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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Society of Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 6 - Nov 1998
Volume 10, Issue 5 - Sep 1998
Volume 10, Issue 4 - Jul 1998
Volume 10, Issue 3 - May 1998
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Mar 1998
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Jan 1998
Selecting the target year
Simulation on the characteristics of the control system of an environmental control facility
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 1998, Pages 251~259
Environmental control facilities are used to simulate an environment or combination of environments under which many kinds of research and tests can be performed. The design of the control system to maintain desired environmental conditions is essential to proper operation of the facility. A simulation model of the facility has been developed by analyzing each component of the system thermodynamically with necessary properties and heat transfer relations. Using the system simulation model, the required characteristics of the control system has been investigated. PI controller is considered as the most probable controller for this kind of the facility, and electric heater power is shown as the Proper manipulated variable for temperature control.
A theoretical analysis on the viscous plane stagnation-flow solidification problem
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 1998, Pages 260~270
The viscous plane stagnation-flow solidification problem is theoretically investigated. An analytic solution at the beginning of solidification is obtained by expanding the temperature and thickness of solidified layer in powers of time. An exact expression for the steady-state thickness of solidified layer is also obtained. The .fluid flow toward the cold substrate inhibits the solidification process. As Stefan number becomes larger, or Prandtl number becomes smaller, the solidification is more strongly inhibited by the fluid flow. The transient heat flux at the liquid side of solid-liquid interface is increased, as Stefan number or Prandtl number is increased.
Experiments on R-22 condensation heat transfer in small diameter tubes
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 1998, Pages 271~281
In this study, condensation heat transfer experiments were conducted with two small diameter(ø7.5, ø4.0) tubes. Comparison with existing in-tube condensation heat transfer correlations indicated that the correlations overpredict the present data. For example, Akers correlation overpredicts the data upto 104%. The condensation heat transfer coefficient of the ø4.0 I.D. tube was smaller than that of the ø7.5 I.D tube; at the mass velocity of 300kg/
s, the difference was 12%. The pressure drop data of the small diameter tubes ware highly(two to six times) overpredicted by the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation. Subcooled forced convection heat transfer test confirmed that Gnielinski's single phase heat transfer correlation predicted the data reasonably well.
Study on forced convective heat transfer in helically ceiled tubes
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 1998, Pages 282~291
Heat transfer performance are studied for the turbulent flow of water in 3 smooth tube coils having ratios of coil to tube diameter of 16, 21 and 27, and a corrugated-coiled tube having a ratio of coil to tube diameter of 29, for Reynolds numbers from 8000 to 60000 and is also compared with the limited results available to data. The experiments are carried out for the fully developed turbulent flow of water in tube coils under the condition of uniform heat flux. This work is limited 0 tube coils of R/a between 10 and 30. The tube having a ratio of coil to tube diameter of 27 among the 3 smooth tube coils shows the best heat transfer performance. The performance of coiled tube best transfer performance. The performance of coiled tube with a similar curvature ratio is better for a corrugated-coiled tube(R/a=17) than for a smooth coiled tube(R/a=16). An empirical relation which correlates most of the data within $\pm$25% was also developed. Test result shows that the Nusselt number is found to be affected by a secondary flow due to curvature.
Performance evaluation of R22 alternative refrigerants
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 1998, Pages 292~302
In this study, 14 refrigerant mixtures composed of R32, R125, R134a, R143a, R152a, and R1270(Propylene) were tested in a breadboard heat pump in an attempt to replace R22 used in most of the residential air conditioners and heat pumps. The heat pump was of 1 ton capacity and water was employed as the secondary heat transfer fluids. All tests were conducted under ARI test A condition. Ternary mixtures composed of R32, R125, and R134a were shown to have 4∼5% higher COP and capacity than R22 and hence they seem to be very promising candidates to replace R22. On the other hand, ternary mixtures containing R125, R134a, and R152a have lower COP and capacity than R22. R32/R134a binary mixtures show a 7% increase in COP and have the similar capacity to that of R22 and hence they are also good candidates to replace R22. Special care must be exercised when a suction line heat exchanger is used with these mixtures in air conditioners. Finally, the compressor discharge temperatures of all mixtures tested were lower than those of R22 by 15.g∼34.7t, which indicates that these mixtures would offer better system reliability and longer life time than R22.
Compute simulation of a three-stage condensation heat pump
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 1998, Pages 303~314
In this study, the performance of a multi-stage condensation heat pump was examined. Computer simulation programs were developed for 1-stage, 2-stage, and 3-stage heat pumps and R11, R123, R141b were tested as working fluids. The results showed that coefficients of performance(COPs) of an optimized 3-stage condensation heat pump are 25∼40% higher than those of a conventional 1-stage heat pump. The increase in COP, however, differed among the fluids tested. The improvement in COP largely stems from the decrease in average LMTD values in the condensers of the multi-stage system. For the 3-stage condensation heat pumps, optimized UA values of three condensers were determined to be 30∼40% of the UA value of the total condenser regardless of the working fluid. When the amount of cooling water entering into the intermediate and high-stage subcoolers is roughly 10% of the total condenser cooling water respectively, the optimum performance was achieved for the 3-stage condensation heat pump.
Numerical study on the heat transfer characteristics of the condenser for the car air-conditioners
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 1998, Pages 315~323
This paper contains a verification of simulation program to predict the capacity of a condenser used in car air-conditioners. Verification of simulation program is carried out with the comparison error between experiment and simulation bounds within 3.5%. The present investigation shows the results for heat transfer rates of condenser under different operating conditions, such as velocity and degree of superheat. The range of front velocity of air is 1∼5m/s. As the front velocity is increased, the heat transfer rate of condenser is largely increased at a low velocity range. In a meanwhile, heat transfer rate of condenser is almost constant in a range of velocity over 3m/s. As for the effect of inlet pressure of refrigerant on the heat transfer rate, we obtained the similar trend of heat transfer rates as like varying the front velocity, Also we have calculated the heat transfer rates with varying inlet superheats of refrigerant, the larger the superheat is, the more heat transfer rate is obtained.
Local heat transfer measurement from a concave surface to an oblique impinging jet
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 1998, Pages 324~333
Measurements of the local heat transfer coefficients on a hemispherically concave surface with a round oblique impinging jet were made. The liquid crystal transient method was used for these measurements. This method, which is a variation of the transient method, suddenly exposes a preheated wall to an impinging jet while video recording the response of liquid crystal for the surface temperature measurements. The Reynolds number used was 23,000 and the nozzle -to -jet distance was L/d=2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 and the jet angle was
. In the experiment, the maximum Nusselt number at all region occurred at L/d(equation omitted)6 and Nusselt number decreases as the inclined jet angle increases. For the normal jet the contours of constant Nusselt number are circular and as the jet is inclined closer and closer to the surface the contours become elliptical shape. The decreasing rate of the Nusselt number at X/d＞ 0(upstream) on a surface curvature are higher than those on a flate plate and the decreasing rate of the Nusselt number at X/d ＜0(downstream) on a surface curvature are lower than those on a flate plate. And also, the decreasing rate of local Nusselt number distribution at X/d ＜0(upstream) exhibit lower than with X/d ＜0(downstream) as jet angle increases. The second maximum Nusselt number occurred at long distance from stagnation point as jet angle increases.
An experimental study on methanol decomposition catalysts for long distance-heat transportation
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 1998, Pages 334~342
In this experimental study, methanol was chosen as a system material for a long -distance heat transportation. Not only transition metals but also noble metals were investigated as an active component, and several metal oxides, such as
-$Al_2$,$O_3$, $SiO_2$, etc. as a support. In general, transition metal catalysts absorbed more heat than noble metal catalysts. The amount of heat absorption and CO selectivity depends on temperature and methanol partial pressure, and 25
Ni/$SiO_2$ catalyst showed the best result for methanol decomposition reaction.
Study of the temperature container system for a live fish transportation
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 1998, Pages 343~347
The objective of this study is to manufacture the low temperature waterless container that is compact and low cost for a live fish transportation. Using the low temperature water container, it makes observations on the optimal conditions such as the amount of dissolved oxygen, total ammonia and nitrite in seawater for determining the survival rate of live fish in short and long-term transportation. Using a sole as a live fish, the temperatures of
were controled for there effects. The results of this investigation show that as the seawater temperature increased, the amount of oxygen decreased and there was a low temperature shock below 3
. It was observed that the fish was died with 30
of ammonia. The optimal temperature is about 5
for live fish transportation to maintain best survival rate.
An analysis of fluid flow In U-bend area of laminated plate heat exchanger
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 1998, Pages 348~357
The flow characteristics inside U-bend tube of the laminated plate heat exchanger were numerically investigated. The behavior of fluid flow, and the variations of the faulty area and friction factor are examined according to the distance between the span and the wall and the diameter of the round attacked to the end of span. The results show that the diameter(d) of the round attached to the span is mainly associated with the smooth circulation of fluid flow rather than the size of faulty area and the friction factor. As the distance(
) between the span and the wall decreases, the faulty area decreases, however the friction factor dramatically increases. It is also found that one can obtain a good result in the view of the flow characteristics and pressure drop at d=7.5mm and
Comparison of performance of cooling tower with various shape of packings
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 1998, Pages 358~367
Since the performance of cooling tower is strongly dependent on the thermal performance of the packing, the evaluations of heat transfer rate and fan power from various packing have attracted intense interest. In the present study, two new packings have been devised and their performances have been compared with those of two existing packings to find better shape characteristic. It is found that one of the existing packings, which showed high heat transfer rate and medium fan power due to zig -zag flow passages and highly irregular surfaces, should be adapted.
Characteristics of thermal comfort for artificial environment experiment in summer
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 1998, Pages 368~377
The purpose of this study was to examine theory about indoor thermal comfort-environment as well as to determine thermal sensation and physiological responses for men in summer indoor environment, under various air temperature and relative humidity, with male university students. Subjective Evaluation, Heart Rate(Electrocardiogram), Electroencephalogram(EEG) were examined. We found that comfort of people was achieved at SE
, -0.82＜PMV＜0.93, subject's clothing(0.41c1o)and the difference of skin temperature was found at the calf area as air temperature changes. At low SE
, heart rate was decreased and at high SE
, heart rate was increased but there was no change EEG(keeping