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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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Journal DOI :
The Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 14, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 14, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 14, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 14, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 14, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 14, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Analysis of Heat Transfer Performance of a Gas Cooler of CO
Heat Pump for Water Heating
Kwon, Jeong-Tae ; Lee, Chang-Kyung ; Baek, Dong-Seok ; Kwon, Young-Chul ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5317~5322
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5317
This study presents a prediction method for heat transfer performance of a gas cooler of
heat pump using
-NTU method, and compared the results with the experimental data from the open literature. The heat transfer rate, refrigerant side outlet temperature and water side outlet temperature were calculated by using EES(Engineering Equation Solver)program in multi-tube-in-tube type
heat pump gas cooler. Analysis was performed in two methods : The first method performed without dividing into the test section by applying an analysis of the mean properties(mean analysis). The second method, tube length divided into 50 sections, was applied to the local properties(local analysis). From the present study, a good agreement at the local analysis was obtained between the analytical and experimental results by 0.3~1.1%, 1.31~1.88% and 3.12~5.18% for heat transfer rate, water and refrigerant side outlet temperatures, respectively.
Dynamic analysis of horizontal linear vibrating motor using DAFUL program
Choi, Chang-Hwan ; Kim, Jin-Ho ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5323~5329
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5323
Many companies have tried to develop the horizontally vibrating linear motor, for sliming the smart phone. Mathematical modeling and analysis is one of method to simulate the dynamic performance of the horizonatally vibrating linear motor. However, the horizontally vibrating linear motor vibrates in twisting mode because there are two kinds of force acting on the vibrating part. One is are the horizontal force by Lorentz force. The other is the vertical force by attraction force between magnet of vibrating part and bracket and the gravity force of vibrating part. However, those are very difficult to be included in mathematical modeling which generate the simulation errors. In this paper, we perform MFBD (multi flexible body dynamics) simulation using commercial dynamic analysis program "DAFUL". In our new model, the force effects those are neglected in mathematical model, are included. For the verification, the simulation results are compared with the experiment results with manufactured prototype.
CFD Analysis of High Pressure Cleaning Machine
Lee, Jong-Sun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5330~5333
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5330
In this paper, a high pressure cleaning machine in field was disassembled and measured in order to develop a highly improved pressure cleaner in performance and real configuration was modeled by using 3-D design program CATIA V5. In addition, CFD analysis was conducted on the modeled high pressure cleaning machine by using ANSYS finite element analysis program and visualize the pressure changes of internal fluid flow was visualized. This result will be applied to a new designed high pressure cleaning machine in future.
Structural Analysis of Wireless Traffic Signal Using Finite Element Method
Kang, Sung-Jun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5334~5337
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5334
In this paper, the structure of traffic lights removed the wire for the completion of urban aesthetics is analyzed. The finite element model consists of shell elements from three-dimensional CAD model of actual traffic signal. Traffic light pole, horizontal stand shape, thickness, stiffeners, etc. are considered in this study. Analysis of stress and deformation is performed by applying wind load. When the wind load is applied, the result on traffic signal is analyzed. This study is to perform the basic tasks for improving the design.
Stability of Haptic System with consideration for Sample-and-Hold Methods and Properties of Haptic Device
Lee, Kyungno ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5338~5343
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5338
In a haptic system, a virtual wall is modeled as a virtual spring. The larger the stiffness of the virtual spring is, the more improved the reality of the virtual wall is, but the more unstable the haptic system becomes. This paper shows how to increase the stiffness of the virtual spring while the stability of the haptic system is guaranteed and shows the effects of a mass (Md) and a damper (Bd) of a haptic device on the stability when first-order hold method is applied and a virtual wall is modeled as a virtual spring (Kw). The simulation results show the boundary of the virtual spring is proportional to the square root of the mass (Md) and the damper (Bd) while maintaining the stability. The relation among the virtual spring (Kw), the mass (Md) and the damper (Bd) of the haptic device, and sampling time (T) is inferred as
, by using the simulation results. The maximum available stiffness of the virtual spring in first-order hold method is larger than in zero-order hold method. So the reality of the virtual wall can be improved.
Design of Chamber in Continuous Furnace for Uniform Temperature Distribution
Lee, Kwangju ; Choi, Joon Hyeok ; Jang, Han Seul ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5344~5351
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5344
Chambers in a continuous furnace were designed. A chamber consists of inlets and outlets of nitrogen gas which is used to discharge burned gas and heating pipes (HP) which are used to keep temperature of fired materials at
. Design variables were numbers of inlets and outlets, distance between floor and lower HP (
), distance between lower HP and fired materials (
), distance between fired materials and upper HP (
), temperature of HP, numbers of HP and distance between HP. The numbers of inlets and outlets were determined so that nitrogen gas formed a laminar flow for efficient discharge. All other design variables were determined so that temperature of fired materials is as uniform as possible near
. Chambers were produced and temperature was measured at 21 points using thermocouples. The largest deviation from
was less than
The Relation between Injection Molding Conditions and Gloss of ABS Molding
Han, Seong-Ryeol ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5352~5356
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5352
Plastic product manufacturing industry has usually focused on a mechanical and physical characteristics of molding. Recently, not only these characteristics but also the aesthetic value is significantly considering. Especially, the molding`s gloss, which we can easily distinguish, is an important aesthetic point. In this study, it were investigated that the gloss variation of ABS moldings by changing injection conditions such as injection pressures, injection speed, holding pressures melt and mold temperatures by injection molding experiment. The experimental results revealed that the holding pressure was the most active condition on gloss of ABS molding.
A study of driving simulation considering the various working modes of electric tractor
Yoo, Ilhoon ; Kim, Byeongwoo ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5357~5365
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5357
In this paper, we propose that a model based design for a electric tractor system by using ASM(Automotive Simulation Models). Before developing a realistic electric tractor, it is essential that defining the capacities of power sources and optimizing the parameters of electric tractor. In additionally, because the electric tractor must have not only driving function but also working function, two PMSM are used at electric tractor. ASM which is based on simulink and Carsim were used to design a electric system and powertrain of electric tractor. For verifying the electric tractor system, we compared the design parameters such as max power, state of charge, drive distance, velocity which were carried out by the simulation and experimental method. The predicted results by the development model were in good agreement with the simulation results. According to simulation of tractor, it is possible to arrange the advanced research of dynamical characteristic of tractor and present the guidelines for the electrical driving system.
Process Analysis for the First Two Steps of the SCM453H Bolt with a Modified Molding Process
Ahn, Kyo-Chul ; Choi, Chui-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5366~5370
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5366
For a easier bolt molding, an extrusion process, the 2nd step of the molding process, was moved to step 4, and the bolt head section was exclusively molded in steps 2 and 3. As a result, the molding process was made easier thanks to the minor modification, and the contact pressure decreased in step 1 and increased in step 2 over its earlier intensity. Also, the maximum effective stress, effective strain, and molding force were all increased in both steps 1 and 2.
Lightweight Design of a Main Starting Air Valve through FSI Analysis
Lee, Kwon-Hee ; Jang, Byung-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5371~5376
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5371
The role of a main starting air valve is to supply compressed air to the diesel engine for starting the stopped diesel engine of a ship and cut off the air during normal operation. In this study, the main starting air valve with 80mm size was designed based on the developed valve with 50mm size. The concept design of the 80A main starting air valve was completed by using CATIA. Then, fluid analysis was performed to investigate the flow characteristics such as pressure and velocity distribution. Sequentially, structural analysis using FSI was performed. In this study, ANSYS CFX and ANSYS Workbench are utilized. The heavy weight of the body can deteriorate the strength performance of neighbor elements, leading to undesirable effect on flow characteristics. Thus, in this research, a lightweight design of the body was suggested satisfying strength requirement. The weight of the suggested design was reduced by 7kg, and the strength satisfied its requirement.
A Fundamentals study on Heat Exchanger using Deep Ocean Water: Effects of Corrosion on Heat Transfer Performance
Kwon, Young-Chul ; Lee, Seok-Hyun ; Huh, Cheol ; Cho, Meang-Ik ; Lee, Chang-Kyung ; Kwon, Jeong-Tae ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5377~5384
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5377
This paper presents the effects of the tube materials and corrosion on the heat transfer performance of double-tube heat exchangers for the development of heat exchangers using deep sea water. Heat exchangers made of titanium, aluminum. stainless steel, iron, copper, and aluminum with electro-deposition coatings(Carbon black_
, Carbon black_
) were tested. Also, the heat transfer rate of each heat exchanger was calculated by using EES program. For the acceleration of corrosion by sea water, the temperature of sea water
and the concentration of salt 3.5% were considered. And the specimens were immersed in sea water during 6 weeks. From the above experiment and analysis, aluminum with electro-deposition coating(Carbon black_
) can be considered the most promising candidate for the replacement of titanium heat exchanger.
Realistic 3D model generation of a real product based on 2D-3D registration
Kim, Gang Yeon ; Son, Seong Min ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5385~5391
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5385
As on-line purchases is activated, customers` demand increases for the realistic and accurate digital information of a product design. In this paper, we propose a practical method that can generate a realistic 3D model of a real product using a 3D geometry obtained by a 3D scanner and its photographic images. In order to register images to the 3D geometry, the camera focal length, the CCD scanning aspect ratio and the transformation matrix between the camera coordinate and the 3D object coordinate must be determined. To perform this 2D-3D registration with consideration of computational complexity, a three-step method is applied, which consists of camera calibration, determination of a temporary optimum translation vector (TOTV) and nonlinear optimization for three rotational angles. A case study for a metallic coated industrial part, of which the colour appearance is hardly obtained by a 3D colour scanner has performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Design of Electric Automatic Manual Wheelchair Driving System
Kim, Jin-Nam ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5392~5395
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5392
Application of electric wheelchair, sort of wheelchair which is playing important role in transporting patients and old people, has been increasing. In this study, we designed the electric wheelchairs` driving system. Using the multi-step gear, the driving system can get great power, even though the small capacity of motors. First, we designed the multi-step gear, test its bending strength and contact strength, as well as verified its performance. We installed `B-type electric brake(Multiple plate clutch, Anti-magnetization) in same axle of the driving system, so it is possible to stop under huge torque and small size. Using this driving system of the multi-step gear which we designed, it`s possible to improve driving gear efficiency 30% up and create the high-competitive electric wheelchair. And, it is easy to repair and control.
A Study Basic Engineering for Improving the Creative Practice PBL Case
Park, Il-Soo ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5396~5402
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5396
In this study, one for grades 1 Institute of Foundation Engineering Practice training to enable the creativity of problem-based learning as an alternative (PBL: Problem-Based Learning) training system was applied. The reason for the development of education systems engineering knowledge and practice skills related to the University no basis for first year students in the theory and practice based on the characteristics of the materials used and the tools to use, how to use the machine was to be accomplished. Hands-on training for existing structured learning plan driven by the faculty and students conducted hands-on training in the uniform limits on the ability of the practice has been shown. However, in this study on the basis of PBL learning materials, and the students themselves leading learner-centered practice problems derive and small unit exercises the ability to decide how to proceed on improving the educational process proposes. As a result of these studies, about 30% more than traditional hands-on training to improve the ability of learning respectively.
The Effect of Symbolic Objectives upon the Artwork Price: Focusing on House-Tree-Person Model
Hwang-Bo, Yeo-Joo ; Shin, Hyung-Deok ; Chung, Taeyoung ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5403~5410
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5403
This study investigated the effect of symbolic meanings of the artwork objectives on auction price. Based on Buck(1948)`s House-Tree-People(H-T-P) model, we hypothesized that symbolic meanings of these objectives invoke preferences of bidders and increase the price. Using 402 auction price data from June 2010 to May 2011, we found that an artwork including house and people tend to be auctioned off at a higher prices than the artwork without them. This study confirmed that Buck`s model can be used to determine artwork price, suggesting that symbolic objectives in the artwork do affect its price.
A Study on the Influence of systematization of Entertainment Company
Park, Jeong-Bae ; Shin, Phil-Soon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5411~5416
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5411
To verify confidence of the measurement such as Firm performance of Entertainment system, Cronbach`s alpha coefficient were measured and showed 0.7 or higher alpha values. Feasibility of the measurement is also ensured by exploratory factor analysis. This thesis are formulated and analyzed as two little hypotheses to make certain that systematization of entertainment company influences on the performance. As a result, the two hypotheses are significant influential factors on the performance of entertainment company. The result are somewhat predicted because it was constructed by theories and preceding research which the researcher had already recognized. But this study was conducted to provide suggestions to establish a theory of entertainment industry by active follow-up studies for resolving will-less different results in this field due to a lack of the proceding research. And it is required to be established through the academic interchange among the similar studies.
An Approach for Improvement of Goodness of Fit on the Estimation of Paddy Rice Yield Using Satellite(MODIS) Images
Kim, Bae-Sung ; Kim, Jae-Hwan ; Ko, Seong-Bo ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5417~5422
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5417
This research was performed in order to improve the goodness of fit of paddy rice production forecasting using MODIS images and to find out appropriate explanatory variables in the forecasting model. The aim of this paper is to review the use of satellite images for the survey of paddy rice production in Korea. Many developed countries, including the United States, Australia, and Japan, have been using satellite images to produce agricultural statistics such as crop production, cultivated acreage, etc. The survey accuracy of crop production by using satellite images, however, is not satisfied in practical use. In this paper, we reviewed several methods to increase the survey accuracy of rice production statistics, gained from satellite images. Rice was selected for this study because its cultivated area and production amount could be more easily identified than other crops by using satellite images. The MODIS images were used because they involved more appropriate images to estimate and analyze rice production. This study estimated yield functions by using the NDVIs, gained from paddy rice yields and annual average isothermal lines, and the meteorological variables such as sunshine hours, rainfall, and temperature during ripening stage. As a result of yield function estimation, the goodness of fit(R-squared) for the models was shown from 0.768 to 0.891. In this study, it is noteworthy academically and practically that vegetation index(NDVIs) identified by annual average isothermal lines and meteorological variables are very useful for estimating yield functions.
A Study related to Professional Satisfaction and Stress Factors of the Administrative Education Government Officials
Cho, Sung-Je ; Lee, Jong Kwan ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5423~5433
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5423
This study has analyzed the factors related to everyday stress, professional stress, and professional satisfaction experienced while performing administrative duties in unit of school, concerning administrative education government officials. The study period was set from March 10 to March 30, 2013, and the subjects of study was set as 122 employees of Cheongwon-gun, Cheongju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do, working as administrative education government officials. The spsswin18.0 program was used for data analysis, and the t-test, and frequency analysis and credibility were also analyzed. The positive analysis was verified at a significant level of 5%. The results of the analysis displayed regarding the Professional Satisfaction pursuant to demographic Characteristic, the difference of Professional Satisfaction between positions was meaningful. However, the differences between sex, age, religion, educational background, marital status, school level, school scale, career, drinking, smoking were not analyzed as meaningful at a significant level of 5%. With regard to Sub-factors of Professional Satisfaction for Demographic Characteristic, the factors in the part of human resource management, human relation, and job capacity were analyzed as meaningful but organizational atmosphere was analyzed as not meaningful at a significant level of 5%. Also with regard to the stress on Quantitative Role among Sub-factors of Professional Stress by Demographic Characteristic, the difference between age, school level, position, career, smoking was meaningful. With regard to career development, the difference between smoking was meaningful. With regard to the stress on role conflict and ambiguity, the difference for demographic characteristic was analyzed as not meaningful at a significant level of 5%. This study implies that the social environmental consideration is required for administrative education government officials, and it is regarded that consideration is required sequentially to developing job capacity, human relation, organizational atmosphere, rather than to human resource management.
Control-Ownership Disparity and Executive Compensation
Cho, Young-Gon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5434~5441
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5434
Using longitudinal data of 575 sample from 122 firms in large business conglomerates from 2001 to 2008, this study examines the impact of controlling shareholders` control-ownership disparity on executive compensation. The empirical study finds that controlling shareholders` control-ownership disparity is negatively related to the level of executive compensation and moderate negatively the relation between firm performance and executive compensation. This finding suggests that controlling shareholders` control rights in excess of ownership rights lead to decreased executive compensation in order to relieve the concerns of stakeholder about the potential agency costs of controlling shareholder, and have, on the other hand, entrenchment effects on the decision of executive compensation by decreasing its sensitivity on firm performance.
A Study on Ship Collision Avoidance and Order of Priority Designation Model
Kim, Seong-Woo ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5442~5447
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5442
This paper focuses on development of SCAAM(Ship Collision Avoidance Assignment Model) for avoiding ship collison at sea. We take a new look at DCPA, TCPA, VCD, collision concept for ship collision avoidance and propose SCAAM using DCPA pre-assignmented by a ship master on information collected by other ship`s AIS, GPS (course-speed, destination, length, width, tonnage etc). If A ship is a collision situation, the ship master makes a decision where the ship makes a evasion voyage or not continually using SCCAM. If ship master decides a evasion voyage, the ship is voyaged by CORLEGS (International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea). This paper contributes to safety navigation by decreasing the ship collision accident by human`s error.
A Suggestion on College Curriculum through the Competencies analysis of College Graduates
Lee, Byung-Hwa ; Kim, Soo Hyun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5448~5454
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5448
The purpose of this study is to provide preliminary data to improve the quality of vocational education program by analyzing basic occupational skills and acquired knowledge of vocational college graduates. A total of 236 graduates were sampled to examine their competency importance level - competency performance level, and study differences between competency importance level and contribution level of college education. The paired sample t-test and importance-performance analysis were employed to investigate meaningful differences between competency importance level and Competency performance level in regard to acquired knowledge and basic occupational skills. Meaningful differences were found in 12 areas at significance level of 0.01. According to importance-performance analysis, differences were presented in 4 areas in the first quadrant, 1 in the second quadrant, 4 in the third quadrant, and 3 in the fourth quadrant. In comparison study between competency importance level and college contribution level, the latter was found to be relatively less influential as differences were presented in all of 12 areas at significance level of 0.01. This research will helps to enhance the practicality and effectiveness of education program in vocational college.
The Influence of Regulatory Focus, Self-regulated Learning and Academic Burnout on Academic Achievement
Jung, Eun-Sun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5455~5464
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5455
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of self-regulated learning and academic burnout on the relationship between regulatory focus and academic achievement. The participants of this study were 312 university students and analyses for this study was conducted by using PASW 18.0 and Amos 8.0. The major achievements were as follows; Self-regulated learning confirmed mediating variable between regulatory focus and academic burnout, and academic burnout confirmed mediating variable between self-regulated learning and academic achievement. That is, regulatory focus had some effect on academic achievement through academic burnout based on self-regulatory learning. Finally, the needs of development about the counseling and the education approaches as a special intervention was discussed, and that approaches were reflected self-regulated learning to be improved and academic burnout to be reduced. Also, limitations and implications of subsequent further study were suggested in this research.
A Study on Valuation of Foreign Real Estate Investment using Real Option
Gu, Seung-Hwan ; Ping, Wang ; Jang, Seong Yong ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5465~5475
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5465
In this study, when to invest in real estate abroad, to present a real option in the way of decision-making. Thus, by using the binomial option model of one of the real thing and DCF, we compared the choice of real estate investment in China and South Korea. Research concerns the real estate market of Shanghai and Seoul, Analyzed the data between 2001-2009. Results were calculated NPV investment period (Net Present Value), Seoul appears in 435.44, Shanghai was 398.26. Investment decision by NPV method will select Seoul. However, as a result of calculating the value using the real option, it was found that for Seoul appear in 615.4, Shanghai has been shown to 626.1, and is suitable for investment in Shanghai. Assuming on the basis of this, that it has invested in practice, and compare the results, Seoul is intended for since 2010, real estate prices fell to 2013 currently, damage has occurred, profit`s occurred Shanghai. This ensures that when making decisions in real estate investment and to use the real option than the existing DCF is appropriate.
A Review on the Financial Profile of Profitability for the KOSDAQ Listed Firms Headquartered in `Chungcheong` province in the Republic of Korea
Kim, Hanjoon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5476~5487
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5476
From foreign and/or domestic investors` perspectives, it may be interesting to find any financial attributes or profile of the firms headquartered in `Chungcheong` province concerning profitability, given that this subject so far drew less attention in the previous literature. This study performed three hypothesis tests on the profitability indicator by utilizing the models such as the `panel data` one and the `logistic` regression one, applying a modified `Dupont` system. With respect to the major findings, the results identified that the proxies measuring leverage across the book-value(BVLEV1) and the market-value(MVLEV1) bases, were statistically significant constituents determining profitability. Another explanatory variable, SIZE, with its positive and statistically significant relationship to the indicator, represented that the firms in the province were smaller than their counterparts in the other regional areas in Korea. DRELY applying a modified `Dupont` system, found to be the only statistically significant discriminating factor between these comparison groups. As one of the primary contributions of this study, the outcomes may be used by the financial institutions operated across the regions including Seoul Metropolitan area, when implementing their lending practices to provide funds for potential borrowers such as the firms belonging to `Chungcheong` province.
A Study on the Factors Influence of Career Locus of Control on University Students` Career Decision Efficacy
Kim, Young-Tae ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5488~5496
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5488
The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of career locus of control on university students` career decision efficacy. For this purpose, it performed a questionnaire survey analysis on 476 university students in I city. According to the results of the analysis, the first is that there were not the statistically significant differences of career locus of control and career decision efficacy for subjects` background variables. The second is that it found the statistically significant co-relationship between career locus of control and career decision efficacy. Lastly, it found that career locus of control has positive effect on career decision efficacy. Given the results of the analysis, the inner career locus factors of control have strong effects on career search and career decision, and career decision efficacy played an important role on career related decision making and career coaching. In this point, it is required to perform more studies and analyses on career locus of control and career decision efficacy and on various career coaching programs in the future.
Agreement in self-other ratings of leader effectiveness: The role of dark side personality
Kim, Myoung So ; Han, Young Seok ; Cho, Inchul ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5497~5507
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5497
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dark side personality traits on self-other rating agreement in leader effectiveness. Data were collected from 80 team leaders and their peers in college. Peers who conducted a team project were asked to assess performance of their team leaders on leader effectiveness, task performance, and contextual performance. The leaders were also asked to self-rate their performance on the same measures. Results indicated that there was disagreement of perceptions about personality traits between leader`s self-ratings and the rating of others. First, leaders considered their own Bold, Diligent behaviors as positive influence on their leadership-related criteria, whereas peers of these leaders provided negative ratings. Also, leaders viewed Leisurely and Cautious characteristics as unrelated or negative to performance, whereas peers perceiveed these personality traits as positive to performance. Suggestions for future research were provided based on the findings.
The Empirical Analysis of Relationship between WLFP and Fertility -Focusing on Compatibility of Work and Family-
Kim, Sang-Sin ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5508~5513
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5508
This paper seeks to empirically analyze the effect of WLFP on fertility in Korea using the 1985~2010 Korean Population and Housing Census 1% Sample data. The results show that except in year 1985(+0.336) WLFP had a significant negative effect on fertility rates in years 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010. The size of the negative effect increases from 1990(-0.611) to 2005(-2.273). In 2010(-0.793), however, the negative effect considerably decreases when compared with the 2005 result. This alleviation is partially due to policies that have promoted compatibility between work and family life. Policy makers should therefore focus on expansion of policies for the compatibility of work and family, and give more attention to increasing take-up rate for the current policies.
Influence of Anaerobic Exercise on Fatigue Material and Basic Fitness of Career Wrestlers
Lee, Kyung-Yul ; Shin, Won ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5514~5521
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5514
This study is an experiment to look into recovering process after maximum anaerobic exercise of career wrestlers and their basic fitness. First, group time results in anaerobic power test did not show meaningful differences between groups in PP, MP, LP field. Second, blood glucose showed meaningful difference in 5-year wrestlers group according to time-wise result (p<.001). Third, time-wise results in blood lactic acid concentration showed meaningful difference all in 5-year, 10-year and 15-year career wrestlers group (p<.001). Fourth, side step and general reaction did not show meaningful differences in all the 3 groups. In conclusion, increase or decrease was seen from and also significant differences were seen from the change of anaerobic power, glucose, lactic acid, concentration, basic physical strength reaction which have influence over athletic performance of players after anaerobic exercise. It was found that 5-year career players group was good at variables of power test and glucose. Reason why recovery capability in connection with degree of fatigue was poor in 15-year career players group seemed to have correlation between career and age.
Environment, Marketing and Performance: Social Commerce News Content Analysis
Kang, Sun-Ju ; Park, Jun-Gi ; Lee, Jungwoo ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5522~5529
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5522
The purpose of this study was to look into the marketing strategies of social commerce companies by analyzing the relationships among the environment, strategy and performance in social commerce. For that, the environment condition and components of marketing strategy were derived based on the marketing mix by analyzing the related contents published in 3,783 articles on newspapers dated from April 2010 to March 2013. UV(Unique Visitor) and PV(Page View) for each social commerce site were used as surrogates for performance. The results of study revealed the relationship of the marketing strategies to the changes in environment conditions towards negative conditions such as the spread of buyer anxiety. In the "strategy-performance" relations, the product element and external sales promotion element had high correlation with the performance. Finally, a difference was found in the marketing strategies of social commerce companies. High correlation was found in all aspects between the UV and PV marketing elements in the case of Coupang, while the correlation with the UV was low and the environment also showed relatively low correlation level in the case of WEmakePRICE. Thus, this study is considered to provide useful basis for the social commerce companies to map out and implement the marketing strategies, and is significant in that it applied the marketing mix to the special market environment such as social marketing.
Executive coaching competency model development and needs analysis
Woo, Soomuyung ; Chang, Youngchul ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5530~5540
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5530
The paper is aimed to develop coaching competency model for executives and analyze their needs. For better outcome, we take coaching experts and executives and managers with business coaching experience as the target and conduct Delphi survey three times. According to the 3 surveys, we derived 5 coaching competency clusters and 34 individual competency items. The next thing, we have designed 102 survey questions which measure the 43 competency items and verified the validity for 272 respondents composed of managers and executives participated. As a result, the Analysis is secured with the validity at the 26 competency items. To investigate the competency that is important to executives, we carry needs analysis into execution. Borich`s needs to utilize executive coaching competencies results conducted on 5 priority groups that belong to the competence of the 26 sub-competencies have business acumen the needs of high-capacity was analyzed. followed by motivation inspiring, organizational management, conflict management, strategic thinking and negotiation skills.
The study on the role of employees` authenticity during service recovery
Ji, Hee-Jin ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5541~5548
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5541
Any enterprises cannot be free from service failure because of service attribute. Thus, the effort to recover from service failure properly has an important meaning. This study emphasizes on the need of effort of service recovery and distinguishes the operant situation of service failure into severity and controllability. At this moment in time, this study wants to verify the role of the effect of justice awareness on trust and satisfaction and adjustment role of employees` authenticity. An object of his study was 206 people who complained about service and this study analyzed their questionnaires by using SPSS, AMOS. To sum up, First, this study result shows that the seriousness of service failure has a negative effect on justice and only controllability has a negative effect on justice. Second, this study result shows that justice awareness has a positive effect on trust and satisfaction and that recovered trust has a positive effect on satisfaction. Third, authenticity has regulation effect on the structural relationship of severity, controllability, trust and satisfaction. Based on such result, this study presented suggestive point and suggested future study.
A Study on the Experiences of Multi-cultural Family Mothers in Children`s Bilingual Education
Cho, Seung-Suk ; Kim, Hee-Soon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5549~5558
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5549
This study is aimed at qualitatively looking into multi-cultual family mothers` experiences in children`s bilingual education. The subjects for the study were seven married immigrant Vietnamese women with elementary school children who have recently finished bilingual education. After recording their interviews and then transcribing them, the data was analyzed by utilizing comparative analysis method. The results were divided into three categories of experiences: emotional, identical, and relational aspects. The results of this study will offer information about necessary support for bilingual education to multi-cultural family members.
The Effects of Reflection Rubric on Critical Thinking and Collaboration Argumentation in CSCA environment
Kim, Soo Hyun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5559~5569
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5559
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the reflection rubric on frequency and content of critical thinking in CSCA. The researcher carried out research during 4 weeks, on 60 students taking the course of `educational methods and educational technology` in K collage. As the result of this study, The reflection rubric frequency could not be significant difference in critical thinking, but could be significant difference in critical thinking content and collaboration argumentation. The reflection rubric could prevent learner form giving one side reasoning, considered both side opinion and grounds. Also the reflection rubric could trigger learner to construct collaborative knowledge building more strongly. This study showed that the reflection rubric have significant impacts on the argumentation collaboration learning in CSCA.
An Study on Priority Determining for Development Strategies of Plant Factory Using Analytic Hierarchy Process and Likert Scale
Kim, Yean-Jung ; Han, Hye-Sung ; Kim, Bae-Sung ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5570~5575
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5570
This study was carried out to find prioritization and evaluation of importance factor for plant factory development direction. According to the results, experts have put profitability secure at the top of development of plant factory industry. It is urgently needed in economic sector that products from plants factory secure the market and adjust the shipping date through contract cultivation and year-round production. Also, illuminant technology is also important in technology development section and R&D. On the other hand, consumers do not yet fully understand the benefits of the plant factory, and this will lead to continued slow sales. Therefore, the government needs to draw up measures to support producers who cultivated agricultural products from plant factory.
Educational Development Plans to Strengthen the Competitiveness of Small Business
Lee, In-Hoi ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5576~5585
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5576
The purpose of this study was to suggest educational development plans that should provide better small business education by solidifying it and maximizing its effectiveness in order to reinforce the competitiveness of small business. As the results of the analysis, 15 essential tasks were suggested. The conclusions drawn from the study were as follows: First, SEDA should establish a practical road map in a long-term basis, and precede small business education by coping with social changes. Second, SEDA should expand the inclusive capacity that builds comprehensively and nationally the network with EHRD, its local branches and Small Business Centers. Third, it was quite suggestive that SEDA should follow up one of major strategies, that is optimizing curriculum, by developing proper curriculum based on small business life cycle and approaching it in a systematic way.
Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance: The impact of the MSCI ESG Ratings on Korean Firms
Kim, Jinwook ; Chung, Sunggon ; Park, Cheongkyu ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5586~5593
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5586
This study investigates how the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) performance of a firm is associated with its financial performance in the stock market. Prior studies provide mixed evidence on the relation between CSR and financial performance. This study sheds some lights on the positive effect of CSR on firms` financial performance. Using a unique set of data on CSR performance of Korean firms provided by Morgan Stanley Capital International (MCSI), we find that firms` CSR performance is positively associated with their contemporaneous stock returns and Tobin`s Q in the Korean market. This finding suggests that stock market participants value firms` CSR activities. This is the first study that provides empirical evidence on the existence of the positive association between the CSR performance of Korean firms and their financial performance using MCSI data which is considered more reliable than the data used in the prior CSR studies in Korea.
Suggestions for the Non-Taxation Scheme on the Compensation for Employee Invention of the University
Na, Dong-Kyu ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5594~5600
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5594
The compensation for employee invention from the university can be taxed or non-taxed depending on the classification of the type of income. The government legislated the Promotion of Industrial Education and Industry-Academic Cooperation Act and the Technology Transfer and Commercialization Promotion Act in order to improve the research productivity of universities and industrial-academic collaboration via transferring the technologies. However, the confusion with taxation on the compensation of employee invention from the university has been incurred due to the difference of legal interpretation between government bureaus. In this research, bureaucratic conflict on the non-taxation scheme is examined in a legal aspect and the effect of non-taxation scheme is also studied in aspect to personal tax exemption. Finally, some suggestions are provided for the purpose of settlement of the non-taxation scheme in order to improve employee invention from the university.
A Study on the Perceived Quality and Application of Authentication Evaluation System of Teaching Materials and Implements for Children and the trend in Early Childhood Education Field
Kang, Young-Sik ; Park, Jung-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5601~5609
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5601
The purpose of this study is to figure out the application of perceived quality and authentication evaluation system of teaching materials and implements for children in the early childhood education field. To achieve this, a survey was carried out from April 20 to April 30, 2013 on 150 guidance teachers who teach children classes for more than 3 years at kindergartens in Daejeon area, Chungnam. The results of the analysis are as follows. First, for the use of teaching materials and implements, 96.1% of teachers thought the quality of teaching materials and implements in their interaction with children was important. Most of them had a high perception of the quantity and quality when using teaching materials and implements with early childhood curriculum. For the most inconvenience when using teaching implements, developmental appropriateness was the highest by 47.3%. And the convenience of the application to children was 3.54 points on average. Above this, the application of teaching implements to children when using play and teaching implements was useful by 3.89 points on verage. The current teaching materials and implements for children in the early childhood education field was normal by 3.29 points on average. Second, teachers` perception of teaching materials and implements was relatively positive by 3.99 points on average, proving that the quality of teaching materials and implements based on the application of teaching materials and implements to early children in kindergartens was very important. Consequently, considering the importance and usefulness of teaching materials and implements, it is necessary to introduce institutional policies that teaching materials and implements with quality standard and institution evaluation can introduce the evaluation authentication system to guarantee the convenience of children` safety and use by the supply of quality-guaranteed products.
A Study on key attributes to congenital disease factors regarding the patients of the four most-common serious chronic illnesses and their relatives in the light of Myeongrihak -centering on the elderly in Seoul nursing homes-
Kim, Il-Sin ; Cho, Sung-Je ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5610~5615
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5610
The objective of this study is to identify key attributes to congenital disease factors regarding the patients of the four most-common serious chronic illnesses and their relatives in the light of Myeongrihak. For the purpose of this study, a survey was conducted from March 15 to July 31, 2013, of 147 elderly people with the four most-common serious chronic illnesses admitted to nursing homes located in Seoul. Data were analyzed by frequency analysis and Kai-square tests by use of SPSS/WIN 18.0. The analysis found that the patients and their relatives had very similar disease factors, and cerebrovascular diseases presented the strongest correlations. The subjects also showed meaningful differences according to the health factors of their relatives. As this study found that meaningful correlations regarding congenital diseases between patients of the four most-common serious chronic illnesses and their relatives in the light of Myeongrihak, this will serve as basic data to predicts health conditions of families and relatives.
A Study on the possibility of the reciporcal peer coaching in faculty learning community
Koh, Eun-Hyeon ; Park, Hye-Rim ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5616~5626
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5616
This study explored faculty professional learning community in A university. Employing a case study method, the present research conducted a survey and semi-structured interview on FLC. The FLC were designed to enhance the teaching ability by reciprocal peer coaching and developing Teaching Tips, during the semester with 5~6 faculty members of each FLC. They reported personal CQI and community paper and presented their learning process and outcomes. The present study shows that observation of their own and peer`s lecture was meaningful experience led to reflective practice. Morever, peer coaches provided useful advice and good insight of education based on their practice, though the service was not professional enough. Based on the results, how to effectively foster peer coaching in FLC was discussed.
Factors Affecting Women`s Satisfaction with Hospital Environment Following Childbirth
Choi, Young Soon ; Jung, Mi Sook ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5627~5635
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5627
The purpose of this study was to determine factors of women`s satisfaction of hospital environment following childbirth. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire from 783 women visited at 101 hospitals for delivery and frequencies, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson`s correlation, and multiple regression analyses were performed. Women`s satisfaction was significantly related with personal and environmental factors. Specifically, a kind of patient room, using a shared room regardless of their preference, using family delivery room, planned hospitalization, gestational week at delivery, and hospital locations significantly predicted the variance of women`s satisfaction. Therefore, hospital user satisfaction should be carefully understood as a consequence of interaction of person and environment and the level of satisfaction can be represented by the degree of congruency between personal and environmental characteristics. Furthermore, healthcare providers should develop strategies to reduce gaps between personal preferences/will/control and environmental situations, contributing to women`s satisfaction with hospital following childbirth.
Emotional Intelligence, Ego Resilience, Stress in Clinical Practice of Nursing Students
Shin, Eun Jung ; Park, Yeong Sook ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5636~5645
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5636
The purpose of the study was to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence, ego resilience and stress in clinical practice of nursing students. The participants were 588 nursing students. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficients. The mean scores for emotional intelligence 4.76(0.69), ego resilience 2.80(0.33), and stress in clinical practice 3.03(0.52) were above average. Emotional Intelligence was significantly different according to gender, satisfaction with nursing as a major, and satisfaction in clinical practice. Ego resilience was significantly different according to satisfaction with nursing as a major, satisfaction in clinical practice. Stress in clinical practice was significantly different according to gender, duration of clinical practice, satisfaction with nursing as a major, satisfaction in clinical practice, simulation practice, and main tutor in clinical practice. Significant correlations were found between emotional intelligence, ego resilience and stress in clinical practice. These findings indicate that there is a need to improve emotional intelligence and ego resilience to lessen stress in clinical practice of nursing students.
Effects of Hot-Water Extract of Mulberry Leaf Tea Fermented by Monascus pilosus on Body Weight and Hepatic Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Mouse Fed a Normal Diet
Lee, Sang-Il ; Lee, Ye-Kyung ; Kim, Soon-Dong ; Lee, In-Ae ; Choi, Jongkeun ; Suh, Joo-Won ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5646~5657
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5646
In this study, to evaluate the anti-obesity effects of mulberry leaf tea and its fermented product by Monascus pilosus, we investigated body and organ weight, blood and liver biomarkers in mice fed 1% tea infusions instead of water for 8 weeks. Mice were divided into three groups such as a normal control (NC), unfermented mulberry leaf tea infusion (UMI) and fermented mulberry leaf tea infusion (FMI). Although it is not significant, tea infusion groups showed reduction of body weight gains compared with NC group. Moreover, contents of LDL-cholesterol and lipid peroxide (LPO), altherogenic index, and xanthin oxidase (XO) activity were significantly decreased, and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was significantly elevated. The results from this study suggested that UMI and FMI may have an anti-obesity activity, upregulate antioxidant enzymes and reduce levels of oxidants related to liver damage.
The Effectiveness of Problem Based Learning(PBL) across Learning Styles in Nursing Students
Lee, Insook ; Park, Chang-Seung ; Park, Hee-Ok ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5658~5671
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5658
This study was to identify the difference of achievement motivation, self-efficacy, self-directed learning across the learning styles after application of the Problem based learning(PBL) in Nursing students. Descriptive survey was performed from march to june, 2009 at a university in Jeju. The participants were 268 in freshman nursing student and PBL was used during one semester. The data from 242 participants were analysed using IBM SPSS 20.0 The results revealed that most nursing students had converger in learning styles. Achievement motivation and self-efficacy were the greatest scores in accommodator and self-directed learning was the greatest scores in converger. However, Achievement motivation, self-efficacy, and self-directed learning were lowest in diverger. Significant positive correlation was found among achievement motivation, self-efficacy, and self-directed learning each other. There were significant difference in achievement motivation, self-efficacy and self-directed learning across learning styles. More research is needed to determine the effects of PBL in nursing education including many variables.
The Effect of Gender, Ethical Values and Characteristics of Biomedical Ethics on the Consciousness of Biomedical Ethics on Nursing Students in one Nursing college
Jeong, Gye Seon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5672~5681
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5672
The aim of this study was to test the correlation of ethical values and perception of biomedical ethics in nursing students. Data was collected from September 10th to October 5th 2012, was analyzed using the t-test, the one-way ANOVA, the Scheffe, the Multiple regression and Pearson`s correlation. The average point of consciousness of biomedical ethics was 2.98(
). The highest score of 3.27(
) was seen in the category of the ethics for `right to life of the fetus`, the lowest score of 2.70(
) was seen in the `organ transplantation`. As a result of analyzing on general and specific aspects, the difference was found in gender and ethical values(F
The usefulness of the contrast agent high in gadolinium for the contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance hip arthrography
Choi, Kwan-Woo ; Kim, Yoon-Shin ; Son, Soon-Yong ; Lee, Ho-Beom ; Na, Sa-Ra ; Min, Jung-Whan ; Yoo, Beong-Gyu ; Lee, Jong-Seok ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5682~5688
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5682
The purpose of this study is to maximize diagnositc usefulness with increasing signal to noise ratio(SNR) and contrast to noise ratio(CNR) by using a 1mmol/mL gadolinium contrast agent. From January 2012 to June 2013 fourty-seven patients were underwent the MRI scanning to investigate the contrast difference in gadolinium content. Twenty of the patients were injencted the commercial contrast agent containing 0.5mmol/mL gadolinium and the rest of them were injected the new contrast agent containing 1mmol/mL gadolinium called gadobutrol. We measured and evaluated each SNR and CNR of the hip joint space, iliopsoas muscle and femoral head. As a result, using the 1mmol/mL gadolinium contrast agent had the higher SNR results than using the 0.5mmol/mL agent(27% in the hip joint, 30.01% in the femoral head). Also CNR using the 1mmol/mL gadolinium agent was proved to be higher than that of using 0.5mmol/mL agent(28.31% in the ilopsoas muscle and 26.74% in the femoral head). Therefore, the contrast agent containing more gadolinium like 1mmol/mL used in this study is more effective to shorten T1 relaxation time, so it increases the signal intensity and CNR and furthermore maximizes diagnostic value. This study reports the usefulness of the 1mmol/mL contrast agent in the contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance hip arthrography for the first. Therefore, it can be considered to have an meaningful academic value as showing the method for increasing the diagnostic usefulness by using the 1mmol/mL contrast agent.
Effects of Scapular Taping on Muscle Activity, Pain, Range of Motion and Proprioception in Subacute Stroke Patients
Lee, Jae-Nam ; Lim, Chae-Gil ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5689~5697
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5689
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of scapular taping on muscle activities of the scapular rotators and anterior deltoid, ROM, shoulder pain, proprioception in subacute stroke patients. Twenty-eight patients were randomly assigned to an experimental and control groups of fourteen patients respectively. Muscle activity of upper and lower trapezius, serratus anterior, anterior deltoid was measured using surface electromyography. Visual analog scale was used for shoulder pain. Electro-Goniometry was used for shoulder elevation ROM. Assessment board was used for shoulder elevation proprioception. The muscle activity of the lower trapezius and serratus anterior increased significantly after scapular tape application (p<0.05). The AROM and PROM in the shoulder elevation significantly increased after scapular tape application (p<0.05). The VAS in the shoulder no significantly decreased after scapular tape application (p>0.05). The proprioception in the shoulder no significantly increased after scapular tape application (p>0.05). The results of this study suggest that scapular taping can be used an additional therapy for increasing muscle activity of lower trapezius and serratus anterior and ROM during shoulder elevation in subacute stroke patients.
A Study of Factors Influencing the Intention of University Students to Accept Healthcare Information Technology Services
Chung, Young-Soon ; Han, Hyun-Mi ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5698~5706
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5698
This study presents research into the patterns that affect the understanding and acceptance of healthcare management systems as part of a healthcare information technology infrastructure targeted at university students. The participants were 623 university students in D city and K province. This study employed a descriptive and correlational cross-sectional survey and made use of the ubiquitous healthcare management services measurement scale. 48.5% of respondents had accessed healthcare-related information on the Internet. Among the independent variables of general characteristics related to perceived susceptibility was found to have adj
of 11% while the other dependent factors reported much lower between 0.5 to 4.7%. Female respondents, medical-related majors, self-efficacy, and intention to use had significant positive effects while health beliefs and concern had a significant negative effect on the intentional acceptance of healthcare information technology systems.
The Effect of Organizational Culture Types of Hospital and Nursing experience on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors of Nurses
Kim, Kyoungnam ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5707~5713
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5707
The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of organizational culture types of hospital and nursing experience on organizational citizenship behaviors of nurses that examined the fitness of a path model. The subject of this study were 368 nurses who were working at 3 hospitals. The data were collected by structured questionnaire from May 1 to June 28 of 2013. Data were analyzed using on SPSS Win 20.0 and AMOS 18.0 program. The results of this study organizational culture types of hospital and nursing experience explained 32% of the variance for organizational citizenship behaviors of nurses. Innovative-oriented organizational culture types of hospital were important factors for affecting organizational citizenship behaviors of nurses. Therefore the nurse manager must establish the strategies to improve who nurses` creative and innovative ideas accepted by the culture to change.
Knowledge, Attitude and Performance on the Hand Washing by Pre-practicum Nursing Students
Ryu, Seong-Mi ; Lim, You-Jin ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5714~5722
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5714
This study was done to investigate characteristics, knowledge, attitude, and performance on hand washing by nursing students who are prone to have clinical practice. Data were collected from 418 students in 3 nursing colleges from September to October, 2011 using questionnaire. The mean frequency and duration of hand washing were 7.2 times a day and 19.1 sec. The mean scores of knowledge, attitude, and performance on hand washing were 11.34(range 0~15), 3.42(range 1~5), 3.6(range 1~5), respectively. Above a half of students don`t know about appropriate duration for hand washing and precautions after washing hands. Washing hands after rubbing nose, coughing, sneezing and handling the money and removing watch before hand washing were little performed. These results should be useful in development of education program for improving hand washing performance of nursing students.
A Study on Change of Plantar Fascia Thickness in Chronic Stroke Patient Based on Spasticity
Kim, Tae-Gon ; Sim, Ki-Cheol ; Kim, Kyung-Yoon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5723~5729
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5723
The purpose of this study was to investigate the imbalance of muscle tone and frequent exposure to excessive gait training in patients with chronic spasticity due to stroke, the thickness of the plantar fascia to change and to evaluate. The subjects of this study was in 54 patients with chronic stroke from 18 patients Group I(MAS G0), 18 patients Group II(MAS G1), and 18 patients Group III(MAS G2) were selected. Measurement of clinical symptoms and physical examination, MAS(Modified Ashworth Scale), ultrasonographic, ROM(Range of Motion), VAS(Visual Analogue Scale), TUG(Timed Up and Go test) was measured. The study results were each group between the unaffected side and the affected side on plantar fascia thickness was statistically significantly thicker(p<.001). Each group between the unaffected side and the affected side on ankle dorsiflexion ROM was statistically significantly decrease(p<.001), VAS(p<.001), TUG(p<.001) statistically significantly increase(p<.001). In this study, the plantar fascia pathokinesiology ever presented by the contents of gait training in stroke patients is one of the information that you need to consider when presented.
The Effects of Trunk Pattern Training in Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation on Muscle Activity of Lower extremity and Static Balance in Stroke Patients
Ji, Sang-Goo ; Cha, Hyun-Gyu ; Lee, Dong-Geol ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5730~5736
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5730
The study was conducted to determine the effect of trunk pattern training in proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation(PNF) and weight-shift training on the muscle activity and static balance in patients with hemiplegia due to stroke. Twenty patients with hemiplegia due to stroke were assigned to the trunk pattern training in PNF group(n
The association between menarche experience and mental health in middle school girls
Ahn, Kyung-Min ; Hong, Kyung-Hee ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5737~5744
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5737
This study was performed to identify the association between the menarche experience and mental health in middle school girls aged 14. The subjects were selected using data from the 8th Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V), which included 5,991 girls in 1st grade of middle school. Data were analyzed using the PASW 18.0 program for frequency analysis, t-test, chi square and logistic regression analysis. As to results, we found 4,473 girls who had experienced menarche (mean age, 12.8 0.9 years) and 1,518 girls hadn`t experienced menarche. In the logistic regression analysis between the menarche experience and mental health behaviors, the odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for perceived stress (OR
Effects of chemical surface treatment on the shear bond Strength of denture reliners and denture base resin
Choi, Esther ; Kwon, Eun-Ja ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5745~5751
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5745
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the surface treatment of MMA and TEGDMA concentration, silane coupling agent on the shear bond strength of denture base resin and denture reliners. Denture base resin surface was treated with MMA and TEGDMA concentration, silane coupling agent. After denture reliners were injected bond strength was measured. The results of MMA and TEGDMA concentration on the shear bond strength of Vertex self curing resin showed that the value of MMA 95% and TEGDMA 5%, MMA 90% and TEGDMA 10%, MMA 80% and TEGDMA 20% groups were higher than that of other group(P<0.05). MMA and TEGDMA concentration on the shear bond strength of Kooliner resin showed that the value of MMA 95% and TEGDMA 5%, MMA 90% and TEGDMA 10% were higher than that of other group(P<0.05). Silane coupling agent on the shear bond strength of Vertex self curing resin and Kooliner showed that the value of MMA 95% and silane coupling agent 5% groups was higher than that of other group(P<0.05). Therefore, we could conclude that appropriate chemical surface treatments are supposed to affect the bond of denture base resin and denture reliners.
The Analysis of Research Trend on Elderly Suicide in Korea
Hong, Si-Myung ; Kang, Young-Sil ; Kim, Heon-Kyeong ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5752~5761
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5752
This study was performed to propose the developmental direction of the elderly suicide study by analyzing the trend of study in elderly suicide. A literature search was conducted using RISS, KISS, Nanet. A total of 184 research articles which were published on elderly suicide in Korea from 1996 to 2013 were analyzed with structured analysis forms. For statistical analysis, frequency and percentage were used with EXCEL program. As a results, a study on elderly suicide in the social welfare sector was actively and a survey of general elderly proportion of the study was high. In addition, most concepts of research were associated with suicidal ideation, depression, social support, and stress of the elderly. Therefore, existing in previous studies classified as high-risk elderly people living alone, poor elderly, a man who attempted suicide risk in elderly subjects research through a variety of research methods will be made.
The Study on Predictors of Motivation to Change in People with an Alcohol Dependence
Jo, Geum Yi ; Park, Hyun Sook ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5762~5770
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5762
The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of motivation to change in people with an alcohol dependence. The participants were 209 peoples with alcohol dependence. Data were collected through self-report questionnaires, which were constructed to include socio-demographics, alcohol drinking-related factors, and psychosocial-spiritual factors. Data were analyzed with the SPSS 19.0 programs. The significant predictors of motivation to change in peoples with alcohol dependence were gratitude, professional support, and age at first admission. These alcohol drinking-related factors and psychosocial factors explained 22.7% of the variance in peoples with an alcohol dependence. These results suggest that motivation to change in people with an alcohol dependents can be changed positively by increasing gratitude and professional support.
Diabetes Risk Analysis Model with Personalized Food Intake Preference
Jeon, So-Hye ; Kim, Nam-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5771~5777
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5771
The need of continuous management for diseases came to the fore as a chronic disease has increased, however, research related to personalized food intake analysis are insufficient. In diabetes risk analysis model of this study, food preferences are calculated by Pearson correlation coefficient that is proven method to assess the similarity, and diabetes risk is computed as a Logistic regression that was used in prevalence studies. For the Significance evaluation of this model, it was verified through t-test at 0.05 level of 52 comparison subjects and 52 control subjects. Both groups were significantly independent (p
Inhibitory Effect of Gallic Aicd on TNF-α-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in HaCaT Cells
Kim, Pom-Ho ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5778~5784
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5778
In order to develop anti-wrinkle agent, we measured the anti-oxidative activity of gallic acid (GA) from Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews and investigated its cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells and then investigated its effect on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-
)-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) mRNA, protein expressions and secretion in same cells. GA showed anti-oxidative activity with
and its activity was higher than that of butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA). GA showed weak cytotoxicity with high concentration (200
) in HaCaT cells. MMP-1 mRNA, protein expression and secretion induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-
) in HaCaT cells were significantly decreased by treatment of GA with dose-dependent manner(p<0.05). Therefore, our findings suggest that GA can be useful as an active ingredient for cosmeceuticals of anti-wrinkle effects.
A Study on the Knowledge, Attitude and Nursing practice of the nurses-towards the Elderly in Geriatric Hospitals
Kwon, Yunhee ; Lee, Haw Yean ; Hwang, Seung Sook ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5785~5791
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5785
This study was carried out to investigate relations among knowledge, attitude, and nursing practice, and influencing factors on nursing practice of the nurses-towards the elderly in geriatric hospitals. Data were collected from March 17 to April 20, 2013 by questionnaires from 188 nurses who work at 12 geriatric hospital in D city and K city. The data were analyzed by the SPSS and AMOS programs. The subjects` knowledge score was 0.49 out of 1, attitude score of subjects 3.72 out of 7, and their nursing practice score was 3.54 out of 4. There were significant differences in nursing practice among the subjects due to age, duration of employment, current gerontological nursing education, and living with the elderly people. There were significant positive correlations among knowledge, attitude, and nursing practice. According to the research, influencing factors on nursing practice of the nurses-towards the elderly in geriatric hospitals included knowledge, attitude, and current geronological nursing education.
The Application of the HACCP System to Korea Rice-cake
Lee, Ung-Soo ; Kwon, Sang-Chul ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5792~5799
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5792
The purpose of this study was the Application of the HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) system to Korean Rice Cakes. Main ingredients of rice cakes, work facilities and workers were provided from KB company located in Seogye-dong Yongsan-gu, Seoul between September 12, 2012 and February 13, 2013. The manufacturing process chart was prepared by referring to the manufacturing process of rice cake manufacturers in general. As a result of this study, the microbiological hazard analysis on raw materials and finished products of rice cakes showed safe result. However, microorganism test on the manufacturing environment and workers suggested that microbiological hazard should be reduced through systematic cleaning and disinfection, accompanied by improved personal hygienes based on hygienic education on workers and management of microorganisms in the air.
Anti-obesity Effect of Soybean Curd Residue Fermented by Genus Aspergillus
Lee, Sang-Il ; Lee, Ye-Kyung ; Kim, Soon-Dong ; Lim, Jong-Hwan ; Suh, Ju-Won ; Lee, In-Ae ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5800~5808
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5800
The anti-obesity effect of soybean curd residues (biji) fermented by seven Aspergillus spp. was investigated with obese ICR mice fed a high-fat diet. After inducing obesity by feeding high-fat diet for 5 weeks, animals were fed with a high fat diet supplemented with 2% fermented soybean curd residues for 6 weeks. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, Alanine transaminase, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hepatic content of glutathione and lipid peroxide were determined. In the case of body weight, AE4 group showed most prominent decrease (31.33%, P<0.05) and increase of hepatic GSH and ALT demonstrated hyperlipidemia inhibition. From the results, it is concluded that soybean curd residues fermented by Aspergillus spp. has anti-obesity effect and it is thought that fermented soybean curd resides can reduce obesity in human significantly.
Development of Technology Portfolio Analysis method for Technology-outsourcing of Pharmaceutical cooperations
Hong, Sukchul ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5809~5818
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5809
This study proposes a technology portfolio analysis method for technology outsourcing of pharmaceutical cooperations by applying the concepts of `Pipeline Soundness` and `Patent Validity`. This study also applied the developed portfolio analysis method to a `real world case` of Amgen`s acquisition of Onyx Pharmaceuticals to prove the applicability of the method to the real world cases and investigated the validity of the acquisition affair between the two companies. The results of portfolio analysis showed that Amgen`s technology portfolio will be improved by acquiring Onyx Pharmaceuticals especially in cancer field which is their main field. So we concluded that Amgen`s choice of Onyx pharmaceuticals as a source of technology outsourcing was reasonable. We think that the technology portfolio analysis method developed by this study will be a valuable tool for pharmaceutical cooperations for investigating their current technology status and selecting target companies for technology outsourcing.
Effects of a Simulation-based Training for Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support on the Knowledge and Competence for Nursing Students
Shin, Seung-Hwa ; Kwon, Mal-Suk ; Kwon, Sang-Min ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5819~5826
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5819
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the simulation-based training for advanced cardiovascular life support on the knowledge and competence of nursing students. Method: The subjects were 22 nursing students, who ungraduated D university. Data were analyzed with SPSS/Win 18.0 program. Results: There was a significant improvement in knowledge and competence after receiving than before training. Conclusion: Simulation-based training for advanced cardiovascular life support is effective strategy for increasing the knowledge and competence of nursing students and will can provide basic data in development of standardized emergency nursing education programs. Further research is needed in the comparative analysis about various learning of advanced cardiac life support education and a longitudinal study of maintenance the knowledge and competence.
Transformation from Data Flow Diagram to SysML Diagram
Yoon, Seok-In ; Wang, Ji-Nam ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5827~5833
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5827
Due to science and technology evolutions, modern systems are becoming larger and more complex. In developing complex systems, Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE), which is approach to reduce complexity, is being introduced and applied to various system domains. However, because of the modeling being made through a variety of languages, there is a problem with communication within the stakeholders and a lack of consistency in the models. In this paper, by investigating the rule explaining the transformation of one of the only traditional diagrams, DFD, to SysML and reusing the formerly built models, we attempt to implement by SysML. Analyzing each diagram`s Metamodel and validating the connection of each component through bipartite graph especially suggest an effective transformation rule. Also, by applying to naval-combat system, we confirm efficiency of this study. Establishing the results of this study as basis for conducting further study, we will be able to transform other previous models gained from formerly built system to SysML. In this way, the stakeholder`s communication can be improved and we anticipate that the application of SysML will be beneficial to the much efficient MBSE.
Detection of Harmful Images Based on Color and Geometrical Features
Jang, Seok-Woo ; Park, Young-Jae ; Huh, Moon-Haeng ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5834~5840
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5834
Along with the development of high-speed, wired and wireless Internet technology, various harmful images in a form of photos and video clips have become prevalent these days. In this paper, we suggest a method of automatically detecting adult images by extracting woman`s nipple areas which represent obscenity of the image. The suggested algorithm first segments skin color areas in the
color space from input images and extracts nipple`s candidate areas from the segmented skin areas through the suggested nipple map. We then select real nipple areas by using geometrical information and determines input images as harmful images if they contain nipples. Experimental results show that the suggested nipple map-based method effectively detects adult images.
Effect of Doppler Bandwidth on the Performance of Channel Sounding
Jo, Jun-Ho ; Choi, Seyeong ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5841~5846
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5841
In this work, we consider the effect of doppler bandwidth on the performance of channel sounding. We develop the mathematical formulation of the problem and compare the MMSE channel estimator to the simple correlator. Examples of the performance of the MMSE and correlator estimators are presented for the single-input single-output (SISO) case with various values of Doppler bandwidth to assess the impact of time variation. The results show that as the
product increases the performance of both the MMSE and correlator estimates gets worse, and that the performance of the MMSE estimator improves relative to the correlator.We also consider case that the exact statistics of the channel are unknown It is shown that when the mismatch is not too large, the MMSE estimator with mismatch still does better than the simple correlator, but if the mismatch is large, then the correlator can do better.
Integration of Application Program for Dementia Diagnosis using Biometric Sensor and Oxygen Chamber
Cho, Myeon-Gyun ; Choi, Hyo Sun ; Kim, Hyeong-Jun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5847~5855
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5847
The purpose of this research is to develop Dementia-diagnosis application program through inter-working between biometric sensors and smart phone with diagnostic programs. Receiving data from 2 biometric sensors, SpO2 and HRV(heart rate variability) with Bluetooth and adding scores from questionnaires and memory test game, smart phone can draw a final Dementia Index(DI). Simple clinical tests provided threshold for Dementia, and diagnosis was made by comparing the DI with the threshold. We performed testing on persons aged over 60 and found out the proposed application can be used to diagnose Dementia easily and quickly. Additionally, we have shown the potential of oxygen chamber combined with Dementia-diagnosis application as a medical equipment to ease or cure Dementia in its early stages.
A Mobile Web`s Recommendation Technique based on XPDL
Kim, Chul-Jin ; Choi, Kwang-Sun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5856~5865
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5856
The demand for Mobile Web Services has increased to overcome the issue of Mobile Application`s platform dependencies and device resource`s limitations. The method to improve productivity of the development and operation of the Mobile Web Services is to provide a low-coupling between Mobile Webs. In this paper, we propose the Recommendation Technique of dynamic Mobile Web integration to reduce the coupling. The Mobile Web Recommendation Technique is proposed based on XPDL.
A Study on DMSMS Management for Weapon systems
Park, Kyoung-Deok ; Rhee, Jong-Moon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5866~5871
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5866
DMSMS(Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortage) of weapon systems is caused by required increase in system life cycle and reduction of military electronic parts market share. This problem causes serious problems about Combat readiness and Life-cycle cost. In this paper, we review the method for managing the DMSMS and then suggest effective alternatives to reduce the risk of DMSMS for weapon systems, such as systematic DMSMS management system and quantitative design refresh planning considering the DMSMS.
A Design of Protocol Based on Smartcard for Financial Information to Protect in E-payment System
Lee, Kwang-Hyoung ; Park, Jeong-Hyo ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5872~5878
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5872
This study provides two channel structure and two factor authentication. First, a purchasing request by Internet and then user certification and a settlement approval process by mobile communication. Second, it support that proposal protocol utilize a partial factor value of stored in users smartcard, smart phone and password of certificate. Third, storage stability is improved because certificate store in smartcard. Finally, proposal protocol satisfy confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and non- repudiation on required E-commerce guideline. In comparative analysis, Efficiency of the proposal protocol with the existing system was not significantly different. But, In terms of safety for a variety of threats to prove more secure than the existing system was confirmed.
The Characteristics analysis of a Flux-lock Type Fault Current Limiter according to the Winding Directions for Power Grid
Lee, Mi-Yong ; Park, Jeong-Min ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5879~5884
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5879
With the rapid industrialization and economical development, the electricity demands of the industrial facilities and densely populated large cities are continuing to increase in Korea. The increase in the power consumption requires the extension of power facilities, but it is difficult to secure spaces for equipment installation in the limited space of urban areas. In addition, the 154 kV or 345 kV transmission systems in Korea has a short transmission distance, and are connected to one another in network structures that ensure the high reliability and stability of power supply. This structure reduces the impedance during the fault in power system, and increases the magnitude of in the short circuit fault current. The superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) was devised to effectively address these existing problems. The SFCL is a new-concept eco-friendly protective device that ensures fast operation and recovery time for the fault current and does not need additional fault detection devices. Therefore, many studies are being conducted around the world. In this paper, based on the wiring method the initial fault current characteristics, current limiting characteristics, according to the incident angle and the change in inductance current limiting characteristics were analyzed in a multifaceted methods.
Automatic Recovery Network Design for the Efficient Costs
Song, Myeong-Kyu ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5885~5889
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5885
In general, the network survivability means that The user do not know the network faults and the recovery of those. For this, we use the dual(multi) routes between each two nodes. It is important that the each dual routes have efficient costs(or minimum). Even if one route is the minimum cost in case of no fault, another route of dual may be very large cost in case of fault case. Therefore we need the dual routes of each two nodes having the efficient(or minimum) costs. In this paper we find the network design method for the dual routes of each two node having the efficient costs. Although the design method is very simple and heuristic and it may be not useful for some networks, we will use it in various network environment.. Because this design method can be used very easy. A sample design will proof this usefulness.
A Basic Study for Accumulation of IFC-based Schedule Information
Song, Jong-Kwan ; Choi, Won-Sik ; Won, Ji-Sun ; Kim, Nam-Gon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5890~5896
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5890
This Study aimed at suggesting the plan for accumulating and utilizing schedule information of IFC file in BIM-based delivery system. For this Propose, First, literature review is conducted for analyzing utilization plan of schedule information and the IFC standard. Second, Schedule Planning process is analyzed to draw Schedule elements, and schedule information items is derived by analyzing schedule process and commercial software. Also, schedule elements in the IFC schema is derived by analyzing IFC schema through drawn schedule information. Finally, this study suggests a concept model accumulating and utilizing Schedule information included in IFC schema, and a conceptual delivery process of BIM model by analyzing BIM Application Guideline for Facility Project by PPS (Public Procurement Service) for accumulating IFC delivery files This study will expects to contribute to accumulate information of BIM model at the point of nationally introducing BIM.
Analysis of Guidelines and Ordering Cases for BIM Deliverable Delivery System Development in Road Sector
Seo, Myoung-Bae ; Kim, Jin-Uk ; Choi, Won-Sik ; Ju, Ki-Beom ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5897~5905
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5897
In spite of advantage by using BIM as quantity take-off, schedule control and clash check, absence of guidelines is a barrier to applying BIM to road domain. In this research, domestic and overseas cases of BIM guideline are analyzed in order to develop the road BIM deliverable submission system. The analysis is classified 5 topics which are BIM submit product list, submit files format, availability of existing 2D based products, BIM authoring tools and submit process. As a result, It needs a lot of effort to standardize BIM delivery system for road domain because BIM submit product list and BIM authoring tools are changable depending on BIM use cases. However, submit files format and submit process are common part to suggest guidelines of road BIM delivery system. It requires to combine BIM and 2D products for road BIM delivery system because delivery products are not exactly alternative 2D based delivery products for the present. The authors expect this research to use as basic data for development of the BIM deliverable submission system in road domain.
Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Waveform Micropile by Numerical Analyses
Han, Jin-Tae ; Kim, Sung-Ryul ; Jang, Young-Eun ; Lee, Seung-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5906~5914
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5906
Recently in Korea, the policy is being proceeded to build a intergenerational housing on artificial ground of railroad site for utilizing rental house. Due to narrow space of rail road site, suitable method have to be developed such as micropiles which is known as a method of a fast construction. However, If micropile is used as foundations for the super structure, construction cost is increases compared with other pile. Consequently, new concept micropile proposed to improve both bearing capacity and cost efficiency of general micropile. New concept micropile consists of waveform cement grout surrounding tread bar that formed by grouting the soil layer with jet grouting method as control the grout pressure and flow. The micropile with waveform is expected to decrease the construction cost by cut down pile length of general micropile. This paper examined the behavior of the new concept micropile with waveform subjected to axial load using two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical analyses method. According to the numerical result, there will cost effectiveness as the pile displacement decreased despite the length of waveform micropile is down about 5% from a general micropile under the same loading condition. Also, the effect of skin friction force which mobilized from the waveform of micropile appeared at relatively soft ground.
A Study on Improving the Performance of Shale for Application of Aggregate for Concrete
Lee, Seung-Han ; Jung, Yong-Wook ; Jang, Seok-Soo ; Yeo, In-Dong ; Choi, Jong-Oh ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5915~5922
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5915
In this study, with the aim of improving the performance of shale to allow for its use as coarse aggregate for concrete, we coated shale aggregates with water repellents and polymers and evaluated their physical properties such as density, water absorption rate, wear rate, and stability depending on the coating method. In addition, the effects of the performance improvement were evaluated by assessing the properties of fresh concrete produced by varying the shale substitution ratio, as well as the compressive strength, flexural strength, and freeze-thaw resistance according to curing ages. The test results revealed that the absolute dry densities of all coated aggregates satisfied the standard density for coarse aggregates for concrete(>
),and the absorption rate of the shale aggregate coated with water repellent decreased by about 50% compared with that of uncoated shale. The wear rate of the polymer-coated shale decreased by up to 13.0% compared with that of uncoated shale. All coated aggregates satisfied the stability standard for coarse aggregates for concrete(
). The water repellent-induced performance improvement decreased the shale aggregates` slump by about 20~30mm compared with that of the uncoated shale aggregates, and the air content of the repellent-coated shale aggregate increased by up to 0.9% compared with that of the uncoated shale aggregate. The compressive strength of the polymer-coated shale aggregates at a curing age of 28 days was RS(F) 95.7% and BS(F) 90.0%, and the flexural strength was RS(F) 98.0 % and BS(F) 92.0% of the corresponding values of concretes produced using plain aggregates. Furthermore, the concrete using polymer-coated shale aggregates showed a dynamic modulus of elasticity of RS(F) 91% and BS(F) 88% after 300 freeze-thaw cycles, thus demonstrating improved freeze-thaw durability.
Model Tests for Measurement of Lateral Earth Pressure on Retaining Wall with the Relieving Platform Using Jumoonjin Sand
Moon, In-Jong ; Kim, Byoung-Il ; Yoo, Wan-Kyu ; Park, Yong-Seok ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5923~5929
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5923
Recently, the retaining wall with the relieving platform has received increasing interests also in Korea in that it can reduce the lateral earth pressure and provide more stability than conventional retaining wall. Previous studies with model tests studies covered only a limited test conditions. In this study, total 15 model tests were performed for various conditions with improved model test apparatus to confirm the effect of decreasing the lateral earth pressure on the retaining wall with the relieving platform. Jumoonjin sand was used for model soil and 2 load cells were used for each 15 layers to measure the lateral earth pressure. Based on the experimental results, the lateral earth pressure of the retaining wall with the relieving platform is less than the that of cantilever wall. The length of the platform and the location of the platform are the key factors influencing the lateral earth pressure.
Biaxial buckling analysis of sigmoid functionally graded material nano-scale plates using the nonlocal elaticity theory
Lee, Won-Hong ; Han, Sung-Cheon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5930~5938
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5930
The sigmoid functionally graded mateiral(S-FGM) theory is reformulated using the nonlocal elatictiry of Erigen. The equation of equilibrium of the nonlocal elasticity are derived. This theory has ability to capture the both small scale effects and sigmoid function in terms of the volume fraction of the constituents for material properties through the plate thickness. Navier`s method has been used to solve the governing equations for all edges simply supported boundary conditions. Numerical solutions of biaxial buckling of nano-scale plates are presented using this theory to illustrate the effects of nonlocal theory and power law index of sigmoid function on buckling load. The relations between nonlocal and local theories are discussed by numerical results. Further, effects of (i) power law index, (ii) length, (iii) nonlocal parameter, (iv) aspect ratio and (v) mode number on nondimensional biaxial buckling load are studied. To validate the present solutions, the reference solutions are discussed.
Evaluation on Bending Moment of Bridge Approach Slabs under Vehicle Load Considering Soil Settlement
Back, Sung-Yong ; Kim, Jung-Gang ; Cho, Baik-Soon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5939~5946
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5939
The bridge approach slabs (BAS) to provide a transitional roadway between a roadway pavement and a bridge structure have not performed adequately due to various factors. The current Korean Roadway Design Guidelines treat the BAS as a simply supported beam with 70% of the span length and do not consider settlement and void development underneath the slab. To investigate the effect of soil settlements on the bending moment of BAS, a beam on elastic support (BAS-ES) was used in the present study. The parameters used in this study were span length, washout length, washout location, and soil modulus. It was shown from the parametric study that washout regions closer to the midspan exhibit maximum moment in the slab. Since voids under the BAS have typically been observed to be closer to bridge abutments, the springs from the abutment were removed to simulate settlement and void development in the model. The design moments based on AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications were compared to those of Korean Standard Specifications for Highway Bridge and Design Trucks for Highway Bridges. Even if the design moment from BAS-ES was used to incorporate the effect of the potential washout, significant savings could still be achieved compared to the current BAS design.
An analytical Study for the Development of Highly Elastic Material applicable for Joint in Modular Pavement
Lee, Young-Ho ; Kang, Su-Tae ; Song, Jae-Joon ; Lee, Sang-Yoon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5947~5955
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5947
This study was intended to estimate the axial deformation of joint between pavement modules in the rapid-constructible modular pavement system, and to investigate the applicability of two-phase composites for a joint material, which was composed of cement paste, epoxy, or polyurethane as a matrix and sand as particles. A case which had supports under the pavement module as well as a case which the module was put on roadbed directly were considered in FEM analysis for the axial deformation. The effect of self-weight, live load, thermal change, and drying shrinkage were estimated and the thermal change was found to cause the largest deformation compared to the others. Deformation capacity of two-phase composites was predicted using the modified shear-lag model. In the analytical results for the elastic modulus and maximum tensile strain with different volume fractions of sand, 20~30 % replacement of sand was revealed to satisfy the required strain capacity with economy when if the width of joint was designed to be 15~20 mm.
Determination of Permissible Shear Stresses on Vegetation Mats by Soil Loss Evaluation
Lee, Du Han ; Rhee, Dong Sop ; Kim, Myounghwan ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5956~5963
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5956
By the activation of environment-friendly river works, application of vegetation mats is increasing, however, evaluation techniques for hydraulic stability of vegetation mats are not presented. This study is conducted to develop the objective test method for vegetation mats. Two kind of vegetation mats are tested by the real scale experiments, and hydraulic quantities are measured and analyzed to evaluate acting shear stresses. To evaluate soil loss, Terrestrial 3D LiDAR measurement is conducted and soil loss index are calculated from changes of bed elevation. Quantified evaluation for permissible shear stresses is conducted by graphical method for acting shear stresses and soil loss index. By the results of precision survey, changes of sub soil are limited to local range in stable cases and relatively large changes of sub soil which is similar to natural river bed are detected in unstable cases. From the study, evaluation of permissible shear stresses by ASTM D 6040 is avaliable in the failure mechanism and failure criteria by soil loss index.
Valuation of highway O&M contract using real option
Park, Taeil ; Shin, Eun-Young ; Lee, Yoo-Sub ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5964~5970
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5964
The recent budget planning for highway infrastructure implied that the investments for Operation & Maintenance(O&M) became greater than that for new construction. This circumstance made many stakeholders pay attention to the O&M of road infrastructure and adopt other countries` policies and system for effective management. In other countries, most O&M for road infrastructure have been done by private entities using long-term contract and Korea is about to shift from one year contract to long-term contract. The most important parts for the expansion of the long-term O&M contract for road infrastructure are valuation of the O&M contract based on accurate prediction of O&M costs and instrument for proper risk sharing between contracting parties. Thus, this study provides a methodology to estimate a reasonable O&M contract price and a framework to share contract risk between contracting parties using real option. The analysis results showed that the contract price and ceiling and floor conditions for the 20 year-contract of 20 km-highway project were 45.7, 60 and 42.3 billion won, respectively.
A Study on Development Type and Land-use Model of Smart Green Multi Complex
Park, Cheon-Bo ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5971~5978
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5971
The aim of the study is to suggest the development type and the land-use model of smart green multi complexes focused on the lesson for future smart green complex in Korea. For the study, the concept and the development aspects are reviewed as a theoretical research and the development types of smart green multi complexes are surveyed based on its functional distribution. The types of multi-complexes are classified in three categories of small city, neighborhood and small housing estate regarding its size. As a result of the research, the land-use model of smart green multi complexes according to its types are suggested under consideration of Korean situation.
Finite element dynamic analysis of laminated composite shell structures considering geometric nonlinear effects
Lee, Sang-Youl ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5979~5986
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5979
This study carried out a geometrical nonlinear dynamic analysis of laminated composite shell structures. Based on the first-order shear deformation shell theory and nonlinear formulation of Sanders, the Newmark method and Newton-Raphson iteration are used for dynamic solution considering nonlinear effects. The effects of radius, fiber angles, and layup sequences on the nonlinear dynamic response for various parameters are studied using a nonlinear dynamic finite element program developed for this study. The several numerical results were in good agreement with those reported by other investigators for square composite plates, and the new results reported in this paper show the significant interactions between the radius, fiber angles and layup sequence in the laminate. Key observation points are discussed and a brief design guideline of laminated composite shells is given.
The Extension of IFC Model Schema for Geometry Part of Road Drainage Facility
Cho, Geun-Ha ; Won, Ji-Sun ; Kim, Jin-Uk ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5987~5992
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5987
The authors suggest the extension IFC schema of drainage facilities for the purpose of establishment the information model standard for the roads. IFC entities, types and properties for drainage facilities are defined by the analysis of road design documents for extraction physical component and design information IFC schema is able to be extended through the result of this research. Futhermore, IFC for additional road facilities is able to be used as construction process control, quantity take off, and simulation applications with the interoperability of the IFC.
Development of an Information System for managing the Service Performances in Public Construction Technique Fields
Kim, Seong-Jin ; Kim, Nam-Gon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 5993~5999
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.5993
This study presents the information management item and the business process improvement plan managed all construction technique services of Design, Construction Supervision and Construction Management which is ordered and constracted by the public institution in the field of construction and business steps. In addition, it develped the Management System of Construction Technique Service Performances based on improved processes for the Public Agencies and Construction Service Director to register, review and approve the Service Performance Information. As a result, it would be help transparently managed Technical Engineer`s work duplication status of Constuction Company, and checked online without having to submit Company performance data by providing objective and reliable information.
A Study for Kinetics and Oxidation Reaction of Substituted Benzyl Alcohols using Cr(VI)-Heterocyclic Complex(Cr(VI)-Isoquinoline)
Park, Young-Cho ; Kim, Young-Sik ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 6000~6007
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.6000
Cr(VI)-heterocyclic complex[Cr(VI)-isoquinoline] was synthesized by the reaction between of heterocyclic compound(isoquinoline) and chromium trioxide, and characterized by IR and ICP analysis. The oxidation of benzyl alcohol using Cr(VI)-isoquinoline in various solvents showed that the reactivity increased with the increase of the dielectric constant(
), in the order : cyclohexene
, m-Br, m-
). Electron- donating substituents accelerated the reaction, whereas electron acceptor groups retarded the reaction. The Hammett reaction constant(
) was -0.69(308K). The observed experimental data have been ratiolized. The hydride ion transfer causes the prior formation of a chromate ester in the rate-determining step.
Seasonal variation of physico-chemical factors and size-fractionated phytoplankton biomass at Ulsan seaport of East Sea in Korea
Kwon, Oh Youn ; Kang, Jung-Hoon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 6008~6014
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.6008
This study aimed to understand seasonal variation of physico-chemical factors and biomass of size-fractionated phytoplankton at Ulsan seaport during the period from February 2007 to November 2009. Water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solid (TSS) varied in the range of 8.94-
, 25.06-34.54 psu, 4.30-10.73 mg/L, 7.97-8.53, 0.66-40.70 mg/L and 57.4-103.3 mg/L, respectively. These factors showed no clear spatial variation unlike spatial pattern of inorganic nutrients and total chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration as biomass. Concentration of phosphate, nitrate and silicate ranged from 0.01 to 3.03
, 0.05 to 21.62
, and 0.01 to 27.82
, respectively, with 2 times higher concentration at inner stations than that at outer stations during the study period. Within the range of total chl-a concentration (0.36-7.11
), higher concentration (avg. 1.88
) of total chl-a were observed at inner stations compared to that (avg. 0.90
) at outer stations. Micro-sized phytoplankton dominated total biomass of phytoplankton in spring (34.0-81.2%), summer (35.1-65.6%) and winter (3.9-62.0%). Nano- and pico-sized phytoplankton contributed 58.2-74.5% and 22.4-38.2% to total biomass of phytoplankton in autumn, respectively. However, contribution in biomass of size-fractionated phytoplankton to total phytoplankton biomass showed no clear difference between inner and outer stations. Consequently, these results indicated that spatio-temporal distribution of phytoplankton biomass at Ulsan seaport was dominated by micro-phytoplankton (avg. 52.3%) during the study period except autumn, which was closely dependent on the concentration of inorganic nutrients (p<0.05).
Recovery of Nitric acid and Copper from Plating Waste of Automobile Wheel
Ha, Yonghwang ; Gang, Ryun-Ji ; Son, Seong-Ho ; Lee, Wonsik ; Ahn, Jong-Gwan ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 6015~6022
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.6015
It has been known that there are large amount of nitric acid and valuable metals, copper in the plating waste solution of automobile wheel. As nitric acid and valuable metals are high price and toxic, they should be recovered for economics and environment. Plating waste was extracted with TBP diluted with kerosene. The concentration of nitric acid in aqueous phase was analyzed by titration method by NaOH solution (0.1~1.0N) and the amount of metals by ICP-MS and ICP-AES. The concentration of copper in plating waste were 76,850 mg/L. The concentration of nitric acid in plating waste was 1.02 M. After three step extraction was performed with 50% TBP, each organic phase was stripped three times with distilled water to obtain 48.1% of nitric acid. Purity of final nitric acid was over 99.9% by ICP analysis. After recovery of nitric acid, copper was extracted with various solvent extractors like PC 88A, D2EPHA, LIX 84 and ISE 106. Among these extractors, 92% of copper was recovered by ISE 106 after 1st extraction and 30%
stripping. Copper ion was reduced with
to make metal powders, respectively.
Drying Characteristics of Succinic acid using the Microwave
Kim, Ji Sun ; Ryu, Young Bok ; Kim, Myung Hwan ; Hong, Seong-Soo ; Lee, Man Sig ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 6023~6028
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.6023
Recently, biodegradable polymers are gaining more and more attention due to international environmental issues. Succinic acid is synthesised by chemical process of hydrogenation. Succinic acid synthesized has certain amount water content. To remove the water contained in succinic acid is used generally by hot air drying process. But recently, microwave drying process having the advantage of shortening the drying time and uniform drying of product are gaining more attention. In this study, hot air drying and microwave drying efficiency were compared at drying process. In addition, we confirmed commercial applicability in microwave drying process of succinic acid. Microwave drying process has higher efficiency than 70% compared with hot air drying process at thickness of 1cm. Economic efficiency were compared through examination of power consumption for complete drying of succinic acid at microwave and hot air dyring.
Synthesis and Thermal Properties of Aromatic Poly(o-hydroxyamide)s Containing Phenylene Diimide Unit
Lee, Eung-Jae ; Yoon, Doo-Soo ; Choi, Jae-Kon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 6029~6038
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.6029
In this study we attempt to modify the backbone structure and improve processibility of PBO having high melting and glass transition temperature. A series of aromatic poly(o-hydroxyamide)s(PHAs) were synthesized by direct polycondensaton of diacides containing diimide unit with two types of bis(o-aminophenol)s including 3,3`-dihydroxybenzidine and 2,2-bis(3-amino-4-hydroxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane. PHAs were studied by FT-IR,
-NMR, DSC and TGA. PHAs exhibited inherent viscosities in the range of 0.34~0.65 dL/g at
in DMAc solution. The PHA 1 and 6F-PHA 6, introducing o-phenylene unit in the main chain showed excellent solubilities in aprotic solvents such as NMP etc. However, the PHA 3, having p-phenylene unit was not even dissolved perfectly with LiCl salt. 6F-PHAs were readily soluble at room temperature in aprotic solvents except 6F-PHA 3. But they showed better solubility than that of PHAs. The polybenzoxazoles(PBOs) were quite insoluble in other solvents except partially soluble in sulfuric acid. PBOs exhibited relatively high glass transition temperatures(Tg) in the range of 306~
by DSC. The maximum weight loss temperature and char yields of PHA3 and 6F-PHA3 showed the highest values of
, 62.6 % and 62.1 %, respectively.
A Study for Mechanism and Oxidation Reaction of Substituted Benzyl Alcohols using Cr(VI)-Heterocyclic Complex[Cr(VI)-2-methylpyrazine]
Kim, Young-Sik ; Park, Young-Cho ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 11, 2013, Pages 6039~6046
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.11.6039
Cr(VI)-heterocyclic complex[Cr(VI)-2-methylpyrazine] was synthesized by the reaction between of heterocyclic compound(2-methylpyrazine) and chromium trioxide, and characterized by IR and ICP analysis. The oxidation of benzyl alcohol using Cr(VI)-2-methylpyrazine in various solvents showed that the reactivity increased with the increase of the dielectric constant(
), in the order : cyclohexene
) was Cr(VI)-2-methylpyrazine