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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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Journal DOI :
Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 48, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 48, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
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Electron Microscopy for the Morphological Characterization of Nanocellulose Materials
Kwon, Ohkyung ; Shin, Soo-Jeong ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 1, 2016, Pages 5~18
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.1.005
Electron microscopy is an important investigation and analytical method for the morphological characterization of various cellulosic materials, such as micro-crystalline cellulose (MCC), microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). However, more accurate morphological analysis requires high-quality micrographs acquired from the proper use of an electron microscope and associated sample preparation methods. Understanding the interaction of electron and matter as well as the importance of sample preparation methods, including drying and staining methods, enables the production of high quality images with adequate information on the nanocellulosic materials. This paper provides a brief overview of the micro and nano structural analysis of cellulose, as investigated using transmission and scanning electron microscopy.
Developing Objective Linear Scale Data from Subjective Tests for Consumer Products
Ko, Young Chan ; Park, Jong-Moon ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 1, 2016, Pages 19~26
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.1.019
In the consumer products industry, it has been highly desirable to develop objective test methods to replace subjective evaluation methods. In developing an objective test method, subjective evaluation data should be on a linear scale. According to Thurstone's theory of comparative judgment, a%-preference from a paired-comparison test can be converted to a linear-scale value. The required number (N) of paired-comparison tests increases dramatically as the number of products increases. This problem should be solved by classifying the total products into several subgroups consisting of 3-4 products in each group. By doing so, it can not only significantly reduce the number of required paired-comparison tests, but it can also obtain more reliable, reproducible data.
Improving printability by designing a multi-layered coating structure (I) - The effect of binder properties in the pre-coating layer on the characteristics of the top-coating layer -
Kim, Sun-Kyung ; Won, Jong Myoung ; Lee, Yong-Kyu ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 1, 2016, Pages 27~33
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.1.027
This study was carried out in order to investigate the effect of binder properties in pre-coating layer on the characteristics of top-coating layer and print mottle of coated paper. Four different latices were used as a binder in pre-coating layer, and coating color prepared with a same formulation was applied for top-coating. The properties and print mottle of coated paper were evaluated. It was found that glass transition temperature (Tg) was the important factor to control the properties of pre- and top-coating layer. PPS roughness of coated paper was decreased and paper gloss was increased with applying binder which has lower Tg. Properties of top-coating layer were affected by the binder used in pre-coating layer. Print mottle of coated paper was improved with using binder which has lower Tg in pre-coating layer. These results indicate that final printability and properties of top-coating layer can be improved with using suitable binder in pre-coating layer.
Classification of papers using IR and NIR spectra and principal component analysis
Kim, Kang-Jae ; Eom, Tae-Jin ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 1, 2016, Pages 34~42
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.1.034
In this study, we classified three copying papers and Korean, Chinese, and Japanese traditional papers using IR and/or NIR spectra and principal component analysis. Various chemicals are used when producing fine papers. In this case, the IR method to analyze functional groups is suitable for the classification of paper. On the other hand, NIR analysis is more suitable for the classification of traditional papers, as it uses nearly raw materials (pulp). Therefore, principal component analysis using IR and NIR depending on the paper production process will be the classification tool of paper.
Manufacturing Functional Pulp Mold with Coniferous fallen leaves
Kim, Dong Sung ; Kim, Hyung Min ; Sung, Yong Joo ; Kang, Seog Goo ; Kang, Ho-Yang ; Lee, Jun-Woo ; Kim, Se Bin ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 1, 2016, Pages 43~52
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.1.043
The coniferous fallen leaf is one of the major forestry residues. Since the coniferous fallen leaf would not be easily decayed, the large amount of the coniferous fallen leaves in forestry could be the source of forest fire. The applicability of the fallen leaves to the pulp mold were evaluated for developing new utilization of coniferous fallen leaves. The morphological properties and the chemical composition of the fallen leaves of Pinus densiflora and Pinus koraiensis were evaluated by the comparison with those of fresh leaves. The applicability of the coniferous fallen leaves to the pulp mold and the effects on the pulp mold properties including the scent diffusion were investigated. The fallen leaves showed the shrunk structure by losing the hot water extract component, which leaded to better grinding properties than that of fresh leaves. The pulp mold with fallen leaves showed higher strength properties than the pulp mold with fresh leaves. Although the scent of the pulp mold with fresh leaves was stronger, the pulp mold with fallen leaves had coniferous scent too. The application of fallen leaves to pulp mold for the functional properties could be possible by improving the mechanical properties and the scent lasting treatments.
Chemical Characteristics of Abiotic-Stressed Tobacco Stems for the Utilization of a Non-Wooden Biomass
Kim, Kang-Jae ; Hong, Sung-Bum ; Eom, Tae-Jin ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 1, 2016, Pages 53~60
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.1.053
Abiotic-stressed tobacco stems as a non-wooden biomass were analyzed for their chemical characteristics. Light-stressed tobacco stems (LST) have a relatively high nitrogen concentration, much more extractive content, and a similar amount of lignin and higher contents of acid sugars than those of Non stressed tobacco (NST). It also has low cellulose crystallinity and a high degree of condensation. Guaiacyl units having a lower molecular weight distribution consist of rich lignin. Tension stressed tobacco (TST) growth differentiation under tensile stress was significantly different between normal tissue and cell walls, with the exception of the slightly higher cellulose crystallinity observed for.
Improvement of Bonding Strength and Water Resistance of Corrugated Board
Jang, Dong-Wook ; Park, Jong-Moon ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 1, 2016, Pages 61~66
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.1.061
In order to improve the bonding efficiency of starch adhesives and water resistance of corrugated board, mixing ratio of additives dosage was changed and its effects were analyzed. When the additives dosage was increased, bonding strength, vertical compression strength, bursting strength and water resistance were increased, because of hydroxyl groups or acetyl groups in starch adhesives and cellulose fibers of corrugated board were cross-linked by additives. When 1.0% glyoxal dosage was added, flat crush strength and vertical compression strength were increased. With 1.5% glyoxal, bonding strength and bursting strength were increased. However, 2.0% glyoxal dosage was added, most of strength except bursting strength were decreased. Thus, when the appropriate amount of additives are added during corrugated board production process, increased bonding efficiency of starch adhesives and higher water resistance of corrugated board can be achieved.
Changes in the Process Efficiency and Product Properties of Pulp Mold by the Application of Oil Palm EFB
Kim, Dong-Seop ; Sung, Yong Joo ; Kim, Chul-Hwan ; Kim, Se-Bin ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 1, 2016, Pages 67~74
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.1.067
The demand of environmental friendly packaging materials such as pulp mold has been increased. The application of the oil palm biomass, EFB (Empty Fruit Bunch) fiber as natural raw materials to the pulp mold could increase the usability of the pulp mold by the reduced production cost brought from the relatively low cost of EFB. The effects of the EFB(Empty Fruit Bunch) fibers on the properties of pulp mold and on the process efficiency were evaluated in this study. The pulp mold samples were prepared with mixture ONP (Old news paper) and EFB by using laboratory wet pulp molder. The changes in the drying efficiency were measured with the changes in the solid contents of pulp mold samples during drying process. The efficiency of the surface coating treatment on the pulp mold depending on the condition of the pulp mold samples were also evaluated in order to improve the water resistance properties of pulp mold. The addition of EFB increased the drying efficiency by providing the bulkier structure and the higher water contact angle, which indicated the better water resistance properties. The water resistance were improved by the surface coating treatments and the application of surface coating on the pulp mold at the higher moisture contents resulted in the higher improvement in the water resistance. The bulkier structure originated from the application of EFB fiber reduced the effects of the surface coating, which could be overcome by the control of surface coating process.
Changes of BCTMP Fibers and Handsheets Properties by the Treatment of LB DES at Different Molar Ratios
Choi, Kyoung-Hwa ; Nam, Yun-Seok ; Lee, Myoung-Ku ; Ryu, Jeong-Yong ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 1, 2016, Pages 75~81
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.1.075
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of deep eutectic solvent (DES) treatment on BCTMP fibers and handsheets properties. DES was prepared using lactic acid and betaine (LB), and the molar ratio of these two components mixtures was controlled to 2:1 (LB 2:1) and 5:1 (LB 5:1). As results, 2% of BCTMP pulp (o.d. weight) was extracted when it was treated by LB 5:1 at
for 12 hours, stirring constantly at 120 rpm. In contrast, lignin was not extracted when BCTMP was mildly treated by the LB DES mixed with 50% of distilled water at the reacting condition of temperature
for 2 hours using water bath. These results indicate that conditioned water content and adequate reaction time are needed to achieve effective extraction of lignin. It was also found that stiffening of cellulose fiber due to the mild treatment of LB DES to BCTMP fiber leads to the increase of paper bulk without the loss of strength.
Effect of Cationic Starch and MFC Addition on the Flocculation Behaviour of GCC
Yong, Seong Moon ; Lee, Yong Kyu ; Won, Jong Myoung ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 1, 2016, Pages 82~92
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.1.082
The reduction of carbon dioxide emission is hot issue in the world because we are confronted with serious global warming and climate change. As a part of carbon dioxide reduction efforts, various approaches for increasing filler loading have been carried out in order to decrease the energy consumption in papermaking processes. Effects of the pretreatment of GCC with cationic starch and MFC on the flocculation behaviour of GCC were investigated in this study. Pretreatment of GCC with cationic starch caused the change of electric charge of suspension and flocculation behaviour of GCC. Largest flocculation size was obtained near the isoelectric point in the case of cationic starch treatment. When MFC (30 times grinded) was added after preflocculation of GCC with cationic starch, the flocculation size was increased, but largest flocculation size was obtained at -150 mV of electric charge of suspension in this study. However the addition of highly grinded MFC (60 times grinded) caused smaller flocculation size of GCC than those of MFC (30 times grinded). When GCC and MFC were mixed first, and then cationic starch was added, the characteristics of MFC and the change of electric charge which could be brought by cationic starch did not affect the flocculation size of GCC at all. The flocculation size obtained by the combination of cationic starch and MFC was smaller than those of cationic starch. These results show that flocculation behaviour could be controlled by the change of electric charge of suspension and the combination methods of cationic starch and MFC.
Changes in Extraction Efficiency of Pine Needles depending on Extraction Method and the Condition
Kim, Dong Sung ; Kim, Hyung Min ; Sung, Yong Joo ; Kang, Seog Goo ; Kang, Ho-Yang ; Lee, Jun-Woo ; Kim, Se Bin ; Park, Gwan-Soo ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 1, 2016, Pages 93~99
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.1.093
The extraction efficiency depending on the extracting methods and the conditions of extraction was investigated. The common steam extraction was compared to the distillation extraction method. The effects of the samples size and the extraction time on the extract yield were also investigated by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. One of the functional components of pine needle extract as the natural phenol base components were detected by the UV-VIS at around 235 nm wavelength range. The absorbance intensity at around 235 nm wavelength of the pine needle extract was used as the indicator of the extraction efficiency in this experiment. The distillation extraction showed the higher extract yield than the steam extraction. The grinding treatment of pine needles also resulted in the better extract performance, but the severe grinding showed a little decrease in the extract yield especially in case of the distillation extraction method. More than half of the extract was collected at the first stage of the extraction, that was the first 15 minutes in the total 60 minutes extraction.
Study of Alkaline Peroxide Mechanical Pulp Made from Pinus densiflora
Lee, Ji-Young ; Nam, Hyegeong ; Kim, Chul-Hwan ; Kwon, Sol ; Park, Dong-Hun ; Joo, Su-Yeon ; Lee, Min-Seok ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 1, 2016, Pages 100~110
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.1.100
Alkaline Peroxide Mechanical Pulping (APMP) of Pinus densiflora harvested from domestic mountains was explored. APMP contributes to various advantages including pulp quality, elimination of the need for a bleaching process, and energy savings. Sequential treatment of impregnation of bleaching chemicals and refining not only overcome the concern of alkaline darkening of wood chips during chemical impregnation, but it also brightens the chips to the desired brightness levels suitable for writing and printing papers. APMP pulping from Pinus densiflora was greatly influenced by the dosage levels of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydroxide. Alkaline peroxide treatment was carried out by applying one of three levels of hydrogen peroxide (1.5, 3, and 4.5% based on the oven-dried weight of the wood chips) and one of three levels of sodium hydroxide (1.5, 3, and 4.5% based on the oven-dried weight of the wood chips). Other chemicals including a peroxide stabilizers and metal chelation were constantly added for all treatments. Chemical treatment with a liquor-to-wood ration of 9:1 was carried out in a laboratory digestor. Compared to BTMP, APMP pulping displayed outstanding characteristics including the less requirement of refining energy, the better improvement of tensile strength, the more reduction of shives, and the greater increase of pulp brightness. In particular, when 4.5% of hydrogen peroxide with impregnation during 90 minutes was used, the brightness of APMP reached 64.9% ISO. Even though bulk of APMP was decreased with the increase of sodium hydroxide, a better and improved balance could be achieved between optical and strength properties. The spent liquor obtained from the discharge of the impregnation process at the dosage level of 4.5% hydrogen peroxide exhibited an equal level of residual peroxide with BTMP. In conclusion, APMP pulping showed successful results with Pinus densiflora due to its better response to the development of optical and physical properties compared to TMP pulping.
Manufacture of Low Density Paper by Cationic Fatty Acid Amine Bulky Promotor Treatment (3) - Effect of Pulp Beating Degree and Bulky Promotor Concentration -
Nam, Yun-Seok ; Choi, Kyoung-Hwa ; Jin, Hai-Lan ; Cho, Jun-Hyung ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 1, 2016, Pages 111~118
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.1.111
The effects of pulp beating degree and bulky promotor concentration on the properties of handsheet including a bulk and strength have been investigated during manufacturing of low density paper (high bulk paper) with cationic fatty acid bulky promotor. It was found that paper bulk increased with increasing cationic fatty acid bulky agent concentration, while tensile strength decreased. On the other hand the opacity of handseets also increased with increasing cationic fatty acid bulky agent concentration, while brightness decreased slightly. With increasing pulp beating degree, paper bulk as well as tensile strength increased, while opacity decreased. Brightness did not show a significant difference with increasing pulp beating degree. The highest bulk and strength values were observed when 1.5% (SwBKP) and 2% (HwBKP) of bulky promotor was treated into the 450 mL CSF pulp slurry.
Delignification of Lignocellulosic Biomass with High-Boiling Point Solvent and Acidic Catalyst
Kim, Kang-Jae ; Jung, Jin-Dong ; Jung, Soo-Eun ; Hong, Sung-Bum ; Eom, Tae-Jin ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 1, 2016, Pages 119~126
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.1.119
In this study, we separated the lignin from the wood by using the high boiling point solvent for developing more environmental friendly pulping method. High boiling point solvents as Ethers, glycols and ketones were used to remove the lignin in the pine wood meals. The Yield and lignin content of residual wood meals was reduced according to the input of the catalyst. Me-C, E-Ca, TEG and MIBK had the best delignification rate of 9 kinds of high-boiling point solvents. At the hydrolysis ratio of the selected solvents, The TEG was highest remain ratio of carbohydrates and the E-Ca was lowest remain ratio of lignin. And the Me-C was most excellent lignin hydrolysis ratio at the low catalyst. The selectivity of delignification of Me-C, E-Ca, TEG and MIBK solvents were 49.6, 49.9, 53.8 and 53.1%, respectively, and its values were similar to those of the commercial Kraft Pulp.
Characteristics of Biodegradation under Composting and Vermiculite Condition
Choi, Chul ; Yoo, Ji-Chang ; Yang, Seong-min ; Lee, Chang-goo ; Lee, Seok-eon ; Kang, Seog-goo ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 1, 2016, Pages 127~133
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.1.127
This study is performed that furniture and interior materials of MDF's (Medium Density Fiberboard) biodegradation properties, and the goal of this study is investigation of possibility of waste-MDF's composting after landfilling. To investigate biodegradation, this study was performed according to KS M ISO 14855-1, and there were two different soil conditions including a compost condition and an activated vermiculite condition as artificial soil. This experiment was tested for 40 days. The measurement of carbon-dioxide generation was processed every 24 hour in 1-2 week, and every 48 hour after 3 week. In the same days, MDF showed 24.4% of biodegradation in compost condition, and 6.2% in activated vermiculite. Also, the reference material of TLC (thin-layer chromatography) grade cellulose showed 26.4%, 11.4% in compost and activated vermiculite respectively. The dilution plate method was performed for biological analysis in the study. This experiment was used for investigation of inoculum's (Bacillus licheniformis) activity. As the result of bioassay, compost has more other germs include inoculum than activated vermiculite in the first week. Especially in the 2nd week, the reference material under the compost condition showed the most germ's activity, and also the biodegradation was the highest. Consequentially, compost condition was able to reduce a performing period of biodegradation testing than activated vermiculite. However, activated vermiculite could be stabilizing errors between repetition.
Effect of Dampening Component on Printed Quality of Textbook in lithography printing
Koo, Chul-Whoi ; Sim, Woo-Seok ; Ha, Young Baeck ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 1, 2016, Pages 134~141
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.1.134
Dampening in printing is not only used with plain water but also used with various substances like dampening additive, in order to improve the wetting property by lowering the surface tension and to control material for modifing the ink transfer characteristic with proper emulsification. We have studied the printing quality according to these, looking into interrelationship among the dampening solution's pH, electrical conductivity and IPA content, prescribing the proper usage and minimum usage of fountain solution and dampening additive. In this study, it shows good result when mixing at the 7 wt% dampening with additive solution, which is result from the color density of printed sheets in accordance with the change of dampening solution condition. And the printed density value calculated 1 hour after printing, it shows relatively safe value at the etch liquid 4 wt% and IPA addition 2 wt%. The dry down at this test showed similar results regardless of various dampening conditions on coated paper, but in case of uncoated paper, the dry down showed a quite gap of different due to the fast penetration to the paper.