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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Society of Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Feb 1996
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A Study on Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Closed Two-Phase Thermosyphon with a Low Tilt Angle
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 8, issue 1, 1996, Pages 1~12
In lots of application to heat exchanger systems, closed two-phase thermosyphons are tilted from a horizontal. If the tilt angle, especially, is less than 30
, the operational performances of thermosyphon are highly dependent on tilt angle. The present study was conducted to better understand such operational behaviors as mech-anni는 of phase change, and flow patterns inside a tilted thermosyphon. For experiment, an ethanol thermosyphon with a 35% of fill charge rate was designed and manufactured, using a copper tube with a diameter 19mm and a length 1500mm. Through a series of test, the tilt angle was kept constant at each of 4 different values in the range 10~25deg. and the heat supply to the evaporator was stepwisely increased up to 30㎾/
. When a steady state was established to the thermosyphon for each step of thermal loads, the wall temperature distribution and vapor temperature at the condenser were measured. The wall temperature distributions demonstrated a formation of dry patch in the top end zone of the evaporator, with a values of temperature 20~4
higher than the wetted surface for a moderate heat flux q≒20㎾/
. Inspite of the presence of hot dry patch, however, the mean values of boiling heat transfer coefficient at the evaporator wall were still in a good agreement with those predicted by Rohsenow's formula, which was based on nucleate boiling. For the condenser, the wall temperatures were practically uniform, and the measured values of condensation heat transfer coefficient were 1.7 times higher than the predicted values obtained from Nusselt's film condensation theory on tilted plate. Using those two expressions, a correlation was formulated as a function of heat flux and tilt angle, to determine the total thermal resistance of a tilted thermosyphon. The correlation formula showed a good agreement with the experimental data within 20%.
The Heat Transfer Characteristics of Rotating Heat Pipe with Tapered Condensers in the both Sides of Evaporator
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 8, issue 1, 1996, Pages 13~25
The purpose of this paper is to study heat transfer characteristics of rotating heat pipe with tapered condensers by numerical analysis and experimental method. An experimental investigation has been carried out on thermal resistance between condenser wall and vapor region fo the rotating heat pipe with various taper 0, 1/11.4, 1/38. Heat transfer characteristics by analytical study were applied to describe various Nu numbers on the base of dimensionless condensate film, Re and Pr numbers in both condensers. Comparison between calculated results and experimental data showed qualitatively good agreement and the numerical analysis of this study can be utilized to predict the performance of a rotating heat pipe. The thermal resistance can be decreased by increasing the revolution per minute. Regardless of various dimensionless condensate film, Nu number was largely influenced by saturation temperatures of working fluid.
A Numerical Study on the Laminar convective Heat Transfer around a Circular Cylinder in a Uniform Cross Flow of Liquid
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 8, issue 1, 1996, Pages 26~36
Many researches were carried out to estimate heat transfer rate on a circular cylinder in a uniform flow. Various empirical correlations were suggested in the past through experimental studies, however there are considerable discrepancies in the estimated values of heat transfer coefficient. The effect of fluid physical properties on the forced convective heat transfer between a circular cylinder and the external flow was numerically investigated in the present study, The flow and temperature fields were solved using a Finite Volume Method over a wider range of Prandtl number(0.7-40,000) than existing correlations. The cold as well as the hot cylinders in the uniform liquid flow of constant temperature were investigated. A unified correlation was obtainde for both cases.
An Experimental Study on the Effect of Water Hammer Arresters and Air Chambers in a Simple Water Piping System
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 8, issue 1, 1996, Pages 37~44
Water hammer pressure waves were measured in a simplified water piping system with and without arresters and air chambers by the operations of the solenoid valve. Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of the location of the arresters and the effects of the volume of the air chambers on maximum and minimum water hammer pressures and wave frequency for various flow rates.
Experimentation and Modeling of R32/125/134a Flow Through Short Tube Orifices
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 8, issue 1, 1996, Pages 45~54
An experimental investigation on the two-phase flow through tube orifices was performed with the refrigerant mixture of R32/125/134a(30/10/60). A series of tests were conducted to generate wide range of data at varying operation conditions with four short tubes. The tests include both single and two-phase flow conditions at the inlet of the short tube with different oil concentrations. Experimental data were presented as a function of major operating parameters and short tube diameter. Based on test results and data analysis, a semi-empirical flow model was developed to predict the mass flow rate through short tube orifices with a given set of conditions. The flow model was formed to cover both single and two-phase flow at the inlet of short tube with considering the effects of oil concentration.
Numerical Simulation Model of Alternative Refrigerants Flow Through Capillary Tubes
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 8, issue 1, 1996, Pages 55~64
A numerical model of refrigerant flow through a capillary tube is developed, which considers the effects of underpressure for vaporization, kinetic energy, and roughness of capillary tube. The numerical model is based on homogeneous flow assumptions for the two-phase flow region. A characteristic chart of HFC refrigerants flow through capillary tubes and correction factor chart of geometry and relative roughness of capillary tube to select a proper capillary for refrigerating machines using alternative refrigerants is presented by this numerical model.
Digital Variable Structure Control for a Hot Water Heating System
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 8, issue 1, 1996, Pages 65~75
A pilot plant, which is simplified the hot water heating control system of a large scale residential building, is used to investigate the effects of control methods and operating conditions on the system performance and to compare control characteristics. Digital variable structure controller(DVSC) and digital PI controller are implemented to control the speed of the circulating pump for the pilot plant using PC. For the DVSC, a control algorithm is suggested, which using a nonlinear sliding surface and a PID sliding surface outside and inside of output error boundary layer, respectively. Smith predictor algorithm is used for the compensation of long dead time. The suggested DVSC yields improved control performance compared with existing DVSC using linear sliding surface only. the system responses with the suggested DVSC shows good responses without overshoot for various operating conditions and robust under external disturbances compared with digital PI controller.
The Energy Analysis and Control Characteristics of a Hot Water Heating System for Apartment Houses
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 8, issue 1, 1996, Pages 76~87
Energy analysis for the hot water heating control system of apartment house complex is accomplished by computer simulation. Mathematical model of a boiler, pipe network and a unit-house is developed. The effects of heating control methods on the heating performance and energy consumption of the system are investigated. The heating control methods considered in this study are a continuous heating control, and on-off heating control and an intermittent heating control methods. For each control method, the effects of an outdoor temperature, indoor temperature sensing position and the capacities of the boilers and circulating pumps on the heating performance and energy consumption are obtained and "the best" control method is recommended.commended.
A Numerical Study on the Regenerator Preformance and Heat Transfer in Oscillating Flow
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 8, issue 1, 1996, Pages 88~98
The present study is concerned with the flow friction and heat transfer characteristics of the combination of various regenerator materials, using the different Darcy number and porosity, which is filled uniformly and partially in a tube under oscillating flow condition. The poros medium is adopted as Brinkmann-Forschheimer extended Darcy model. Numerical results are obtained or the flow and temperature fields and described the effect of the combination of various regenerator materials and Womersley number on the pressure drop, the heat transfer and the regenerator efficiency. The results obtained indicate that not only heat transfer between the tube wall and oscillating flow but also the pressure drop at both ends of the regenerator are increased, while the regenerator efficiency is decreased in the increase of womersley number. It is also found that the friction factor is increased as Reynolds number is increased. The comparison between the combination of the various regenerator materials and the homogeneous regenerator material shows that the regenerator efficiency can be enhanced with the proper combination of various regenerator materials even though the averaged porosity of the regenerator is same.
Effect of a Thin Wire Insert on the Bubble Rise in a Miniature Tow-Phase Closed Thermosyphon
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 8, issue 1, 1996, Pages 99~109
Experimental investigations are carried out for the characteristics of bubble rise in the Miniature Two-Phase closed Thermosyphon(MTPCT) with a thin wire insert. The working fluids applied as experimental media are of three kinds: water, methanol, and ethanol. The effects of combination of the inclination with diametric ratio
) on rising velocity of a large bubble in the thermosyphon are explicitly analyzed. The realm of a movable bubble and the critical value of
are iteratively pursued to interpret the region Figures-of-Break, rooted in the governing physics relations, according to the application of working fluid. Experimental results are compared with those of analysis and critical ranges for
were ascertained from comparisons.isons.
A Numerical Model of Thermoacoustic Refrigerators
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 8, issue 1, 1996, Pages 110~119
A numerical of thermoacoustic refrigerators has been developed. Effects of heat transfer and viscosity on pressure and velocity distributions in resonators and heat exchangers were considered. Predictions of cooling capacity and COP agreed well with previous experimental results. Effects of important design parameters, such as pressure ratio, spacing between the plates in the stack and stack length, on the performance of thermoacoustic refrigerators were shown.
Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Characteristics in the Louvered-Fin Type Heat Exchanger
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 8, issue 1, 1996, Pages 120~139
Experiment was performed to study the heat transfer characteristics in 27 kinds of 15 : 1 scale models of multi-louverred fin heat exchangers with a wide range of variables(R
=100~1, 800, $L_p$/F$p$=0.3~0.9,
). Thermofoil heaters were used to heat the louver fins and the local average Nusselt number for each louver in the louver array was obtained at constant wall temperature conditions. Correlations are developed to predict the heat transfer characteristics and drag coefficients. Generally, the heat transfer characteristics in the multi-louvered fins is shown to be similar to those of the laminar heat transfer on a flat plate. As the Reynolds number, the louver pitch to fin pitch ratio$L_p$/F$p$and the louver angle(
) increase respectively, the average Nusselt number increases, but the variation of average Nusselt number as a function of the louver angle is smaller than that as a function of the louver pitch to fin pitch ratio. In case of$L_p$/F$p$ <0.5, the average Nusselt number of the 3rd louver is especially lower than the others, it is expected that it is due to the flow structure such as a recirculation flow and a flow separation.
Influence of Refrigeration Oil on Evaporation Heat Transfer of R-134a in a Horizontal Micro-Fin Tube
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 8, issue 1, 1996, Pages 140~150
CFC-12, which has been used most widely in automobile air conditioners and household refrigerators is scheduled to be phased out soon because of its high ozone depletion potential. Now HFC-134a is suggested as an alternative refrigerant for CFC-12. In this Study, we intended to investigate how PAG oil influence evaporation heat transfer and flow pattern, using R-134a and PAG oil influences evaporation heat transfer and flow pattern, using R-134a and PAG oil in the horizontal miro-fin evaporation tube. Experiments were conducted under the flowing est conditions : mass velocity 86-250kg/
s, heat flux 5-30 ㎾/
, oil concentration 0-21 wt.% and saturation temperature 5
. Local evaporation heat transfer coefficients were found to be higher at the top, side and bottom of the tube in this order. Average heat transfer coefficients turned out to increase with oil concentration increment up to 3 wt.% oil concentration, whereas heat transfer coefficients gradually decreased over 3 wt.% oil concentration, because of oil-rich liquid film was formed on the heat transfer surface. Flow patterns were rapidly transitioned to annular regimes up to 3 wt.% oil concentration. In case of pure refrigerant, measured heat transfer coefficients in the experiments were similar to those of Kandlikar＇s correlation.
A Study on the condensate Retention at Horizontal Integral-Fin tubes
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 8, issue 1, 1996, Pages 151~165
Relation between condensate retention and heat transfer performance is studied for condensation of CFC-11 on horizontal integral-fin tubes. Eight tubes with trapezoidally shaped integral fin density from 738fpm to 1654fpm and 10, 30 grooves are tested. The liquid retention angles are measured by the height gauge, and each tube is tested under static(non-condensing) condition (CFC-11, water) and under dynamic(condensing) condition (CFC-11). The analytical model predicts the amount of liquid retention on a horizontal integral-fin tubes within＋10 percent over most of the data. Average retention angle increases as both surface tension-to-density ratio(
) and fin density(fpm) increase, The tube having a fin density of 1299~1654fpm has the best heat transfer performance. The amount of surface flooding must keep below of 40 percent for best heat transfer performance at condensation. The tube having low number of fin density must be used for fluids having high values of
(water, (TEX)$NH_3$, ect.) and the tube having high number of fin density must be used for the fluid having low values of
(R-11, R-22, etc.)
An Evaluation of Heat Transfer Characteristics of Individualized Fin Type Using Large Scale Model
Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, volume 8, issue 1, 1996, Pages 166~175
In recent years, air-conditioning units designed with higher efficiency and more compactness are required due to emphasis on energy efficiency in home electrical appliances. This trend in the air-conditioning industries has accelerated the development of improved heat exchanger with a better performance in heat transfer aspects. In this study, experiments were performed to investigate the shape and configuration of fins affecting on the performance of the conventional fin-and-tube type heat exchanger equipped in a commercial air conditioners. The geometry similtude method was employed to measure the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop. Experimental results show that this method is very useful to analyze the heat transfer characteristics of the fin-and-tube type heat exchanger. It is also found that the slit fin has better performance than the conventional fin type in the air conditioners. The present results indicate that heat transfer from the fin si influenced by the parameters such as the forming area of the slit fin, the type of interrupted surfaces like a louver or slit, slit patterns and slit raised direction, and it also affects the overall heat exchanger performance.