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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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Journal DOI :
Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 47, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 47, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 47, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 47, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 47, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 47, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
Large Scale Applications of Nanocellulosic Materials - A Comprehensive Review -
Lindstrom, Tom ; Naderi, Ali ; Wiberg, Anna ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 47, issue 6, 2015, Pages 5~21
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.6.005
The common production methods of nanocellulosic (cellulosic nanofibrils, CNF) materials from wood are being reviewed, together with large scale applications and particularly papermaking applications. The high energy demand for producing CNF has been one particular problem, which has been addressed over the years and can now be considered solved. Another problem was the clogging of homogenizers/microfluidizers, and the different routes to decrease the energy demand. The clogging tendency, related to the flocculation tendency of fibres is discussed in some detail. The most common methods to decrease the energy demand are TEMPO-oxidation, carboxymethylation and mechanical/enzymatic pre-treatments in the order of increased energy demand for delamination. The rheology characteristics of CNF materials, i.e. the high shear viscosity, shear thinning and the thixotropic properties are being illuminated. CNF materials are strength adjuvants that enhance the relative bonded area in paper sheets and, hence increase the sheet density and give an increased strength of the paper, particularly for chemical pulps. At the same time papers obtain a lower light scattering, higher hygroexpansion and decreased air permeability, similar to the effects of beating pulps. The negative effects on drainage by CNF materials must be alleviated through the appropriate use of microparticulate drainage aids. The use of CNF in films and coatings is interesting because CNF films and coatings can provide paper/board with good oxygen barrier properties, particularly at low relative humidities. Some other high volume applications such as concrete, oil recovery applications, automotive body applications and plastic packaging are also briefly discussed.
Engineering Cellulose Fibers for High-Value Added Products for Pulp & Paper Industry
Ko, Young Chan ; Park, Jong-Moon ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 47, issue 6, 2015, Pages 22~40
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.6.022
Cellulose fibers is one of the most abundant in nature. It has many distinctive features: abundant in nature, biodegradable, non-toxic, eco-friendly, sustainable, easy to fabricate, hydrophilic, and cost-effective. Cellulose fibers, known as pulp, is produced from cellulose-containing materials by the pulping process. As the raw material, wood has been most commonly used while recycled pulp has been also used to some degree. Thus, pulp usually refers to wood pulp. Generally, the pulp and paper industry is regarded as the commodity market where the cost should be much more important than the quality. It also belongs to a mature market where the growth is slow, or even in decline. Accordingly, technological development has been rather stagnant for the industry. Recently, however, the pulp and paper industry has faced very serious challenges. First, due to digital technology, there has been a steady decline in the need for pulp and paper products. The digital industry has continuously replaced printed products such as books, newspapers, and magazines. Second, there has been a trend initiated by developed countries to limit the use of wood as the raw material for the sake of environmental protection. This forces the industry to find a more efficient use of wood pulp as well as finding alternative, non-wood sources. Third, as an individual becomes wealthier and more conscious of health-care, the quality of a product becomes more important than the cost. Thus, a paradigm shift is needed from the cost-conscientious to the quality conscientious. The objective of this article is to review the technologies aimed at engineering cellulose fibers for producing high-value added paper products.
Fiber Identification for the Early Twenty Century Archival Documents
Na, Mi Sun ; Ko, Yun Suk ; Yang, So Eun ; Seo, Yung Bum ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 47, issue 6, 2015, Pages 41~48
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.6.041
Fiber identification was attempted for the early twenty century documents that were classified as national archives in Korea, as an initial step for establishing scientific preservation and restoration method. Fiber staining with C stain and a digital microscope were used for the observation. All the documents observed consisted of mostly softwood fibers from fir (Abies) and other minor supplementary fibers, and they were all deteriorated seriously by various damages and aging process. It seemed that at around 1914-1934, fir was used frequently as papermaking raw material.
Microscopic Observation of Surface and Cross Section of Korean Traditional Paper-Hanji
Yoon, Seung-Lak ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 47, issue 6, 2015, Pages 49~56
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.6.049
To investigate fiber orientation of Korean traditional paper, Hanji, the fiber arrangements on the surface and cross section of Hanji were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The surface observation showed that the fibers of traditional paper were arranged in vertical and horizontal directions, and those of ssangbal sheet forming were arranged more in vertical direction. The fibers of machine made Hanji and copying paper were usually arranged in vertical direction. As for the observation of cross section of traditional paper, fibers arranged in horizontal direction tended to be increased with the increase of thicknesses. The thick traditional paper have cracks in the middle part of structural section of paper. They were larger in cross section in horizontal direction than in vertical direction. The horizontal arrangement of traditional paper seemed to be about 8% to 14% higher to the vertical arrangement, which is very lower to other papers.
Micro-Fibrillated Cellulose Preparation with Enzyme Beating Pretreatment and Effect on Paper Strength Improvement
Ahn, Eun-Byeol ; Hong, Sung-Bum ; Kim, Kang-Jae ; Eom, Tae-Jin ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 47, issue 6, 2015, Pages 57~65
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.6.057
Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) or Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) has been used to reduce the use of raw pulp and to improve paper strength. The problem of MFC preparation is high manufacturing cost. In this study, it was carried out to prepare MFC after enzyme beating and estimated properties of MFC. Endo-D was the best beating efficiency among three type of endo-glucanase. As the grinder pass number increased, the viscosity and the fines of MFC suspension increased while the crystallinity and the porosity of MFC sheet decreased. Also enzyme beating MFC was higher value in the crystallinity and lower value in the viscosity than non-enzyme MFC. In addition, the aspect ratio of MFC was the highest at 5 pass. MFC addition improved the handsheet strength and the air permeability but worsened the drainage.
Effects of Optical Brightening Agent on the Chemical Degradation Characteristics of Paper Cellulose
Lee, Jae-Hun ; Choi, Kyoung-Hwa ; Cho, Byoung-Uk ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 47, issue 6, 2015, Pages 66~72
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.6.066
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of optical brightening agents (OBA) on the chemical degradation characteristics of paper cellulose during humid heating aging. Three different types of OBAs were applied to a filter paper by dipping it in OBA solutions whose concentrations were controlled to 1% and 2%. The filter papers with an OBA were artificially aged at
and 65% RH, and the changes in pH of paper and viscosity of cellulose were evaluated. Their functional groups were also analyzed by ATR-FTIR (at-tenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). It was found that OBAs influenced the chemical degradation of paper cellulose during humid heating aging. Higher concentration of OBA solutions accelerated the degradation of paper cellulose. Especially, after aging for 12 days, the paper cellulose treated with the tetra-type OBA were the most significantly aged among the three types of OBAs. It was assumed that pH of OBA solutions affected the aging characteristics.
Soda Pulp Properties from Corn Stalk as Raw Material
Song, Woo-Yong ; Lee, Kyu-seong ; Lee, Jai-Sung ; Shin, Soo-Jeong ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 47, issue 6, 2015, Pages 73~80
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.6.073
Corn stalk is the lignocellulosic biomass, which remain as leftover after harvesting. To use the corn stalk as raw material for paper industry, soda pulping was applied. In chemical compositional analysis, extractive contents of corn stalk (45.1%) was higher than hardwood. With corn stalk pith, soda pulp yield was 25.3% at 10.6 Kappa number, but 39.5% yield with 14.8 Kappa number for corn stalk rind. Higher extractives content in pith is one of the reason for lower pulp yield than rind. Pith pulp fibers had higher fines content than rind pulp. Pith parenchyma cell was removed as fines during pulping or washing process, which caused the lower yield. To use the corn stalks as a raw material for paper making, de-pith process is essential for higher pulp yield and longer pulp length.
Development of Auto-hydrolysis Method for Preparing Cotton Linter Regenerated Fibers of Textile Fabrics
Sohn, Ha Neul ; Park, Hee Jung ; Seo, Yung Bum ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 47, issue 6, 2015, Pages 81~88
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.6.081
The molecular weight (MW) and crystallinity of cotton linter need to be controlled to be dissolved well in N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO) solvent for manufacturing regenerated fibers of clothing fabrics. Electron beam irradiation or sulfuric acid pre-treatment followed by alkaline peroxide bleaching has been used to control MW effectively and to improve brightness of cotton linter. Auto-hydrolysis of cotton linter without electron beam irradiation or chemical pre-treatment was found to be effective as an alternative pre-treatment method. Removal of metal ions, that hampered dissolution of cotton linter by NMMO, was also investigated when the auto-hydrolysis was accompanied with ionic polymers and chelating agent.
Dissolution Characteristics and Regenerated Miscanthus Sinensis Holocellulose Film Prepared by Dissolving the LiBr Solution
Yang, Ji-Wook ; Kwon, Gu-Joong ; Hwang, Kyo-Jung ; Hwang, Won-Jung ; Hwang, Jae-Hyun ; Kim, Dae-Young ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 47, issue 6, 2015, Pages 89~97
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.6.089
In this study, dissolution characteristics of 60% LiBr aqueous solution for Miscanthus sinensis holocellulose in accordance with heating time and characteristics of regenerated films were analyzed. Miscanthus sinensis holocellulose was made by peracetic acid method. During the dissolution of 60% LiBr solution for the holocellulose, the dissolution was started from the tip of the cellulose fiber after about 7 minutes, and proceeded as it swollen like a balloon. A lot of Si was identified by analyzing hollocellulose regenerated film through SEM/EDS. Cross section of regenerated film as dissolution time till 40 minutes of dissolution showed multilayered structure and fiber orientation. But after 40 minutes, multilayered structure and fiber orientation was not observed. The crystal structure of the holecellulose was transformed cellulose I into cellulose II. Therefore, dissolution for 20 minutes with 60% LiBr solution in the condition of
hot plate was shown as an optimum condition to manufacture the holocellulose regenerated film.
Studies on Deinking Properties of Recovered Paper for Manufacturing Eco-friendly Thermal Recording Paper
Lee, Tai Ju ; Choi, Do Chim ; Kim, Moon Sung ; Ryu, Jeong Yong ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 47, issue 6, 2015, Pages 98~105
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.6.098
Demands of thermal recording paper have been increased significantly by increase in usage of invoice, fax, and label. Thermal recording paper was mainly made based on virgin fiber. It is necessary to find a suitable alternative to virgin fiber in terms of environment protectional resources conservation. In this paper, deinking properties of different recovered papers were analyzed in order to use the recovered paper as raw material of thermal recording paper. Recovered paper were ONP, OMG and white ledger. Flotation reject of OMG was high because inorganic pigments in coating layer could be removed by upstream of froth. Brightness of white ledger and OMG were much higher than that of ONP. Therefore, properties of pulp made from the recovered paper could be enhanced with increase in blending ratio of white ledger and OMG. However, blending ratio of OMG caused the increase of flotation reject. Consequently, the optimum blending ratio of ONP, OMG, and white ledger was 3:3:3 for eco-friendly thermal recording paper. Under the condition, brightness was about 70% and ERIC was below 300 ppm.
Adsorption Analysis of Fluorescent Whitening Agent on Cellulosic Fibers by Zeta Potential Measurement
Lee, Ji Young ; Kim, Eun Hea ; Kim, Chul Hwan ; Park, Jong Hye ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 47, issue 6, 2015, Pages 106~112
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.6.106
Many researchers have proposed analytical methods to measure the adsorption of di-sulpho fluorescent whitening agents (D-FWAs), but practical methods for D-FWA utilization in an actual paper mill have not been established. In particular, the D-FWA adsorption behavior must be monitored in paper mills to ensure the effective use of D-FWAs. This study used the zeta-potential of pulps as an indicator of the adsorption behavior of a D-FWA. We identified the relationship between the actual adsorption of the D-FWA and the zeta-potential of the pulps as a function of D-FWA addition. zeta-potential measurements were then used to analyze the D-FWA adsorption behavior under different conditions of pulp type, conductivity, and pH. The actual adsorption of a D-FWA was proportional to the
of the pulps (i.e., the difference between the zeta-potential of a pulp containing no D-FWA and one containing the D-FWA). The
of the pulps was therefore adopted for adsorption analysis. A higher adsorption of the D-FWA was observed onto Hw-BKP than onto Sw-BKP because of the shorter fiber length and higher fines content of Hw-BKP. A high conductivity and an acidic pH decreased the D-FWA adsorption because of direct effects of high ion concentrations and low pH on the D-FWA solubility. Therefore, a D-FWA must be added to Hw-BKP under low conductivity conditions and at neutral or alkaline pH to optimize the D-FWA adsorption.
Cadmium Adsorption Characteristic of Cellulose-gel Manufacture using Alkali Solvent
Hwang, Kyo-Jung ; Kwon, Gu-Joong ; Yang, Ji-Wook ; Hwang, Won-Jung ; Hwang, Jae-Hyun ; Kim, Dae-Young ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 47, issue 6, 2015, Pages 113~122
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.6.113
This study was carried out to investigate the characterization of cadmium adsorption by cellulose hydrogel and aerogel. Hydrogel and aerogel were made from ashless pulp dissolved in alkali hydroxide-urea aqueous solution and manufactured in film and bead types. After regeneration of cellulose, hydrogel went through the process of substitution of organic solvent and freeze-dry in order to make aerogel. SEM was used to analyze the microstructure of hydrogel and aerogel. Experiment was conducted in various concentrations and pH conditions to find out the characteristic of cadmium adsorption. After that, EDS was used to identify existence and distribution of cadmium in hydrogel and aerogel. The result from comparisons of cadmium adsorption shows that bead type aerogel has the maximum cadmium adsorption and film type hydrogel has the minimum cadmium adsorption.
Evaluation of Recyclability at Varied Blending Ratios of Gable Top and Aseptic Brick Carton
Seo, Jin Ho ; Lee, Tai Ju ; Lee, Dong Jin ; Lee, Myoung Ku ; Ryu, Jeong Yong ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 47, issue 6, 2015, Pages 123~129
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.6.123
There are two kinds of cartons for beverage packaging, one is aseptic brick (AB) type and the other is gable top (GT). In this study, AB and GT were used as a raw material of recycled paper to investigate the recyclability at their varied blending ratios. Fiber consistency at pulping decreased as the blending ratio of AB increased. As a result, a lot of fines were generated from AB and flakes from GT increased because shear force in pulper decreased. Bulk of handsheets was more than
, and ISO brightness decreased as the blending ratio of AB increased. The best condition to recycle beverage cartons is to discriminate each cartons separately because of differences in the composition. However, there are problems such as the limit of the collection system and social costs. Therefore, it is assumed that the blending ratios of AB should be adjusted at less than 20% for effective recycling of beverage cartons.
Strengthening of De-waxed Paper by Methyl Cellulose (MC) and Its Preservability - Effect of Viscosity and Coating Ratio of MC -
Choi, Kyoung-Hwa ; Jeong, Hye Young ; Cho, Byoung-Uk ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 47, issue 6, 2015, Pages 130~138
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.6.130
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the strengthening treatment of methyl cellulose (MC) on properties and aging characteristics of the dewaxed papers during humid heating aging. Beeswax-treated Hanji was dewaxed by the supercritical fluid extraction method, and subsequently the strengthening treatment was performed with MCs having three different viscosities. MC was first applied by dipping a dewaxed paper into a MC solution whose concentration was controlled from 0.5% to 1.5%. After the strengthened papers were artificially aged at
and 65% RH, the changes in optical and mechanical properties of the samples were evaluated. The results show that viscosity and especially pick-up of MC influenced the strengthening efficiency and aging characteristics of dewaxed paper. Strength was increased with the MC coating weight; in addition, strengthening with MC improved preservability of the dewaxed paper. The optimum conditions for the strengthening with MC was found to be the coating ratio of 4% with 1500 cP MC.
Development of Natural Dyed Korean Traditional Paper for Cultural Properties Conservation and Storage (Part 1) - Manufacture and Aging Properties of Natural Dyed Hanji -
Lee, Sang-Hyun ; Yoo, Seung-Il ; Choi, Tae-Ho ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 47, issue 6, 2015, Pages 139~146
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.6.139
We manufactured natural dyed Korean traditional paper (Hanji) for cultural properties conservation and storage with goldthread (Coptis chinensis) and silver nitrate (
). Goldthread and silver nitrate are known to be an excellent antimicrobial activity. The effect of content of goldthread and silver nitrate on properties of dyed Hanji was investigated. Color strength of dyed Hanji decreased with increasing content of silver nitrate. After-mordanting with 3% silver nitrate improved lightfastness of dyed Hanji. Tannic acid treatment increased K/S value of dyed Hanji. As the amount of the increase in goldthread content was reduced silver nitrate content. Sim-mordanting method was used for simplifying manufacture process. Silver nitrate sim-mordanting method increased K/S value of goldthread than after-mordanting method.
Studies on the Antibacterial Activity of Wet-tissue Saturated with Electrolytic Water of NaCl Solution
Seo, Jin Ho ; Lee, Dong Jin ; Lee, Myoung Ku ; Oh, Deog Hwan ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 47, issue 6, 2015, Pages 147~153
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.6.147
Wet-tissue has been used for baby wipe, cleansing pads, industrial wipes, pain relief, personal hygiene, pet care, and healthcare at home, care facilities, restaurant, and hospital. Raw materials of wet-tissue are mainly natural fibers and synthetic fibers such as cotton, rayon, PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and so on. In this study, electrolytic water of NaCl solution was used as fluid in wet-tissue, and the effect of raw materials on antibacterial rate of wet-tissue was investigated. Rayon (100%) showed an excellent antibacterial rate compared with cotton (100%) and rayon:PET (50:50). Antibacterial rate increased as Cl concentration of electrolytic water increased. Absorption of rayon:PET (50:50) was uneven and antibacterial rate of wet-tissue slightly increased by increase of Cl concentration. Antibacterial rate of wet-tissue was 100% under the conditions of more than 1.5 mL of electrolytic water dosage, and dropped under 50% after storage period of 48 hours.
Preparation of Eco-friendly and High Strength Paper for Viscose Rayon Yarn
Hwang, Sung-Jun ; Kim, Hyoung-Jin ; Bae, Paek-Hyun ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 47, issue 6, 2015, Pages 154~163
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.6.154
Because of acute or chronic intoxication by carbon disulfide, viscose rayon industry is strictly subjected to environment regulatory approval. Recently, non-wood fibers are frequently considered as a raw materials for the manufacture of specialty paper for the higher physical strength and functionality. Among the non-wood fibers, hemp bast fiber is one of the most widely used materials in viscose rayon yarn industries. In this study, the handsheet for manufacturing the viscose rayon yarn was prepared with wood pulp fibers and hemp bast fibers. The proper mixing ratio of wood fibers and hemp bast fibers with dry-strength agent and nano-celluloses was analysed in terms of physical and mechanical strength of sheet for viscose rayon yarn. The papermaking conditions for high mechanical strength of sheet were obtained by mixing the SwBKP and HwBKP fibers with freeness level of 200 mL CSF. The dual polymer system by controlling the addition ratio of PVAm and anionic PAM was also important. The addition of nano-cellulose into wet-end furnishes increased the physical strength of sheet, and improved the paper structure for the production of viscose rayon yarn.
Effects of Cloud Point of Non-ionic Surfactant on Deinking Efficiency of ONP at High Blending Ratio of OMG
Lee, Tai Ju ; Seo, Jin Ho ; Ryu, Jeong Yong ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 47, issue 6, 2015, Pages 164~169
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.6.164
Nowadays blending ratio of OMG (old magazine) in recovered paper used for manufacturing newspaper have been increased. When large amount of OMG is consumed in newsprint mill, brightness can be improved by inorganic pigments of coating layer. On the other hand decrease in yield of deinking process will be encountered because the pigments can be removed as reject of froth flotation process. Therefore selection of the optimal deinking agent is an important. Non-ionic surfactant have been used widely in newsprint mill. Non-ionic surfactant has amphoteric characteristics. Hydrophilic group is ethylene and propylene oxide that can induce hydrogen bonding with water molecules. In this regard, cloud point is an important parameter in order to control efficiency of deinking process because hydration of the hydrophobic group can be varied according to temperature of a system. In this study, deinking properties of ONP at high blending ratio of OMG was analyzed according to cloud points of non-ionic surfactants.
, brightness and effective residual ink concentration did not affected by the change of cloud points. Especially, flotation reject decreased significantly according to increase in cloud point of the non-ionic surfactant. Consequently, when a nonionic surfactant having a cloud point higher than the temperature of the system is used, properties of the deinked pulp can be maintained and yield of deinking process can be improved.