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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 48, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 48, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
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Study on the Detachment of Fluorescent Whitening Agents from White Waster Papers
Lee, Ji Young ; Kim, Chul Hwan ; Kim, Eun Hea ; Park, Tae Ung ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 2, 2016, Pages 5~12
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.2.005
White waste papers are very important resources in the paper industry, but their use is limited because of the residual of fluorescent whitening agent (FWA). So the removal of FWAs from waste paper is an important task in the recycling process to improve the use of recycled resources. In this study, we focused on the FWAs used for surface treatments and carried out physical and chemical treatments to remove them from white waste papers. The white waste papers were disintegrated with a surfactant in different pH and temperature conditions, and then handsheets were made for the measurement of the fluorescence index, which is proportional to the amount of FWAs on papers. The effect of the flotation process on the removal of FWAs after disintegration was also investigated. The fluorescence index decreased as the disintegration time increased, but over a relatively long time, the fluorescence index increased again, which indicated the readsorption of the FWAs detached from the cellulosic fibers of the white waste papers. The lowest fluorescence index was shown when the waste papers were disintegrated with a 0.3% surfactant addition at pH 10 and at
. However, the flotation treatment was not effective, because the flotation induced contact between the detached FWAs and the cellulosic fibers, and re-adsorption occurred.
Soda-Anthraquinone Pulping and Chlorine Dioxide Bleaching Properties from Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens)
Lee, Kyu-seong ; Song, Woo-Yong ; Shin, Soo-Jeong ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 2, 2016, Pages 13~19
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.2.013
Moso Bamboo was investigated as the a raw material for pulp and paper industry. Soda-Anthraquinone (Soda-AQ) pulping, elemental chlorine free bleaching was applied. Yield of soda or soda-AQ pulp was 29.3-31.7% with Kappa number 33.0-22.8 with different cooking time or anthraquinone addition at 20% active alkali. In soda or soda-AQ pulping, 81-86% of xylan was removed, which was the main reason for lower pulp yield than hardwood species. Average fiber length of Moso Bamboo soda-AQ pulp was 1.36 mm with
fiber width. Soda-AQ pulp from Moso Bamboo (P-3, lowest Kappa pulp) was bleached with 5.5-6.5% of chlorine dioxide charge as D0ED1 bleaching sequence. In 3-stages ECF bleaching, final brightness of 85.3% ISO was achieved with total chlorine dioxide 6.5%.
Study on the Manufacture of Ethylene Gas Absorbing Corrugated Board
Lee, Ji Young ; Kim, Chul Hwan ; Kim, Eun Hea ; Park, Tae Ung ; Choi, Jae Sung ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 2, 2016, Pages 20~27
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.2.020
Ethylene gas is a natural hormone that directly affects the freshness of agricultural products, so it is very important for the maintenance of freshness to remove ethylene gas from corrugated board boxes. Many methods for the removal of this and other gases have been reported. In this study, the utilization of an absorbent using activated carbon was adopted for the removal of ethylene gas from a corrugated board box. Activated carbon powders were prepared by grinding in a laboratory and were used to treat the surface and to laminate paperboards with a starch solution. The ethylene gas absorption was evaluated by using a gas chromatography to measure the residual ethylene gas concentration. About 60% of the ethylene gas was absorbed by the activated carbon itself. However, the paperboards that were surface-treated and laminated with starch and activated carbon showed lower than 20% ethylene gas absorption. This was because the starch and smaller particles of activated carbon blocked the surface pores of activated carbon particles. Therefore, either the use of the binders must be minimized for the surface treatment of paperboards, or activated carbon packs can be used as absorbents in corrugated boxes.
Effect of Molar Ratios of DES on Lignin Contents and Handsheets Properties of Thermomechanical Pulp
Choi, Kyoung-Hwa ; Lee, Myoung-Ku ; Ryu, Jeong-Yong ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 2, 2016, Pages 28~33
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.2.028
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of deep eutectic solvent (DES) treatment on properties of TMP fibers and handsheets. DES was prepared by mixing of lactic acid and betaine (L and B), and the molar ratio of these two components mixtures was controlled to 2:1 (L:B=2:1) and 5:1 (L:B=5:1). As results, lignin was partly extracted from the TMP fibers. Especially, the delignification of TMP samples was promoted according to the increase of the molar ratio of lactic acid. Except for tear index, both tensile index and burst index of handsheets were increased when higher molar ratio of lactic acid was mixed for DES preparation. However, the LB DES treatment of TMP fibers didn't give any effect on the optical properties of TMP handsheets. The plausibility of TMP fiber was to be enhanced by LB DES treatment.
Study of Oil Palm Biomass Resources (Part 5) - Torrefaction of Pellets Made from Oil Palm Biomass -
Lee, Ji-Young ; Kim, Chul-Hwan ; Sung, Yong Joo ; Nam, Hye-Gyeong ; Park, Hyeong-Hun ; Kwon, Sol ; Park, Dong-Hun ; Joo, Su-Yeon ; Yim, Hyun-Tek ; Lee, Min-Seok ; Kim, Se-Bin ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 2, 2016, Pages 34~45
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.2.034
Global warming and climate change have been caused by combustion of fossil fuels. The greenhouse gases contributed to the rise of temperature between
over the past century. Presently, fossil fuels account for about 88% of the commercial energy sources used. In developing countries, fossil fuels are a very attractive energy source because they are available and relatively inexpensive. The environmental problems with fossil fuels have been aggravating stress from already existing factors including acid deposition, urban air pollution, and climate change. In order to control greenhouse gas emissions, particularly CO2, fossil fuels must be replaced by eco-friendly fuels such as biomass. The use of renewable energy sources is becoming increasingly necessary. The biomass resources are the most common form of renewable energy. The conversion of biomass into energy can be achieved in a number of ways. The most common form of converted biomass is pellet fuels as biofuels made from compressed organic matter or biomass. Pellets from lignocellulosic biomass has compared to conventional fuels with a relatively low bulk and energy density and a low degree of homogeneity. Thermal pretreatment technology like torrefaction is applied to improve fuel efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass, i.e., less moisture and oxygen in the product, preferrable grinding properties, storage properties, etc.. During torrefacton, lignocelluosic biomass such as palm kernell shell (PKS) and empty fruit bunch (EFB) was roasted under an oxygen-depleted enviroment at temperature between 200 and
. Low degree of thermal treatment led to the removal of moisture and low molecular volatile matters with low O/C and H/C elemental ratios. The mechanical characteristics of torrefied biomass have also been altered to a brittle and partly hydrophobic materials. Unfortunately, it was much harder to form pellets from torrefied PKS and EFB due to thermal degradation of lignin as a natural binder during torrefaction compared to non-torrefied ones. For easy pelletization of biomass with torrefaction, pellets from PKS and EFB were manufactured before torrefaction, and thereafter they were torrefied at different temperature. Even after torrefaction of pellets from PKS and EFB, their appearance was well preserved with better fuel efficiency than non-torrefied ones. The physical properties of the torrefied pellets largely depended on the torrefaction condition such as reaction time and reaction temperature. Temperature over
during torrefaction gave a significant impact on the fuel properties of the pellets. In particular, torrefied EFB pellets displayed much faster development of the fuel properties than did torrefied PKS pellets. During torrefaction, extensive carbonization with the increase of fixed carbons, the behavior of thermal degradation of torrefied biomass became significantly different according to the increase of torrefaction temperature. In conclusion, pelletization of PKS and EFB before torrefaction made it much easier to proceed with torrefaction of pellets from PKS and EFB, leading to excellent eco-friendly fuels.
Preparation and Evaluation of Tabletting properties of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch
Kim, Dong Sung ; Sung, Yong Joo ; Kim, Chul-Hwan ; Kim, Se-Bin ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 2, 2016, Pages 46~55
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.2.046
The microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was prepared from oil palm biomass, empty fruit bunch (EFB) for increasing the usability of EFB. The morphological, physical and chemical properties of MCC made from EFB were evaluated by comparing with those of the commercial MCC obtained from AVICEL. The EFB-MCC had the wider distribution in particle size and there were many small particles around
. There were no significant differences in the cellulose crytallinity and the chemical composition between EFB-MCC and AVICEL-MCC. The properties of tablet samples made by the common direct compression process were evaluated depending on the types of MCC and the compression pressure during tablet making process. The tablet made of EFB MCC showed the higher compressed structure, which resulted in the less disintegration by the water soaking treatment than those made of Avicel-MCC. The results of this study showed that the EFB-MCC could be utilized as one of the commercial MCC.
Compatibility of the Recycled Linerboard Made in Acid Sizing System under Neutral or Alkaline Papermaking Conditions
Seo, Man Seok ; Lee, Kyong Ho ; Lee, Hak Lae ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 2, 2016, Pages 56~60
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.2.056
Neutral or alkaline papermaking provides many advantages in paper strength and processing conditions. It also provides the opportunity of using calcium carbonate fillers in papermaking. These diverse advantages have made almost all paper machines of printing and writing papers run under neutral and alkaline conditions. On the other hand, linerboard machines, which use recycled papers as a raw material, are running under acid conditions using a rosin sizing system. Because the recycled raw materials used by the linerboard industry contain significant amounts of alkaline papers, the linerboard industry has an interest in the possibility of using the neutral or alkaline papermaking opportunity. In this study, the compatibility of the recycled linerboards under neutral or alkaline papermaking conditions was examined by recycling them under various pH conditions. The sizing degree of the papers recycled under neutral or alkaline was significantly lower than that of acid formed papers indicating that during the neutral or alkaline recycling process the rosin sized papers lost their sizing efficiency. Recycling of acid formed linerboards under neutral or alkaline conditions increased the amount of foam, and the foam contained substantial amount of solid materials derived from the acid sizing systems. Use of cationic polyelectrolytes including PEI and poly-DADMAC improved the sizing degree of the recycled papers under neutral and alkaline conditions. PEI decreased the foam generation as well while poly-DADMAC did not show any reducing effect of the foam. These results suggest that PEI forms coordinate bonds with rosin acid and precipitate them onto the surface of recycled fibers, while the reaction products between poly-DADMAC and rosin acid ions still remain water soluble under neutral or alkaline conditions.
Improvement of printability by the new designe of the multi-layered coating structure (II) - The effect of pigment blending in pre-coating layer on characteristics of top-coating layer -
Kim, Sun-Kyung ; Won, Jong Myoung ; Lee, Yong-Kyu ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 2, 2016, Pages 61~67
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.2.061
This study was carried out in order to investigate the effect of pigment properties in a pre-coating layer on the characteristics of a top-coating layer and the print mottle of the coated paper. Five different pigments were applied for this study as raw materials for the pre-coating layer. The properties and print mottle of the coated paper samples were evaluated according to the coating color formulation. Type of pigments appliied in a pre-coating layer was one of the most important factor to control the properties of pre and top coating layer. Surface properties of pre and top coated paper were improved by blending GCC which had smaller particle size, with clay. Properties of a top-coating layer was affected by the pigment properties used in the pre-coating layer. It was found that print mottle of coated paper can be improved by replacing part of GCC with smaller particle size GCC or clay in pre-coating layer.
Effects of electron beam treatment on cotton linter for the preparation of nanofibrillated cellulose
Le, Van Hai ; Seo, Yung Bum ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 2, 2016, Pages 68~74
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.2.068
Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was prepared from cotton linter after electron beam irradiation to investigate its effects on the manufacturing efficiency of the NFC preparation and the property changes by the treatment. Mechanical device (Super Masscolloider) was used to prepare the NFC and its passing frequency for each NFC preparation was recorded. More electron beam irradiation resulted in less passing frequency. Alpha cellulose content, molecular weight, crystallinity index, and thermal decomposition behavior of each treatment were lowered by electron beam treatment (10 and 100 kGy) and grinding process. NFC films were prepared to investigate their mechanical properties. There were little changes in tensile properties of the NFC films.
Searching for the environmental management plans of Korea paper industry coping with the new climate regime
Kim, Dong Seop ; Sung, Yong Joo ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 2, 2016, Pages 75~82
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.2.075
The new climate regime for practical reduction in green house gas(GHG) emissions was launched in Paris at Dec. 2015. The Korea government would make various policies and plans in order to achieve the BAU 37 % emission reduction goals by 2030. In this study, the current situation and the possible corresponding methodology to the GHG emission reduction of Korea paper industry were investigated. Although the GHG emission reduction in KOREA paper industry has been successfully conducted compared with other industries until now, the more efforts for controlling GHG emission would be required to meet the new climate regime. The efficiency of various GHG reduction projects conducted by Korea paper companies was evaluated to find efficient way for GHG reduction. The certified methodologies of the external project based offset systems in Korea GHG emission trading scheme were also reviewed for providing the possible way to develope tailored methodology to the Korea paper industry.
Paper Properties Improvement by adding Microfibrillated Cellulose-Mineral Composites
Lee, Jung Myoung ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 2, 2016, Pages 83~90
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.2.083
Increasing the amount of filler in paper is of high interest for paper industry while maintaining its key sheet quality properties. In this study, a MFC-GCC composite, made through a co-grinding NBSK (Northern bleached softwood kraft) pulp with a ground calcium carbonate (Intracarb 60), was used as a strength aid in paper in order to evaluate a potential cost reduction through filler increase without sacrificing paper quality. Hand-sheets were made of NBSK and/or eucalyptus pulp by using white water recirculation in a Tappi sheet former and was compared its properties without or with MFC additions at different filler levels. It was found that the MFC-GCC composite has a large surface area compared to the fiber, allowing the formation of more hydrogen bonds in the web, thus giving natural strength to the paper. Overall results are encouraging that the MFC-GCC composite allows papermaker to reduce basis weight and maintain critical sheet properties.
Evaluation of water holding property for applying a cosmetic moisturizer from oil palm trunk CNF
Song, Woo-Yong ; Shin, Soo-Jeong ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 2, 2016, Pages 91~98
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.2.091
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) was made from oil palm trunk (OPT) with soda-anthraquinone pulping, chlorine dioxide bleaching, carboxymethylation, followed by mechanical grinding. Size of this CNF was 16-40 nm of width confirmed by TEM. To evaluate CNF from OPT as cosmetics raw materials for moisturizing component, water holding properties was compared with hyaluronic acid and collagen. CNF from OPT had better water holding property than collagen or hyaluronic acid whether phenoxyethanol was added as antiseptic or without additive.
Energy Savings and Strength Improvement of Old Corrugated Container by Application of Wood Flour and Starch
Seo, Yung Bum ; Jung, Jae Gwon ; Ji, Sung Gil ;
Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, volume 48, issue 2, 2016, Pages 99~105
DOI : 10.7584/ktappi.2016.48.2.099
The increase of wet web solid content after wet press and dry compressive strength were observed in lab study by judicious application of wood flour and starch for the old corrugated container (OCC). Pearl starch was better than cationic starch in strength development, but cationic starch was better for drainage. Application of vacuum on the mixed solution of wood flour and starch helped strength development further without loss of other properties. The effect of wood flour addition on wet web solid content improved as the wet pressing pressure increased. The use of wood flour and starch mixture improved wet web solid contents further.