways; single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this gene are associated with a risk of gastrointestinal cancer (GIC) with inconsistent results, but no data have been previously reported for the Sabah, North Borneo, population. We accordingly investigated the XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln SNPs in terms of GIC risk in Sabah. Materials and Methods: We performed genotyping for both SNPs for 250 GIC patients and 572 healthy volunteers using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism approach. We validated heterozygosity and homozygosity for both SNPs using direct sequencing. Results: The presence of a variant 194Trp allele in the Arg194Trp SNP was significantly associated with a higher risk of GIC, especially with gastric and colorectal cancers. We additionally found that the variant 399Gln allele in Arg399Gln SNP was associated with a greater risk of developing gastric cancer. Our combined analysis revealed that inheritance of variant alleles in both SNPs increased the GIC risk in Sabah population. Based on our etiological analysis, we found that subjects
and males who carrying the variant 194Trp allele, and Bajau subjects carrying the 399Gln allele had a significantly increased risk of GIC. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that inheritance of variant alleles in XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln SNPs may act as biomarkers for the early detection of GIC, especially for gastric and colorectal cancers in the Sabah population.
High Cadmium Levels in Cured Meat Products Marketed in Nigeria - Implications for Public Health
Adejumo, Olufunmilayo E ; Fasinu, Pius S ; Odion, Judith E ; Silva, Boladale O ; Fajemirokun, Timothy O ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1933~1936
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1933
Heavy metals are known to disrupt important physiological processes in living cells, and have been responsible for various pathological conditions with possible contributions to cancer development. Food contamination have been identified as one of the ways humans are exposed to heavy metals. In developing countries like Nigeria, the regulatory framework for enforcing compliance with globally acceptable exposure to deleterious contaminants is poor. In the current study, thirteen samples of cured meat products of diverse origin marketed in South-west Nigeria were evaluated for lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel contents using the atomic absorption spectroscopy technique. All the samples analysed contained cadmium between 0.35 and 1.20 ppm, levels considered higher than acceptable limits in consumable products. Lead, chromium and nickel were not detected in any of the samples. As known cumulative poisons, there is the need for stringent regulatory control of these heavy metals in cured meat products imported into or produced indigenously in the country in order to minimize the risks to public health.
Meat Consumption, Related Nutrients, Obesity and Risk of Prostate Cancer: a Case-Control Study in Uruguay
Stefani, Eduardo De ; Boffetta, Paolo ; Ronco, Alvaro L ; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1937~1945
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1937
Background: In order to determine the role of meat consumption and related nutrients in the etiology of prostate cancer we conducted a case-control study among Uruguayan men in the time period 1998-2007. Results: The study included 464 cases and 472 controls, frequency matched for age and residence. Both series were drawn from the four major public hospitals in Montevideo. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of prostate cancer by quartiles of meat intake and related nutrients. The highest vs. the lowest quartile of intake of total meat (OR = 5.19, 95 % CI 3.46-7.81), red meat (OR = 4.64, 95 % CI 3.10-6.95), and processed meat (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.22-2.59) were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Meat nutrients were directly associated with the risk of prostate cancer (OR for cholesterol 5.61, 95 % CI 3.75-8.50). Moreover, both total meat and red meat displayed higher risks among obese patients. Conclusions: This study suggests that total and red meat and meat nutrients may play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer in Uruguay.
Harmal Extract Induces Apoptosis of HCT116 Human Colon Cancer Cells, Mediated by Inhibition of Nuclear Factor-κB and Activator Protein-1 Signaling Pathways and Induction of Cytoprotective Genes
Elkady, Ayman I ; Hussein, Rania A ; El-Assouli, Sufian M ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1947~1959
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1947
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, being the second most common type of cancer worldwide in both men and women. It accounts yearly for approximately 9% of all new cases of cancers. Furthermore, the current chemotherapeutic regimens seem unsatisfactory, so that exploration of novel therapeutic modalities is needed. The present study was undertaken to investigate the inhibitory effects of a crude alkaloid extract (CAERS) of a medicinal herb, Rhazya stricta, on proliferation of CRC HCT116 cells and to elucidate mechanisms of action. To achieve these aims, we utilized MTT, comet, DNA laddering and gene reporter assays, along with Western blot and RT-PCR analyses. Results: We found that CAERS inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptotic cell death in HCT116 cells. Hallmarks of morphological and biochemical signs of apoptosis were clearly evident. CAERS down-regulated DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of NF-
and AP-1 proteins, while up-regulating expression of the Nrf-2 protein. It also down-regulated expression levels of the ERK MAPK, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, CDK-4, survivin and VEGF and up-regulated levels of Bax, caspase-3/7 and -9, p53, p21, Nrf-2. Markedly, it promoted mRNA expression levels of cytoprotective genes including the hemeoxygenase-1, NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase 1 and UDP-glucuronyltransferase. Conclusions: These findings indicate that CAERS exerts antiproliferative action on CRC cells through induction of apoptotic mechanisms, and suggest CAERS could be a promising agent for studying and developing novel chemotherapeutic agents aimed at novel molecular targets for the treatment of CRC.
Premature Ejaculation and Erectile Dysfunction in Iranian Prostate Cancer Patients
Lin, Chung-Ying ; Burri, Andrea ; Pakpour, Amir H ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1961~1966
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1961
Background: To investigate the prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE) and erectile dysfunction (ED) in a sample of patients with prostate cancer and to determine the utility of the previously suggested cutoffs of the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) for the diagnosis of PE and that of International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) for ED. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,202 men with prostate cancer were invited from urology clinics at the universities of Iran, Tehran, Qazvin, Ahvaz, Guilan and Tabriz. Clinical characteristics were collected through medical records. PE and ED diagnoses were made by trained urologists. In addition to the clinical diagnoses, PE and ED were measured through self-report using the PEDT and the IIEF-5. Questionnaire cutoff scores were determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and confirmed by predictive ability using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of PE was 63.7% and that of ED was 66.2%. Prevalences of PE decreased and that of ED increased with advanced TNM stages. According to ROC, the suggested cutoff for the PEDT to diagnose a PE was
(sensitivity=0.988, 1-specificity=0.084, and predictive ability=0.914) and
for the IIEF-5 (sensitivity=0.966, 1-specificity=0.031, and predictive ability=0.967). Conclusions: Prevalence of sexual problems was high in prostate cancer patients in Iran, therefore oncologists should take into account these potential problems when deciding on treatment modalities.
Neural Transdifferentiation: MAPTau Gene Expression in Breast Cancer Cells
Lara-Padilla, E ; Miliar-Garcia, A ; Gomez-Lopez, M ; Romero-Morelos, P ; Bazan-Mendez, CI ; Alfaro-Rodriguez, A ; Anaya-Ruiz, M ; Callender, K ; Carlos, A ; Bandala, C ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1967~1971
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1967
Background: In tumor cells, aberrant differentiation programs have been described. Several neuronal proteins have been found associated with morphological neuronal-glial changes in breast cancer (BCa). These neuronal proteins have been related to mechanisms that are involved in carcinogenesis; however, this regulation is not well understood. Microtubule-associated protein-tau (MAP-Tau) has been describing in BCa but not its variants. This finding could partly explain the neuronal-glial morphology of BCa cells. Our aim was to determine mRNA expression of MAP-tau variants 2, 4 and 6 in breast cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Cultured cell lines MCF-10A, MDA-MB-231, SKBR3 and T47D were observed under phase-contrast microscopy for neural morphology and analyzed for gene expression of MAP-Tau transcript variants 2, 4 and 6 by real-time PCR. Results: Regarding morphology like neural/glial cells, T47D line shown more cells with these features than MDA-MB-231 and SKBR. In another hand, we found much greater mRNA expression of MAP-Tau transcript variants 2, and to a lesser extent 4 and 6, in T47D cells than the other lines. In conclusion, regulation of MAP-Tau could bring about changes in cytoskeleton, cell morphology and motility; these findings cast further light on neuronal transdifferentiation in BCa.
Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes Defined by ER/PR and HER2 Status: Association with Clinicopathologic Parameters in Ivorian Patients
Effi, Ahoua B ; Aman, N'guiessan A ; Koui, Baumaney S ; Koffi, Kouadio D ; Traore, Zie C ; Kouyate, Mohamed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1973~1978
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1973
Background: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that represents a major public health problem. The immunohistochemical determination of breast cancer subtypes with regard to estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) status can contribute to improved selection of therapy and patientcare. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of the molecular breast cancer subtypes and to assess their associations with classical clinicopathologic parameters for better therapeutic decisions in women with breast cancer in the Ivory Coast. Materials and Methods: Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded blocks of patients diagnosed with primary breast carcinoma were subjected to immunohistochemical assay for the assessment of ER/RP and HER2 expression. The one-way analysis of variance evaluated the difference between breast cancer subtypes and mean age of patients. The Chi-square Test was used to compare standard clinicopathologic prognostic parameters with tumor subtypes. Results. Among 302 patients, 57% were premenopausal and 43% were postmenopausal. The invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified (IDC NOS) (82.8%) was the most frequent histological type, and the tumor grade 2 (56%) was predominant followed by grade 3 (20.9%). The proportion of positivity of ER, PR, and HER2 was 56%, 49%, and 15.6%, respectively. Half of patients of this study (51.6%) had luminal A breast tumor type followed by TN (32.1%). Other subtypes were luminal B (10.1% ) and non-luminal HER2+ (6.3%). Conclusions. The findings of the present study are in line with the literature and should assist in management of breast cancer in our country.
Synergistic Effects of Jerusalem Artichoke in Combination with Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2a and Ribavirin Against Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats
Abdel-Hamid, Nabil Mohie ; Wahid, Ahmed ; Nazmy, Maiiada Hassan ; Eisa, Marwa Abdel-Moniem ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1979~1985
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1979
Background: Complementary and alternative medicine has been highly appreciated as a supportive regimen for classical treatment strategies. Here we offer a nutrition-based adjuvant therapy for liver fibrosis, a major risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Aim of the study: To evaluate the possible hepatoprotective effects of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (JAT) in combination with interferon and ribavirin. Materials and Methods: Twelve groups of rats were administered JAT, interferon and ribavirin either separately or in combination from day one of
administration until the end of the study. Animals were killed after 8 weeks of
-induced hepatotoxicity. Results: Hepatocytes from rats treated with triple combination of interferon, ribavirin, and JAT showed more less normal architecture compared to
-treated rats. We also detected significantly higher hepatic protein expression levels of p53, BAX and transforming growth factor-
) in the
-intoxicated group compared to normal controls, as evidenced by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting analyses. Addition of JAT as a supportive regimen improved response to ribavirin and interferon and effectively participated in retaining normal histopathological and biochemical criteria and significantly lowered protein expression of p53, BAX, and TGF-
. Conclusions: We suggest that addition of JAT as a supportive r egimen to interferon and ribavirin effectively potentiates their anti-fibrotic effects.
Screening of BRCA1/2 Mutations Using Direct Sequencing in Indonesian Familial Breast Cancer Cases
Anwar, Sumadi Lukman ; Haryono, Samuel J ; Aryandono, Teguh ; Datasena, I Gusti Bagus ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1987~1991
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1987
Breast cancer has emerged as the most prevalent cancer among women worldwide, including in Indonesia. The contribution of genes associated with high-risk breast-ovarian cancers, BRCA1 and BRCA2, in the Indonesian population is relatively unknown. We have characterized family history of patients with moderate- to high-risk of breast cancer predisposition in 26 unrelated cases from Indonesia for BRCA1/2 mutation analyses using direct sequencing. Known deleterious mutations were not found in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Seven variants in BRCA2 were documented in 10 of 26 patients (38%). All variants were categorized as unclassified (VUSs). Two synonymous variants, c.3623A>G and c.4035T>C, were found in 5 patients. One variant, c4600T>C, was found in a 38 year old woman with a family history of breast cancer. We have found 4 novel variants in BRCA2 gene including c.6718C>G, c.3281A>G, c.10176C>G, and c4490T>C in 4 unrelated patients, all of them having a positive family history of breast cancer. In accordance to other studies in Asian population, our study showed more frequent variants in BRCA2 compared to BRCA1. Further studies involving larger numbers of hereditary breast cancer patients are required to reveal contribution of BRCA1/2 mutations and/or other predisposing genes among familial breast cancer patients in Indonesia.
Telomere-Mitochondrion Links Contribute to Induction of Senescence in MCF-7 Cells after Carbon-Ion Irradiation
Miao, Guo-Ying ; Zhou, Xin ; Zhang, Xin ; Xie, Yi ; Sun, Chao ; Liu, Yang ; Gan, Lu ; Zhang, Hong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1993~1998
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1993
The effects of carbon-ion irradiation on cancer cell telomere function have not been comprehensively studied. In our previous report cancer cells with telomere dysfunction were more sensitive to carbon-ion irradiation, but the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Here we found that telomerase activity was suppressed by carbon-ion irradiation via hTERT down-regulation. Inhibition of telomere activity by MST-312 further increased cancer cell radiosensitivity to carbon-ion radiation. hTERT suppression caused by either carbon-ion irradiation or MST-312 impaired mitochondrial function, as indicated by decreased membrane potential, mtDNA copy number, mitochondrial mass, total ATP levels and elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS). PGC-
expression was repressed after carbion-ion irradiation, and hTERT inhibition by MST-312 could further exacerbate this effect. Lowering the mitochondrial ROS level by MitoTEMPO could partially counteract the induction of cellular senescence induced by carbon-ion radiation and MST-312 incubation. Taken together, the current data suggest that telomere-mitochondrion links play a role in the induction of senescence in MCF-7 cells after carbon-ion irradiation.
PHA-Induced Peripheral Blood Cytogenetics and Molecular Anslysis : a Valid Diagnostic and Follow-up Modality For Acute Primyelocytic Leukemia Patients Treated With ATRA and/or Arsenic Tri-oxide
Baba, Shahid M ; Azad, Niyaz A ; Shah, Zaffar A ; Afroze, Dil ; Pandith, Arshad A ; Jan, Aleem ; Aziz, Sheikh A ; Dar, Fayaz A ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1999~2006
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1999
Background: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML) is characterized by the reciprocal translocation t(15;17) (p22;p12) resulting in the PML-
fusion gene. A dual diagnostic and follow up approach was applied including cytogenetic demonstration of the t(15;17) translocation and detection dg PML-
chimeric transcripts by molecular means. Purpose: Conventional cytogenetics involving bone marrow is beset with high probability of poor metaphase index and was substituted with phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced peripheral blood culture based cytogenetic analysis as a diagnostic & follow up modality in APML patients of Kashmir (North India). Both qualitative (RT-PCR) and quantitative (Q-PCR) tests were simultaneously carried out to authenticte the modified cytogenetics. Materials and Method: Patient samples were subjected to the said techniques to establish their baseline as well as follow-up status. Results: Initial cytogenetics revealed 30 patients (81%) Positive for t(15;17) whereas 7 (19%) had either cryptic translocation or were negative for t(15;17). Two cases had chromosome 16q deletion and no hallmark translocation t(15;17). Q-PCR status for PML-
was found to be positive for all patients. All the APML patients were reassessed at the end of consolidation phase and during maintenance phase of chemotherapy where 6 patients had molecular relapse, wherein 4 also demonstrated cytogenetic relapse. Conclusions: It was found that PHA-induced peripheral blood cytogenetics along with molecular analysis could prove a reliable modality in the diagnosis and assessment of follow up response of APML patients.
Impact of Interactions Between Self-Reported Psychological Stress and Habitual Exercise on the Dietary Intake of Japanese Men and Women: a Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study
Endoh, Kaori ; Kuriki, Kiyonori ; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko ; Tohyama, Kazushige ; Goda, Toshinao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2007~2017
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2007
Background: Modifying lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise can reduce the risk of cancer. Psychological stress (PS) might be indirectly associated with cancer because it alters lifestyle factors. However, the relationship among these variables has not been fully investigated. Thus, we examined interactions between self-reported PS (SRPS) and habitual exercise on diet. Materials and Methods: In all, 5,587 men and 2,718 women were divided into "exerciser" and :non-exerciser" groips, based on whether they exercised reguarly, and classified into three SRPS levels: low, moderate and high. Diet was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Using a general linear model, food and nutrient consumption was estimated for each SRPS level in the 2 exercise groups, and the interactions between SRPS levels and exercise were calculated. Results: In women, the intake of pork and beef, low fat milk and yogurt, natto (fermented soybean), carrots and squash, other root vegetables, mushrooms, seaweeds, and wine along with the nutrients vegetable protein, soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber, daidzein, genistein, carotene, retinol equivalents, vitamin B2, pantothenic acid, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron demonstrated significant interaction with SRPS and habitual exercise (p for interaction <0.05). In men, raw and green leafy vegetable and fruit and vegetable juice significantly interacted with SRPS and habitual exercise (p for interaction <0.05). Conclusions: We suggest that certain foods and nutrients, which are thought to have a protective effect against cancer, interact with SRPS and habitual exercise, especially in women. This information is valuable for understanding and improving interventions for cancer prevention.
Association of PINX1 but not TEP1 Polymorphisms with Progression to Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Thai Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection
Sriprapun, Methee ; Chuaypen, Natthaya ; Khlaiphuengsin, Apichaya ; Pinjaroen, Nutcha ; Payungporn, Sunchai ; Tangkijvanich, Pisit ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2019~2025
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2019
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is major health problem with high mortality rates, especially in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Telomerase function is one of common mechanisms affecting genome stability and cancer development. Recent studies demonstrated that genetic polymorphisms of telomerase associated genes such as telomerase associated protein 1 (TEP1) rs1713449 and PIN2/TERF1-interacting telomerase inhibitor 1 (PINX1) rs1469557 may be associated with risk of HCC and other cancers. In this study, 325 patients with HCC and 539 non-HCC groups [193 healthy controls, 80 patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC) and 266 patients with HBV-related chronic hepatitis (CH)] were enrolled to explore genetic polymorphisms of both SNPs using the allelic discrimination method based on MGB probe TaqMan real time PCR. We demonstrated that all genotypes of both genes were in Hardy-Wienberg equilibrium (P>0.05). Moreover, there was no significant association between rs1713449 genotypes and HCC risk, HCC progression and overall survival (P>0.05). Interestingly, we observed positive association of rs1469557 with risk of HCC when compared with the LC group under dominant (CC versus CT+TT, OR=1.89, 95% CI= 1.06-3.40, P=0.031) and allelic (C versus T alleles, OR=1.75, 95% CI=1.04-2.94, P=0.033) models, respectively. Moreover, overall survival of HCC patients with CC genotype of rs1469557 was significantly higher than non-CC genotype (Log-rank P=0.015). These findings suggest that PINX1 rs1469557 but not TEP1 rs1469557 might play a role in HCC progression in Thai patients with LC and be used as the prognosis marker to predict overall survival in HCC patients.
Effect of Peripheral Blood CD4 + CD25 + Regulatory T Cell on Postoperative Immunotherapy for Patients with Renal Carcinoma
Zhang, Chao-Hua ; Huang, Yan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2027~2030
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2027
Objective: To investigate the effect of peripheral blood CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cell on postoperative immunotherapy in patients with renal carcinoma. Methods: 38 patients with renal cell carcinoma were recruited, and 20 patients from the operation group purely underwent the radical nephrectomy therapy, 18 patients from the combined group successively underwent the radical nephrectomy therapy and IFN-
adjuvant immunotherapy. Additionally, 12 healthy subjects were recruited in the same period of time and regarded as the control group. Flow cytometry was used to detect CD4 +, CD8 +, CD4 + CD25+ T lymphocyte subset content and the ratio of all parts in the pre-operative period, in the first post-operative week and in the third post-operative month, compare and analyze its variation trend. Results: The CD4+CD25+ T lymphocyte subset content of individual renal carcinoma patients was significantly higher than that of the control group, also increases with the progression in the tumor stage (P<0.05). The post-operative CD4 + CD25+T lymphocytes of individual operation group and combined group patients showed different degrees of increment, but the increment of the combined group was significantly lower than that of the operation group (P<0.05). For the combined group patients with less pre-operative CD4 + CD25+T lymphocytes, their levels would increase after the immunotherapy, while the pre-operative patients with more CD4 + CD25+ T lymphocytes were the opposite situation. Conclusion: The detection of peripheral blood CD4+CD25+ regulatory T lymphocyte subset can reflect the anti-tumor immune status of renal cell carcinoma patient body. It can contribute to predict the prognosis of immunotherapy and provide reference for the choice of renal carcinoma post-operative adjuvant immunotherapy.
International Scoring System in Symptomatic Multiple Myeloma: Experience from a Tertiary Care Center
Sultan, Sadia ; Irfan, Syed Mohammed ; Parveen, Saira ; Taufiq, Ufaq ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2031~2033
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2031
Background: Symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM) is an acquired B-cell malignant proliferation of antibody secreting plasma cells, characterized by end organ damage due to monoclonal immunoglobulin secretion. The aim of this study wa to determine the stage stratification according to an international scoring system in adult Pakistani MM patients at presentation. Materials and Methods: This single centre retrospective study extendedfrom January 2012 to December 2015. Data were retrieved from the departmental maintained records. Results: A total of 39 patients were diagnosed at our center with MM during the period of the study, 25 males and 14 females. Age ranged between 36 and 81 with a mean of
and a median of 57 years. Common presenting complaints included fatigue (80.9%), backache (79.3%) and bone pain (66.2%). Overall, 9 patients were in ISS stage I (23%), 12 were in stage II (30.7%) and 18 were in stage III (46.1%). Out of the total, 29 (74.3%) had kappa immunoglobulin andthe remaining 10 (25.6%) had lambda type myelomas. IgG myeloma was commonest, seen in 26 (66.6%) followed by IgA in 11 (28.2%) with non secretory myeloma in one (2.5%) and light chain disease also in one patient (2.5%). Conclusions: MM in Pakistani patients is seen in a relatively young population with male predominance. Primarily patients are symptomatic and risk stratification revealed a predominance of advanced stage III disease in our setting.
Dietary Patterns and Risk of Breast Cancer in Women in Guilan Province, Iran
Ahmadnia, Zahra ; Joukar, Farahnaz ; Hasavari, Farideh ; Roushan, Zahra Atrkar ; Khalili, Malahat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2035~2040
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2035
Background: Several studies have pointed to roles of dietary and food groups in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, but information on dietary patterns among women with breast cancer and their healthy counterparts in Iran is limited. Therefore the present investigation was conducted in Guilan province in 2014-2015. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, 450 women with breast cancer and one of their relatives (third-rank) were investigated. At first the phone numbers of patients in Razi Hospital in radiotherapy and chemotherapy and oncology centers of Guilan were taken. Data were collected through telephone interviews by the researcher. The questionnaire had two parts comprising demographic clinical and food frequency data including a list of 40 food items. To analyze the variables, Chi-square test and univariate logistic regression models were used. Results: In each group, 225 subjects were investigated. The majority of samples in both groups of experiment and control were consumed than two glasses of milk and dairy products per day. Regarding consumption of meat and its products, 56% of the cancer group had more than three servings per day while 26.7% of the control group had less than 2 servings per day. The majority of subjects had less than six servings of cereal per day. Some 54. 7 % of the cancer and 62.2 % of the control group consumed less than two servings of fruit per day. Consumption of vegetables in experimental and control groups were 52.9% and 76.9% respectively, more than five servings per day. There was a meaningful difference between two groups regarding the consumption of milk and dairy items (OR=0.6,95%CI= 0.4-0.9), meat and its products (OR=0.49,95%CI=0.3-0.7), bread and cereals (OR=0.4,95%CI=0.2-0.8), vegetables (OR=0.5,95%CI= 0.3-0.9). (P-value<0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study emphasize the importance of informing women, particularly those at higher risk of breast cancer, in relation to dietary factors.
The Incidence and Mortality of Liver Cancer and its Relationship with Development in Asia
Mohammadian, Maryam ; Soroush, Ali ; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah ; Towhidi, Farhad ; Hadadian, Fatemeh ; Salehiniya, Hamid ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2041~2047
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2041
Background: Liver cancer (LC) is the sixth world most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death. Due to the importance and necessity of awareness about the incidence and mortality of diseases to perform prevention programs, this study focused on data for LC and its relationship with the human development index (HDI) and its components in Asia in 2012. Materials and Methods: This ecological study was based on GLOBOCAN data for Asian countries. We assessed correlations between standardized incidence rates (SIR) and standardized mortality rates (SMR) of LC with HDI and its components using of SPSS18. Results: A total of 582,420 incident cases and 557,097 deaths were recorded in Asian countries in 2012. The five with the highest SIR were Mongolia, Lao PDR, Vietnam, Republic of Korea and Thailand and those with the highest SMR were Mongolia, Lao PDR, Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand. A negative relation was observed between HDI and LC for SIR of 0.049 (P=0.748) and for SMR of 0.07 (P=0.645), with life expectancy at birth a positive relation for SIR of 0.061 (P=0.687) and a negative relation for SMR of 0.079 (P=0.603), with the average years of education a negative relation fo SIR of 0.476 (p=0.952) and for SMR of 0.032 (P=0.832), and with the country income level per person a negative relation for SMI of 0.11 (p=0.465) and for SMR of 0.113 (P=0.455). Conclusions: The incidence of LC is more in less developed and developing countries but statistically significant correlations were not found between standardized incidence and mortality rates of LC, and HDI and its dimensions.
Comparison of Ligasure Versus Conventional Surgery for Curative Gastric Cancer Resection: a Meta-Analysis
Hu, Tian-Peng ; He, Xiang-Hui ; Meng, Zhao-Wei ; Jia, Qiang ; Tan, Jian ; Li, Xue ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2049~2053
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2049
Background: The LigaSure vessel sealing system has been proposed to save operation time and reduce intraoperative blood loss for various surgeries. However, its usage for gastric cancer is still controversial. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to compare the effectiveness of LigaSure with conventional surgery in gastrectomy. Materials and Methods: Sources were retrieved from the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS and Google Scholar until February, 2015. All randomized controlled trials comparing LigaSure with conventional surgery in curative gastric cancer resection were selected. After data extraction, statistics were performed by Review Manager 5.1 software. Results: Three eligible randomized controlled trials were evaluated, with a total of 335 patients. The quality of the included trials was good, yet some methodological and clinical heterogeneity existed. There were no significant differences between the LigaSure and conventional groups in operative time (weighted mean difference [WMD], -22.95 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI], [-59.75, 13.85]; P = 0.22), blood loss (WMD, -45.8 ml; 95% CI, [-134.5, 42.90]; P = 0.31), nor the incidence of surgical complications (odds ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, [0.68, 2.05]; P = 0.54). But there was a longer duration of hospital stay in LigaSure group (WMD, 1.41 days; 95% CI, [0.14, 2.68]; P = 0.03). Conclusions: All available randomized evidence has been summarized. LigaSure does not confer significant advantage over conventional surgery for curative gastric cancer resection. The usefulness of the device may be limited in gastrectomy. But, more trials are needed for further assessment of the LigaSure system for gastric cancer.
Lack of Association between an XRCC1 Gene Polymorphism and Colorectal Cancer Survival in Thailand
Siewchaisakul, Pallop ; Suwanrungruang, Krittika ; Poomphakwaen, Kirati ; Wiangnon, Surapon ; Promthet, Supannee ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2055~2060
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2055
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of death worldwide and in Thailand. The X-ray repair cross-complementary protein 1 (XRCC1) is required for efficient DNA repair. The effects of this gene on survival in colorectal cancer remain controversial and have not been reported in Thailand. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the XRCC1 gene with survival of colorectal cancer patients in a Thai population. Materials and Methods: Data and blood samples were collected from 255 newly diagnosed and pathologically confirmed CRC patients who were recruited during the period 2002 to 2006 and whose vital status was followed up until 31 October, 2014. Real-time PCR-HRM was used for genotype identification. The Kaplan-Meier method, the log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazard regression were used to estimate cumulative survival curves and compare various survival distributions and adjusted hazard ratios. Results: Most of the cases were males, and the median age was 55 years. The median survival time was 2.43 years. The cumulative 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10 year survival rates were 76.70%, 39.25%, 26.50%, 16.60% and 3.56%, respectively. After adjustment, female gender, ages 50-59 and
, tumour stage III+IV, a signet-ring cell carcinoma, and poor differentiation had significant associations with increased risk of CRC death. While the XRCC1 Arg/Arg homozygote appeared to be a risk factor for CRC death, the association was not significant. Conclusions: The genetic variant in the XRCC1 may not be associated with the survival of CRC patients in Thailand. Further studies are needed to verify our findings.
Role of P57KIP2 Immunohistochemical Expression in Histological Diagnosis of Hydatidiform Moles
Triratanachat, Surang ; Nakaporntham, Pattawan ; Tantbirojn, Patou ; Shuangshoti, Shanop ; Lertkhachonsuk, Ruangsak ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2061~2066
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2061
Purpose: To determine the significance of P57KIP2 immunohistochemistry expression in the histopathological diagnosis of hydatidiform mole. Materials and Methods: Hydatidiform mole patients at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital between January 1999 and December 2011 were recruited. Two gynecologic pathologists reviewed histopathologic slides to confirm diagnosis. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections were stained using a bstandard immunostaining system with monoclonal antibodies against P57KIP2 protein. Correlations among pathological features, immunohistochemical expression and clinical data were analyzed. Results: One hundred and twenty-seven hydatidiform mole patients were enrolled. After consensus review, 97 cases were diagnosed as complet (CHM) and 30 cases as partial (PHM). Discordance between the first and final H&E diagnoses was found in 19 cases (14.9%, k= 0.578). Significant pathological features to classify the type of hydatidiform mole are central cisterns, trophoblastic proliferation, trophoblastic atypia, two populations of villi, fetal vessels and scalloped borders. After performing immunohistochemistry for P57KIP2, 107 cases were P57KIP2 negative and 20 cases positive. Discordant diagnoses between final H&E diagnosis and P57KIP2 immunohistochemistry was identified in 12 cases (9.4%). Sensitivity of final H&E diagnosis for CHM was 89.7%; specificity was 95.0%. PHM sensitivity and specificity of final H&E diagnosis was 95.0% and 89.7%, respectively. Conclusions: Histopathological diagnosis alone has certain limitations in accurately defining types of hydatidiform mole; P57KIP2 immunohistochemistry is practical and can be a useful adjunct to histopathology to distinguish CHM from non-CHM.
Risk Factors for Cervical Cancer and CIN3 in Jewish Women in Israel - Two Case Control Studies
Bassal, Ravit ; Schejter, Eduardo ; Bachar, Rachel ; Perri, Tamar ; Korach, Jacob ; Jakobson-Setton, Ariella ; Ben-David, Liat Hogen ; Cohen, Daniel ; Keinan-Boker, Lital ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2067~2073
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2067
Purpose: The aim of the study was to identify risk and protective factors/markers for cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) in Israeli Jewish women in order to settle the discrepancy of low incidence rate of cervical cancer and relatively high incidence rate of CIN3. Materials and Methods: We conducted two case control studies, which examined the association between potential risk and protective factors/markers for cervical cancer or CIN3 using self administered detailed questionnaires. Results: For studying cervical cancer, 40 cases and 40 matched controls were interviewed. In the univariable and multivariable analyses older age, depression or anxiety and ever smoking seemed to act as independent risk factors/markers, while older age at first intercourse was protective. For studying CIN3, 99 cases and 79 controls were interviewed. Multivariable analysis has demonstrated that being born in Israel, depression or anxiety and ever smoking were independent risk factors/markers for CIN3. Conclusions: The risk factors/markers studied, that were associated with cervical cancer or CIN3 among Jewish women in Israel, are similar to those reported in other parts of the world, and do not explain the observed discrepancy of high in-situ cervical cancer rates and low invasive cervical cancer incidence in Israel.
Knowledge about Risk Factors for Breast Cancer and Having a Close Relative with Cancer Affect the Frequency of Breast Self-Examination Performance
Freitas, Angela Gabrielly Quirino ; Weller, Mathias ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2075~2081
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2075
Background: Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are increasing in North-Eastern Brazil and the patients with the disease often presented at advanced stages. The present study was focused on identifying variables that affect women's frequency of breast self- examination (BSE) performance. Materials and Methods: Data on BSE, socio-economic parameters and risk factors for breast cancer were obtained from 417 women from a community in North-Eastern Brazil by a self-informant method. To identify independent variables that affect frequency of BSE, nominal logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: Of 417 women, 330 (79.3%) reported performing BSE. Compared to high-income women, BSE performance by low-income women every month was 7.69 (OD=0.130; CI 95%: 0.044- 0.0386; p=0.000) times lower. Women who did not live in a stable union performed BSE each month 2.73 (OD=0.366; CI 95%: 0.171-0.782; p=0.010) less often than those living in a stable union. BSE performance every month and every six months or every year by women with poor knowledge about risk factors for breast cancer was 3.195 (OD=0.313; CI 95%: 0.141- 0.695; p=0.004) times and 2.028 (OD=0.493; CI 95%: 0.248- 0.979; p=0.043) times lower, compared to women with good knowledge. Participants who had a close relative with cancer performed BSE every month and every six months or every year 2.132 (OD=0.469; CI 95%: 0.220-0.997; p=0.049) times and 2.337 (OD=0.428; CI 95%: 0.219-0.836; p=0.013) times less often, compared to those women without close relatives with cancer. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that income, marital status, knowledge about risk factors and having a close relative with breast cancer, affect the frequency of BSE performance. Information about risk factors in public health campaigns could additionally strengthen avoidance behaviour and also motivate BSE performance.
Isolation and Structure Elucidation, Molecular Docking Studies of Screlotiumol from Soil Borne Fungi Screlotium rolfsii and their Reversal of Multidrug Resistance in Mouse Lymphoma Cells
Ahmad, Bashir ; Rizwan, Muhammad ; Rauf, Abdur ; Raza, Muslim ; Azam, Sadiq ; Bashir, Shumaila ; Molnar, Joseph ; Csonka, Akos ; Szabo, Diana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2083~2087
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2083
A new compound namely (13-(3,3-dihydroxypropyl)-1,6-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-8(5H)-one (1) was isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the borne fungi Screlotium rolfsii. Its chemical structure was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Screlotiumol 1 were evaluated for their effects on the reversion of multidrug resistant (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) of the soil borne fungi. The multidrug resistant P-glycoprotein is a target for chemotherapeutic drugs in cancer cells. In the present study rhodamine-123 exclusion screening test on human mdr1 gene transfected mouse gene transfected L5178 and L5178Y mouse T-cell lymphoma which showed excellent MDR reversing effect in a dose dependent manner against mouse T-lymphoma cell line. Moreover, molecular docking studies of compound-1 also showed better results as compared with the standard. Therefore the preliminary results obtained from this study suggest that screlotiumol 1 could be used as a potential agent for the treatment of cancer.
Mean Platelet Volume as an Independent Predictive Marker for Pathologic Complete Response after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Locally Advanced Breast Cancer
Mutlu, Hasan ; Eryilmaz, Melek Karakurt ; Musri, Fatma Yalccn ; Gunduz, Seyda ; Salim, Derya Kivrak ; Coskun, Hasan Senol ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2089~2092
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2089
Background: The impact of mean platelet volume (MPV) on prognosis, diagnosis and response to therapy in cancer patients has been widely investigated. In the present study, we evaluated whether MPV at diagnosis has predictive value for pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Materials and Methods: A total of 109 patients with LABC from Akdeniz University and Antalya Research and Training Hospital were evaluated retrospectively. Results: ROC curve analysis suggested that the optimum MPV cut-off point for LABC patients with pCR (+) was 8.15 (AUC:0.378, 95%CI [0.256-0.499], p=0.077). The patients with MPV <8.15 had higher pCR rates (29.2% vs. 13.1%, p=0.038). After binary logistic regression analysis, MPV and estrogen receptor absence were independent predictors for pCR. Conclusions: MPV has an independent predictive value for pCR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with LABC.
Association of Interleukin-27 rs 153109 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism with Spontaneous Resolution of Hepatitis C Virus - Genotype 4a Infection in Egyptian Patients
Fawzy, Mariam M ; Wahid, Ahmed ; Nazmy, Maiiada H ; Hashem, Mohamed ; Waked, Imam ; Abdelwahab, Sayed F ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2093~2097
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2093
Background: HCV is a major global health problem. IL-27 is a member of the IL-6/IL-12 cytokine family with a broad range of anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies highlighted the effect of a SNP in the IL-27 promoter region on modulating the progression of infectious diseases and individual responses to therapy. Aim of the work: The present study investigated the potential role of (-964 A/G) SNP in the promoter region of IL-27p28 gene (alleles rs153109) on the outcome of HCV infection among genotype 4a infected patients. Materials and Methods: HCV genotyping confirmed that all of the HCV-infected patients had genotype 4a infection. Genomic DNA was extracted from 111 patients with chronic HCV infection, 42 spontaneous resolvers (SR) and 16 healthy controls. IL- 27p28.rs153109 genotyping was assessed using PCR-RFLP then confirmed by DNA sequencing. Results: The frequency of IL-27-p28.rs153109AA, AG, and GG genotypes among chronically infected subjects were 74.8 %, 25.2%, and 0% while among the SR, they were 57.1%, 35.7%, and 7.14%, respectively. Our data show the unique presence of G/G genotype in the SR group (3 patients; 7.14%). Moreover, the "G" allele frequencies among chronic and resolved subjects were 12.6% and 25.0%, respectively (p=0.0136). Importantly, subjects with the GG genotype were more likely to clear their HCV infection than those with the AA genotype (p=0.0118). Conclusions: HCV genotype 4a subjects with the IL-27-p28.rs153109 A/G and G/G genotype were more likely to clear their HCV infection. Therefore, we propose IL- 27p28.rs153109SNPas a genetic biomarker for predicting HCV infection outcome.
Improved Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Premalignant Gastric Mucosa Using Conventional White Light Source Gastroscopy
Matrakool, Likit ; Tongtawee, Taweesak ; Bartpho, Theeraya ; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon ; Loyd, Ryan A ; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J ; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2099~2103
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2099
Background: The gold standard diagnosis of H. pylori related gastritis is evidence of bacteria on histopathological examination of gastric mucosa. Our aim was to study the correlation between gastric mucosal morphology and histopathological severity of H. pylori related gastritis. Materials and Methods: Division was made on morphological features into:Type 1, showing regular arrangement of red dots; Type 2, showing cleft-like appearance; Type 3, with a mosaic appearance; and Type 4, having a mosaic appearance with focal or diffuse hyperemia. Results: Types 1 and 2 gastric mucosal morphologies were statistically significant in predicting an H. pylori negative status (137/145, p<0.01), while Types 3 and 4 were significant a positive status (139/155, p<0.01). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Type 3 and 4 morphologies for predicting H. pylori positive were 94.6%, 89.5%, 89.7% and 94.5%, respectively, with a good correlation with inflammation grading (p<0.01). Conclusions: Our study suggests that gastric mucosal morphology can be reliably identified using conventional white light source gastroscopy with good correlation between findings and inflammation grading.
Factors Delaying Presentation of Sudanese Breast Cancer Patients: an Analysis Using Andersen's Model
Salih, Alaaddin M ; Alfaki, Musab M ; Alam-Elhuda, Dafallah M ; Nouradyem, Momin M ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2105~2110
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2105
Purpose: A multicenter, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted to assess factors delaying presentation of breast cancer cases. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from a pair of highly specialized referral centers, both located in the center of the Sudanese capital, Khartoum. For a total of 153 eligible respondents, durations of delay, clinicodemographic factors and reasons of referral were collected from our respondents through self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis and ANOVA were used to test the relation between periods of delay and different factors. Odd ratios (OR's) and their correspondent Confidence intervals (95% CI's). Delay periods were studied with Andersen's model. Results: The average duration of delay in our study was 11.9 (
) months. Only a quarter of our patients presented early within the first 3 months after onset of their symptoms. About 47.7% arrived later during the course of the first year, while it took beyond that for the last 27% to come. A prior diagnosis of BC was the only predictor of early presentation (for 3-12 months OR=9.6 (p<0.00), 95% CI 9.55-9.75; for >12 months OR=9.3 (p<0.00), 95% CI 9.33-9.33). Out of the 12 different reasons for delay given by our respondents, none showed a significant difference between patients presenting early or late. Financial incapacity (17.5%), ignorance about BC (14.3), and misinterpreting symptoms (12.7%) were the top three whys of delay. Conclusions: Our findings support existence of a non-uniform pattern of delay among Sudanese BC patients. Changing currently adopted awareness elevating strategies into much more inclusive approaches is strongly recommended.
Health Behavior Regarding Liver Flukes among Rural People in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand
Painsing, Sirinapa ; Sripong, Anan ; Vensontia, Orramon ; Pengsaa, Prasit ; Kompor, Pontip ; Kootanavanichapong, Nusorn ; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J ; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2111~2114
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2111
Opisthorchiasis is a health problem in Thailand particularly in northeast and north regions where have been reported the highest of cholangiocarcinoma. Active surveillance is required, therefore a cross-sectional surveyed was conducted in Nong Bunnak sub-district of Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand. A total of 367 participants were selected by multistage sampling from 5 villages located near natural water resources. Participants completed a predesigned questionnaire containing behavior questions regarding liver fluke disease, covering reliability and validity knowledge (Kuder-Richardon-20) = 0.80, attitude and practice (Cronbach's alpha coefficient) = 0.82 and 0.79, respectively. Descriptive statistics included frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations. The majority of the participants were female (58.3%), age group between 21-30 years old (42.5%), with primary school education (59.9%), occupation in agriculture (38.1%), and married (80.9%). They had past histories of raw fish consumption (88.3%), stool examination (1.4%), anti-parasite medication used (4.6%). Heads of villages, village health volunteers, television, and village newstations were the main sources for disease information. Participants had a moderate level of behavior regarding liver fluke disease. The mean scored of knowledge regarding liver fluke life cycle, transmission, severities, treatment, prevention and control was 10.9 (SD=0.5), most of them had a moderate level, 95.1%. The mean score for attitude regarding liver fluke prevention and control was 45.7 (SD=9.7), and for practice was 30.6 (SD=10.5). Participants had a moderate level of attitude and practice, 94.5% and 47.7, respectively. This study indicates that health education is required in this community including stool examination for liver fluke as further active surveillance screening.
Predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use by Breast Cancer Patients in Bandung, Indonesia
Azhar, Yohana ; Achmad, Dimyati ; Lukman, Kiki ; Hilmanto, Dany ; Aryandono, Teguh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2115~2118
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2115
Background: The study aimed to assess complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use and their associated factors with breast cancer patients in Bandung, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: In total, 330 breast cancer patients were administered questionnaires on their CAM use and CAM predictive factors including socio-demographic parameters, clinical data and quality of life, trust in physicians, trust in hospitals, satisfaction and informational needs. Data were analyzed using univariate analysis and multivariate log regreesion analysis. Results: Overall 33.3% of patients reported use of CAM. Lower income, lower education, presence of metastasis, prolonged diagnosis, less trust in physician were found to be highly associated with CAM use. Conclusions: CAM use by breast cancer patients can be interpreted as an attempt to explore all possible options, an expression of an active coping style, or expression of unmet needs in the cancer care continuum. Physicians need to openly discuss the use of CAM with their patients and identify whether they have other unmet supportive needs.
Alteration of Leptin and Adiponectin in Multistep Colorectal Tumorigenesis
Saetang, Jirakrit ; Boonpipattanapong, Teeranut ; Palanusont, Anuwat ; Maneechay, Wanwisa ; Sangkhathat, Surasak ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2119~2123
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2119
Background: There is an established link between obesity related metabolic derangement and colorectal cancer development. Recently, we developed a metabolic-colorectal cancer risk score. In this follow-up study, we studied its association with colorectal neoplasm by measuring two major metabolic syndrome biomarkers, leptin and adiponectin. Objectives: To evaluate the serum levels of leptin and adiponectin in patients with colorectal polyps and colorectal cancer and to determine any correlation with metabolic risk score. Results: In total, 130 individuals were studied: 30 controls without colonic pathology, 18 with colonic adenoma (CAP), and 82 with colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC, 17 cases of T1-2 and 65 cases of T3-4). The metabolic risk scores in CAP and T1-2 CRC were higher than those in the controls and T3-4 CRC cases. There were no statistically significant differences in leptin levels among CAPs, CRCs, and controls. Both leptin and adiponectin levels reflected differences in body mass index and metabolic risk scores. Cases in the CAP group and early T-stage CRC groups had lower adiponectin levels (14.03 and 13.01 mg/ml, respectively) than the no polyps group (19.5mg/ml, p = 0.03). The average serum adiponectin level in the invasive cancer group (18.5 ng/ml) was comparable with that of the control group. Conclusions: The level of serum adiponectin was positively correlated with the metabolic risk score. Decreased serum adiponectin was significantly associated with the development of colorectal adenoma and early stage colorectal carcinoma.
Survival of Stomach Cancer Cases in Khon Kaen, Thailand 2000-2012
Nanthanangkul, Sirinya ; Suwanrungruang, Krittika ; Wiangnon, Surapon ; Promthet, Supannee ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2125~2129
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2125
Background: Stomach cancer is an aggressive malignancy that is difficult to detect at an early stage and therefore is characterized by poor survival rates. Over the last two decades, there has been no report of gastric cancer survival in Khon Kaen province, Thailand. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to provide up-to-date information about the survival of gastric cancer patients in this province. Materials and Methods: Data from Khon Kaen population-based cancer registry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University were newly obtained on 650 patients who were diagnosed with stomach cancer during the period 1 January, 2000 to 31 December, 2012. These were then followed up until death or the end of the study (31 December 2014). We calculated the observed survival with the actuarial life table method, and relative survival, defined as the ratio of observed survival in the group of the stomach cancer patients to the expected survival in the entire Thai population from the estimated generation life tables for Thailand of five-year birth cohorts from 1900 - 2000. Results: The 5 year observed and 5 year relative survival rates were 17.2 % (95% CI: 13.54-21.14) and 18.2 % (95% CI: 14.3-22.4), respectively. The highest 5 year relative survival rates were demonstrated among patients aged 45-65, with stage I or II lesions, with adenocarcinomas, with a body of stomach location, well differentiated and receiving surgery and/or chemotherapy. Conclusions: The observed and relative survival rates were close to each other. Our findings provide basic information beneficial to development of an effective treatment system and appropriately improved population-based cancer registration.
Estimating the Economic Burden of Premature Mortality Caused by Cancer in Iran: 2006-2010
Karami-Matin, Behzad ; Najafi, Farid ; Rezaei, Satar ; Khosravi, Ardashir ; Soofi, Moslem ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2131~2136
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2131
Background: Cancer is currently one of the main public health problems all over the world and its economic burden is substantial both for health systems and for society as a whole. To inform priorities for cancer control, we here estimated years of potential life lost (YPLL) and productivity losses due to cancer-related premature mortality in Iran from 2006 to 2010. Materials and Methods: The number of cancer deaths by sex and age groups for top ten leading cancers in Iran were obtained from the Ministry of Health and Medical Education. To estimate the YPLL and the cost of productivity loss due to cancer-related premature mortality, the life expectancy method and the human capital approach were used, respectively. Results: There were 138,228 cancer-related deaths in Iran (without Tehran province) of which 76 % (106,954) were attributable to the top 10 ranked cancers. Some 63 % of total cancer-related deaths were of males. The top 10 ranked cancers resulted in 106,766,942 YPLL in total, 64,171,529 (60 %) in males and 42,595,412 (40%) in females. The estimated YPPLL due to top 10 ranked cancers was 58,581,737 during the period studied of which 32,214,524 (54%) was accounted for in males. The total cost of lost productivity caused by premature deaths because of top 10 cancers was 1.68 billion dollars (US$) from 2006 to 2010, ranging from 251 million dollars in 2006 to 283 million dollars in 2010. Conclusions: This study showed that the economic burden of premature mortality attributable to cancer is significant for Iranian society. The findings provide useful information about the economic impact of cancer for health system policy/decision makers and should facilitate planning of preventive intervention and effective resource allocation.
Radiological Downstaging with Neoadjuvant Therapy in Unresectable Gall Bladder Cancer Cases
Agrawal, Sushma ; Mohan, Lalit ; Mourya, Chandan ; Neyaz, Zafar ; Saxena, Rajan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2137~2140
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2137
Background: Gall bladder cancer (GBC) usually presents as unresectable or metastatic disease. We conducted a feasibility study to evaluate the effect of neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) on radiologic downstaging and resectability in unresectable GBC cases. Materials and Methods: Patients with locally advanced disease were treated with chemoradiotherapy [CTRT] ( external radiotherapy (45Gy) along with weekly concurrent cisplatin
and 5-FU 500 mg) and those with positive paraaortic nodes were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy [NACT (cisplatin
day 1 and 8, 3 weekly for 3 cycles). Radiological assessment was according to RECIST criteria by evaluating downstaging of liver involvement and lymphadenopathy into complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD). Results: A total of 40 patients were evaluated from January 2012 to December 2014 (CTRT=25, NACT=15). Pretreatment CT scans revealed involvement of hilum (19), liver infiltration (38), duodenum involvement (n=22), colon involvement (n=11), N1 involvement (n=11), N2 disease (n=8), paraaortic LN (n=15), and no lymphadenopathy (n=6). After neoadjuvant therapy, liver involvement showed CR in 11(30%), PR in 4 (10.5%), SD in 15 (39.4%) and lymph node involvement showed CR in 17 (50%), PR in 6 (17.6%), SD in 4 (11.7 %). Six patients (CTRT=2, NACT=4) with 66.6 % and 83% downstaging of liver and lymphnodes respectively underwent extended cholecystectomy. There was 16.6 % and 83.3% rates of histopathological CR of liver and lymph nodes. All resections were R0. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant therapy in unresectable gall bladder cancer results in a 15% resectability rate. This approach has a strong potential in achieving R0 and node negative disease. Radiologic downstaging (CR+PR) of liver involvement is 40.5% and lymphadenopathy is 67.5%. Nodal regression could serve as a predictor of response to neoadjuvant therapy.
Nurse Attitude-Related Barriers to Effective Control of Cancer Pain among Iranian Nurses
Sadeghy, Adel ; Mohamadian, Robab ; Rahmani, Azad ; Fizollah-zadeh, Hussein ; Jabarzadeh, Franak ; Azadi, Arman ; Rostami, Hussein ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2141~2144
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2141
Background: Many cancer patients still experience pain worldwide. There are many barriers for effective control of cancer pain and many of these are related to health care providers. There is a need for further investigation of these barriers. The aim of this study was to investigate nurse-related barriers to control of cancer pain among Iranian nurses. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study 49 nurses from two hospitals affiliated to Tabriz and Ardebil Universities of Medical Sciences participated using a census sampling method. A demographic and profession related checklist and Barriers Questionnaire II (BQ-II) were used for data collection. Results: The results showed negative attitudes of participants regarding control of cancer pain. Participants believed that cancer pain medications do not manage cancer pain at acceptable levels; patients may become addicted by using these drugs; cancer pain medications have many uncontrollable effects; and controlling cancer pain may distract the physicians from treating disease. Conclusions: Iranian nurses have negative attitudes toward pain control in cancer patients especially about effectiveness of pain medication and their side effects. Educational intervention to reduce these misconceptions is needed.
Distribution of Glutathione S-Transferase Omega Gene Polymorphism with Different Stages of HBV Infection Including Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Egyptian Population
Shaban, Nadia Z ; Salem, Halima H ; Elsadany, Mohamed A ; Ali, Bahy A ; Hassona, Ehab M ; Mogahed, Fayed AK ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2145~2150
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2145
Background: Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major global public health problem, with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Human cytosolic glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) include several classes such as alpha (A), mu (M), pi (P), sigma (S), zeta (Z), omega (O) and theta (T). The present study aimed to investigate the role of GST omega genes (GSTO1 and GSTO2) in different groups of patients infected with HBV. Materials and Methods: HBV groups were classified according to clinical history, serological tests and histological analysis into normal carriers (N), acute (A), chronic (CH), cirrhosis (CI) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases. The study focused on determination of the genotypes of GST omega genes (GSTO1 and GSTO2) and GST activity and liver function tests. Results: The results showed that GSTO1 (A/A) was decreased in N, A, CH, CI and HCC groups compared to the C-group, while, GSTO1 (C/A) and GSTO1(C/C) genotypes were increased significantly in N, A, CH, CI and HCC groups. GSTO2 (A/A) was decreased in all studied groups as compared to the C-group but GSTO2(A/G) and GSTO2(G/G) genotypes were increased significantly. In addition, GST activities, albumin and TP levels were decreased in all studied groups compared to the C-group, while the activities of transaminases were increased to differing degrees. Conclusions: The results indicate that GSTO genetic polymorphisms may be considered as biomarkers for determining and predicting the progression of HBV infection.
Scabraside D Derived from Sea Cucumber Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Metastasis via iNOS and STAT-3 Expression in Human Cholangiocarcinoma Xenografts
Assawasuparerk, Kanjana ; Rawangchue, Thanakorn ; Phonarknguen, Rassameepen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2151~2157
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2151
Scabraside D, a sulfated triterpene glycoside, was extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra. It shows anti-proliferation in many of cancer cell lines, but the function and mechanisms of action of scabraside D in human cholangiocarcinoma (HuCCA) have not previously determined. In this study, we investigated the activity of scabraside D on HuCCA cell apoptosis, lymphangiogenesis and metastasis in a nude mouse model. Scabraside D induced signs of apoptosis, such as cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, nuclear fragmentation and DNA fragmentation on TUNEL assays, while effectively decreasing expression of BCl-2 but increasing caspase-3 gene level expression. Immunohistochemistry revealed that scabraside D significantly reduced lymphatic vessel density (LVD). Moreover, scabraside D treatment significantly decreased VEGF-C, MMP-9 and uPA gene expression, which play important roles in the lymphangiogenesis and invasion of cancer cells in metastasis processes. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that scabraside D significantly decreased iNOS and STAT-3 gene expression. This study demonstrated that scabraside D plays a role in activation of HuCCA tumor apoptosis and inhibition of lymphangiogenesis, invasion and metastasis through decreasing BCl-2, MMP-9, uPA and VEGF-C and increasing caspase-3 expression by suppression of iNOS and STAT-3 expression. Therefore, scabraside D could be a promising candidate for cholangiocarcinoma treatment.
Diagnosis and Monitoring of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Chiang Mai University Experience
Tantiworawit, Adisak ; Kongjarern, Supanat ; Rattarittamrong, Ekarat ; Lekawanvijit, Suree ; Bumroongkit, Kanokkan ; Boonma, Nonglak ; Rattanathammethee, Thanawat ; Hantrakool, Sasinee ; Chai-Adisaksopha, Chatree ; Norasetthada, Lalita ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2159~2164
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2159
Background: A diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is made on discovery of the presence of a Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. The success of the treatment of this form of leukemia with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is monitored by reduction of the Ph chromosome. Objective: To compare the role of conventional cytogenetic (CC) methods with a real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for diagnosis and treatment monitoring of CML patients. The secondary outcome was to analyze the treatment responses to TKI in CML patients. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of CML patients who attended the Hematology clinic at Chiang Mai University Hospital from 2005-2010. Medical records were reviewed for demographic data, risk score, treatment response and the results of CC methods, FISH and RQ-PCR. Results: One hundred and twenty three cases were included in the study, 57.7% of whom were male with a mean age of 46.9 years. Most of the patients registered as intermediate to high risk on the Sokal score. At diagnosis, 121 patients were tested using the CC method and 118 (95.9%) were identified as positive. Five patients failed to be diagnosed by CC methods but were positive for BCR-ABL1 using the FISH method. Imatinib was the first-line treatment used in 120 patients (97.6%). In most patients (108 out of 122, 88.5%), a complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) was achieved after TKI therapy and in 86 patients (70.5%) CCyR was achieved long term by the CC method. Five out of the 35 analyzed patients in which CCyR was achieved by the CC method had a positive FISH result. Out of the 76 patients in which CCyR was achieved, RQ-PCR classified patients to only CCyR in 17 patients (22.4%) with a deeper major molecular response (MMR) in 4 patients (5.3%) and complete molecular response (CMR) in 55 patients (72.4%). In the case of initial therapy, CCyR was achieved in 95 patients (79.1%) who received imatinib and in both patients who received dasatinib (100%). For the second line treatment, nilotinib were used in 30 patients and in 19 of them (63.3%) CCyR was achieved. In half of the 6 patients (50%) who received dasatinib as second line or third line treatment CCyR was also achieved. Conclusions: CML patients had a good response to TKI treatment. FISH could be useful for diagnosis in cases where CC analysis failed to detect the Ph chromosome. RQ-PCR was helpful in detecting any residual disease and determining the depth of the treatment response at levels greater than the CC methods.
Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Indonesia: Lack of Improvement of One-Year Survival Rates between 1998-1999 and 2013-2014
Loho, Imelda M ; Hasan, Irsan ; Lesmana, C Rinaldi A ; Dewiasty, Esthika ; Gani, Rino A ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2165~2170
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2165
Background: The survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is usually low due to late diagnosis. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital as the largest tertiary referral hospital in Indonesia, has recently improved its modalities for advanced HCC management, but there has not been any evaluation on any improvement in HCC patient survival. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis on 114 HCC patients in 2013-2014 were conducted and compared with the database for 77 HCC patients in 1998-1999. Clinical characteristics and treatment received were recorded and the survival of both groups was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Results: The percentage of HBV positive patients had increased after fifteen years from 32.5% to 67.5%. Only two patients (1.8%) in 2013-2014 were diagnosed with HCC during surveillance program. Proportions of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer A, B, C, and D in 2013-2014 were 1.8%, 42%, 28.1%, and 28.1%, respectively. There was an increase in the use of potentially curative treatment, such as surgical resection or combination of loco-regional therapies. The one-year survival rate increased from 24.1% in 1998-1999 to 29.4% in 2013-2014, while the median survival decreased from 146 days to 138 days, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.913). Conclusions: There was no improvement in the median survival of HCC patients after fifteen years because most continued to present at late stages. There is an urgent need for a nationwide implementation of a hepatitis screening program and HCC surveillance education.
Trend of Cancer Incidence in Nepal from 2003 to 2012
Poudel, Krishna Kanta ; Huang, Zhibi ; Neupane, Prakash Raj ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2171~2175
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2171
Trends in cancer incidence is a key tool to identify the pattern of cancer of any country. This retrospective study was performed to present the trends of change in cancer incidence in Nepal.The total number of cancer cases in males was 26,064 while the total number of females cancer cases was 29,867 throughout the 10 years from 2003 to 2012. The cancer incidence per 100,000 in males was 12.8 in 2003 and 25.8 people in 2012. Similarly, in females, the crude incidence rate was 15.1 in 2003 and 26.7 per 100,000 in 2012. Cancer incidence was low at early age but it was increased with age in both sexes in Nepal. Lung cancer was the most common cancer in males throughout, while it was the third most common cancer in females. Cervix uteri was the most common site of cancer in females throughout the 10 years, with a clear trend for increase in breast cancer within this time.
Predictive Value of Malignancy Risk Indices for Ovarian Masses in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women
Ertas, Sinem ; Vural, Fisun ; Tufekci, Ertugrul Can ; Ertas, Ahmet Candost ; Kose, Gultekin ; Aka, Nurettin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2177~2183
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2177
Background: To evaluate the predictive role of a risk of malignancy index in discriminating between benign and malignant adnexal masses preoperatively. Materials and Methods: A total of 408 patients with adnexal masses managed surgically between January 2010 and February 2014 were included. The risk of malignancy indices (RMI) 1, 2, 3 and 4 were calculated using findings for ultrasonography, menopausal status, and CA125 levels. Histopathologic results were the end point. ROC analysis was used for the sensitivity and the specificity of the models. Results: Some 37.6 % of the cases were malignant in the postmenopausal group while 7.9 % were malignant in the premenopausal group. Pelvic pain was the most common complaint, and the majority of the cases were diagnosed at stage 3. The RMI 1, 2, 3 and 4 yielded percentage sensitivities of 76.1, 79.1, 76.1 and 76.1 and specificities of 91.5, 89.1, 90.6, 88.6, respectively. RMI 1 was the most reliable test in the general population according to AUC levels and Kappa statistics. From ROC analysis results of post/premenopausal women, the RMI 1 (cut off: 200) yielded sensitivities of 84.0/60.9 and specificities of 87.7/92.5. With RMI 2 they were 88.6/60.9 and 80.0/91.0, with RMI 3 84.0/60.9 and 87.7/91.8, and with RMI 4 (cut off:400) 81.8/47.8 and 83.6 /44.0. Although test performance of RMI methods were good in a general population and postmenopausal women, the RMI inter-agreement validity was only moderate or fair in premenopausal women. Conclusions: Our study confirms the effectiveness of RMI algorithms in postmenopausal women. However, more sensitive tests are needed for premenopausal women.
Sensitive and Noninvasive Detection of Aberrant SFRP2 and MGMT-B Methylation in Iranian Patients with Colon Polyps
Naini, M Alizade ; Mokarram, P ; Kavousipour, S ; Zare, N ; Atapour, A ; Zarin, M Hassan ; Mehrabani, G ; Borji, M ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2185~2193
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2185
Background: The pathogenesis of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is influenced by the patient genetic background and environmental factors. Based on prior understanding, these are classified in two major pathways of genetic instability. Microsatellite instability (MSI) and CPG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) are categorized as features of the hypermethylated prototype, and chromosomal instability (CIN) is known to be indicative of the non-hypermethylated category. Secreted frizzled related protein 2 (SFRP2), APC1A in WNT signaling pathway and the DNA repair gene, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), are frequently hypermethylated in colorectal cancer. Detection of methylated DNA as a biomarker by easy and inexpensive methods might improve the quality of life of patients with CRC via early detection of cancer or a precancerous condition. Aim: To evaluate the rate of SFRP2 and MGMT hypermethylation in both polyp tissue and serum of patients in south Iran as compared with matched control normal population corresponding samples. Materials and Methods: Methylation-specific PCR was used to detect hypermethylation in DNA extracted from 48 polypoid tissue samples and 25 healthy individuals. Results: Of total polyp samples, 89.5% had at least one promoter gene hypermethylation. The most frequent methylated locus was SFRP2 followed by MGMT-B (81.2 and 66.6 percent respectively). Serologic detection of hypermethylation was 95% sensitive as compared with polyp tissue. No hypermethylation was detected in normal tissue and serum and its detection in patients with polyps, especially of serrated type, was specific. Conclusions: Serologic investigation for detection of MGMT-B, SFRP2 hypermethylation could facilitate prioritization of high risk patients for colonoscopic polyp detection and excision.
Clinicopathological Profile of Breast Cancer Patients at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Marathwada Region of Westen India
Takalkar, Unmesh Vidyadhar ; Asegaonkar, Shilpa Balaji ; Kulkarni, Umesh ; Kodlikeri, Pushpa R ; Kulkarni, Ujwala ; Saraf, Mamta ; Advani, Suresh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2195~2198
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2195
Background: Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among women with wide differences in clinical profile from region to region. The present study aimed to describe the profile of breast cancer patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Marathwada region of Western India. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive retrospective study, we reviewed records of pathologically diagnosed patients of breast cancer managed at our center from years 2009 to 2015. Data with respect to demographic status, detailed past, medical, familial and personal history, findings of clinical examination and histological features were obtained. Patients were staged according to the Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) system. Results: Among 260 cases, mean age of presentation was 52.6, with average age of menarche of 11.3 and menopause of 52.6 years. The majority of patients were from urban regions and were postmenopausal (64.3%). Main clinical features presentation were breast lumps. Most patients were in stage II and had infiltrating duct carcinomas. Conclusions: Most common risk factors for breast cancer observed are increasing age, low parity and obesity. Breast cancer was more prevalent among postmenopausal women presenting in stage II with infiltating duct carcinoma in our region of India.
Prediction and Analysis of Breast Cancer Related Deleterious Non-Synonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the PTEN Gene
Naidu, C Kumaraswamy ; Suneetha, Y ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2199~2203
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2199
One of the most common cancer types faced by the women around the world is breast cancer. Among the several low, moderate and high penetrance genes conferring susceptibility to breast cancer, PTEN is one which is known to be mutated in many tumor types. In this study, we predicted and analyzed the impact of three deleterious coding non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms rs121909218 (G129E), rs121909229 (R130Q) and rs57374291 (D107N) in the PTEN gene on the phenotype of breast tumors using computational tools SIFT, Polyphen-2, PROVEAN, MUPro, POPMusic and the GETAREA server.
Surveillance of Populations at Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma Development in Rural Communities of Thailand Using the Korat-CCA Verbal Screening Test
Kaewpitoon, Soraya J ; Rujirakul, Ratana ; Loyd, Ryan A ; Panpimanmas, Sukij ; Matrakool, Likit ; Tongtawee, Taweesak ; Kompor, Porntip ; Norkaew, Jun ; Chavengkun, Wasugree ; Wakkhuwattapong, Parichart ; Kujapun, Jirawoot ; Ponphimai, Sukanya ; Phatisena, Tanida ; Eaksunti, Thawatchai ; Polsripradist, Poowadol ; Joosiri, Apinya ; Sukkasam, Inchat ; Padchasuwan, Natnapa ; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2205~2209
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2205
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a serious problem in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern region. Active surveillance in rural communities with an appropriat low-cost screening tool is required to facilitate early detection. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the population at risk of CCA in Bua Yai district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Northeastern Thailand using the Korat-CCA verbal screening test (KCVST) during June to October 2015. Reliability of KCVST demonstrated a Cronbach alpha coefficient=0.75 Stepwise-multiple regression showed that alcohol consumption was important for CCA screened, followed by agriculture and pesticide use, under-cooked cyprinoid fish consumption, praziquantel use, naïve northeastern people, opisthorchiasis, family relatives with CCA, and cholangitis or cholecystitis or gallstones, respectively. Population at risk for CCA was classified to low risk (63.4%), moderate risk (33.7%), and high risk (1.32%) for CCA. When CCA was screened using ultrasonography, 4 of 32 high risk participants had an abnormal biliary tract with dilated bile ducts. This study indicates that KCVST is a potential useful too which decrease the cost of large scale CCA screening.
Post-Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure Complications in Srinagarind Hospital
Maleerat, Pimjai ; Chumworathayi, Bandit ; Kietpeerakool, Chumnan ; Luanratanakorn, Sanguanchoke ; Temtanakitpaisan, Amornrat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2211~2215
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2211
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of post-Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP) complications in Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Retrospective chart review was performed for 200 patients undergoing LEEP during January 2012 to February 2013. Their mean age was 45 years-old. Fifty-three (26.5%) were menopausal. The three most common preceding abnormal cervical cytology were high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL; 50%), atypical squamous cell cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H; 10.5%), and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL; 10%). The overall complications prevalence rate was 16.5% (95%CI, 11.4-21.6). Complications included bleeding (11%; 95%CI, 6.66-15.3), offensive discharge (4%; 95%CI, 1.28-6.72), and pelvic inflammatory disease (1.5%; 95%CI, 0.18-3.18). Only mode of delivery was an independent predictor of post-LEEP complications. Women with previous caesarean sections carried an increased risk of complications by 3.9 times (95%CI, 1.21-12.56) compared with vaginal delivery. In conclusion, LEEP is generally safe with an acceptable complication rate. Previous caesarean section was the only independent predictor for post-LEEP complications. However, this predictor still needs prudent evaluation as no clear cause-effect relationship was identified.
VEGFR2 Expression in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cancer Cells Mediates Proliferation and Invasion
Xu, Hui-Min ; Zhu, Jian-Guo ; Gu, Lian ; Hu, Song-Qun ; Wu, Hao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2217~2221
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2217
Vascular endothelial growth factor 2 (VEGFR2) was initially identified as a receptor of VEGF on endothelial cells with a role in regulating angiogenesis during organism development and tumorigenesis. Previously, in cancer tissue, VEGFR2 has been reported to be expressed in endothelial cells. In our research, we found that VEGFR2 was expressed not only in endothelial cells but also cancer cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Knockdown of VEGFR2 in Hep2 cells could arrest the cell cycle in G0/G1, leading to a decrease in proliferation. We also present evidence that MAPK/ERK signal pathways and expression of CDK1 downstream of VEGFR2 might regulate proliferation and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we discovered that down-regulate VEGRF2 in Hep2 cells could significantly affect the invasion ability. Taken together, our data suggest that VEGFR2 might regulate proliferation and invasion in HNSCC cancer cells in vivo.
Survival Rates for Breast Cancer in Iranian Patients: a Meta-Analysis
Rahimzadeh, Mitra ; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin ; Kavehie, Behrooz ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2223~2227
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2223
Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian women. Since development of the disease in Iranian women occurs relatively early, the survival rate matters considerably. In different countries, survival of breast cancer patients varies considerably. Therefore, the one-year, three-year, five-year, and ten-year survival rates for breast cancer in Iran were assessed using a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis was based on valid Iranian sources including SID, MAGIRAN and IRANMEDEX, along with reliable English databases, namely, PUBMED and SCOPUS. In domestic databases, a search was conducted based on key words of breast cancer and survival rate, and in international databases, with "breast cancer" and the equivalent of "neoplasm" of Mesh Word, "survival rate" and "Iran." Then all reviewed papers and theses which met the inclusion criteria were selected for investigation. To conduct the analysis STATA 11.2 software and random-effects models were used. Results: In 24 studies, 22,745 participants were included. The one-year, three-year, five-year and ten-year survival rates were 0.956, 0.808, 0.695 and 0.559, respectively. The minimum and maximum survival rates for 5-years were 0.48 and 0.87. The average age of the onset of the disease was 48.3. Conclusions: As in Iran, since the onset of the disease is at low age, in spite of the relatively high survival rate as compared to other cancers, prevention and screening programs at early age for early stage diagnosis seems necessary.
Is Health Locus of Control a Modifying Factor in the Health Belief Model for Prediction of Breast Self-Examination?
Tahmasebi, Rahim ; Noroozi, Azita ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2229~2233
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2229
Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women in the world. Early detection is necessary to improve outcomes and decrease related costs. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive power of health locus of control as a modifying factor in the Health Belief Model (HBM) for prediction of breast self-examination. Materials and Methods: In this cross- sectional study, 400 women selected through the convenience sampling from health centers. Data were collected using part of the Champion's HBM scale (CHBMS), the Health Locus of Control Scale and a self administered questionnaire. For data analysis by SPSS the independent T test, Chi square test, logistic and linear regression modes were appliedl. Results: The results showed that 10.9% of the participants reported performing BSE regularly. Health locus of control did not act as a predictor of BSE as a modifying factor. In this study, perceived self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of BSE performance (Exp (B) =1.863) with direct effect, while awareness had direct and indirect influence. Conclusions: For increasing BSE, improvement of self-efficacy especially in young women and increasing knowledge about cancer is necessary.
Preventive Effects of Spirogyra neglecta and a Polysaccharide Extract against Dextran Sodium Sulfate Induced Colitis in Mice
Taya, Sirinya ; Kakehashi, Anna ; Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan ; Gi, Min ; Ishii, Naomi ; Wanibuchi, Hideki ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2235~2245
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2235
Ulcerative colitis (UC) results from colonic epithelial barrier defects and impaired mucosal immune responses. In this study, we aimed to investigate the modifying effects of a Spirogyra neglecta extract (SNE), a polysaccharide extract (PE) and a chloroform fraction (CF) on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice and to determine the mechanisms. To induce colitis, ICR mice received 3% DSS in their drinking water for 7 days. Seven days preceding the DSS treatment, oral administration of SNE, PE and CF at doses of 50, 25 and 0.25 mg/kg body weight (low dose), 200, 100 and 1 mg/kg body weight (high dose) and vehicle was started and continued for 14 days. Histologic findings showed that DSS-induced damage of colonic epithelial structure and inflammation was attenuated in mice pre-treated with SNE, PE and CF. Furthermore, SNE and PE significantly protected colonic epithelial cells from DSS-induced cell cycle arrest, while SNE, PE and CF significantly diminished apoptosis. Proteome analysis demonstrated that SNE and PE might ameliorate DSS-induced colitis by inducing antioxidant enzymes, restoring impaired mitochondria function, and regulating inflammatory cytokines, proliferation and apoptosis. These results suggest that SNE and PE could prevent DSS-induced colitis in ICR mice by protection against and/or aiding recovery from damage to the colonic epithelium, reducing ROS and maintaining normal mitochondrial function and apoptosis.
I Do Not Even Say "It" - a Mixed Methods Study on Breast Cancer Awareness of Omani Women
Alkhasawneh, Esra ; Siddiqui, Saad T ; Leocadio, Michael ; Seshan, Vidya ; Al-Farsi, Yahya ; Al-Moundhri, Mansour S ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2247~2254
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2247
Background: The incidence of breast cancer is rising in Oman, and the disease is diagnosed at late stages, when treatment success is limited. Omani women might benefit from better awareness, so that breast cancer can be detected early and treated. This study was conducted to assess Omani women's levels of breast cancer awareness and early detection practice, and explore factors which might influence these levels. Materials and Methods: A mixed methods study was conducted in 2014, including a quantitative survey of 1,372 and a qualitative assessment of 19 Omani women, aged
from five Omani governorates using convenient sampling. Demographic information and scores for awareness levels were used in a multivariate regression model to investigate factors associated with awareness. Thematic analysis and interpretive description were used to analyse the qualitative data. Results: The overall means for early detection and general awareness scores were 0.58 (SD 0.24) and 0.46 (SD 0.21), respectively. General awareness was significantly associated with age, education, income and familiarity with cancer patients (p<0.05), while early detection was significantly associated with age, marital status and education. A majority of women (59.5%) agreed with a belief in 'evil eye' or envy as a risk factor for breast cancer. Women discussed various factors which may empower or inhibit awareness, including the cultural-religion-fatalistic system, personal-familial-environmental system, and healthcare-political-social system. Conclusions: The overall low scores for awareness and early detection, and the survey of local beliefs highlight a severe necessity for a contextually-tailored breast cancer awareness intervention programme in Oman.
Incidentally Detected Adenocarcinoma Prostate in Transurethral Resection of Prostate Specimens: a Hospital Based Study from India
Varghese, Jophy ; Kuruvilla, Priya Mariam ; Mehta, Nisarg ; Rathore, Ranjeet Singh ; Babu, Manas ; Bansal, Devesh ; Pillai, Biju ; Sam, Mohan P ; Krishnamorthy, H ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2255~2258
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2255
Background: Awareness about prostate cancer has increased in the community, and prostate cancer screening examinations, including prostate specific antigen (PSA) assays, are now widely available. Prior to the PSA era, up to 27% of prostate cancers were detected incidentally at the time of transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). After PSA testing became widely available, the incidence of incidentally detected carcinoma prostate in TURP specimens without prior diagnosis reduced to 5-13%. However, the incidence of incidentally detected carcinoma prostate has been reported to vary across the globe since various factors can influence the identification of this malignancy in TURP specimens. In this paper, we focus on rates of incidentally detected prostate cancer in TURP specimens in our hospital and correlate it with various parameters. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study of histopathological findings of biopsy specimens was conducted for patients undergoing TURP during a period of 5 years from April 2010. The inclusion criteria were patients diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (digital rectal examination (DRE) not showing any abnormally hard areas and normal age adjusted PSA values). Patients with elevated PSA, abnormal DRE, documented urinary tract infection and proved adenocarcinoma prostate (CaP) were excluded from the study. The total weight of prostatectomy specimen, occurrence of carcinoma prostate in the chips, percentage of total tissue resected showing malignancy and Gleason's scores were recorded. Results: A total of 597 patients belonging to the inclusion criteria were studied. The incidence of occult CaP in the study group was 5.2 % (31/597). Out of these, 8 belonged to T1a and 23 belonged to T1b stages. The age group 70 - 79 years had the maximum incidence of occult CaP. It was observed that the clinical grading of prostate did not have a bearing on the incidence of occult CaP whereas the weight of resected specimen correlated with the incidence of CaP. The incidence of occult CaP was greater with low volume prostates (<20 g). (P=0.15). Conclusions: The rate of incidentally detected adenocarcinoma prostate in patients undergoing TURP for clinically diagnosed BPH was found to be only 5.2 % in our study which is low when compared with similar studies done elsewhere. The age of the patient and weight of the resected specimen correlated with incidence of occult prostate cancer. The clinical grading of prostate by DRE however, demonstrated no correlation.
Relation between Mammographic Parenchymal Patterns and Breast Cancer Risk: Considering BMI, Compressed Breast Thickness and Age of Women in Tabriz, Iran
Mehnati, Parinaz ; Alizadeh, Hamed ; Hoda, Haleh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2259~2263
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2259
Background: Mammographic density determined according paranchymal patterns is a risk factor for breast cancer and its relationships with body and other breast characteristics of women is important. The purpose of the present study was to correlate breast parenchymal patterns and mammography abnormality findings with women's BMI, compressed breast thickness (CBT) and age in Tabriz city, Iran. Materials and Methods: From 1,100 mammograms interpreted by radiologists, breast parenchymal was classified into four categories from Types 1 (mostly fatty) through 4 (mostly fibroglandular tissue). Age, BMI, and CBT were recorded and their relation with risk for the development of breast abnormalities in mammograms was analyzed. Results: In women with a mean age of
17.7% were in the high density group (Type 3 and 4). A comparison of four types of breast paranchymal with BMI, CBT and age showed inverse relations to breast density. Abnormal mammographic findings were 25.8% of all reported mammograms with a circular mass (12.7%) as the most common abnormality. About 21% abnormal cases were in less than 40 years. Increasing of BMI had significant relation with breast abnormality but in CBT was not observed. Conclusions: Measurement of women's body characteristics is useful for assistance in mammography diagnosis as well as selection of imaging instrument by high sensitivity for following patient in future. The effects of age, CBT and BMI groups on the breast paranchymal were significant.
The rs61764370 Functional Variant in the KRAS Oncogene is Associated with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Risk in Women
Gutierrez-Malacatt, Humberto ; Ayala-Sanchez, Manuel ; Aquino-Ortega, Xochitl ; Dominguez-Rodriguez, Jacqueline ; Martinez-Tovar, Adolfo ; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma ; Martinez-Hernandez, Angelica ; Cecilia, Contreras-Cubas C ; Orozco, Lorena ; Cordova, Emilio J ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2265~2270
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2265
Background: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is one of the most frequent hematopoietic malignancies in the elderly population; however, knowledge is limited regarding the genetic factors associated with increased risk for CML. Polymorphisms affecting microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis or mRNA:miRNA interactions are important risk factors in the development of different types of cancer. Thus, we carried out a case-control study to test the association with CML susceptibility of gene variants located in the miRNA machinery genes AGO1 (rs636832) and GEMIN4 (rs2740348), as well as in the miRNA binding sites of the genes BRCA1 (rs799917) and KRAS (rs61764370). Materials and Methods: We determined the genotype of 781 Mexican-Mestizo individuals (469 healthy subjects and 312 CML cases) for the four polymorphisms using TaqMan probes to test the association with CML susceptibility. Results: We found a borderline association of the minor homozygote genotype of the KRAS_rs61764370 polymorphism with an increased risk for CML susceptibility (P = 0.06). After gender stratification, this association was significant only for women (odds ratio [OR] = 13.41, P = 0.04). The distribution of the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the four studied SNPs was neither associated with advanced phases of CML nor treatment response. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to show a significant association of the KRAS_rs61764370 SNP with CML. To further determine such an association of with CML susceptibility, our results must be replicated in different ethnic groups.
5-Aminolevulinic Acid Fluorescence in Detection of Peritoneal Metastases
Yonemura, Yutaka ; Canbay, Emel ; Ishibashi, Haruaki ; Nishino, Eisei ; Endou, Yoshio ; Sako, Shouzou ; Ogura, Shun-Ichirou ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2271~2275
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2271
Background: The value of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in fluorescence detection of peritoneal metastases and the underlying mechanisms were evaluated in patients with peritoneal surface malignancies. Materials and Methods: Oral 5-ALA was administered at a concentration of 20 mg/kg body weight with 50 ml of water 2 hours prior to surgery (n=115). The diagnostic value of 5-ALA based fluorescence production was evaluated following white light inspection during prior to cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Then, peptide transporter PEPT1 (ALA influx transporter) and ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 (porphyrin efflux transporter) gene expression was determined with quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR and pathological diagnoses confirmed for all tissue samples. Results: The 5-ALA based photodynamic detection rate was 17% for appendiceal mucinous neoplasms, 54% for colorectal cancers, 33% for gastric cancers, 67% for diffuse malign peritoneal mesotheliomas, and 89% for epithelial ovarian cancer of peritoneal metastases. 5-ALA was detected in all cases of peritoneal metastases originating from cholangiocarcinomas whereas it was not able to detect any in granulosa cell and gastrointestinal stromal tumor cases. Furthermore, PEPT1 was overexpressed whereas ABCG2 expression was downregulated in tumors detected with fluorescence. Conclusions: 5-ALA provided 100% specificity and high sensitivity to detect peritoneal metastases in subgroups of patients with peritoneal surface mailgnancies. ALA influx transporter PEPT1 and porphyrin efflux transporter ABCG2 genes are important in tumor specific 5-ALA induced fluorescence in vivo. Further studies should clarify diagnostic utility of 5-ALA in peritoneal surface malignancies.
Formulation and Cytotoxicity of Ribosome-Inactivating Protein Mirabilis Jalapa L. Nanoparticles Using Alginate-Low Viscosity Chitosan Conjugated with Anti-Epcam Antibodies in the T47D Breast Cancer Cell Line
Wicaksono, Psycha Anindya ; Sismindari, Sismindari ; Martien, Ronny ; Ismail, Hilda ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2277~2284
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2277
Ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) from Mirabilis jalapa L. leaves has cytotoxic effects on breast cancer cell lines but is less toxic towards normal cells. However, it can easily be degraded after administration so it needs to be formulated into nanoparticles to increase its resistance to enzymatic degradation. The objectives of this study were to develop a protein extract of M. jalapa L. leaves (RIP-MJ) incorporated into nanoparticles conjugated with Anti-EpCAM antibodies, and to determine its cytotoxicity and selectivity in the T47D breast cancer cell line. RIP-MJ was extracted from red-flowered M. jalapa L. leaves. Nanoparticles were formulated based on polyelectrolyte complexation using low viscosity chitosan and alginate, then chemically conjugated with anti-EpCAM antibody using EDAC based on carbodiimide reaction. RIP-MJ nanoparticles were characterised for the particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, particle morphology, and entrapment efficiency. The cytotoxicity of RIP-MJ nanoparticles against T47D and Vero cells was then determined with MTT assay. The optimal formula of RIP-MJ nanoparticles was obtained at the concentration of RIP-MJ, low viscosity chitosan and alginate respectively 0.05%, 1%, and 0.4% (m/v). RIP-MJ nanoparticles are hexagonal with high entrapment efficiency of 98.6%, average size of 130.7 nm, polydispersity index of 0.380 and zeta potential +26.33 mV. The
values of both anti-EpCAM-conjugated and non-conjugated RIP-MJ nanoparticles for T47D cells (13.3 and
) were lower than for Vero cells (27.8 and
values of conjugated and non-conjugated RIP-MJ for both cells were much lower than
values of non-formulated RIP-MJ (>
Epstein-Barr Virus-Positive Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: is it different between Over and Under 50 Years of Age?
Monabati, Ahmad ; Vahedi, Amir ; Safaei, Akbar ; Noori, Sadat ; Mokhtari, Maral ; Vahedi, Leila ; Zamani, Mehdi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2285~2289
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2285
Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly is an entity introduced in the latest WHO classification of lymphoid tumors and defined in patients older than 50 years without prior lymphoma or immunodeficiency. However, recently it has also been seen in patients under 50. There is thus debate as to whether these are separate entities. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed de novo DLBCL admitted to our institute over a period of two years. Clinical data included age, sex, nodal and extranodal presentation. The results of an immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel were also reviewed. IHC findings were mainly used to sub-classify DLBCL as germinal center vs. non germinal center types. IHC for identification of LMP-1 (latent membrane protein) and in situ hybridization for detection of EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) was performed. EBV prevalence, clinical data and IHC findings were compared between patients under and over 50 years of age. Results: Out of 95 DLBCL, 11.6% were EBV positive (7.5% and 14.5% in the young and old groups). We did not find any significant differences in IHC subclasses and clinical data between EBV positive DLBCL (EBV+DLBCL) of young and old groups. Conclusions: EBV+DLBCL are not exclusive to patients older than 50 years. With regard to clinical data as well as IHC subclasses, no differences were evident between EBV+DLBCL of young and old groups. Our suggestion is to eliminate any cut off age for EBV+DLBCL.
Virtual Screening Approaches in Identification of Bioactive Compounds Akin to Delphinidin as Potential HER2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Breast Cancer
Patidar, Kavisha ; Deshmukh, Aruna ; Bandaru, Srinivas ; Lakkaraju, Chandana ; Girdhar, Amandeep ; Gutlapalli, VR ; Banerjee, Tushar ; Nayarisseri, Anuraj ; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2291~2295
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2291
Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting HER 2 receptors have emerged as an important therapeutic approach in inhibition of downstream proliferation and survival signals for the treatment of breast cancers. Recent drug discovery efforts have demonstrated that naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds like delphinidin have potential to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of breast cancer cells by targeting HER2 receptors. While delphinidin may thus reduce tumour size, it is associated with serious side effects like dysphonia. Owing to the narrow therapeutic window of delphinidin, the present study aimed to identify high affinity compounds targeting HER2 with safer pharmacological profiles than delphinidin through virtual screening approaches. Delphinidin served as the query parent for identification of structurally similar compounds by Tanimoto-based similarity searching with a threshold of 95% against the PubChem database. The compounds retrieved were further subjected to Lipinski and Verber's filters to obtain drug like agents, then further filtered by diversity based screens with a cut off of 0.6. The compound with Pubchem ID: 91596862 was identified to have higher affinity than its parent. In addition it also proved to be non-toxic with a better ADMET profile and higher kinase activity. The compound identified in the study can be put to further in vitro drug testing to complement the present study.
Interferon Induced Transmembrane Protein-1 Gene Expression is a Biomarker for Early Detection of Invasive Potential of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas
Ramanathan, Arvind ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2297~2299
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2297
Background: Early detection of malignant transformation with expression biomarkers has significant potential to improve the survival rate of patients as such biomarkers enable prediction of progression and assess sensitivity to chemotherapy. The expression of interferon inducible transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) has been associated with early invasion events in several carcinomas, including head and neck cancers, and hence has been proposed as a novel candidate biomarker. As the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is highest in the Indian population, we sought to investigate: 1) the expression pattern of IFITM1 in OSCC tissue samples obtained from Indian patients of Dravidian origin; and 2) the possibility of using IFITM1 expression as a potential biomarker. Materials and Methods: Total RNA extracted from thirty eight OSCC biopsy samples was subjected to semi-quantitative RT-PCR with IFITM1 and GAPDH specific primers. Results: Of the thirty eight OSCC samples that were analyzed, IFITM1 overexpression was identified in fifteen (39%). Seven expressed a low level, while the remainder expressed high level of IFITM1. Conclusions: The overexpression of IFITM1 in OSCC samples indicates that IFITM1 may be explored for the possibility of use as a high confidence diagnostic biomarker in oral cancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that IFITM1 overexpression is being reported in Indian OSCC samples.
Are Biomarkers Predictive of Anthracycline-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction?
Malik, Abhidha ; Jeyaraj, Pamela Alice ; Calton, Rajneesh ; Uppal, Bharti ; Negi, Preety ; Shankar, Abhishek ; Patil, Jaineet ; Mahajan, Manmohan Kishan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2301~2305
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2301
Background: The early detection of anthracycline- induced cardiotoxicity is very important since it might be useful in prevention of cardiac decompensation. This study was designed with the intent of assessing the usefulness of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and NT- Pro BNP estimation in early prediction of anthracycline induced cardiotoxicity. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study histologically proven breast cancer patients who were scheduled to receive anthracycline containing combination chemotherapy as a part of multimodality treatment were enrolled. Baseline cardiac evaluation was performed by echocardiography (ECHO) and biomarkers like cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and N terminal- pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT- Pro BNP). All patients underwent cTnT and NT- Pro BNP estimation within 24 hours of each cycle of chemotherapy and were followed up after 6 months of initiation of chemotherapy. Any changes in follow up ECHO were compared to ECHO at baseline and cTnT and NT- Pro BNP levels after each cycle of anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Results: Initial data were obtained for 33 patients. Mean change in left ventricular diastolic diameter (LVDD) within 6 months was
(p value=0.049). Seven out of 33 patients had an increase in biomarker cTnT levels (p value=0.5). A significant change in baseline and follow up LVDD was observed in patients with raised cTnT levels (p value=0.026) whereas no change was seen in ejection fraction (EF) and left atrial diameters (LAD) within 6 months of chemotherapy. NT- Pro BNP levels increased in significant number of patients (p value
) but no statistically significant change was observed in the ECHO parameters within 6 months. Conclusions: Functional monitoring is a poorly effective method in early estimation of anthracycline induced cardiac dysfunction. Estimation of biomarkers after chemotherapy may allow stratification of patients in various risk groups, thereby opening window for interventional strategies in order to prevent permanent damage to the myocardium.
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Adults - an Analysis of 51 Cases from a Tertiary Care Center in Pakistan
Sultan, Sadia ; Irfan, Syed Mohammed ; Parveen, Saira ; Mustafa, Sanober ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2307~2309
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2307
Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant disease in which early lymphoid precursors proliferate and replace the normal hematopoiesis. It has distinctive clinical and biological features. In respect to adult ALL, available data from Pakistan are limited. Therefore we reviewed the demographical and clinicohematological profiles along with FAB stratification of adult patients with ALL presented at our hospital. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 51 adults (
) patients with ALL were enrolled from January 2010 to December 2014. Results: The mean age was
with the median age of 18.0 years. The male to female ratio was 2:1. The major complaints were fever (60.7%), generalized weakness (47.0%), overt bleeding (19.6%) and weight loss (13.7%). Physical examination revealed lymphodenopathy as a predominant finding detected in 43.1% followed by splenomegaly and hepatomegaly in 23.5% and 21.5%, respectively. The mean hemoglobin level was
with a mean MCV of
, a mean total leukocyte count of
, a mean ANC of
and a mean platelet count of
. According to FAB classification, 47.1% were L1 type, 45.1% L2 and 7.8% L3 variant. Conclusions: Clinico-pathological features appeared comparable to published data. Febrile illness associated with lymphodenopathy was the commonest presentation. FAB classification revealed a predominance of ALL-L1 variant in Pakistani adult patients with ALL.
Reversal of Multidrug Resistance and Computational Studies of Pistagremic Acid Isolated from Pistacia integerrima
Rauf, Abdur ; Uddin, Ghias ; Raza, Muslim ; Ahmad, Aftab ; Jehan, Noor ; Ahmad, Bashir ; Nisar, Muhammad ; Molnar, Joseph ; Csonka, Akos ; Szabo, Diana ; Khan, Ajmal ; Farooq, Umar ; Noor, Mah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2311~2314
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2311
Pistagremic acid (PA) is a bioactive triterpenoid isolated from various parts of Pistacia integerrima plants. The aim of this research was to investigate PA for reversion of multidrug resistant (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein using rhodamine-123 exclusion study on a multidrug resistant human ABCB1 (ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 1) gene-transfected mouse T-lymphoma cell line in vitro. Results were similar to those with verapamil as a positive control. Docking studies of PA and standard Rhodamine123 were carried out against a P-gp crystal structure which showed satisfactory results. Actually, PA cannot bind exactly where co-crystallized ligand of P-gp is already present. However, the docking study predicted that if a compound gives a lesser score then it may have some potency. The docking scores of PA and Rhodamine were similar. Therefore, we can conclude that there are certain important chemical features of PA which are responsible for the inhibiting potency of P-gp.
Influence of Religious Beliefs on the Health of Cancer Patients
Tsai, Tai-Jung ; Chung, Ue-Lin ; Chang, Chee-Jen ; Wang, Hsiu-Ho ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2315~2320
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2315
Background: This study investigated the influence of religious beliefs on the health of cancer patients and identified the factors contributing to the influence. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted using a convenient sampling method. A structured questionnaire was used to the samplings, and the data of 200 cancer patients were collected. Results: The effects of religion on the health of cancer patients achieved an average score of 3.58. The top five effects are presented as follows: (a) Religion provides me with mental support and strength, (b) religion enables me to gain confidence in health recovery, (c) religion motivates me to cope with disease-related stress positively and optimistically, (d) religion helps me reduce anxiety, and (e) religion gives me courage to face uncertainties regarding disease progression. Moreover, among the demographic variables, gender, type of religion, and experience of religious miracles contributed to the significantly different effects of religion on patients. Specifically, the effect of religion on the health of patients who were female and Christian and had miracle experiences was significantly (p< .01) higher than that on other patients. Conclusions: These results are helpful in understanding the influence of religious beliefs on the health of cancer patients and identified the factors contributing to the influence. The result can serve as a reference for nursing education and clinical nursing practice.
Lack of Variation in Inflammatory Hematological Parameters between Benign Nodular Goiter and Papillary Thyroid Cancer
Yaylaci, Selcuk ; Tosun, Onder ; Sahin, Orhan ; Genc, Ahmet Bilal ; Aydin, Ercan ; Demiral, Gokhan ; Karahalil, Fatma ; Olt, Serdar ; Ergenc, Hasan ; Varim, Ceyhun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2321~2323
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2321
Background: Inflammatory hematological parameters like the neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio have been investigated in many cancer types and significant relationships found with prognosis, for example. The aim of this present study was to investigate the impact of hematological parameters notably on N/L ratio and mean platelet volume (MPV) in papillary thyroid cancer cases. Materials and Methods: A total of 79 patients who underwent a thyroidectomy operation in Findikli, Goiter Research and Treatment Center during 2011-2015 period were enrolled in the study, 41 with papillary thyroid cancer and 38 with benign goiter confirmed by pathological examination. We collected clinical and laboratory data for the patients from hospital records retrospectively. Blood samples taken at admission were assessed for parameters compared between the groups. Results: No significant differences between papillary thyroid cancer and benign goiter groups were apparent in terms of age, the N/L ratio, MPV, white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet, neutrophil, lymphocyte, red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and platelet crit (PCT) levels (p>0.05). Only the level of platelet distribution width (PDW) significantly differed, being lower in the papillary cancer group (p<0.05). Conclusions: No significant relationship between papillary thyroid cancer and inflammatory hematological parameters including in particular the N/L ratio and MPV. The relevance of the PDW values remains unclear.
Randomized-Control Screening Trials to Lower Gall Bladder Cancer Mortality in High Risk Populations
Krishnatreya, Manigreeva ; Kataki, Amal Chandra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2325~2327
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2325
Gall bladder cancer is generally fatal. The high morbidity and mortality due to gall bladder cancer exerts a significant impact on efforts towards cancer control in high risk populations of the World and a rationale program for control of gall bladder cancer mortality has remained as an unmet need in these populations. Currently there are no effective strategies for controlling gall bladder cancer mortality. This mini review is to highlight the need and feasibility for secondary prevention of gall bladder cancer by screening in high risk populations. A way forward is to assess the role of secondary prevention of gall bladder cancers by conducting randomized-controlled screening trials in high risk populations.
Prescription Errors with Chemotherapy: Quality Improvement through Standardized Order Templates
Saad, Aline ; Der-Nigoghossian, Caroline A. ; Njeim, Rachel ; Sakr, Riwa ; Salameh, Pascale ; Massoud, Marcel ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2329~2336
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2329
Background: Despite the existence of established guidelines advocating the use and value of chemotherapy order templates, chemotherapy orders are still handwritten in many hospitals in Lebanon. This manuscript describes the implementation of standardized chemotherapy order templates (COT) in a Lebanese tertiary teaching hospital through multiple steps. Initial Assessment: An initial assessment was conducted through a retrospective appraisal of completeness of handwritten chemotherapy orders for 100 adult patients to serve as a baseline for the project and identify parameters that might afford improvement. Choice of solution: Development of over 300 standardized pre-printed COTs based on the National Comprehensive Cancer Network templates and adapted to the practice culture and patient population. Implementation: The COTs were implemented, using Kotter's 8-step model for leading change, by engaging health care providers, and identifying and removing barriers. Evaluation: Assessment of physicians' compliance with the new practice (122 orders assessed) was completed through two phases and allowed for the identification of areas of improvement. Lessons Learned: Overall, COT implementation showed an average improvement in order completion from 49.5% (handwritten orders) to 77.6% (phase 1-COT) to 87.6% (phase 2-COT) reflecting an increase of 38.1% between baseline and phase 2 and demonstrating that chemotherapy orders completeness was improved by pre-printed COT. As many of the hospitals in Lebanon are moving towards standardized COTs and computerized physician order entry (CPOE) in the next few years, this study provides a prototype for the successful implementation of COT and demonstrates their role in promoting quality improvement of cancer care.
Educational Utilization of Microsoft Powerpoint for Oral and Maxillofacial Cancer Presentations
Carvalho, Francisco Samuel Rodrigues ; Chaves, Filipe Nobre ; Soares, Eduardo Costa Studart ; Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves ; Ribeiro, Thyciana Rodrigues ; Fonteles, Cristiane Sa Roriz ; Costa, Fabio Wildson Gurgel ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2337~2339
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2337
Electronic presentations have become useful tools for surgeons, other clinicians and patients, facilitating medical and legal support and scientific research. Microsoft(R) PowerPoint is by far and away the most commonly used computer-based presentation package. Setting up surgical clinical cases with PowerPoint makes it easy to register and follow patients for the purpose of discussion of treatment plan or scientific presentations. It facilitates communication between professionals, supervising clinical cases and teaching. It is ofter useful to create a template to standardize the presentation, offered by the software through the slide master. The purpose of this paper was to show a simple and practical method for creating a Microsoft(R) PowerPoint template for use in presentations comcerning oral and maxillofacial cancer.
Does Indian Myelodysplastic Syndrome have a Biology Different from that in the West ?
Chaubey, Rekha ; Sazawal, Sudha ; Mahapatra, Manoranjan ; Chhikara, Sunita ; Saxena, Renu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2341~2342
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2341
Outcome of Inversion 16 in TKD Positive and Negative Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients
Shahab, Sadaf ; Zahid, Danish ; Ahmed, Shariq ; Nadeem, Muhammad ; Farzana, Tasneem ; Taj, Mehwesh ; Ahmed, Nuzhat ; Shamsi, Tahir S ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2343~2344
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2343
Tobacco Control in India - Just a Legislative Measure?
Chowdhry, Aman ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 2345~2346
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2345