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Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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The Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 14, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 14, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 14, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 14, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 14, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 14, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
The optimization of processing condition of dissimilar material bonding using the 60 kHz ultrasonic transducer
Lee, DongWook ; Jeon, EuySick ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 991~996
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.991
In this paper, the ultrasonic horn having the natural frequency with 60 [kHz] for the dissimilar material bonding of the glass and solder tried to be designed. The ultrasonic horn was designed through the relational formula including the aspect ratio of the input terminal and output terminal, length of the ultrasonic horn. The modal analysis was performed for the propriety analysis of the designed horn. The parameters and response was set through the basic experiment. The dissimilar material bonding strength analysis using the ultrasonic transducer was done. The optimal process parameters having maximum bonding strength was derived.
Numerical analysis on thermal-fluidic characteristics of the magnetic fluid in a cavity using GSMAC
Seo, Jae-Hyeong ; Lee, Moo-Yeon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 997~1002
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.997
The article is aiming to investigate the thermal-fluidic characteristics of magnetic fluid in a cavity using GSMAC (generalized-simplified marker and cell method). The transport equations of the magnetic fluid are including the continuity equation, momentum equation and energy equation for natural convection and Maxwell equation and magnetization equation of magnetite nano-sized particles motion. In addition, the heat transfer characteristics such as temperatures and Nusselt numbers and flow characteristics such as streamlines and isotherms of the magnetic fluid were analyzed with the intensity and direction of the magnetic fields. As a result, the thermal-fluidic characteristics of the magnetic fluid in a cavity were could be controlled by the intensity and direction of the magnetic fields.
Performance analysis of a cold-air forced circulation type showcase
Kim, Jeong-Sik ; Kim, Nae-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1003~1010
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1003
In this study, a simulation program was developed, which predicts the performance of cold-air forced circulation type air cooled showcase. The showcase has an excellent display effect in addition to preserving the grocery. In the program, the compressor was analyzed using performance data supplied by the manufacturer and the capillary tube pressure drop was analyzed using a homogeneous model. The evaporator and condenser were analyzed by dividing the heat exchangers into small elements, where energy balance and appropriate heat transfer correlations were used. A showcase model with two 3/4 HP compressors, capillary tubes of 1.6 mm inner diameter, a fin-and-tube evaporator and condenser was tested, and the results are compared with the predicted values. It is shown that both evaporation and condensation temperatures are adequately predicted by the program.
Design on Magnesium Frame of Bike as New Paradigm for Urban style
Kim, Kwang-Hee ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1011~1015
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1011
The demand of bike increases eco-friendly as the mean of transportation but domestic production basis becomes sluggish. In this study, the design analysis of horizontal and vertical frame is performed on the model which is proposed as the bike of new concept in conjunction with public transport system. As the result, the structural analysis is conducted on the main frame of urban bike used with cast magnesium alloy. As the vertical load of 150 kg is applied, the design technology insures that maximum stress less than 70 MPa is obtained.
Prediction of the Edge Sealing Shape on the Vacuum Glazing Using the Nonlinear Regression Analysis
Kim, Youngshin ; Jeon, Euysik ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1016~1021
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1016
While using the hydrogen mixture gas torch, the glass edge sealing and the shape of the edge sealing parts is affected by many parameters such as flow rate of gas, traveling speed of torch, distance between glass and torch. As the glass edge sealing shape have effects on the insulation and airtightness and strength of the glass panel; the sealing shapes are predicted according to the process parameters. The paper highlight the nonlinear regression equations of the cross-sectional shape of the sealing shape according to the parameters, that is experimentally predicted later compared and verified the equation with the experimental result.
Development of Simulation Model for Waste Heat Recovery from Automotive Engine Exhaust Using Thermoelectric Generator
Kim, Ki-Bum ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1022~1026
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1022
Recently, the waste heat recovery technique using thermoelectric generator (TEG) in automotive engine has emerged to improve thermal efficiency in commercial vehicle. It is not difficult to recognize the numerous attempts that have been made to develop the TEG simulation model, but it is hard to find the model in conjunction with a particular heat engine system. In this study, 1-D commercial software AMESim was used to develop a computational model that can assess waste heat recovery from a diesel engine exhaust using TEG. The developed TEG simulation model can be used for evaluating the TEG performance of various types of TE module, and the diesel engine model can simulate any type of on and off-road diesel engines. The simulation results demonstrated that approximately 544.75W could be recovered from the engine exhaust and 40.4W could be directly converted into electricity using one TE module. The models developed in this study can be easily coupled with each other in the same computational program; thus, the models are expected to provide a viable tool for developing and optimizing a TEG waste heat recovery system in an automotive diesel engine.
Heat Analysis for Heat Sink Design Using Finite Element Method
Jang, Hyun-Suk ; Lee, Joon-Seong ; Park, Dong-Keun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1027~1032
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1027
LED is standing in the limelight as a light part of the low-carbon green energy. While LEDs are eco-friendly, efficient and durable, extreme heat rises can cause their durability to decrease, with 80% of the power supply being turned into heat energy. Heat radiation systems are important because rising temperatures affect the lifetime of LED elements. Therefore, in this paper, thermal analysis was performed for the shape of heat sink to the LED bulb. Also, it is applied the temperature control systems to our products for optimal performance.
Enterprise-BOM design for management speed-up in the automotive industry
Lim, Kyung-Soo ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1033~1039
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1033
Recently, as the product life cycle becomes shorter and customer needs becomes various, it has a great difficulty in managing the product information without the information technology. In this paper, we discuss how to classify numerous BOMs types and propose three categories-Structure-BOM, Display-BOM and Function-BOM for BOMs classification. Based on this result, we design the integrated BOMs management system with ERD(Entity-Relaion-Daiagram) model. This paper presented the methodology for management speed-up and communication innovation in the automotive industry, which incorporated the enterprise-wide product information. The proposed enterprise-BOM design methods also systemized the data related to automotive's principal attributes such as types of levels, options, colors, and consumers' orders. Efficient and flexible development of products can be achieved in the frequently varying environment of products.
A Study on the Characteristics of Time Dependent Temperature Change in a Automobile Washer Heater
Ha, Ji-Soo ; Lee, Seong-Bong ; Lee, Dong-Kwon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1040~1044
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1040
The present paper has been accomplished to elucidate the characteristics of temperature change in a car washer heater system for removal of frost formed at the surface of a car. The previous studies had used a simplified mathematical modeling to analyse the temperature change characteristics for a car washer heater system. In the present study, an unsteady computational fluid flow and heat transfer analysis for a washer heater system has been done by using computational fluid dynamic analysis method. From the present CFD analysis, the time dependent temperature change in a car washer heater system has been analysed and derived the heating time and ejection temperature of the washer liquid to establish the optimal design basis for a washer heater system.
A Study on Structural Strength Assessment of Polyethylene Boat
Cho, Seok-Swoo ; Kwak, Won-Min ; Ham, Bum-Sik ; Jo, Young-Chul ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1045~1053
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1045
Boat or yacht hull has been built mainly by FRP composite materials. FRP boat hull manufacturing begins to be restricted after the year 2000 under international regulation on ocean environment safety. The alternative of FRP has been proposed by many boat builders and high strength aluminium is considered as its standard material. But high strength aluminium is very expensive as boat hull material. In this study, boat hull is considered to be built by high density polyethylene and its structural strength is estimated by longitudinal strength test method on small craft. Tensile strength of polyethylene boat hull material is higher than that of FRP boat hull material. But safety factor of polyethylene boat hull is more than that of FRP boat hull. These study results indicate structural integrity and quality control of polyethylene boat is better than those of FRP boat.
Study on the Phase II Qualification Test for Fuel Cell of Rotorcraft
Kim, Hyun-Gi ; Kim, Sung Chan ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1054~1060
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1054
Fuel tank of a rotorcraft has a great influence on the survivability of crews. For a long time, US army has tried to develop the proper material for fuel cell of a military rotorcraft. As a result, the design specification of fuel cell, MIL-T-27422A, was issued for the first time on 1961. Through a few revisions, it has been developed to ML-DTL-27422D in 2007. It should be assured that fuel cell satisfies the requirement defined in MIL-DTL-27422D. The qualification test of this specification is classified into Phase I test for material and Phase II for fuel cell itself. This paper studies test conditions and procedures of slosh & vibration, gunfire resistance and crash impact test. They are considered as the most important tests which have a high possibility of failure. The rational consideration of this paper can improve the ability for estimating not only the validity of test procedure and test condition but test result. Based on the rational consideration, it is expected that the ability of the systematic development can be improved.
A Study on Development of Major Curriculum for Broadcasting, Entertainment and Acting in Connection with Cultural Content Industry
Park, Moon-Hee ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1061~1072
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1061
In order to improve executive ability in response to need of job ability in cultural content industry and in connection with industrial scene, it is required to develop curriculum for department of broadcasting, entertainment and acting First of all, environmental analysis of cultural content industry, survey on industry demand, survey on demand by enrolled students and graduated students, survey on demand by local community were made and conducted to draw job competency for acting art. In addition, the existing curriculum was analyzed through evaluation by field experts, enrolled students, and graduated students. Based on the analysis results, major curriculum was developed for department of broadcasting, entertainment and acting. Such curriculum development enables providing acting education that focuses on core competency to maximize education effect and cultivating actor who is suitable for the age of multimedia based on local infrastructure. Moreover, the curriculum development helps cultivating versatile actor, rather than famous actor.
Governments' Realestate Policies and Effectiveness after '90s
Kim, Jinsu ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1073~1080
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1073
Owing to 88 Olympic, social atmosphere changed to more freely and abundant liquidity, which caused by trade surplus, had led to the surge in real estate prices. Accordingly, The Roh Taewoo government announced the construction of five new towns, Bun-dang, Il-san etc. The Kim Youngsam government had dramatically enhanced the transparency of transactions on real estate field by introducing real-name transaction system. Whereas the Kim Daejung government carried out real estate stimulus package to early recovery from Asian financial cirsis. But, the Roh Muhyeon government conducted strongly suppressing polices. This report want to testify governments' real estate polices and their effectiveness on the real estate market after '90s using VAR model.
A Study on the Formation Plan of Green Cluster by Sectoral Type for the Enhancement of Regional Competitiveness in Green Industry
Kim, Soo-Kyung ; Lee, Joo-Hyung ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1081~1089
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1081
The purpose of this paper is to suggest the formation plan of green cluster for the enhancement of green industry competitiveness in Korea. For this reason, this paper has the analysis to find out regional competitiveness and effective factors in the green industry. The major findings are as follows. First, the renewable energy industry was competitive at Gyeonggi, Gyeongnam, Chungbuk, Chungnam, Ulsan, Jeonnam, and the carbon reduction industry was competitive at Ulsan, Gyeonggi, Gyeongbuk,, Chungnam, Seoul, Chungbuk, Inchon. Second, the most important factors of the renewable energy industry was factor condition, such as business, labor, research and development; while in the carbon reduction industry was sector of structure and rivalry, such as performance, policy and institution, market share, industry specialization. Third, it showed that the green industry was more competitive at the local area with the better industrial infrastructure. So, we need to focus on the green of existing industry-infrastructure, and the strategy of selection and concentration, for the enhancement of green industry competitiveness in Korea.
Life Satisfaction According to Baby Boomers' Social Activity Type
Kim, Yun-Jeong ; Kang, Hyun-Jung ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1090~1099
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1090
The purpose of this study was to examine difference in life satisfaction by social activity type in baby boomers. Sampling 1,115 baby boomers, gender and region were assigned. A questionnaire survey was carried out from August to October in 2011. As a result of research, first, the typology of social activity in baby boomers includes 3 groups. The passive social-participation type is the cluster to which 36.8% of the baby boomers belong. They do not join income activity or civic-group activity at all. A case of doing religious activity or family activity includes a minority. There are primarily lots of women and posteriori baby boomers. Academic background level or household income is lower compared to other clusters. The life satisfaction level is moderate. Second, the active social-participation type is the cluster to which 33.8% of the baby boomers belong. They are positive in all the social activities including income activity. What there are lots of women and posteriori baby boomers is similar to the passive social-participation type. However, the academic background or the averagely monthly household income is the highest compared to other clusters. Even the life satisfaction level is the highest. Third, the economic activity orientation type is the cluster to which 29.4% of the baby boomers belong. They participate in income activity, but don't participate in civic-group activity, educational activity, and social activity such as spending time alone. Distribution of priori-and-posteriori baby boomers, distribution of academic background, or monthly household income is moderate level of other clusters. However, unlike other clusters, there are many men. The life satisfaction level is the lowest. Based on result of this study are suggested ways to improve in life satisfaction by social activity type in baby boomers.
A Study of the Relationship between Teachers' Efficacy and Difficulties on Job Performance Depended on Self-Esteem of Child Care Teachers
Kim, Yong-Sook ; Jeon, Yean-Ju ; Park, Ji-Young ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1100~1108
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1100
This study analyzes the relationship between teachers' efficacy and difficulties on job performance depended on self-esteem. To achieve this goal, 282 child care teachers who inhabit J city responded to the questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and multiple regression techniques using the SPSS statistics program. First, the self-esteem was closely associated with child care teachers' efficacy and difficulties on job performance. Second, the self-esteem was the strongest predictor for general teaching efficacy of child care teacher and Infant's protection and guidance also notable variables. This significant result shows the importance of self-esteem. Therefore, it is desirable to encourage child care teachers to experience and raise self-esteem.
A Study on the Decision Making Model for Social Enterprise Investment
Suh, Sung-Moo ; Chang, Dae-Kyu ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1109~1115
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1109
The present study attempts to build a decision making model for social enterprise investment. The proposed model includes four factors; social compatibility, growth, profitability, stability, and organizational suitability. Thirteen social enterprise investors were requested to rate the importance of each of the four factors when they make investment decisions. Financial stability (25.8%) and social compatibility(25.7%) turned out to be most important followed by profitability(17.5%) and growth(17.1%). Organizational suitability(13.9%) was least important. This study uncovered the first empirical factors for social enterprise investment decision making in the early stage of exploratory research. In practice, also provided several implications to social entrepreneurs, investors and policy makers.
Knowledge of Pain Management and Hospice Awareness of Nursing Students in Cancer Ward
Choi, Kyung-Sook ; Han, Sang-Young ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1116~1122
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1116
This study was to investigate the knowledge of cancer pain management and hospice awareness of nursing students in cancer ward. A total of 237 nursing students working at the cancer ward in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province from December 1st to 14th, 2012. The survey instrument used the 45-item scale for evaluating nursing students about knowledge of pain management and 23-item scale for evaluating hospice awareness. Data was statistically analyzed by SPSS Win 17.0 program, with descriptive analysis, t-test, pearson's correlation coefficient and ANOVA. The knowledge of pain management and hospice awareness showed statistically significant difference in the grade, religion, practice period of subjects. There was a significant difference between knowledge of pain management and hospice awareness. In order to understand cancer patient's pain, is required hospice education for forming a consensus. in addition, There is a need to increase the duration of the practice in order to have enough experience. that way, it is necessary to seek for expanding and promoting ways in order to hospice awareness.
Application of Social Network Analysis for Location Selection of Agricultural Wholesale Market in Gyeonggi-do
Song, Ji-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1123~1134
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1123
The purpose of this study is to decide the optimal location site of the agricultural wholesale market in Gyeonggi-do. In this paper, methods of social network analysis are adopted to calculate the betweenness centrality, degree centrality, prestige centrality. Methods of social network analysis can be a good alternative to discover characteristics of a complicated method by visualizing relationships among nodes(cities). The results of this study are as below : First, the result of social network and present locations are not so different. Second, optimal locations of the agricultural wholesale market in Gyeonggi-do are Pyeongtaek-si, Suwon-si, Ansan-si, Seongnam-si, Hwaseong-si, Yongin-si, Icheon-si, Anyang-si etc.
An Empirical Study on the Influence of Store Entrepreneur's Start up Education and Experience before Start up to Performance of Stores
Kim, Choon Hwa ; Kang, Byung Oh ; Yun, Hyoung Bo ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1135~1147
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1135
This study is on the empirical results of correlation between start up education and experience before start up of a self employer entrepreneur with store and performance of the entrepreneur's store. Many latent self employers are lacking in education and experiences for start up. According to the result, first, practical education on start up influenced on entrepreneur's start up skill, and theoretical education influenced on entrepreneur's entrepreneurship. Second, entrepreneur's experience before start up influenced on both start up skill and entrepreneurship. Third, start up skill influenced on both financial and non financial performance of the entrepreneur's store. Finally, entrepreneurship influenced on both financial and non financial performance of the store.
The Relationship among Self-efficacy, Self-determination and Academic achievement of Middle/High School Student
Kim, Chung-Ja ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1148~1156
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1148
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship among self-efficacy, motivation proposed by self-determination theory and academic achievement and to confirm the relative predictive power of motivation variables in predicting 480 middle/high students' achievement. The instruments used in this study were 'Self-efficacy' and 'Self - regulation' scale. The data were analyzed with Pearson correlations and multiple regression (stepwised) analysis. The correlations among self-efficacy, self-determination motivation and academic achievement were significant. The variables among self-determination were correlated to academic achievement in middle school. Among the variables of self-determination motivation, identified regulation, Integrated regulation and intrinsic regulation were positively related to academic achievement in high school but amotivation was negatively related to academic achievement. Self-control efficacy and self-confidence were the significance predictor of academic achievement in middle school. Hard-task preference and self-control efficacy were the significance predictor of academic achievement in high school students. Introjected-regulation was the best predictor of academic achievement in middle school. Identified-regulation was the best predictor of academic achievement in high school.
The Relationship Among Self-efficacy, Self-determination and Creative Thinking Ability of Middle School Student
Lew, Kyoung-Hoon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1157~1163
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1157
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship among self-efficacy, self-determinative motivation and creative thinking ability. And to confirm the relative predictive power of motivation variables in predicting middle school students' creative thinking ability. The instruments used in this study were 'TTCT', 'Self-efficacy' and 'Self-Regulation Scale'. Self-reported response data on these instruments from 212 middle school students in Seoul were analyzed. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, multiple stepwise regression analysis by using SPSS 18.0. The major results of this study were as follows; First, the correlations among self-efficacy, self-determinative motivation and creative thinking ability were significant. Second, Task difficulty preferred, self-control efficacy and internal motivation were the best predictor of creative thinking ability in middle school students. This study suggested that Task difficulty preferred, self-control efficacy and internal motivation is essential to improve creative thinking ability in middle school students.
The Optimal Harvest Scheme for Pine Trees When Carbon Value Is Considered
Lee, Sang-Min ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1164~1170
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1164
Since trees sequestrate carbon and reduce the level of its concentrations in the atmosphere, forests should be considered as carbon pools as well as timber producers. This study focuses on finding optimal harvest age when carbon sequestration from trees is accounted by forest managers. A dynamic programming employs a static volume matrix, and solves the harvest decision problems. If carbon value is accounted in a tree harvest decision model, the optimal harvest age increases. The harvest age of pine trees set by the government for national forests is longer than the optimal solution. It is possible to say that the managers of national forests put more values on the standing pine trees than the value of carbon sequestration. The regulation for private forests, on the other hand, ends up in a shorter harvest age than the optimal solution, and this discrepancy could lead to an inefficient private forest management.
The Relational Characteristics, Satisfaction and Collaboration between Wholesalers & Oriental Clinic in Oriental Medicine Channel
Kim, Shine ; Lee, Jeom-Soo ; Kwon, Ki-Dae ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1171~1179
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1171
Recently there is show deep concern at the wellness of health and beauty. therefore this study is to investigate an empirical study on the relational characteristics and collaboration between wholesalers and oriental clinic in herb medicine supplier channel, specially focused on lycium chinense. We collected statistically usable data from 119 questionnaire respondents who live in national provinces and analyzed them with SPSS 20.0 to achieve research's goals. Analysis results revealed that, first, relational characteristics of relationalism, trust, reward power and dependence had impacts on satisfaction between wholesaler and oriental clinic in herb medicine, Second, the survey found that satisfaction has impact on collaboration. Third, this study partially supported mediating effect regarding satisfaction between relational characteristics of relationalism and reward power.
The Bone Density Level of Korean Men Aged 60 Years and Over, and Its Relevant Factors
Kim, Young-Ran ; Nam, Hae-Sung ; Lee, Tae-Yong ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1180~1190
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1180
This study is to analyze femoral necks and lumbar spine bone mineral density in Korean men aged 60 or older 2,736 people, as well as to research in its relation to anthropometry, life style, diet, fracture history, family history of osteoporosis and medical history using data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)(the 2nd(2008) and 3rd(2009) year at the 1st survey, and the 1st(2010) year at the 5th survey). To express the strength of the associations, percent differences were calculated from multiple linear regression models using the formula
(unit/mesnBMD). Unit for continuous variables were chosen to approximate 1 standard deviation(SD). Prevalence of osteoporosis for 60-69, 70-79 and >80 old men were 6.7%, 15.8% and 31.4% respectively. The proportion of osteoporosis calculated for each age group in the femoral neck group was: 60-69 years old, 2.6%, 70-79years old, 8.2%, >80years old, 24.8%. For the lumbar spine group, the values were: 60-69 years old, 5.5%, 70-79years old, 11.3%, >80years old, 15.4%. In men aged 60 or older, lean mass greatly influenced bone density in the femoral neck and lumbar spine. Thus, to increase the lean mass would be an effective way to prevent osteoporosis in elderly men.
Genotypic Detection of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing of Klebsiella pneumoniae
Yook, Keun-Dol ; Yang, Byoung-Seon ; Park, Jin-Sook ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1191~1196
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1191
Among Gram-negative pathogens in Korea, the incidence of resistance to third generation cephalosporins is becoming an ever-increasing problem. The production of extended-spectrum
-lactamase (ESBL) is the main mechanism of bacterial resistance to a third-generation cephalosporins and monobactams. Accurate identification of the ESBL genes are necessary for surveillance and epidemiological studies of the mode of transmission in the hospital. This study was conducted to detect the genes encoding ESBL of 46 K. penumoniae isolated from Daejeon, Chungnam and Chungbuk regional university hospitals from February to August in 2012. The phenotypes of the isolated specimens were examined according to the combination disc test (CDT) by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Forty two ESBL producing K. penumoniae isolates could be detected using ceftazidime (CAZ) discs with and without clavulanate (CLA). By CDT, 42 K. pneumoniae strains were confirmed to be ESBL strains. Genotyping was performed by multiplex PCR with type-specific primers. By PCR analysis, TEM gene in 46 strains, SHV gene in 37 strains and CTX-M genes in 14 strains were identified. Ten isolates did carry genes encoding ESBLs of all types TEM, SHV and CTX-M. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was better to detect and differentiate ESBL producing K. penumoniae strains in clinical isolates.
Effect of a Suction Care Education Program on Undergraduate Nursing Students
Kim, Hyun-Ju ; Kang, So-Young ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1197~1206
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1197
The purpose of this study was to develop a suction care education program and to evaluate the effects on clinical performance, self-efficacy, and problem-solving process regarding suction practice. The participants were 96 in second-year nursing students at P university in Pusan, Korea. The data was collected from Oct. 6th toward Oct. 19th, 2011, and analyzed by
, t-test, ANCOVA test using SPSS 18.0. The scores of clinical performance were 23.72 in the experimental group who learned this program and 22.16 in the control group, and were statistically significant(p<.001). Self-efficacy were 7.58 in the experimental group and 7.08 in the control group, which was statistically significant(p=.03), and the pre-to-post difference of self-efficacy was statistically significant as well(p<.001). However, there were no significant differences in the problem-solving process(p=.06) and the pre-to-post difference related to this(p=.011). This study showed that clinical performance and self-efficacy were improved by suction care education program.
Changes in Postural Sway according to the Method of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation
Kim, Hee-Gon ; Shin, Won-Seob ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1207~1212
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1207
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) according to frequency and intensity on postural sway distance and velocity. TENS was applied to posterior aspect of the dominant leg with postural sway during one leg stance. Twenty-four healthy participants were measured while standing on a force platform with 5 different stimulation dosages of no TENS, high frequency and high intensity, high frequency and low intensity, low frequency and high intensity, low frequency and low intensity applied in 30 seconds. The five different dosages were performed with vision in random order. The results indicated that TENS dosage in the high frequency and low intensity had a significant decrease in postural sway(p<.05). From these results, we concluded that TENS delivered a high frequency and low intensity enhanced the postural sway in healthy adults. We expect that the postural sway of patients with decreased balance will reduce by application of TENS.
The effect of Smart Care ubiquitous health service on hypertension management
Chung, Young-Soon ; Moon, Mikyung ; Lee, Chang Hee ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1213~1220
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1213
The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of the Smart Care ubiquitous healthcare service on hypertension management. Fifty one patients with inadequately controlled blood pressure (Systolic Blood Pressure
140 mmHg despite prescribed antihypertensive medication) from 4 local clinics participated in this study. Remote biometric monitoring and healthcare consultation via videophone was provided to the participants during 24 week - Smart Care service. The average number of blood pressure monitoring and the average day of remote consult using Smart Care Service system was 121 and 14.8 per participant. As a result of analyzing change in blood pressure during 24 weeks, there was a significant difference in blood pressure between baseline and 24 weeks. Systolic blood pressures of 86.3% participants were dropped within a normal range at 24 week. Smart Care u-health service could be effective in reducing blood pressure.
The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Knee Pain among Farm Workers
Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Cho, Young-Chae ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1221~1227
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1221
This study aims to establish the prevalence and risk factors of knee pain. Study subjects in this survey were 306 farm workers of the two-Myon, Keumsan-Gun, Chungnam-Do. Collected data was self-administered questionnaires that were investigated in February 1 to march 31, 2012, about the existence of knee pain, age, sex, height, weight, and the type of farm work. As a results, females had more knee pain than males. Aging was a major cause of knee pain in both genders. About half of persons over 60 years old had knee pain. Tall and heavy females had more knee pain than short and light females, but this trend was not observed in males. these results represent fundamental data for prevention of knee pain.
A Reliability the Montreal Cognitive Assessment on Cognitive impairment Following Stroke
Song, Chiang-Soon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1228~1233
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1228
The purposes of this study were to assess the reliability of the Korean version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-K) and Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K) and correlation between MoCA-K and MMSE-K to detect cognitive impairment following stroke determined by a neuropsychological battery. Fifty-two chronic stroke patients participated in this study. They divided two group, normal cognitive group (20 patients) with stroke and cognitive impairment group with stroke (32 patients), and research period was from October 2th. to November 30th., 2013. The subjects were measured K-MoCA and K-MMSE. Normal cognitive group showed the moderate reliability in K-MoCA and K-MMSE. Cognitive group showed the more moderate relaibility in K-MoCA and K-MMSE. There was positive correlation as the more score of K-MoCA gain, the more score of K-MMSE showed in both group. The results suggest that both clinical measures are moderately sensitive and proper feasibility to chronic post-stroke cognitive impairment. The both clinical tools suggest to use in research and clinical settings by a neuropshchological battery.
A Study on Ten Years Trend of Cancer Incidence and Evaluation of Quality of Cancer Registration in Daejeon Metropolitan City and Chungcheongnam-Do, Korea: 2000-2009
Park, Un-Je ; Nam, Hae-Seong ; Kim, Kwang-Hwan ; Park, Chang-Soo ; Kwon, In-Sun ; Kim, Jeong-A ; Lee, Tae-Yong ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1234~1244
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1234
This study aimed to analyze the ten years cancer incidence based on diagnosis years 2000-2009, and to evaluate the quality of cancer registry in Daejeon City and Chungcheongnam-Do, Korea. Crude incidence rate and age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) in these two regions were compared, and validity of incidence data was assessed by three indicators; age unknown (Age UNK%), histological verification (HV%), and death certificate only (DCO%). Mortality/incidence ratio (M/I ratio) was used to evaluate completeness of incidence data. Incidence rate differences were assessed using Poission distribution and calculated their 95% confidence interval of ASR, and those by sex, age, and region were compared by incidence rate curve. As a result, the highest cancer site during 2000-2009 was stomach in both regions, and incidence prpportion were 18.8% in Daejeon, 21.5% in Chungnam. The overall cancer incidence was higher in males than in females, and ASR of total cancer in Daejeon increased 0.6% (from 322.1 to 323.9 per 100,000) for men and 60.3% (from 203.9 to 326.8) for women, that in Chungnam increased 14.3% (from 294.7 to 336.9) for men and 70.7% (from 156.5 to 267.1) for women. The Age UNK% during 2000-2009 were 0.0% in both regions. MV% for men was increased from 71.8% to 88.5% and that for women was increased from 78.1% to 93.2%. DCO% for men was decreased from 6.4% to 0.7% and that for women was decreased from 5.4% to 0.8%. M/I ratio was ranged from 15.3% to 62.1% and can be evaluated fairy good registration.
Characteristics of 2nd to 4th Digit Ratio according to Type of Handedness in University Students
Kim, Sooil ; Cho, Keun-Ja ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1245~1251
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1245
The aim of this study is to identify characteristics of 2D:4D according to type of handedness. Data was collected from October, 4th, 2010 to April, 30th, 2012. After handedness assessment, 2nd and 4th finger length were measured by vernier calipers. This study showed remarkable gender difference of 2D:4D in left hand for left handers and right hand for right handers, However, there was no significant difference according to type of handedness in each gender. The correlation between left and right 2D:4D in males right handedness was higher than that of male left handedness, otherwise, in case of female, that of left handedness was higher than that of right handedness. The results of this study suggest that the 2D:4D of left handedness does not differ from that of right handedness, however, gender difference and correlation between left and right 2D:4D show different characteristics according to handedness.
The Manufacturing Characteristics of Magnesium Chloride Emulsion by Different Rotational Speed of Homomixer as Soybean Curd Coagulant
Hong, Seung-Seok ; Park, Won-Jong ; Joung, Kyung-Hee ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1252~1257
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1252
This study was used homomixer as one of the manufacturing method to establish optimal manufacturing condition with magnesium chloride emulsion as coagulant. The more rotational speed of homomixer was fast, the more particle size of magnesium chloride emulsion was minute. The particle size was distributed between 1 and
. The more minute particle size of emulsion had an effect on increasing viscosity of emulsion and delay of oil phase separation during storage period, so the quality of magnesium chloride emulsion had correlation with dispersed phase particle size. After all the experiments, when manufacturing magnesium chloride emulsion, it used more than 10,000 rpm of rotational speed of homomixer, it showed the best result as coagulant according to the state of texture and the water separation ratio of soybean curd.
Effects of Touchpad &Buttons Positions in a Laptop Computer on EMG Amplitude and Median Frequency of Muscles Relating to Wrist and Shoulder
Han, Seung Jo ; Kim, Sun-Uk ; Koo, Kyo Chan ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1258~1265
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1258
The objective of this study is to investigate the association between touchpad &buttons locations in a laptop computer and EMG amplitude and median frequency in muscles related with wrist and shoulder. Based on previous studies it was shown how abductions in wrist and shoulder could cause musculoskeletal disorders in those body parts, on which research hypotheses were established. Touchpad &buttons positions consisted of bottom center(BC), bottom center with
rotation counterclockwise(BCR), and bottom right(BR). 10 subjects performed the task that required only touchpad &buttons usage with their preferred hand and EMG amplitude and median frequency data were recorded during 5min and analyzed afterwards. Upper trapezius and flexor carpi ulnaris were selected as target muscles. The results showed that in flexor carpi ulnaris BC resulted in greater amplitude and less median frequency than BCR and BR, but there was no significant difference between BCR and BR. In upper trapezius BC and BCR induced higher amplitude and lower median frequency than BR, but the significant difference between BC and BCR was not observed. Those phenomena occurred since BC gave rise to both wrist and shoulder abduction, BCR caused only shoulder one, and BR did not lead to abductions in both wrist and shoulder.
The Effect of Form of Outsole on Energy Consumption and Heart Rate during Gait
Park, Jin-Kook ; Choi, Hyun-Hee ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1266~1273
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1266
The purpose of this study was to analysis the effect of form of outsole - complex function double rocker sole(CDR) vs. negative-heel rocker sole (NR) - on energy consumption and heart rate intensity during gait. 11 women, who had no medical history on musculoskeletal disease and surgery within 3 years prior to study, were participated. The walking energy cost per time (WECt) during 35minutes, heart rate intensity, and total calorie consumption were compared by using pair t-test. The WECt and total calorie consumption were found to be significantly higher(p<.05) in CDR than NR. However, there was no difference in HRi. Based on the present study, CDR shoe may have significant implications in shoe prescription for people who want to increase energy consumption.
Outcomes and Satisfaction of Simulation-based Learning in Nursing of Patient with UGI Bleeding
Ryoo, Eon-Na ; Park, Yeon Suk ; Ha, Eun-Ho ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1274~1282
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1274
With the reinforcement in patient's rights and safety, simulation-based learning is getting popular in nursing education. Therefore, The purpose of this study was to identify the outcomes and satisfaction of simulation-based learning in nursing on patient with UGI bleeding. Participants of this study were 77 second year nursing students who never experienced simulation-based learning. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS Statistics 18.0. Frequencies, % for general characteristics and satisfaction in simulation, and paired t-test for learning outcomes in simulation were used. Confidence on clinical performance, satisfaction in simulation significantly increased by simulation-based learning. The applying the simulation-based learning is a practical alternative to patient safety and nursing students were satisfied. Well trained and educated instructors are the first line rather than facilities for the quality of learning.
Relationships between Health Behaviors, Mental Health and Internet Addiction by Gender Differences among Korean Adolescents
Park, Min Hee ; Jeon, Hae Ok ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1283~1293
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1283
The purpose of this study was to compare the health behaviors, mental health and internet addiction by gender differences among Korean adolescents and to examine relevances between health behaviors, mental health and internet addiction. The subjects were 73,238 Korean adolescents(male: 38,391, female: 34,847) who were recruited through national web-based survey. The data were derived from the Sixth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey 2010 in South Korea. There were significant differences in health behaviors, mental health and internet addiction. by gender differences. Prevalence of internet addiction was male: 3.9%, female: 1.9% in this study. As the result of multiple logistic regression, the risk of internet addiction was increased in the case of smoking experience, substance experience, subjective health status, feeling of stress, depression experience, suicidal ideation, feeling of happiness, and sufficiency of sleeps in both male and female. Therefore, to decrease internet addiction prevalence, it is necessary to detect and manage the influencing risk factors of internet addiction such as health behaviors and mental health. And the health-promotion intervention to improve the internet addiction of adolescents should be planed and provided considering such differences by gender differences.
Usefulness of contrast agent involving high gadolium content for myocardial viability assessment
Choi, Kwan-Woo ; Son, Soon-Yong ; Kim, Tae-Hyung ; Han, Man-Seok ; Lee, Ju-Hee ; Min, Jung-Whan ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1294~1300
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1294
The purpose of this study is to increase contrast to noise ratio(CNR) in myocardial viability test by using contrast agent which highly content gadolinium(1mmol/mL) maximizing diagnostic value. This research method that four hundred four patients were underwent the MRI scanning two hundred eighty four of them were injected commercial contrast media which have 0.5mmol/L and the rest of them were injected new contrast media(gadobutrol) which have 1mmol/mL of molarity to study the contrast difference depending on the molarity of the contrast agent signal intensities of normal ventricle and left ventricle were measured to compare and evaluate signal to noise ratio(SNR) and CNR of the images. As result, 1mmol/mL contrast agent showed higher SNR by 25.13% in myocardium and 30.74% in left ventricle. CNR was proved to be better in 1mmol/mL contrast agent by 31.29%. The results above were all statistically meaningful. Therefore, contrast agent contenting more gadolinium which was 1mmol/mL in this study, could more effectively shorten T1 relaxation time, increase the signal intensity and at the same time maximize CNR and diagnostic value. This study firstly report the usefulness of 1mmol/mL contrast agent in patients allegedly suffering cardiac diseases and it is considered to increase diagnostic value.
Influence of Critical Thinking Disposition on Satisfaction with Clinical Practice and Intention of Recommendation among Paramedic Students
Choi, Mi-Young ; Moon, Tae-Young ; Lee, Hyun-Ji ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1301~1312
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1301
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of the critical thinking disposition of paramedic students to their satisfaction with hospital clinical practice and intention of recommendation. As for data analysis, the statistical packages SPSS WIN 20.0 and AMOS 20.0 were employed, and frequency analysis, factor analysis, multiple regression analysis and structural equation modeling were utilized. Besides, Cronbach alpha coefficients were calculated to check item internal consistency. The level of significance was all set at .05. A survey was conducted to collect data from May 12 to August 25, 2012, and the answer sheets from 305 respondents were gathered and analyzed. The critical thinking disposition of the paramedic students was found to have a significant impact on their satisfaction with clinical practice, and the hypothesis about that was accepted. Their critical thinking disposition was found to exert a significant influence on their intention of recommendation as well, and the hypothesis about that was accepted. Finally, their satisfaction with clinical practice was found to affect their intention of recommendation in a significant way, and the hypothesis about that was accepted. The findings of the study suggested that in order to nurture professional and competent paramedics, the content of clinical practice should systematically be managed on a regular basis, and prolonged research efforts should be directed into program development.
Body Image according to Body Mass Index of One Area of Male and Female High School and College Students
Choi, Eun-Hee ; Mo, Moon-Hee ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1313~1319
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1313
The purpose of this study was to survey body image according to BMI. The subjects were 600 students, data were collected by questionnaire surveys using convenience sampling and analyzed by the SPSS 20.0 program. Body mass index(BMI) and body image between high school and college students were significantly different. Although significant difference between two groups, BMI of high school and college students among women were not significant difference. BMI and body image according to gender were significantly different. Body image according to BMI between men and women were significantly different and expecially subjects of under weight had highest body image(F =15.86, p <.001). These results mean that body weight misunderstood by the early adulthood. It is needed to revise of perception on their own body weight in order to improve body image.
Comparison on the Quality and fatigue of hands-Only CPR According to the Presence or Absence of Verbal counting by Some Middle-aged Women
Kim, Geon-Nam ; Choi, Sung-Soo ; Choi, Seong-Woo ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1320~1329
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1320
According to the comparing the quality and fatigue of Hands-only CPR with counting by middle-aged women who is most likely to witness the cardiac arrest. This paper wants to provide the basic data to establish a CPR education program for the role of the first responders. After conducted three hours of basic life support training, it divided into two 45-persons groups by assignment of probability. 2-minutes research conducted with dummy by dividing into Group-A that counting the number loudly during the Hands-Only CPR, And Group-B that does not counting the number during the Hands-Only CPR. Between the two groups, the quality of Hands-Only CPR does not showed its difference clearly and the downtime of Hands-Only CPR was reduced, Depending on the over time, the frequency that reduces the depth of Hands-Only CPR was also significantly lower. And after the Hands-Only CPR, the fatigability who felt themselves was also significantly lower.
A Comparison study on the relationship between the Self-reported Voice Problem and Body Mass Index
Lee, Inae ; Hwang, Young-Jin ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1330~1334
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1330
The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between self-reported voice problem and body mass index. Data were collected from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010) from 5,811 subjects(2,503 men and 3,308 women) aged 19 years and olders. chi-square, t-test and multi-nominal logistic regression analysis were used that to compare self-reported voice problem and variable(age, sex, hight, weight, waist measurement, body mass index). body mass index(OR=1.028, 95% CI: 1.003-1.056) was independently associated with self-reported voice problem(p<0.031). also over weight-two step obesity (OR=1.765, 95% CI: 1.036-3.006) were independently associated with self-reported voice problem(p<0.036). The results of comparison verified that body mass index are valuable self-reported voice problem of risk factor. when the evaluation were conducted, what was considered body mass index is needed.
State and factors influencing on exercise in the disabled
Lim, Jaeran ; Kim, Hyunli ; Choi, Youngsoon ; Kim, Younghee ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1335~1341
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1335
This study was conducted to identify the actual condition of exercise and the fact of influence to exercise in the disabled. The subject was consisted of 369 disabled. 84.5 percent of subject did exercise regularly. There was statistically significant in cause of disability(p<.001), type of disability(p<.001), grade of disability(p<.01), education(p<.01), economic state(p<.05), aim of rehabilitation exercise (p<.001). Chance to practice exercise in subject who intend to exercise was 16.18 times high than them who have no intention(95% CI =7.45~37.14). Regular exercise intervention is needed to disabled people in community.
Factors Influencing the Health-Related Quality of Life by Age among Vulnerable Elderly Women
Kim, Yun-Hee ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1342~1349
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1342
This study was performed to investigate the factors which impact on the health-related quality of life of young-old(65-69 yr), old-old(70-79 yr), and oldest-old(80 yr or above) women in vulnerable elderly received home care service from public health centers in B city. The data were collected from 383 elderly women using structured questionnaires from September to November, 2010. Multiple regression with the SPSS WIN 18.0 program were used to analyze the data. There were statistically significant differences among young-old, old-old, and oldest-old women regarding the health-related quality of life, life satisfaction, cognitive function, frail condition. The models including life satisfaction, frail condition, cognitive function, perceived health status, number of chronic diseases were explained variance of the health-related quality of life elderly women differently like 42.8% of young-old, 28.9% of old-old, and 31.5% of oldest-old. Finally, frail condition and life satisfaction were predictors in explaining the level of health-related quality of life among vulnerable old women regardless of age. Based on the findings of the study, health promotion programs should be developed to improve health-related quality of life of vulnerable aged women according to age differences.
Perception Level of Foot Reflex Therapy and Its Related Factors among Customers using Foot Care Service Centers
Kim, Young-Ho ; Kim, Pom-Ho ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1350~1358
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1350
For this study, in order to understand the perception level of foot reflex therapy and clarify its related factors among customers using foot care service centers, a survey was conducted based on structured self-administered questionnaire with 181 users of three foot care service centers located in Daejeon between September 1 and October 30, 2011. The results showed that the average score in perception level of the subjects regarding foot reflex therapy was
(Score scale of the 11 items 0-44) and people with higher level of education had a significantly higher perception level(p=0.020).The perception level based on attitude and practice of foot reflex therapy was significantly higher in the group who do it "to heal illness"(p=0.034); and who "had illness" at the time when they started the therapy (p=0.030); when they used the foot massage for a longer period (p=0.000); and those in the group who would "recommend it"(p=0.004). In multiple regression analysis, among the factors that affect perception level of foot reflex massage, reason for using foot reflex therapy, health state when starting foot reflex massage, period of using foot reflex massage, and experience of recommendation to other people were selected as significant variables, with the explanatory power of 26.1%. The results suggest that perception level of foot care service users regarding foot reflex therapy are more correlated to variables that explain their attitude and practice than general characteristic variables.
Investigation of Blood Pressure, Serum Lipids, and Obesity Indices according to Smoking Status in Middle-Aged Males
Shin, Eun-Sook ; Kwon, In-Sun ; Cho, Young-Chae ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1359~1366
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1359
The purpose of this study was to examine the blood pressure, serum lipid levels and obesity indices according to smoking status, and the effects of smoking cessation on blood pressure, serum lipid and obesity indices. The 2,230 male workers aged 30-59 years were observed the age, smoking status, SBP, DBP, TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, AI, BMI, body fat rate and waist circumference, from April to July, 2011. As a results, the mean score of SBP, DBP, TC, TG and BMI were significantly higher in smoking group than non-smoking group, but HDL-C were significantly lower in smoking group than non-smoking group, the distribution of hypertension was significantly higher in smoking group than non-smoking group. The abnormal levels of TC, TG and HDL-C were significantly higher in smoking group than non-smoking group, and the distribution of obesity was significantly higher in smoking group than non-smoking group. Age adjusted odds ratio(ORs) was significantly increase in smoking group than non-smoking group: hypertension(3.59 times), hypercholesteremia (1.49 times), hyperlipidemia(1.81 times), low HDL-cholesteremia(1.58 times), high level of atherogenic index(1.27 times). Above results suggested that the smoking related with blood pressure and serum lipid levels.
A Study on 900MHz RFID Reader Platform
Kim, Sun-Yeob ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1367~1371
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1367
The RFID market seems to grow mostly in the logistics and distribution areas. The areas and small sized work places requires multi-steps based system. In the environment, the performance of RFID READER is the most important factor. If RFID READER fails to operate frequency well, it will be difficult to apply RFID technology to work places and manage multi-readers used in a narrow place. This work reveals that making possible multiple readers environment and reporting the state of the entire upgrade are of significant in terms of the system's functions. This thesis studied RFID reader platform with self-diagnosis function.
Direct-band spread system for neural network with interference signal control
Cho, Hyun-Seob ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1372~1377
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1372
In this Paper, a back propagation neural network learning algorithm based on the complex multilayer perceptron is represented for controling and detecting interference of the received signals in cellular mobile communication system. We proposed neural network adaptive correlator which has fast convergence rate and good performance with combining back propagation neural network and the receiver of cellular. We analyzed and proved that NNAC has lower bit error probability than that of traditional RAKE receiver through results of computer simulation in the presence of the tone and narrow-band interference and the co-channel interference.
A Novel Method of Determining Parameters for Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization
Min, Byong-Seok ; Cho, Tae-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1378~1387
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1378
Histogram equalization, which stretches the dynamic range of intensity, is the most common method for enhancing the contrast of image. Contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization(CLAHE), proposed by K. Zuierveld, has two key parameters: block size and clip limit. These parameters mainly control image quality, but have been heuristically determined by user. In this paper, we propose a novel method of determining two parameters of CLAHE using entropy of image. The key idea is based on the characteristics of entropy curves: clip limit vs entropy and block size vs entropy. Clip limit and block size are determined at the point with maximum curvature on entropy curve. Experimental results show that the proposed method improves images with very low contrast.
High Power BLDC Motor Control System of Electric Scooter for Disabled Person
Park, Hyoung-Keun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1388~1392
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1388
Electric scooter has been using short-lived, low-efficiency DC motor. And motor control system is equipped with imported uniformly, so there is no product differentiation. Also, product design according to the characteristics of disability is difficult. In this study, BLDC motor control system to specialize in a electric scooter for disabled was developed with a semi-permanent features of life, low price, and high performance. This development will also contribute to the activation of the related industries, as well as be able to secure price competitiveness of domestic electric scooter.
A Study on Cryptography Scheme and Secure Protocol for Safety Secure Scheme Construction in 13.56Mhz RFID
Kang, Jung-Ho ; Kim, Hyung-Joo ; Lee, Jae-Sik ; Park, Jae-Pyo ; Jun, Moon-Seog ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1393~1401
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1393
What is RFID Microchip tag attached to an object, the reader recognizes technology collectively, through communication with the server to authenticate the object. A variety of RFID tags, 13.56Mhz bandwidth RFID card, ISO/IEC 14443 standards based on NXP's Mifare tag occupies 72.5% of the world market. Of the Mifare tags, low cost tag Mifare Classic tag provided in accordance with the limited hardware-based security operations, protocol leaked by a variety of attacks and key recovery vulnerability exists. Therefore, in this paper, Cryptography Scheme and Secure Protocol for Safety Secure Scheme Construction in 13.56Mhz RFID have been designed. The proposed security scheme that KS generated by various fixed values and non-fixed value, S-Box operated, values crossed between LFSR and S-Box is fully satisfied spoofing, replay attacks, such as vulnerability of existing security and general RFID secure requirement. Also, It is designed by considering the limited hardware computational capabilities and existing security schemes, so it could be suit to Mifare Classic now.
Document Management Monitoring System in P2P Environment
Kim, Jong-Tae ; Kim, Dong-Keun ; Maeng, Seung-Ryol ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1402~1408
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1402
Document managements are very important in internal communication for good performance on projects. In case of small scale projects, the document management criteria often have very different from each of the cooperation departments and changes of document structure of work process are frequent over a project period. In this thesis, we propose a monitoring system of document management which is based on P2P(Peer-to-Peer). The proposed monitoring system of document management, which is based on P2P, makes up for time limits and a specific work process in small scale project groups. It can be managed focusing on work process and can monitor effectively the status of creations, sharing and distributions of documents. We can be installed at a low cost by using P2P in a small scale project.
A Study on the Variable Password Generation Method in Internet Authentication System
Kang, Jung-Ha ; Kim, Jae Young ; Kim, Eun-Gi ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1409~1415
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1409
With the development of Internet communication and the use of a variety of online services has been greatly expanded. Therefore, the importance of authentication techniques for users of online services has increased. The most commonly used methods for user authentication is a technique that utilizes a prearranged password. However, the existing password scheme for authentication must use the same password every time. Therefore, the password being leaked by attackers, it can be used maliciously. In this paper, we proposed the Variable Password Generation Method in Internet Authentication System that generates a new password using information such as the access date, time, and IP address when user logs in. The method proposed in this paper prevents disclosure of personal information due to password exposure and improves the reliability and competitiveness in the field of security systems.
Euclidean Distance of Biased Error Probability for Communication in Non-Gaussian Noise
Kim, Namyong ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1416~1421
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1416
In this paper, the Euclidean distance between the probability density functions (PDFs) for biased errors and a Dirac-delta function located at zero on the error axis is proposed as a new performance criterion for adaptive systems in non-Gaussian noise environments. Also, based on the proposed performance criterion, a supervised adaptive algorithm is derived and applied to adaptive equalization in the shallow-water communication channel distorted by severe multipath fading, impulsive and DC-bias noise. The simulation results compared with the performance of the existing MEDE algorithm show that the proposed algorithm yields over 5 dB of MSE enhancement and the capability of relocating the mean of the error PDF to zero on the error axis.
Movie Retrieval System by Analyzing Sentimental Keyword from User's Movie Reviews
Oh, Sung-Ho ; Kang, Shin-Jae ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1422~1427
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1422
This paper proposed a movie retrieval system based on sentimental keywords extracted from user's movie reviews. At first, sentimental keyword dictionary is manually constructed by applying morphological analysis to user's movie reviews, and then keyword weights in the dictionary are calculated for each movie with TF-IDF. By using these results, the proposed system classify sentimental categories of movies and rank classified movies. Without reading any movie reviews, users can retrieve movies through queries composed by sentimental keywords.
A Study on a Secure Internet Service Provider Model Using Smart Secure-Pad
Lee, Jae-Sik ; Kim, Hyung-Joo ; Jun, Moon-Seog ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1428~1438
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1428
Services take place in Internet environment, a formation of the trust relationship between user and service provider for services. Different authentication schemes such as using Certificate of Public Key Infrastructure authentication and using ID/PW for a simple user authentication have been proposed for trust relationship. In addition, in the case of electronic financial transactions, transaction integrity and non-repudiation features are provided. These services are provided in Internet environment, use various measures to ensure service safety. However, it was difficult to prevent attacks using existing security technology because of emergence of MITB attack that manipulate the memory area of the Web browser and social engineering attacks such as phishing/pharming, requires application of new security technologies became. In this paper, we propose a concept of smart secure-pad, and utilize it safely formed a trust relationship between user and service provider, a model has been proposed to ensure safety of data transmission. Proposed model's security evaluation results show security against to MITB attack and phishing/pharming that can't be prevent attack using existing security technology. In addition, service provider can easily apply the model in safe environment can provide Internet service using provided representative services applying the proposed model.
A Study on the Performance Evaluation of Elliptic Curve Cryptography based on a Real Number Field
Woo, Chan-Il ; Goo, Eun-Hee ; Lee, Seung-Dae ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1439~1444
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1439
Recently, as the use of the applications like online banking and stock trading is increasing by the rapid development of the network, security of data content is becoming more and more important. Accordingly, public key or symmetric key encryption algorithm is widely used in open networks such as the internet for the protection of data. Generally, public key cryptographic systems is based on two famous number theoretic problems namely factoring or discrete logarithm problem. So, public key cryptographic systems is relatively slow compared to symmetric key cryptography systems. Among public key cryptographic systems, the advantage of ECC compared to RSA is that it offers equal security for a far smaller key. For this reason, ECC is faster than RSA. In this paper, we propose a efficient key generation method for elliptic curve cryptography system based on the real number field.
Design of a Broadband Series-Fed Bow-tie Dipole Pair Antenna for Mobile Base Station
Yeo, Junho ; Lee, Jong-Ig ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1445~1450
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1445
In this paper, a broadband series-fed bow-tie dipole pair (SBDP) antenna operating in the band of 1.7-2.7 GHz for mobile communication base station applications is proposed. The proposed antenna uses bow-tie-shaped dipole elements instead of straight strip dipole ones used in a conventional series-fed dipole pair (SDP) antenna. The simulation results show that the lowest operating frequency is shifted toward lower frequency as the flare angle increases, and so the lengths of the bow-tie dipole elements can be reduced in proportion to the frequency shift toward lower frequency. An SBDP antenna with a flare angle of 10 degrees is fabricated on an FR4 substrate (dielectric constant = 4.4 and thickness = 1.6 mm) and total width of the fabricated antenna is reduced by 10% compared to that of the conventional SDP antenna. The measured impedance bandwidth for voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) < 2 is 48.8% (1.69-2.78 GHz), gain is 5.8-6.3 dBi, and the front-to-back ratio (FBR) is 14-17 dB.
Fast Combinatorial Programs Generating Total Data
Jang, Jae-Soo ; Won, Shin-Jae ; Cheon, Hong-Sik ; Suh, Chang-Jin ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1451~1458
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1451
This paper deals with the programs and algorithms that generate the full data set that satisfy the basic combinatorial requirement of combination, permutation, partial permutation or shortly r-permutation, which are used in the application of the total data testing or the simulation input. We search the programs able to meet the rules which is permutations and combinations, r-permutations, select the fastest program by field. With further study, we developed a new program reducing the time required to processing. Our research performs the following pre-study. Firstly, hundreds of algorithms and programs in the internet are collected and corrected to be executable. Secondly, we measure running time for all completed programs and select a few fast ones. Thirdly, the fast programs are analyzed in depth and its pseudo-code programs are provided. We succeeded in developing two programs that run faster. Firstly, the combination program can save the running time by removing recursive function and the r-permutation program become faster by combining the best combination program and the best permutation program. According to our performance test, the former and later program enhance the running speed by 22% to 34% and 62% to 226% respectively compared with the fastest collected program. The programs suggested in this study could apply to a particular cases easily based on Pseudo-code., Predicts the execution time spent on data processing, determine the validity of the processing, and also generates total data with minimum access programming.
An Adaptive Switching Mechanism for Three-Dimensional Hybrid Cameras
Jang, Seok-Woo ; Choi, Hyun-Jun ; Lee, Suk-Yun ; Huh, Moon-Haeng ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1459~1466
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1459
Recently, various types of three-dimensional cameras have been used to analyze surrounding environments. In this paper, we suggest a mechanism of adaptively switching active and passive cameras of hybrid cameras, which can extract 3D image information more accurately. The suggested method first obtains brightness and texture features representing the environment from input images. It then adaptively selects active and passive cameras by generating rules that reflect the extracted features. In experimental results, we show that a hybrid 3D camera consisting of passive and active cameras is set up and the proposed method can effectively choose appropriate cameras in the hybrid camera and make it possible to extract three dimensional information more accurately.
Information Delivery Requirements of Steel Structure according the Structural Design Stages using IDM
Lee, Jae-Cheol ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1467~1473
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1467
In construction project, it is important to exchange and share the digital information generated by their own professional softwares. So this paper analyzed the information delivery requirements of steel structure according the structural design stages using IDM methodology. For schematic design stage and detailed design stage, the structural design information to share in each design stages is abstracted by defining the PM, ER, and FP. The new ERs and FPs are proposed by defining the new property sets(Psets), suchlike bolt gauge line, weld, scallop, and cope, to complement the structural design information of
. Finally, the reasonability of the proposed new ERs, FPs are verified by applying them to represent the standard steel connection sample in detailed design stage. As a result, the structural design information of standard steel connection could be stored and managed sufficiently by using the proposed new ERs and FPs.
Development of a model for an equation for estimating construction costs based on the resource-based cost estimating system for TBM
Han, Seung-Hee ; Park, Hong-Tae ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1474~1480
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1474
This study attempted to estimate construction costs in accordance with the resource-based cost estimation (unit cost price) system by diameter for TBM method, and analyzed the direct cost and the total cost. Based on such figures, this study performed a regression analysis and proposed a model for an equation for estimating construction costs. model for the resource-based cost estimation (unit cost price) system classified by diameter for TBM method proposed by this study can be effectively applied to business planning, preliminary investigation, feasibility study, construction cost estimations in the early design stages.
Evaluation on Mix Characteristics of Concrete Using Fine Sand of Nakdong-River
Bae, Su-Ho ; Kim, Chang-Duk ; Lee, Seung-Han ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1481~1488
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1481
The purpose of this experimental research is to suggest a base data to utilize the fine sand of Nakdong-River actively as an alternative aggregate for concrete. For this purpose, after the typical fine sand samples were collected at the mid stream and down stream of main stream of Nakdong-River, the physical properties of them and the mix characteristics of concrete using those were estimated. As a result, it was observed from the test result that mix characteristics between concrete using fine sand and concrete using well-graded reference sand made little differences since unit water content and unit cement content of concrete using fine sand increased only a little than those of concrete using reference sand for specified compressive strength.
Building GIS Application Model in Support of Tsunami Relief Effort
Liyanage, Asha Nilani ; Lee, Heewon ; Lee, Seok-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1489~1494
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1489
Tsunami happens rarely enough to allow a false sense of security, but when they do occur, there may be just minutes or hours for people to reach a safe location. Natural disasters like tsunami are inevitable and it is almost impossible to fully recoup damages caused by the disasters. However, it is possible to minimize the potential risk by developing early warning strategies. GIS modelling with its geoprocessing and analysis capability can play a crucial role in efficient mitigation and management of disaster. This study aims at developing integrated spatial information system processing model supporting tsunami evacuation action planning using geo-information technology such as GIS. The integration process classified into four phases. And in each phase, required input data and GIS processes are decided. The main effort in minimizing casualties in tsunami disaster is to evacuate people from the hazard area before tsunami strikes by means of either horizontal or vertical evacuation. The study provides essential spatial information for local decision making related with people's evacuation in tsunami-prone areas based on a modeling approach transferable to other coastal areas.
A Study on Carbon Reduction Effect in On-site Improvement Type Residential Regeneration
Kim, Young-Hwan ; Park, Sang-Jun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1495~1501
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1495
This study aims to figure out the effectiveness of low-carbon oriented residential regeneration by on-site improvement method. For this, we examined some technical planning elements for carbon reduction and selected standard criteria of computation on energy use-based amount of carbon emission through previous literature review and case studies. Next, based on this, we compared and analyzed three types of carbon emission in the designated renewal area in Cheongju City. The three types of carbon emission were the existing development, the redevelopment of apartment by overall removal, and the development of low-carbon oriented residential regeneration by on-site improvement method. Finally, we examined proper way to reduce carbon emission in low-carbon oriented residential regeneration.
A Study for Carbon dioxide Removal Process Using Methanol Solvent in DME Manufacture Process
Cho, Duhee ; Rho, Jaehyun ; Kim, Dong Sun ; Cho, Jungho ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1502~1511
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1502
In this study, simulation works have been performed for the modeling of
removal process contained in the DME production process through an absorber-stripper system using methanol aqueous solution. Aspen Plus release 7.3 in AspenTech company was utilized as a simulation tool and PC-SAFT modeling equation of state was used as a thermodynamic model. Fitting parameters built-in PC-SAFT model was determined by regressing experimental data, predicted results using PC-SAFT model were compared with experimental data in order to verify the exactness of the thermodynamic model. Optimization works have been performed to reduce the utility consumptions using solvent circulation rate, column operating pressure and feed stage location as manipulated variables.
Control of Molecular Weight Properties of Polycarbonate using End Capping Agents
Lee, Bom Yi ; Kim, Youn Cheol ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1512~1518
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1512
Polycarbonates (PCs) with six different end capping agents were synthesized from melt polymerization. Chemical structure of the synthesized PC was determined by FT-IR spectroscopy. The average molecular weight and distribution, glass transition and thermal degradation temperatures were determined by GPC, DSC and TGA. Average molecular weight changed with the chemical structure of end capping agent, and 4-tert-butylphenol was estimated as the optimum end capping agent. The average molecular weights of PCs decreased with the concentration of the agent, the number average molecular weight was observed as 20,000 - 30,000 when 0.05-0.15 mol% of 4-tert-butylphenol added in PCs. The melt viscosities and glass transition temperature of the PCs decreased with molecular weight. The change for adding method of the agent affected on both the molecular weight distribution and decrease in power law index.
A Numerical Study on Performance Improvement of Canopy Hood in Melting Process
Jung, Yu-Jin ; Shon, Byung-Hyun ; Lee, Sang-Man ; Jung, Jong-Hyeon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1519~1526
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1519
This study reviewed the capturing performance of a canopy hood used in some melting processes of a casting manufacturing factory through a site survey. In addition, this study compared and evaluated the flow field and pressure field for the plans to enhance the hazardous air pollutants collection capacity by using CFD model. The case-2(flange attached + double hood) can be improved in terms of collection performance, but is expected to increase in hood static pressure by about 70% more than the existing structure, so it was shown that its site applicability is not good. It is judged that the shape of case-3(flange attached + double cone attached) is most suitable to improve the suction efficiency. This is because a double cone is installed at the center of the opening to concentrate the flow rate on the edge of the hood and control the hume rising to the center of the hood without a static pressure rise via the slope of the cone.
Photocatalytic Degradation of Acetaldehyde and MEK using Batch Type Photo-Reactor
Cha, Wang Seog ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 14, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1527~1532
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.3.1527
The kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde and methylethylketone(MEK) were studied by the batch scale of photo-reactor. Variable parameters were initial concentration of acetaldehyde and MEK, water vapor content, and temperature. The photocatalytic degradation rate was increased with increasing concentration of acetaldehyde and MEK, but maintained gentle increase beyond a certain concentration. The Langmuir-Hinselwood model was successfully applied to correlate experimental data. Water vapor inhibited the degradation reaction of acetaldehyde and MEK. The optimum reaction temperature was
for acetaldehyde and MEK.