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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Jun 2016
Volume 17, Issue sup2 - Apr 2016
Volume 17, Issue sup1 - Apr 2016
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Apr 2016
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Mar 2016
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
Volume 16, Issue 18 - Jan 2016
Selecting the target year
Tobacco Control Policies in Vietnam: Review on MPOWER Implementation Progress and Challenges
Hoang, Van Minh ; Tran, Thu Ngan ; Vu, Quynh Mai ; Nguyen, Thi Tuyet My ; Le, Hong Chung ; Vu, Duy Kien ; Tran, Tuan Anh ; Nguyen, Bao Ngoc ; Vu, Van Giap ; Nguyen, Manh Cuong ; Pham, Duc Manh ; Kim, Bao Giang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue sup1, 2016, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.S1.1
In Vietnam, the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) took effect in March 2005 while MPOWER has been implemented since 2008. This paper describes the progress and challenges of implementation of the MPOWER package in Vietnam. We can report that, in term of monitoring, Vietnam is very active in the Global Tobacco Surveillance System, completing two rounds of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) and three rounds of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). To protect people from tobacco smoke, Vietnam has issued and enforced a law requiring comprehensive smoking bans at workplaces and public places since 2013. Tobacco advertising and promotion are also prohibited with the exception of points of sale displays of tobacco products. Violations come in the form of promotion girls, corporate social responsibility activities from tobacco manufacturers and packages displayed by retail vendors. Vietnam is one of the 77 countries that require pictorial health warnings to be printed on cigarette packages to warn about the danger of tobacco and the warnings have been implemented effectively. Cigarette tax is 70% of factory price which is equal to less than 45% of retail price and much lower than the recommendation of WHO. However, Vietnam is one of the very few countries that require manufacturers and importers to make "compulsory contributions" at 1-2% of the factory price of cigarettes sold in Vietnam for the establishment of a Tobacco Control Fund (TCF). The TCF is being operated well. In 2015, 67 units of 63 provinces/cities, 22 ministries and political-social organizations and 6 hospitals received funding from TCF to implement a wide range of tobacco control activities. Cessation services have been starting with a a toll-free quit-line but need to be further strengthened. In conclusion, Vietnam has constantly put efforts into the tobacco control field with high commitment from the government, scientists and activists. Though several remarkable achievements have been gained, many challenges remain. To overcome those challenges, implementation strategies that take into account the contextual factors and social determinants of tobacco use in Vietnam are needed.
Methodology for the Global Youth Tobacco Use Survey (GYST), Vietnam, 2014
Kim, Bao Giang ; Hoang, Van Minh ; Phan, Thi Hai ; Doan, Thu Huyen ; Luong, Ngoc Khue ; Nguyen, Thuy Linh ; Nguyen, Tuan Lam ; Pham, Thi Quynh Nga ; Luu, Ngoc Hoat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue sup1, 2016, Pages 11~15
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.S1.11
Viet Nam is a country with the highest rate of adult male smokers in the world. In 2010, the percentage of adult male smokers was 47.4%. Each year in Viet Nam, there are 40,000 lives lost from tobacco-related diseases. The Global Tobacco Youth Survey is an international standardized survey that has been conducted in more than 140 countries. To provide evidence for tobacco control, Viet Nam already conducted two rounds of GYTS in 2003 and 2007. The GYTS in 2014 is the survey's third iteration. This paper aims to document key methodological details and socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents included in the 2014 GYTS in Viet Nam. This survey followed international protocol and was conducted in 13 provinces representative of 6 geographical regions. A total of 3,430 school children, aged 13 to 15 years used a standardized answer sheet to answer 76 questions about seven tobacco-related topics, including prevalence of tobacco use, environmental tobacco smoke, access and availability, media and advertisement, cessation, knowledge and attitudes, tobacco-related school curriculum. This GYTS provides valid and reliable data for monitoring tobacco use among youth in Vietnam and is recommended to be regularly repeated.
Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam and Correlates of Current Cigarette Smoking: Results from GYTS 2014 Data
Le, Thi Huong ; Nga, Thi Thu Vu ; Nguyen, Ngoc Dung ; Le, Thi Thanh Xuan ; Kim, Bao Giang ; Phan, Thi Hai ; Doan, Thu Huyen ; Luong, Ngoc Khue ; Nguyen, Tuan Lam ; Hoang, Van Minh ; Pham, Thi Quynh Nga ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue sup1, 2016, Pages 17~23
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.S1.17
The aim of this paper is to report the rate of current and ever cigarette smoking and explore correlates of current cigarette smoking among adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam. This analysis was derived from GYTS survey, which comprised of 3,430 adolescents aged 13-15, conducted in 2014 in 13 cities and provinces of Viet Nam. We calculated the weighted rates of current and ever cigarette smoking and reported patterns of smoking behavior. We also performed logistic regression to explore correlates of current cigarette smoking behavior. The weighted rate of ever cigarette smoking was 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.5 %-10.5%), in which the weighted rate among males (15.4%; 95% CI: 13.6%-17.0%) was higher than that among females (4.2%; 95% CI: 3.3%-5.1%). The weighted rate of current cigarette smoking was relatively low at 2.5% (95%CI: 2.0%-3.0%) with higher weighted rate among males (4.9%; 95% CI: 3.8%-5.9%) compared to the corresponding figure among females (0.2%; 95% CI: 0.0 %-0.5%). Current cigarette smoking was significantly higher among males than females, in students aged 15 versus 13 years old, and in students who had several or all close friends smoking and students with daily observation of smoking at school. For greater smoking reduction outcomes, we recommend that tobacco interventions for adolescents should consider targeting more male students at older ages, establish stricter adherence to school-based banning of cigarette smoking, engage both smoking and nonsmoking adolescents and empower adolescents to resist peer smoking influence as well as changing their norms or beliefs towards smoking benefits.
Tobacco Access and Availability for Vietnamese School Children (aged 13-15): Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Use Survey (GYTS) 2014 in Viet Nam
Le, Thi Kim Anh ; Bui, Thi Tu Quyen ; Hoang, Van Minh ; Kim, Bao Giang ; Phan, Thi Hai ; Doan, Thu Huyen ; Luong, Ngoc Khue ; Nguyen, Tuan Lam ; Pham, Thi Quynh Nga ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue sup1, 2016, Pages 25~29
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.S1.25
Efforts to reduce tobacco use among school children need to be based on understanding of access to cigarettes by these subjects because previous studies indicated that enforcement of laws for controlling tobacco sales seems to not affect teen/school children because they can obtain cigarettes from different sources. This paper aims to describe access to and availability of cigarettes among school students (aged 13-15 years old) according to the data from GYTS Vietnam 2014. In GYTS, a national school-based survey of students of grades 8-10, our findings showed that about 15% school children are current smokers who smoke at home, and that they could easily buy cigarettes from stores (63.2%), or someone else (27.8%), or street vendors (9%). Notably, over 85% of school children answered that they were not refused because of their age. This high percentage was nearly the same in the North (85.7%), the Centre (92.5%), and the South (89.7%) of Viet Nam. These findings show that it is quite easy for school children to obtain cigarettes and this is a crucial challenge for policy makers aiming to reduce tobacco use among youth in general and school-age students in particular.
Access to Anti-smoking Information among School Children and its Potential Impact on Preventing Smoking Initiation: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Use Survey (GYTS) 2014 in Viet Nam
Hoang, Van Minh ; Kim, Bao Giang ; Phan, Thi Hai ; Trinh, Dinh Hoang ; Doan, Thu Huyen ; Luong, Ngoc Khue ; Nguyen, Thuy Linh ; Nguyen, Tuan Lam ; Pham, Thi Quynh Nga ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue sup1, 2016, Pages 31~36
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.S1.31
Scientific evidence on all aspects of smoking amongst youth is very important for designing appropriate interventions to reduce smoking among this vulnerable population. This paper describes current access to anti-smoking information among school children aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam in 2014 and examines its potential impact on preventing smoking initiation. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2014 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Vietnam. Students were asked questions about their level of awareness of anti-smoking information from various sources in the past 30 days and about lessons in school regarding the dangers of tobacco use during the last 12 months. Those who have never smoked were asked "whether or not they thought about avoiding cigarettes because of health warnings on cigarette packages" and answers were analyzed in combination with data on access to anti-smoking information from other sources. The prevalence of exposure to antismoking campaigns was high among school children in Viet Nam: 55.3% of current smokers reported thoughts of smoking cessation because of health warnings on cigarette packages; 60.5% of never smokers avoided initiating smoking because of the same health warnings. The potential impact of graphic health warnings to prevent school-aged children from smoking initiation would be stronger if there was concurrent access to anti-smoking programs on the dangers of tobacco use in schools. However, school education for tobacco prevention and control has not been as strong as expected. A more comprehensive school curriculum on tobacco prevention and control is recommended to reinforce antismoking messages among school children.
Knowledge and Attitude Towards Tobacco Smoking among 13-15 Year-Old School Children in Viet Nam - Findings from GYTS 2014
Nguyen, Thanh Huong ; Nguyen, Trung Kien ; Kim, Bao Giang ; Hoang, Van Minh ; Phan, Thi Hai ; Doan, Thu Huyen ; Luong, Ngoc Khue ; Nguyen, Thuy Linh ; Nguyen, Tuan Lam ; Pham, Thi Quynh Nga ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue sup1, 2016, Pages 37~42
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.S1.37
Studies have shown that smoking is a learnt behavior, often initiated during adolescence. This paper aims to describe tobacco-related knowledge, attitude and associations among school adolescents aged 13-15 with exposure to anti-smoking information. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Viet Nam, 2014, knowledge was measured through 4 questions about tobacco use, and attitude was assessed through 3 questions on personal, social and environmental aspects. Students giving most anti-tobacco responses to all questions were considered as having correct knowledge or appropriate attitude or both. Access to anti-smoking information was determined by exposure to any media messages on tobacco control during the past 30 days and teaching in school about the danger of tobacco use during the past 12 months. A substantial percentage of students thought that being near others who smoke might be harmful to them and smoking is harmful to health (89.4% and 89.6% respectively). However, only 46.4% reported that it is definitely difficult to quit smoking and 66.9% thought that smoking for only 1 or 2 years, once stopped, is harmful to health. Slightly more than half of the respondents reported appropriate attitude that young smokers have fewer friends than others and smoking makes them less attractive and less comfortable at social events. Noticing anti-smoking messages in the media together with having lessons in school about the dangers of tobacco substantially increased the likelihood of having correct knowledge, appropriate attitude and both. Despite relatively high awareness about smoking harms, effective educational communication is still highly needed to improve the level of comprehensive knowledge and an appropriate attitude regarding tobacco use.
Trends in Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke Exposure Levels at Home among Viet Nam School Children Aged 13-15 and Associated Factors
Nguyen, Tuan Lam ; Pham, Thi Quynh Nga ; Hoang, Van Minh ; Kim, Bao Giang ; Phan, Thi Hai ; Doan, Thu Huyen ; Nguyen, Thuy Linh ; Duong, Khanh Van ; Luong, Ngoc Khue ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue sup1, 2016, Pages 43~47
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.S1.43
Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure at home, especially among children, is a serious issue in Viet Nam. During the past decade, much effort has been taken for tobacco control in the country, including various prgorammes aiming to reduce SHS exposure among adults and children. This article analysed trends and factors associated with SHS exposure at home among school children aged 13-15 in Viet Nam, using the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 2007 and 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods with logistic regression were applied. Overall, there was a significant reduction in the level of exposure, from 58.5% (95%CI: 57.6-59.3) in 2007 to 47.1% (95%CI: 45.4-48.8) in 2014. Of the associated factors, having one or both parents smoking was significantly associated with the highest odds of SHS exposure at home (OR=5.0; 95%CI: 4.2-6.1). Conversely, having a mother with a college or higher education level was found to be a protective factor (OR=0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.8).
Exposure to Tobacco Advertising and Promotion among School Children Aged 13-15 in Vietnam - an Overview from GYTS 2014
Tran, Khanh Long ; Phung, Xuan Son ; Kim, Bao Giang ; Phan, Thi Hai ; Doan, Thi Thu Huyen ; Luong, Ngoc Khue ; Pham, Thi Quynh Nga ; Nguyen, Tuan Lam ; Hoang, Van Minh ; Le, Thi Thanh Huong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue sup1, 2016, Pages 49~53
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.S1.49
Evidence shows that tobacco advertising and promotion activities may increase tobacco consumption and usage, especially in youth. Despite the regulation on prohibiting advertisement of any tobacco product, tobacco advertisement and promotion activities are still common in Vietnam. This article presents current exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion (TAP) among school children aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam in 2014 and potential influencing factors. Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2014 in Vietnam covering 3,430 school aged children were used. Both descriptive and analytical statistics were carried out with Stata 13 statistical software. Binary logistic regression was applied to explain the exposure to TAP among youth and examine relationships with individual factors. A significance level of p<0.05 and sampling weights were used in all of the computations. In the past 30 days, 48.6% of the students experienced exposure to at least 1 type of tobacco advertising or promotion. Wearing or otherwise using products related to tobacco was the most exposure TAP type reported by students (22.3%). The internet (22.1), points of sales (19.2) and social events (11.5) were three places that students aged 13-15 frequently were exposed to TAP. Binary logistic results showed that gender (female vs male) (OR = 0.61, 95%CI: 0.52 - 0.71), susceptibility to smoking (OR = 2.12, 95%CI: 1.53 - 2.92), closest friends' smoked (OR = 1.43, 95%CI: 1.2 - 1.7) and parents smoking status (OR = 2.83, 95%CI: 1.6 - 5.01) were significantly associated with TAP exposure among school-aged children. The research findings should contribute to effective implementation of measures for preventing and controlling tobacco use among students aged 13-15 in Viet Nam.
Changes in Co-Occurrence of Smoking and Harmful Drinking among Youth: a Study from the Chi Linh Demographic - Epidemiological Surveillance System in Vietnam, 2006-2013
Duong, Minh Duc ; Le, Thi Vui ; Nguyen, Thuy Quynh ; Hoang, Van Minh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue sup1, 2016, Pages 55~63
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.S1.55
Smoking and harmful drinking dramatically increase health risks but little is known about their cooccurrence and factors that influence this co-habit, limiting development and implementation of appropriately targeted prevention interventions. This study was conducted among youth aged 10-24 years old in the Chi Linh Demographic - Epidemiological Surveillance System (CHILILAB DESS). The total numbers in the first, second and third rounds in 2006, 2009 and 2013 were 12,406, 10,211, and 7,654, respectively. A random-effects logit model controlling for both time-variant and time-invariant variables was applied to explore factors associated with current smoking, harmful drinking, and occurrence of smoking and harmful drinking together. We found dramatically increasing trends in current smoking, harmful drinking and co-occurrence among youth. Our results indicate similar health problems among youth in peri-urban areas in Vietnam. Demographic characteristics (older age, being male, being unmarried, and having informal work) appeared to be predictors for smoking and drinking behaviour. Besides, peer and family members had significant influence on smoking, whereas having a close-friend who was smoking was the most important variable. The results suggested that smoking and harmful drinking should not be solved with separate, stand-alone interventions but rather with integrated efforts.
Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Smoke-Free Universities: Changes Since Enactment of Vietnamese Tobacco Control Legislation
Nguyen, Ngoc Bich ; Cook, Margaret ; Johnstone, Kelly ; Capra, Mike ; Vu, Thi Hoang Lan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue sup1, 2016, Pages 65~70
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.S1.65
Background: In 2013, legislation in Vietnam regulated smoking in public areas. Included was a ban on indoor smoking at universities. Objective: Since awareness and attitude are moderators of the effectiveness of smoke-free policy, ou aim was to assess changes in students' knowledge and attitude tosecond hand smoke (SHS) and awareness and support of smoke-free legislation at four Vietnamese universities, one year after legislative changes. Methods: A two-phase cross sectional study of undergraduate students using self-administered questionnaires (based on the Global Adult Tobacco Survey and the Thrasher survey) was conducted at the introduction of the legislation and one year thereafter. Results: One-year post legislation there were significant increases in knowledge of smoke-free legislation and awareness of universities as smoke-free environments. There was a significant increase in knowledge of harmful effects of SHS on diseases such as examples in the heart and lung, including lung cancer, and miscarriage. Students expressed strong support of smoke-free environments in universities, hospitals, schools, workplaces, public transport, libraries, cinemas and theatres; support was also increased post legislation. Changes were seen in attitude to SHS, and rights of non-smokers and smokers. Conclusions: Positive changes have occurred in knowledge and attitude toward smoke-free environments and SHS in universities since enactment of Vietnamese tobacco control legislation.
Changes in Vietnamese Male Smokers' Reactions Towards New Pictorial Cigarette Pack Warnings Over Time
Tran, Thu Ngan ; Le, Vu Anh ; Nguyen, Thi Tuyet My ; Nguyen, Ngoc Bich ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue sup1, 2016, Pages 71~78
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.S1.71
Printing of pictorial health warnings (PHWs) on cigarette packages became obligatory by the Vietnam Law on Prevention and Control of Tobacco Harm in May 2013. Literature from high-income countries suggests that PHWs motivate smokers to quit smoking although their long-term effects have been questioned due to reduction of impact over time. This study aimed to assess the salience of PHWs and smokers' reactions towards PHWs over time. In May 2014 and May 2015, a cross-sectional questionnaire-based household survey was administered to respectively 1,462 and 1,509 Vietnamese male smokers aged 18 to 35. The result showed that salience of the PHWs 2 years after the implementation was higher than at the point of 1 year after the implementation. The proportion of respondents who tried to avoid noting the PHWs was reduced from 35% in wave 1 to 23% in wave 2. However, "Tried to avoid looking/thinking about the PHWs" increased 1.5 times the odds of presenting quit intention compared to those respondents who did not try to avoid looking/thinking about the PHWs (OR=1.5; 95%CI: 1.2-2.0). In conclusion, avoidance regarding PHWs may not work as a barrier when aiming at a higher level of quit intention. Salience of the PHWs may increase in the period shortly after their introduction onto packs but can be expected to decrease with time. In other words, it might be advisable to change or renew PHWs after a period of implementation to maintain their beneficial effects.
Relative Importance of Different Attributes of Graphic Health Warnings on Tobacco Packages in Viet Nam
Kim, Bao Giang ; Le, Hong Chung ; Hoang, Van Minh ; Vu, Duy Kien ; Vu, Van Giap ; Nguyen, Duc Hinh ; Nguyen, Manh Cuong ; Pham, Duc Manh ; Ha, Anh Duc ; Yang, Jui-Chen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue sup1, 2016, Pages 79~84
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.S1.79
Graphic health warnings (GHW) on tobacco packages have proven to be effective in increasing quit attempts among smokers and reducing initial smoking among adolescents. This research aimed to examine the relative importance of different attributes of graphic health warnings on tobacco packages in Viet Nam. A discrete choice experimental (DCE) design was applied with a conditional logit model. In addition, a ranking method was used to list from the least to the most dreadful GHW labels. With the results from DCE model, graphic type was shown to be the most important attribute, followed by cost and coverage area of GHW. The least important attribute was position of the GHW. Among 5 graphic types (internal lung cancer image, external damaged teeth, abstract image, human suffering image and text), the image of lung cancer was found to have the strongest influence on both smokers and non-smokers. With ranking method, the image of throat cancer and heart diseases were considered the most dreadful images. GHWs should be designed with these attributes in mind, to maximise influence on purchase among both smokers and non-smokers.
Potential Impact of Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Reducing Cigarette Demand and Smoking-Related Deaths in Vietnam
Hoang, Van Minh ; Le, Hong Chung ; Kim, Bao Giang ; Duong, Minh Duc ; Nguyen, Duc Hinh ; Vu, Quynh Mai ; Nguyen, Manh Cuong ; Pham, Duc Manh ; Ha, Anh Duc ; Yang, Jui-Chen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue sup1, 2016, Pages 85~90
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.S1.85
Two years after implementation of the graphic health warning intervention in Vietnam, it is very important to evaluate the intervention's potential impact. The objective of this paper was to predict effects of graphic health warnings on cigarette packages, particularly in reducing cigarette demand and smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam. In this study, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) method was used to evaluate the potential impact of graphic tobacco health warnings on smoking demand. To predict the impact of GHWs on reducing premature deaths associated with smoking, we constructed different static models. We adapted the method developed by University of Toronto, Canada and found that GHWs had statistically significant impact on reducing cigarette demand (up to 10.1% through images of lung damage), resulting in an overall decrease of smoking prevalence in Vietnam. We also found that between 428,417- 646,098 premature deaths would be prevented as a result of the GHW intervention. The potential impact of the GHW labels on reducing premature smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam were shown to be stronger among lower socio-economic groups.
Violation of Bans on Tobacco Advertising and Promotion at Points of Sale in Viet Nam: Trend from 2009 - 2015
Le, Thi Thanh Huong ; Tran, Khanh Long ; Phung, Xuan Son ; Do, Phuc Huyen ; Phan, Thuy Linh ; Nguyen, Ngoc Bich ; Nguyen, Xuan Lam ; Le, Vu Anh ; Tran, Thi Tuyet-Hanh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 17, issue sup1, 2016, Pages 91~96
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.S1.91
Comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion were introduced through tobacco control legislation in Viet Nam, but it has been established that violations of the bans are very common. This study was conducted to explore the trend in violations of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in Viet Nam in the past six years and to explore any differences in the violation situations before and after the Law on Tobacco Control came into effect on 1st May 2013. Quantitative data were collected through observation of violations of the bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in 10 provinces throughout Viet Nam in four survey rounds (2009, 2010, 2011, and 2015). Variation in violation prevalence over time was examined by chi-square test using a Bonferini method. Binary logistic regression was employed to identify the factors that may have influences on different types of violation. A level of significance of p<0.05 was used for all tests in this article. The most common form of violation was the display of more than one pack/one carton of a cigarette brand. Violation of bans on tobacco advertising increased while violations on promotion ban and on displaying tobacco decreased through time. Some factors associated with the tobacco advertising and promotion bans included surveyed years, types of points of sale, regions and areas where the points of sale were located. The enforcement of the bans did not improve even after the issuance and the enactment of the Law on Tobacco Control. This suggests that the monitoring and enforcement of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale should be strengthened. Penalties should be strictly applied for violators as indicated in the current tobacco control legislation.