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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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Journal DOI :
Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 43, Issue 5 - Dec 2011
Volume 43, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 43, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 43, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 43, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
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Tuning of a PID Controller Using Soft Computing Methodologies Applied to Basis Weight Control in Paper Machine
Nagaraj, Balakrishnan ; Vijayakumar, Ponnusamy ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 43, issue 3, 2011, Pages 1~10
Proportional.Integral.Derivative control schemes continue to provide the simplest and effective solutions to most of the control engineering applications today. However PID controller is poorly tuned in practice with most of the tuning done manually which is difficult and time consuming. This research comes up with a soft computing approach involving Genetic Algorithm, Evolutionary Programming, and Particle Swarm Optimization and Ant colony optimization. The proposed algorithm is used to tune the PID parameters and its performance has been compared with the conventional methods like Ziegler Nichols and Lambda method. The results obtained reflect that use of heuristic algorithm based controller improves the performance of process in terms of time domain specifications, set point tracking, and regulatory changes and also provides an optimum stability. This research addresses comparison of tuning of the PID controller using soft computing techniques on Machine Direction of basics weight control in pulp and paper industry. Compared to other conventional PID tuning methods, the result shows that better performance can be achieved with the soft computing based tuning method. The ability of the designed controller, in terms of tracking set point, is also compared and simulation results are shown.
Relationship between Equilibrium Moisture Contents and Dimensional Stability of Handsheet Depending on Fibers Hornification
Park, Chang-Soon ; Lee, Jin-Ho ; Kil, Jung-Ha ; Park, Jong-Moon ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 43, issue 3, 2011, Pages 11~20
The conditions to which pulp fibers are exposed during paper production, converting, storage, use, and recycling can induce various changes in fiber morphology, surface characteristics, and suitability for paper production by recycled fibers. Most of those changes can be described by hornification. Paper has highly hygroscopic properties which affect dimensional change by relative humidity variation of surrounding condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dimensional stability, moisture contents and dip elongation of handsheets at different relative humidity conditions of recycled kraft pulp and BCTMP. By using recycled fibers, dimensional stability was increased because hygroscopic properties of fibers decreased with repeated recycling treatment. Dip elongation of recycled pulp was higher than that of virgin pulp because of its weak fiber-to-fiber bonding. By recycling pulp, the relative bonded area was decreased because fiber could not swell more than virgin pulp. Dimensional stability largely depended on the equilibrium moisture contents of paper, the fiber-to-fiber bonding strength, and the relative bonded area.
Study on Drainage and Physical Properties of KOCC Handsheet Containing Pretreated Wooden Fillers
Chae, Hee-Jae ; Park, Jong-Moon ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 43, issue 3, 2011, Pages 21~29
Recently, the use of recycled fibers was increased in order to replace the virgin pulp for low production cost and forest conservation. However, the recycled fibers decreases drainage rate, papermaking efficiency and product quality by short fibers and low wettability because of hornification. To overcome the limitation of low drainage rate, the technology of organic fillers were applied. Wooden fillers gave high bulk and stiffness of paper, but they reduced the strength of paper. In order to improve strength properties 4 types of strength additives were added and analyzed. Cationic starch, branched strength additive, linear wet strength additive, and linear dry strength additive were used. The drainage rate and paper properties such as bulk, air permeability and tensile strength were measured. As results of analysis, addition of branch type of strength agent such as C-starch was effective than linear type of strength agent in the drainage rate. Nevertheless there was no effect on the drainage rate by adding the pretreated wooden fillers. By adding the pretreated wooden fillers, bulk, air permeability and tensile strength of handsheets were improved with low dosage than non-pretreated fillers.
Design for the Coated Layer suitable with Conductivity Ink for RFID(II) -Effect of coated weight and calender pressure on coated paper-
Jung, Hae-Sung ; Cho, Byoung-Uk ; Kim, Chang-Kuen ; Lee, Yong-Kyu ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 43, issue 3, 2011, Pages 30~34
This study was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of coated weight and calender pressure on conductivity of printed RFID tags. The printed RFID tags have been manufactured with gravure printing and it has been well known that the efficiency of printed RFID tags is influenced by surface properties of substrate. In this study, coated paper was prepared with four different coated weight and three different calender pressure. After printing conductivity ink on coated paper, surface resistance was measured to evaluate the efficiency of the printed RFID tag. It was found that, with increasing of coated weight and calender pressure, the paper gloss, smoothness, brightness and gravure printability were improved while the surface resistance of the printed RFID tag was decreased.
Preliminary Study on Properties of Layer-by-Layer Assembled GCC with Polyelectrolytes
Lee, Je-Gon ; Ryu, Jae-Ho ; Sim, Kyu-Jeong ; Ahn, Jung-Eon ; Lee, Hak-Lae ; Youn, Hye-Jung ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 43, issue 3, 2011, Pages 35~42
In this study, ground calcium carbonate (GCC) was modified by Layer-by-Layer (LbL) multilayering with polyelectrolytes. Cationic polyacrylamide (C-PAM) and poly sodium 4-styrene sulfonate (PSS) were used as cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes to modify GCC. The characteristics of the modified GCC were examined in terms of zeta potential and particle size with the addition level of polyelectrolyte and layer number. The GCC could form an assembly of cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes through consecutive adsorption process. The zeta potential of the modified GCC moved toward the cationicity and reached the plateau with the increase of the addition level of C-PAM. With layering of anionic PSS, the GCC had the negative charge. The particle size was dependent on the zeta potential. It was also observed by optical microscope. As the PSS was in the presence of the outermost layer, the GCC showed the better dispersability. It indicated that the surface charge and particle size can be controlled by adjusting the addition level of polyelectrolyte and the layer number.
A Study on the Utilization of Ingredients and Fibers from Korean Bamboo Species in Value-added Industry: Part 1. -Changes in Chemical Composition of Moso, Henon, and Timber Bamboo According to the Bamboo Ages-
Kang, Kyu-Young ; Yoon, Seung-Lak ; Jeon, Kwon-Seok ; Park, Mun-Sueb ; Park, Nam-Chang ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 43, issue 3, 2011, Pages 43~51
Chemical composition and contents of carbohydrates, lignin, and extractives in Moso(Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel), Henon(Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis Stapf ex. Rendle), and Timber bamboo(Phyllostachys bambusoides Sieb. et Zucc.) known as economically valuable bamboo species in Korea were analyzed as a function of ages. All of tested bamboo species were composed of fucose, arabinose, rhamnose, galactose, glucose, xylose, and mannose. Glucose was the sugar which showed the highest content followed by xylose. The contents of others were below 3%. Sugar contents of bamboo shoots showed the lowest among the tested bamboo samples, and the constant rates were shown after 50 days of growth. Lignin content increased by the growth of one year, and the increasing rates tended to be constant after the growth of three years. Bamboo shoots have the highest contents of acid-soluble lignin, which turned into insoluble lignin after the growth of 50 days. Bamboo shoots showed the highest content of extractives and tend to be decreased by the growth of 50 days and then the content increased slowly in proportion to the period of bamboo growth. No relationship was found between species and chemical composition of bamboo. However, there were significant difference in chemical composition between bamboo shoots and 50-day old bamboo.
Kinetic Study of Xylan Hydrolysis and Decomposition in Concentrated Sulfuric Acid Hydrolysis Process by
Cho, Dae-Haeng ; Kim, Yong-Hwan ; Kim, Byung-Ro ; Park, Jong-Moon ; Sung, Yong-Joo ; Shin, Soo-Jeong ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 43, issue 3, 2011, Pages 52~58
Proton-NMR spectroscopic method was applied to kinetic study of concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis reaction, especially focused on 2nd step of acid hydrolysis with deferent reaction time and temperature as main variables. Commercial xylan extracted from beech wood was used as model compound. In concentrated acid hydrolysis, xylan was converted to xylose, which is unstable in 2nd hydrolysis condition, which decomposed to furfural or other reaction products. Without neutralization steps, proton-NMR spectroscopic analysis method was valid for analysis of not only monosaccharide (xylose) but also other reaction products (furfural and formic acid) in acid hydrolyzates from concentrated acid hydrolysis of xylan, which was the main advantages of this analytical method. Higher temperature and longer reaction time at 2nd step acid hydrolysis led to less xylose concentration in xylan acid hydrolyzate, especially at
and 120 min, which meant hydrolyzed xylose was converted to furfural or other reaction products. Loss of xylose was not match with furfural formation, which meant part of furfural was degraded to other undetected compounds. Formation of formic acid was unexpected from acidic dehydration of pentose, which might come from the glucuronic acid at the side chain of xylan.
Preparation of Microcrystalline Cellulose by using Sawdust of Tropical Hardwood Nyatoh
Sung, Yong-Joo ; Lee, Ji-Young ; Lee, Han-Ba-Loh ; Kim, Sung-Jun ; Lee, Joon-Woo ; Kim, Se-Bin ; Park, Gwan-Soo ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 43, issue 3, 2011, Pages 59~65
The saw dust of tropical hardwood, Nyatoh(Palaquium Spp.), was used as a raw material for the preparation of the high valued microcrystalline cellulose(MCC). Three pulping methods, soda pulping, Kraft pulping, and acid-sulfite pulping were applied to obtain cellulose from the saw dust. The residual impurities were removed with the additional bleaching processes: (A)
. For the acid treatment for MCC preparation, the
, with three concentration, 20%, 40%, 60% were applied and the effects of
concentration on the properties of MCC were evaluated. The results indicated that the MCC obtained by acid-sulfite pulping followed with
treatment and 40%
treatment showed less residual lignin, higher brightness and crystallinity than that of Avicel MCC.
Aging Behavior of Beeswaxed Hanji(II) - Acidic and Alkaline Aging of Beeswaxed Hanji -
Kim, Kang-Jae ; Lee, Min-Hyung ; Eom, Tae-Jin ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 43, issue 3, 2011, Pages 66~72
The annals of Joseon Dynasty is one of UNESCO's Memory of the World Register. For the safety preservation of the waxed annals of Joseon Dynasty, the acidic and alkaline aging mechanism of beeswax and beeswaxed Hanji has been investigated. The weight loss of beeswaxed Hanji by the acidic aging was higher than those of alkaline beeswax. The acid value and relative intensity of carbonyl groups in beeswax were slowly increased with aging time. The strength of dewaxed Hanji was decreased with aging time. The significant changes of crystallinity of dewaxed Hanji by acidic and alkaline aging were not observed.
Aging Behavior of Beeswaxed Hanji(III) - Aging of Beeswaxed Hanji with
Kim, Kang-Jae ; Lee, Min-Hyung ; Eom, Tae-Jin ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 43, issue 3, 2011, Pages 73~79
The annals of Joseon Dynasty is one of the UNESCO's Memory of the World Register. For the safety preservation of wax applied volumes of the annals of Joseon Dynasty, the aging behavior of beeswax and beeswaxed Hanji with
gas has been evaluated. The weight loss of beeswaxed Hanji after aging under ozone gas were increased because of strong acidity of ozone. The acid value and relative intensity of carbonyl groups in beeswax were stabilized with aging time. The physical strength of dewaxed Hanji after ozone aging were rapidly decreased by aging time. The crystallinity of dewaxed Hanji were stabilized at all aging times.
Studies on the Paper Interior Materials of Tradition(Part 1) - Physical and Strength Properties of Changhoji -
Yoon, Seung-Lak ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 43, issue 3, 2011, Pages 80~87
This research was performed to investigate the physical and mechanical properties of Chanhoji manufactured with the traditional method. This research would provide a basic information for its application in the manufacture of Korean-style house. A piece of Changhoji was manufactured to have a weight of 3.75 g. The weight was increased with the basic weight and no increase was not found on its density. The strength properties of Changhoji are superior to a copying paper, and the quality showed the first grade in Korean Standard (KS M 7301). The air resistance varied with the thickness from 2 to 19 seconds, but it showed better performance than a copying paper having 38 seconds. This research would be used for the practical use in understanding the ventilation and lightening properties of windows and doors in Korean-style house.
Improvement on Dyeability of Hanji with Natural Dyes Using a (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride
Yoo, Seung-Il ; Oh, Ui-Myeong ; Min, Yu-Ri ; Choi, Tae-Ho ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 43, issue 3, 2011, Pages 88~97
We carried out cationization of Dak pulp (paper mulberry bast fiber pulp) which is raw material of Hanji (Traditional Korean Paper) using a (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride to improve dyeability during a dyeing of Hanji with Gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides) and smoke tree (Cotinus coggygria). Fiber specific charge densities were determined using polyelectrolyte titration method and K/S values of dyed Hanji was calculated by Kubelka-Munk equation. As the result, fiber specific charge density increased with degree of cationization. Colors of Hanji dyed with Gardenia did not vary significantly with degree of cationization, but cationized Hanji dyed with smoke tree showed a large increase of a* value and reddish yellow color. After-mordanting did not decrease K/S value of dyes with cationized Hanji. K/S values of dyed Hanji decreased with increasing dyeing temperature. For smoke tree, the cationization impair lightfastness of dyed Hanji without mordant. After-mordanting with copper acetate or iron chloride improved lightfastness of dyed Hanji.
Comparative Analysis of the Optical Aging Patterns in Different Partitions of the Beeswax-Treated Volume during Dry Heating Aging at
Choi, Kyoung-Hwa ; Jeong, Hye-Young ; Kang, Yeong-Seok ; Cho, Jung-Hye ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 43, issue 3, 2011, Pages 98~105
Patterns and levels of aging vary between the book volume and sheets, even though both are made from the same paper materials. In case of book format, the outside is more easily affected than inner side by environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and air. In this study, the change in optical properties after dry heating accelerated aging was comparatively analyzed to understand the difference of the optical aging characteristics between outside and inner side of the duplicated beeswax-treated volume. It is found that the cover pages of the beeswax-treated volumes were more optically deteriorated than their middle pages. This indicates that outer sides of aging book volume directly exposed to the air is more vulnerable to serious deterioration than inner sides. Also, aromatic compounds such as benzoic acid and cinnamic acid were observed in the investigation of UV/VIS absorbance of the beeswax in each aged sample.
Effects of Alkaline Treatment on the Characteristics of Chemical Pulps for Papermaking
Won, Jong-Myoung ; Kim, Min-Hyun ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 43, issue 3, 2011, Pages 106~112
The effects of alkaline treatment on the WRV, crystalline structure and sheet structure of softwood and hardwood bleached kraft pulp were investigated. Sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate were used as chemicals for alkaline treatment and two levels of alkali dosage (5%, 10%) were applied respectively. Alkali treated and untreated pulp were refined to three levels (550, 450 and 350 mL CSF). WRV of the alkali treated pulps depended on the alkaline type and concentration. It was found that the crystalline structures of softwood and hardwood pulp were not changed by refining. Sodium carbonate and lower concentration of sodium hydroxide treatment did not caused any modification of cellulose crystalline structure, while higher concentration of sodium hydroxide treatment caused the partial modification of cellulose crystalline structure. Alkaline treatment of hardwood bleached kraft pulp led to the shrinkage of fiber diameter and bulky structure of sheet. Alkaline treatment of softwood bleached kraft pulp did not cause the significant change in fiber shrinkage and bulk of sheet.
Morphological Analysis of Engineered PCC by Gas-Liquid Mixing Conditions
Lee, Tai-Ju ; Seo, Jin-Ho ; Kim, Hyoung-Jin ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 43, issue 3, 2011, Pages 113~120
Precipitated calcium carbonate(PCC), particularly calcite crystal, is extensively used as a pigment, filler or extender in various industries such as paper, paint, textile, detergents, adhesives, rubber and plastics, food, cosmetics, and biomaterials. PCC is conventionally produced through the gas-liquid carbonation process, which consists on bubbling gaseous
through a concentrated calcium hydroxide slurry. This study is aimed to find some factors for controlling the morphology of engineered PCC in lab-scaled mixing batch. The experimental designs were based on temperature variables,
flow rate, and electrical conductivity. The model of engineered PCC morphology was finally controlled by adjustment of electrical conductivity(6.0~7.0 mS/cm) and
concentration(10 g/L). Orthorhombic calcite crystals were mostly created at high concentration and electrical conductivity conditions because the increased ratio of
ions affects the growth rate of orthorhombic faces. Excess calcium spices were contributed to the growth of faces in calcium carbonate crystal, and the non-stoichiometric reaction was occurred between
ions during carbonation process.
Studies on Rheological Properties of High Solid Coating Colors(Part 2) - Effect of Rheology Modifiers on High-Shear Viscosity and Dynamic Penetration Behavior -
Yoo, Sung-Jong ; Cho, Byoung-Uk ; Lee, Yong-Kyu ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 43, issue 3, 2011, Pages 121~127
This study used two types of rheology modifiers including an alkali-swellable emulsion (ASE) and an surface-adhesion emulsion (SAE) to elucidate their effects on high shear viscosity and dynamic penetration behavior among the flow properties of high solids coating. Since rheology under high shear and dynamic penetration behavior significantly affect the quality of coated paper in case of high solids coating, it is very important to examine the variations in rheology of high solids coating color by rheology modifier. It was found that the high solids coating color prepared with the SAE type showed superior dynamic penetration behavior and high shear viscosity than that with the ASE type rheology modifier.
Analysis on the Relationship between the Prices of Pulps and Wood Chips
Lee, Kee-Hyun ; Kim, Chul-Hwan ; Kim, Eui-Gyeong ; Ahn, Byeong-Il ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 43, issue 3, 2011, Pages 128~136
In order to investigate the relationship between the prices of wood chips and pulps, regression analysis and cointegration test were conducted. Test results indicated that pulp producers adjusted pulp price in response to the change in wood-chip price and there were a long-run relationship between these prices. This implied that by raising the selling price of pulp, pulp producers avoid profit loss incurred by the increase in the wood-chip price. The existence of cointegration between wood chips and pulp prices implied that pulp producers were competing when they set the selling price of pulp.