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Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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The Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 8 - Aug 2016
Volume 17, Issue 7 - Jul 2016
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Jun 2016
Volume 17, Issue 5 - May 2016
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Apr 2016
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Mar 2016
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Feb 2016
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
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Development and Applications of Multi-layered Harmony Search Algorithm for Improving Optimization Efficiency
Lee, Ho Min ; Yoo, Do Guen ; Lee, Eui Hoon ; Choi, Young Hwan ; Kim, Joong Hoon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1~12
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.1
The Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) is one of the recently developed metaheuristic optimization algorithms. Since the development of HSA, it has been applied by many researchers from various fields. The increasing complexity of problems has created enormous challenges for the current technique, and improved techniques of optimization algorithms are required. In this study, to improve the HSA in terms of a structural setting, a new HSA that has structural characteristics, called the Multi-layered Harmony Search Algorithm (MLHSA) was proposed. In this new method, the structural characteristics were added to HSA to improve the exploration and exploitation capability. In addition, the MLHSA was applied to optimization problems, including unconstrained benchmark functions and water distribution system pipe diameter design problems to verify the efficiency and applicability of the proposed algorithm. The results revealed the strength of MLHSA and its competitiveness.
Residential Humidifying Element Made of Cellulose and PET Composite
Kim, Nae-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 13~18
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.13
Humidifiers are used to control indoor humidity. Element-type humidifiers have the advantages of simple structure and low energy consumption, and Japanese products have been widely used for the humidifying elements. In this study, a new humidifying element made of cellulose and PET was developed, and the performance was compared with that of a Japanese element. The mass transfer rates and pressure drops were measured for an element installed at the entrance of a suction-type wind tunnel. The humidification efficiency of the new element was 2 to 4% greater and the pressure drop was 23 to 32% smaller compared to the Japanese element. The mass transfer effectiveness (
) of the new element is also 5 to 28% higher. However, the water absorption capacity was smaller than that of the Japanese element, meaning further development is needed.
Optimum Service Life Management Based on Probabilistic Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis
Kim, Sunyong ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 19~25
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.19
Engineering structures including civil infrastructures require a life-cycle cost and benefit during their service lives. The service life of a structure can be extended through appropriate inspection and maintenance actions. In general, this service life extension requires more life-cycle cost and cumulative benefit. For this reason, structure managers need to make a rational decision regarding the service life management considering both the cost and benefit simultaneously. In this paper, the probabilistic decision tool to determine the optimal service life based on cost-benefit analysis is presented. This decision tool requires an estimation of the time-dependent effective cost-benefit under uncertainty to formulate the optimization problem. The effective cost-benefit is expressed by the difference between the cumulative benefit and life-cycle cost of a deteriorating structure over time. The objective of the optimization problem is maximizing the effective cost-benefit, and the associated solutions are the optimal service life and maintenance interventions. The decision tool presented in this paper can be applied to any deteriorating engineering structure.
A Study on the Algorithm for Single Phase Control of IGBT PWM Rectifier
Kim, Seung-Ho ; Park, Jae-Beom ; Tae, Dong-Hyun ; Kim, Seung-Jong ; Song, Joong-Ho ; Rho, Dae-Seok ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 26~33
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.26
Recently, the use of transformer-less UPS has increased to improve the efficiency of UPS. However, transformer-less UPS is required in three-phase four-wire input IGBT PWM rectifier and the existing three-phase three-wire PFC algorithm cannot be applied in the three-phase four-wire system due to the neutral current problem of UPS input. To control the three-phase four-wire input IGBT PWM rectifier, there are two existing algorithms: 3D SVM and single phase control method. These two algorithms have advantages/disadvantages in controlling the rectifier. The single phase control method is unstable for controlling the rectifier and the 3D SVM method has a problem that must increase the L value of the input-side inductor considerably. Therefore, this paper proposes digital single phase control technology and another new algorithm considering the d-q control, to improve the characteristics of the existing control algorithm. In addition, this paper performed a simulation and experiment based on the proposed control algorithm. The simulation results showed that the proposed technology can control three-phase four-wire IGBT PWM rectifier in a stable manner and can also reduce the neutral current. The proposed algorithm is a useful tool for controlling the three-phase four-wire IGBT PWM rectifier.
Short-term changes of phytoplankton communities after nutrient addition and establishment of stable mass culture condition to prepare the type approval test of USCG Phase-II in mesocosm enclosure
Baek, Seung Ho ; Lee, Min Ji ; Shin, Kyoungsoon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 34~42
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.34
In order to prepare for the type approval test for the United States Coast Guard (USCG) Phase-II of Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS), a phytoplankton mass culture was conducted in a mesocosm enclosure. We evaluated the response of the phytoplankton community after nutrient addition (+N, +P, and +NP) and investigated the development of the species with increasing culture time. After nutrient dosing, the phytoplankton population significantly (p < 0.05) increased from day 1 to day 3, depending on the nutrient treatments In particular, the specific growth rate of the phytoplankton community in the case of +NP treatment and + N treatment were estimated to be
, respectively. The phytoplankton population density in the case of + NP treatment was approximately 50 times higher than that of the control group, suggesting that these treatments could be useful for mass culturing phytoplankton (> 75% of natural community) for the approval regulation of USCG Phase-II. In the phytoplankton community of the mesocosm, Pseudo-nitzchia spp. dominated in the logarithmic growth phase. The cell density decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing time, coinciding with the nutrient limitation. At that time, the dominance of Pseudo-nitzchia spp. shifted to that of Cylindrotheca closterium. Therefore, the optimum nutrient concentration (
) and reasonable harvesting time (after 3 days in summer) found in this study for the mass culturing of phytoplankton may be helpful to meet the USCG Phase-II biological criteria to be used in BWTS.
A Study on Test Report Information Service Architecture for Preventing Forgery and Alteration in Defense Industry
Lee, Donghun ; Jeon, Sooyune ; Bae, Manjae ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 43~51
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.43
Preventing the forgery and alteration of test reports is important, in order to maintain the reliability of military supplies. Based on a survey of reports on testing institutions and a case study of established electronic document systems in the public sector, we propose a system architecture, which helps prevent the forgery and alteration of test reports with legal force. The proposed architecture takes advantage of both the time stamp that records the time a document is received and a server synchronized with the testing institution. Using the proposed system architecture, the user is able to request a test and receive reports from the testing institution without delay. Also, a defense agency is able to conveniently prove the authenticity of the test reports and utilize the statistical data collected by the architecture. Therefore, we expect that the proposed system architecture will help defense agencies to prevent the forgery and alteration of test reports and ensure their reliability and quality.
Shaking Table Test of a Stainless Water Tank with Natural Rubber Bearing
Kim, Hu-Seung ; Oh, Ju ; Jung, Hie-Young ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 52~58
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.52
Recently, interest in structural stability has increased due to earthquakes. Isolation systems can improve seismic ability without harming the functions and appearance of existing and new constructions, and they have established efficiency in foreign country that have experienced earthquakes. In this study, an isolation system is suggested using a natural rubber bearing (NRB) on a stainless water tank for stability assurance in an earthquake. A shaking table test was carried out to evaluate the seismic capacity of a non-isolated water tank and an isolated tank. Displacement meters in the water tank measured the behavior characteristics of the tanks, which were compared using artificial seismic waves of 0.154 g, 0.231 g, 0.341 g, and 0.348 g with water levels of 0.0 m, 1.5 m, and 2.5 m. At 2.5 m, a decrement effect was generally shown in the isolated water tank, and a bigger displacement occurred in the non-isolated water tank than in the isolated one at water levels of 0.0 m and 1.5 m. It is interpreted that the weight of different water levels affects the decrement effect. If seismic reinforcement is done, the isolated bearing should be designed while considering the fluid storage level.
A Study on the Methodology modelling of Risk Assessment in Road Tunnels
Cho, Inuh ; Han, Dae-yong ; Kim, Seung-jin ; Yoon, Jong-ku ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 59~73
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.59
The demand for subsurface transport is increasing. The users and the operators of road tunnels are exposed to risks with different causes. One main cause, however, is the traffic situation in the event of accidents. The importance of a Quantified Risk Assessment is increasing to quantify the safety of road tunnels and to balance the requirements (capacity, reliability, availability, maintainability and safety) of various stakeholders. Although there are classical methods for risk assessments, such as ETA and FTA. These methods are used for relatively simple cases because it could not relevantly reflect the diversity and relationship of the parameters. Therefore, a quantitative risk assessment based on Bayesian Probabilistic Networks considering interdependence between the parameters of a complex underground system as a double deck tunnel is provided.
The Effect on the Job Performance of Open Source Software Usage in Software Development
Kim, YoonWoo ; Chae, Myungsin ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 74~84
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.74
Open Source Software (OSS) is a new paradigm for software development. The system is based on the notion of giving software (including sources) away for free, and making money on services, customizing and maintenance. For these reasons, many software companies have considered adopting and using OSS in Software R&D. A variety of factors may influence the use of decision making of OSS. The objective of this study was to explore the significant factors affecting the use decision of OSS and the job performance of OSS usage in software R&D. A research model was suggested based on the TOE Framework and Information Systems Success Model. These findings show that technical benefits of OSS have significant effects on OSS use. The technical benefits of OSS, and organization context, in turn, have significant effects on the use of OSS. On the other hand, the technical risks of OSS and the environment context have no effects on OSS use. In addition, OSS use and user satisfaction have significant effects on the individual job performance. This research contributes towards advancing the theoretical understanding of the OSS Benefits and Performance in Software Development.
The Relationship between Adolescents' Stress Coping Behavior and Gambling Addiction: Mediating effect of irrational belief of gambling
Kim, Sung-Bong ; Jang, Jung-Im ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 85~91
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.85
This study examined the effects of adolescents' stress coping behavior on gambling addiction using the irrational belief of gambling as a mediating variable. For this, a questionnaire survey was conducted on 377 high school students in Jeju. Data processing analysis of the research was verified by Baron & Kenny's regression analysis in 4 phases and a Sobel Test was done to verify the significance level on the mediation effect. The study results can be summarized as follows. First, while problem-focused coping had a negative (-) correlation with gambling addiction, emotion-focused coping had a positive (+) correlation with gambling addiction. Second, the irrational belief of gambling had no mediating effects on the relationship between problem-focused coping and gambling addiction. Third, the irrational belief of gambling had a full mediating effect on the relationship between emotion-focused coping and gambling addiction. In conclusion, emotion-focused coping under stress situations would enhance the gambling behavior by increasing the irrational belief of gambling. Therefore, it is necessary to develop programs to improve the adolescents' stress coping skills and rationally correct their irrational belief of gambling, which will be helpful in preventing adolescents' gambling addiction. The limitations of this study are discussed together with suggestions for future research.
Wind Estimation Power Control using Wind Turbine Power and Rotor speed
Ko, Seung-Youn ; Kim, Ho-Chan ; Huh, Jong-Chul ; Kang, Min-Jae ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 92~99
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.92
A wind turbine is controlled for the purpose of obtaining the maximum power below its rated wind speed. Among the methods of obtaining the maximum power, TSR (Tip Speed Ratio) optimal control and P&O (Perturbation and Observation) control are widely used. The P&O control algorithm using the turbine power and rotational speed is simple, but its slow response is a weak point. Whereas TSR control's response is fast, it requires the precise wind speed. A method of measuring or estimating the wind speed is used to obtain a precise value. However, estimation methods are mostly used, because it is difficult to avoid the blade interference when measuring the wind speed near the blades. Neural networks and various numerical methods have been applied for estimating the wind speed, because it involves an inverse problem. However, estimating the wind speed is still a difficult problem, even with these methods. In this paper, a new method is introduced to estimate the wind speed in the wind-power graph by using the turbine power and rotational speed. Matlab/Simulink is used to confirm that the proposed method can estimate the wind speed properly to obtain the maximum power.
Development of Auto-spray system to improve the quality of 3D Scanning Quality
Kim, Wonseop ; Jo, Jae Heung ; Kim, Dongsu ; Kim, Donggyoo ; Hong, Seokmoo ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 100~105
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.100
The use of 3D scanners has increased gradually according to increasing 3D printer applications. The precision inspection of car parts or electronic components is an important issue not only in the field of mass production, but also in small-scale production. Recently, 3D scanner equipment efficiency and recognition technology has been improved continuously. On the other hand, the spraying time to prepare 3D scanning is time-consuming and has environmental problems. Therefore, an automatic spray system has been in demand by the manufacturing industry. Automatic spray equipment was newly developed for the preparation of a 3D scanner. In this research, the automatic spray system guarantees uniform spray operation. To determine the optimal spray parameters, various spraying methods, solutions and conditions were tested and compared with the experiments. The preparation time for 3D scanning was reduced to 1/10 compared to the manual spraying time, and indicates the optimal spraying conditions through a comparison of various spray coating conditions.
The Influence of Senior Entrepreneurial Decision Making Types and Entrepreneurial Supporting Policy on Start-up Performance
Ryu, Sang-Jung ; Yang, Hae-Sool ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 106~121
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.106
While economic crises are happening internationally due to the global financial crisis and the long-term recession of the domestic economy, South Korea is also experiencing an aging society with the retirement of the baby-boomers and a low birth-rate. The rapid retirement of baby-boomers, which is one of the essential parts of the Korean economy, is ongoing. Consequently, the number of seniors showing interest in entrepreneurship, as a way to avoid the economic threat, is increasing. Therefore, this study examined the correlation between two factors and its success, which can be stated as the influence of decision making in entrepreneurship and the influence of promotion policies to entrepreneurship. A survey was taken from 393 people, who received academic and managerial assistance from the Senior-Founded Support Center of Small Business Market Corporation and Adults Incubators of Seoul-Business Agency. and 'Hypothesis 1-1' and 'Hypothesis 2-2' were selected, because a positive effect was derived at each verification process. As a result, under the decision making types of entrepreneurship, only a reasonable type showed a positive effect at both the financial outcome and non-financial outcome of success, and the intuitive type was affected positively by the non-financial outcome. In addition, under the entrepreneur supporting business, among financial support, managerial support and educational support only managerial support had a positive effect.
Noisy OTDR Data Event Detection Analysis for the Real Time Optical Fiber Link Monitoring
Ko, Dae-Young ; Baek, Sung-June ; Park, Aaron ; Kim, Jin-Bong ; Nah, Yong-Su ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 122~128
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.122
This paper, proposes a new analysis method for the event detection of an OTDR signal. An OTDR signal was passed through the Hamming filter to remove the high frequency noise included in the signal. The signal was then passed consecutively through a differential filter to detect the events of interest. The terminal position was determined using the fact that there is a large gap between the signal and the trailing noise power beyond the terminal. This study examined the local maxima of the signal up to the terminal position and determined the peak regions. The real events were determined from the peak regions using noise information and peak threshold. Finally, the user events were found by inspecting the user peaks beyond the terminal position. The events of the OTDR signal without users are located at less than 17m compared to the optical fiber link setup. The events of the JDSU device are located less than 25m and their users are less than 5m. For the RadianTech device, the events are detected at less than 19m and the users are found in 5m. The results suggest that the proposed method is sufficiently applicable to an optical fiber link monitoring system.
An Object Quality Verification Method for BIM Libraries based on Standardized Drawings in Civil Projects -Focusing on Retaining Wall Case
Moon, Hyoun-Seok ; Kim, Chang-Yoon ; Cho, Geun-Ha ; Ju, Ki-Beom ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 129~137
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.129
BIM libraries for architectural projects have been developed and distributed. However, they do not define physical and logical quality control methods for individual library objects, so there are some difficulties in securing reliability of 3D library models converted from 2D drawings. Because the BIM library contents can be built by participating material and member-fabrication companies, after making individual BIM library objects, a certification process through separate quality verification is very important when delivering as-built BIM libraries. Since the BIM library should have generality for usage, it is necessary to secure the quality of BIM library objects according to consistent verification standards. Therefore, this study suggests a quality verification method for certifying a BIM library object from physical and data perspectives by comparing existing 2D drawings in the BIM libraries built based on standardized 2D drawings from MOLIT. This method could be widely used for quality verification in delivering BIM libraries by companies in the construction sector and operated with rule set data for quality verification of as-built BIM models.
A study of adult learners in the Lifelong Learning happiness
Kim, Mi-Young ; Kang, Hun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 138~146
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.138
This study examined the mediating effects of the adult educator's characteristics on the relationship between the characteristics of the participants attending adult continuing education and the happiness index of lifelong learning, the motivation of participating in learning and the institution characteristics. The research results showed that there is no difference in the happiness index of lifelong learning according to the sex of the adult learners, education level, age, residence, participation experience of lifelong learning, occupation, and type of lifelong programming being participated. The characteristics of adult learners do not have a direct impact on the happiness index of lifelong learning. The characteristics of adult learners affect the characteristics of adult educators, motivation of participating in learning and institution characteristics. Although the characteristics of educators do not affect the happiness index of lifelong learning, the motivation of participating in learning and institution characteristics have a positive impact on the happiness index of lifelong learning. While the characteristics of adult educators do not have a mediating role for the characteristics of adult learners and happiness index of lifelong learning, the motivation of participating in learning and institution characteristics have shown a complete mediation for the characteristics of adult learners and the happiness index of lifelong learning. These findings suggest that the participating motivation of adult learners, adult educator's improved understanding on adult learners and education quality of education institution are very important for increasing the happiness index through a lifelong learning experience.
A Basic Study on Scale Development of Problem Behaviors for Young Children
Kim, Joeng Kyoum ; Kang, Young-Sik ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 147~159
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.147
This study is intended to draw a scale for problem behaviors of young children. To achieve this, an empirical survey was carried out on experts from three groups of daycare center teachers, kindergarten teachers and early childhood education-majored professors. A total of 209 items were measured by the scale for young children's problem behaviors from the 1970s to now. The results showed that 96 of a total 209 items in 5 categories related to the scale for young children's problem behaviors were adopted as major items. Using these 96 major items in 5 categories, 17 out of 40 items in a peer relationship category, 13 out of 41 items in a development category, 20 out of 50 items in a fundamental habit category, 22 out of 38 items in a morality category, and 24 out of 40 items in an emotion category were adopted. Most items were adopted in the emotion category, whereas most items were rejected in the development category. Therefore, it is judged that their problem behaviors are caused mainly by anxiety, shrinking, unexpected behaviors, dependence on parents or teachers, and slow behaviors due to the latent negative emotions of young children at the developing stage.
Content analysis of the way university students appreciate the meaning of life
Park, Bock-Soon ; Choi, Eun-Young ; Park, Sang-Yong ; Park, Sun-Jung ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 160~171
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.160
The purpose of this study is to understand the way university students appreciate the meaning of life. The subjects were 1, 2, 3, and 4 grade students from four universities located in Gyeonggido and Gangwondo Provinces; This study was a descriptive research project conducted from March to June 2015 for the purpose of understanding how university students appreciate the meaning of life. The data, gathered from interviews with a number of university students, who are at the last stage of adolescence, were classified into 102 statements and 30 categories through a series of content analyses of certain subjects, such as the definition and importance of the meaning of life, the endeavor to make life meaningful, the moments they feel the meaning of life, and the methods they adopt to feel the meaning of life. We analyzed the ways in which university students appreciate the meaning of life. We hope this study will provide a small guide for them so that the meaning of their lives can be enriched and their feeling of well-being enhanced. In addition, it is necessary to develop appropriate measures for college students to deal with crises in their life and, thus, the results of this study could be used as an important material for the systematic development of support programs for college students. Finally, this study will provide the basis for multifaceted interventions designed to improve the physical and mental health of college students and help them to adapt to college life.
The Effects of Entrepreneurship on Social Enterprise Performance
Lee, Jun-Hee ; Kim, Sang-Wook ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 172~179
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.172
This study examined what entrepreneurial elements of social enterprises contribute to the virtuous cycle to lay a foundation of the coevolution with communities through growth and wealth distribution. To this end, the study was started by adding the pursuit of social goals to the components of entrepreneurship, namely an innovative mind, progressive spirit, and risk sensitivity, and the effects of each of these factors on their economic performance and the social performance were examined. Within this framework, the relationships between social enterprises' performance in economic and social dimensions as dependent variables, and the entrepreneurial elements as independent variables were examined by correlation tests and regression analysis for two hypotheses and their 8 subsequent hypotheses. The results showed that the entrepreneurs' progressive spirit had a statistically meaning effect on the economic performance, and an innovative mind and risk sensitivity are influential variables for social performance.
The Relationship between SNS addiction tendency, Self assertiveness, Interpersonal problems and in College students
Gu, Hye Ja ; Lee, Oi Sun ; Hong, Min Joo ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 180~187
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.180
This study was performed to identify the relationship between the SNS addiction tendency, self-assertiveness and interpersonal problems in college students. The subjects consisted of 198 students in Korea. The data were collected using a self-report questionnaire from September 10 to 12, 2013. The data were analyzed by frequency, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation using SPSS for Windows version 22. The SNS addiction tendency was significantly negatively correlated with self-assertiveness(r=-.148, p<.05) and significantly positively correlated with interpersonal problems (r=.434, p<.001). Self-assertiveness was significantly negatively correlated with interpersonal problems (r=-.459, p<.001). The higher the SNS addiction tendency, the lower the self-assertiveness and the higher the interpersonal problems. The lower the self-assertiveness, the higher the interpersonal problems. Therefore, to decrease the SNS addiction tendency, increase the self-assertiveness and decrease the interpersonal problems, it is necessary to develop and test program.
The Effects of Smoking Cessation Coaching Program based on Motivation Stage to Stop Smoking of Patients at a Public Hospital
Kwak, Mi-Young ; Hwang, Eun Jeong ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 188~198
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.188
This study examined the effects of a smoking cessation coaching program based on the motivation stage applying the Transtheoretical Model to stop the smoking of patients in terms of the amount of smoking, nicotine dependence, CO level, and urine cotinine. The study design was a multi-repeat multiple repeat intermittent time series study with one-group, a pre-post design. The participants were 47 smoking patients (44 males and 3 females), who were treated at a public hospital in N city. The participants were 4 (8.51%) subjects in the action stage and 43 subjects (91.49%) in the preparation stage of the motivation stage. The coaching program intervention was conducted at the first day, second week, and 6th week. The smoking cessation maintenance of the subjects was checked at the 12th week. A chi-square test and t-test were used to analyze the data. The subjects in the action stage were kept under the condition of no smoking and nicotine dependence. After the program of subjects in the preparation stage, the amount of smoking, nicotine dependence, and CO level were significantly lower compared to the pre-test (p<.001). The findings suggest that the coaching program based on the motivation stage was effective in improving the smoking cessation for patients who smoke. On the other hand, the patients in the smoking cessation program may require much more financial assistance than those of healthy people. A greater workforce and budget will be needed for patients to stop smoking.
A Study on the Characteristics of Location and Space in Facilities for Impaired Persons in Chungcheongnam-Do
Lee, Kwang Soo ; Lee, Jeong Soo ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 199~208
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.199
This paper proposes renovation guidelines for impaired persons' facilities in Chungcheongnam-Do by reviewing the conditions of the facilities based on the standard and deinstitutionalization trends in foreign facilities. The facilities were located far from the downtown of cities. Therefore, education and adaptation programs are necessary for these people to return to society. Recombining the rooms for a living room-oriented unit considering the structure system of the facilities allows good adaptation to home-based living conditions for impaired people. The area per person will be increases by renovations to a living room-oriented unit that makes upgrades to near foreign standards, such as The USA and The UK.
The Effects of Different Display Sizes of Smart Phones to the Task Performance
Yoon, Cheol-Ho ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 209~214
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.209
The purpose of this study is to investigate the usability and user interface of different display sizes for smart phones. For this purpose, two different display sizes and two different operating systems were used. Estimation values and observation values were calculated using the key-stroke level model (KLM) for 11 functional factors. The processing times were decreased when a large display size was used, but this tendency did not have statistical significance. There was no difference in the processing times when different types of operating systems were used. Nevertheless, some character input tasks showed a little shorter processing times with large display size than with an ordinary display size.
The relationship between young children's attachment to their mothers and teachers respectively and teachers' responsiveness
Kim, Sook-Ryong ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 215~221
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.215
The subjects of this study were 64 young children aged 12 to 36 months old and their mothers and teachers. The attachment Q-set and an instrument for teachers' responsivity were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0, and Cronbach's and Pearson's r were calculated. The results were as follows. Teachers' consistency, warmth, and sensitivity were significantly correlated with the children's attachment to teachers. In addition, teachers' warm and sensitive responses were related to the children's attachment to mothers. Teachers' warm, sensitive, and responsive characteristics are emphasized for quality interactions between young children and teachers, since they contribute to the children's secure attachment to their mothers as well as teachers.
Deep-sea floor exploration in the East Sea using ROV HEMIRE
Min, Won-Gi ; Kim, Jonguk ; Kim, Woong-Seo ; Kim, Dong-Sung ; Lee, Pan-Mook ; Kang, Jung-Hoon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 222~230
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.222
HEMIRE is a 6,000-meter-class remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that has been developed for observation and sampling of objects of interest on the deep seabed. We first carried out deep-seabed exploration around the slopes of the Hupo Bank and the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea in June 2015. Over two weeks, a total of 10 dives were made from a support ship, the R/V Onnuri, at eight stations with water depth ranging between 194 and 2,080 m. The dive times ranged from 1 to 6 hours, depending on the operating conditions. We obtained the following results: 1) video images of the deep seafloor; 2) red snow crab density data (a major fishery resource) and inventories of deep-sea fauna, including an unrecorded organism; 3) specific topographies such as canyons slopes; 4) an undisturbed sediment core obtained using a push corer; and 5) observations of the seabed surface covered with discarded anthropogenic waste material.
A Study on the Effects of Lifelong Educator's Empowerment on Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Bang, Hee-Bong ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 231~242
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.231
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects empowerment has on a lifelong educator's job satisfaction and organizational commitment. This study was implemented to amass and analyze the data from 160 Daejeon district's lifelong educators using SPSS 20.0. The statistical analysis was conducted with the following measures: frequency analysis for demographic characteristics, descriptive analysis, factor analysis with Varimax rotation for the validity of the measured variables, Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the reliability of the internal consistency between the variables, and Pearson's correlation coefficient to confirm the relevance between the variables. Our hypothesis was then verified through regression analysis. Our research results showed that, first, the level of empowerment differed depending on such factors as gender, age, education level, employee type, work hours, and monthly income. Second, empowerment was shown to have a significant influence on job satisfaction, where higher empowerment levels led to higher job satisfaction. Third, empowerment was a significant factor in increasing organizational commitment, as higher empowerment levels led to higher commitment. Therefore, this study reflected on the concept that empowerment was needed by lifelong educators, thus showing that enhancing job satisfaction and organizational commitment by developing the personal abilities of a lifelong institution educator is favorable to the institution's development and success.
Educational Effects and Learners' Experiences during Collaborative Learning
Lee, Soon-Deok ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 243~254
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.243
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of collaborative learning and explore the learners' experiences in three dimensions: cognition, emotion and motivation. Another purpose of this study was to make an in-depth examination of learners' experiences during collaborative learning. Data were collected from 44 students at N university who participated in collaborative learning for 7 weeks. The results were as follows: First, collaborative learning had significant effects on the higher group of collaborative tendencies on academic achievements. Second, collaborative learning had no significant effects on their epistemological beliefs, the higher group of collaborative tendencies and the lower beliefs involving simple knowledge and tentative knowing. Finally, learners amassed cognitive, emotional, and motivational experience during collaborative learning. We suggest that the for the effective implementation of collaborative learning.
Principal Component Analysis on the Theory of Corporate Cash Holdings for Korean Chaebol Firms
Kim, Hanjoon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 255~263
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.255
This study conducted empirical tests on contemporary finance theories for corporate cash holdings, such as trade-off, pecking order, and agency theory. There is ongoing debate on the possibility of excess cash savings by domestic firms, including chaebols in the Korean capital markets. Thus, it may be worthy to identify any financial characteristics based on each aforementioned theory as an extension of previous studies on similar subjects. Two primary hypotheses were postulated and tested, and the following empirical results were obtained. First, principal component analysis (PCA) provides evidence that nine out of the twenty explanatory variables showed a significant influence on the level of corporate cash holdings, such as cash conversion cycle in trade-off theory and leverage in pecking order theory. Second, the chaebol firms that decreased cash holdings after global financial turmoil may be affected by financial factors that include investment opportunities and foreign ownership according to the PCA. The results may reinforce the outcomes derived from previous research on corporate cash holdings. Based on the robust results, large firms in advanced or emerging capital markets could approach the optimal level of the cash reserves.
Design and Application of Traffic Safety Technology in Chungcheong non-urban Region
Cho, Choong-Yeon ; Kim, Yun-Sik ; Lee, Min-Jae ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 264~272
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.264
In previous research, we analyzed traffic accident characteristics in the Chungcheong region through factor analysis, cluster analysis, and a questionnaire using traffic accident analysis system data to enhance Korea's traffic safety. Based on the analysis results, we investigated the design and application of traffic safety technology in non-urban areas in this study. Three technologies are proposed to improve traffic safety facilities for the region: a recognition light at pedestrian crossing works, a recognition light on the road for the underprivileged in traffic works, and a safety LED sign for operation of agricultural machine works. Each technology complements the light pollution problem about snow removal and road safety when applied to existing facilities in the non-urban areas. Solar-based indigenous technology is expected to contribute to road safety in rural areas.
A Study on Problem and Improvements of Registration System in Water Leisure Crafts
Yang, Young-Cheol ; Lee, Jae-Hyung ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 273~282
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.273
This study analyzed the origin and status of the registration system of water leisure craft to suggest an improvement plan for the ocean leisure industry. To identify the transition of the registration system, related water leisure craft, registration procedures and revised acts from "water leisure safety act", which was established in the early 2000 and enacted since then were examined. To understand the problems raised, the management of the registration system and related other systems were analyzed. The results were as follows. First, the registration system was designed just to check the number of registrations of water leisure craft so it does not provide various and useful information that administrators and registrants want. Second, it is impossible to utilize and reconstruct the information regarding water leisure craft. In addition, the current registration system does not have a data sharing system with the Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs so self-governing administrations are not connected to each other or to other electronic government systems. To resolve these problems, the construction of a new registration system is required. The new registration system of water leisure craft should facilitate not only processing registration files and administration work, but also multiple electronic governmental services that provide the water leisure users with useful information and encourage them to learn about their craft management and so on.
A Study on the Convenient Facilities for Accessibility to disabled student of 4-year university campus in Jeollabukdo
Jang, Myeong-Hwa ; Jung, Sung-Hak ; Lee, Min-Gyu ; Bae, Seon-Young ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 283~295
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.283
The purpose of this study is to analyze the conditions of disability facilities in universities and to improve disability facilities for disabled students. First, we selected six universities in Jeollabukdo and categorized their accommodations into exterior connection facilities, interior facilities, sanitation facilities, guidance facilities, and other facilities. We evaluated their fidelity to guidelines on accommodations under the convenience enhancement act for students with disabilities. The physical environment of the universities generally did not fit the guidelines, and they did not provide an appropriate environment for students because of inconvenient utilization and lack of management, even though they were equipped. Universities should make a greater effort to improve and expand the accommodations to establish a consumer-centered higher-education environment. This can be done by universal design and enhancing the fidelity for an advanced higher-education environment and students with disabilities.
Performance Improvement of High Performance Shrinkage Reducing Agent using Early Strength Improving Agent
Park, Jong-Pil ; Jung, Yong-Wook ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 296~302
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.296
Studies aimed at reducing the occurrence of cracks by the shrinkage of concrete are in demand because the repair and reinforcement for cracks caused by declining concrete durability costs the user to maintain the concrete structure. In particular, in underground power facilities for power transmission, the cost is a heavy burden to repair and reinforce. For this reason, underground power facilities demanded effective methods for crack reduction at the engineering design step. This study, as a part of the development of shrinkage reducing agent for low shrinkage concrete on underground power facilities, investigated TEA to complement the shrinkage reducing agent to improve the early strength of concrete. In the case of TEA 3% as a shrinkage reducing agent, the early strength was improved significantly, and the shrinkage reducing effect was excellent. In addition, TEA 3.0 % and the shrinkage reducing agent 2.0 % showed excellent shrinkage property and compressive strength. On the other hand, more study of shrinkage reducing materials, including performance reviews on the shrinkage reducing materials with variable factors and type of materials, will be needed to generalize these results.
Empathic Ability and Communication Ability according to Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI) Personality Type in Nursing Students
Chae, Myung-Ock ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 303~311
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.303
This study examined the empathic ability and communication ability of nursing students according to Myers-Briggs type indicator(MBTI) personality type. This study was a cross sectional survey and the data was collected from 127 nursing students by means of self-reported questionnaires from October 5 to 30, 2015. The data collected was analyzed on SPSS win 18.0. Fourteen personality types were observed in this study participants. The SF type was the highest with a mean of 3.77 in empathic ability according to 4 functions of MBTI and the NF type was the highest with a mean of 3.81 in communication ability according to 4 functions of MBTI. The SP type and NF type was the highest with a mean of 3.71 in the empathic ability according to the 4 temperaments of MBTI and the NF type was the highest with a mean of 3.81 in the communication ability according to 4 temperaments of MBTI. Significant differences in the communication ability were observed according to 4 functions (F=3.194, p=.026) and 4 temperaments (F=3.004, p=.033) of MBTI. Further study will be needed to identify the effects of a self-understanding program on the empathic ability and communication ability. It is important to understand the nursing students' diversity and reflect it in a school curriculum.
Analysis on the Influence of Mindfulness Based Compassion Meditation Program for Elderly Women's Brain Activation and Stress, Who Experienced Loss of Spouse
Kim, Yun-Keum ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 312~318
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.312
This study examined the influence of a Mindfulness Based Compassion Meditation Program on the brain activation and stress of elderly women who experienced loss of spouse using 2 channel EEG (Electroencephalography). The total number of subjects was 60, consisting of elderly women aged from 65~75years of in Y county; 30 in the experimental group and 30 in the control group who were checked by EEG before and after the study. The study was conducted from August to November, 2015. The Mindfulness Based Compassion Meditation Program was designed for the convergence of body and mind integration with compassion meditation for the purpose of developing love, sympathy, and compassion. The treatment was conducted once a week, for 60 minutes at a time, over a period of 16 weeks. The results in the experimental group showed an increase in the Activity Quotient (ATQ) Rt(82.51/85.83, p<.013) and AntiStress Quotient (ASQ) Lt (74.711/71.17, p<.050). The Activity Quotient shows the mental function and behavior tendency in the brain, while the AntiStress Quotient shows the state of physical and mental relaxation. The Mindfulness Based Compassion Meditation Program was shown to influence the brain activation and stress of the elderly women using the practical application of neuroscience.
Effect of Gap grade on Shear Strength of sandy soil
Kim, Kab-Boo ; Moon, Jun-Ho ; Gu, Kyo-Young ; Chun, Young-Woo ; Kim, Young-Uk ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 319~324
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.319
Soils with various particle sizes generally show good shear strength. Some soils have a relatively strong resistance to shear failure in spite of narrow particle distribution, such as gap grading. Based on this example, it can be inferred that appropriate arrangements of particle size in soils might result in an increase in shear strength. This study investigates the strength variation of soils with respect to the particle size distribution. Gap, well, and uniform graded soils were prepared with a desired ratio, and a wide range of direct shear tests were done using the prepared samples. The test results show that there is a strong relationship between the particle size ratio and internal frictional angle. Gap graded soil has a greater frictional angle than a well-graded sample, even when specimens have the same maximum particle size, which is also the case for the uniform grade specimen. The results have potential for developing a methodology for stronger soils through a simple manipulation of particle size distribution.
Flow characteristics analysis and test in the Pelton turbine for pico hydro power using surplus water
Jeong, Seon Yong ; Lee, Kye Bock ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 325~331
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.325
Computational fluid numerical analysis using the commercial code CFX was performed to develop a Pelton turbine for a pico hydro power generator using the circulating water of a cooling tower in a large building. The performance of the Pelton turbine was examined for different design factors, such as the bucket shape, in which the Pelton wheel was connected in an appropriate manner to the pipe section, and the number of buckets in order to find the optimal design of Pelton turbine for a pico hydro power using surplus water. A benchmark test was carried out on the manufactured small scale Pelton turbine to validate the design method of the Pelton turbine by numerical analysis. The results obtained by comparing the flow characteristics and power output measured using the ultrasonic flowmeter, the pressure transducer and the oscilloscope with the numerical results confirmed the validity of the analytical design method. The possibility of developing Pelton turbines for kW class pico hydro power generators using surplus water with an average circulation velocity of 1.2 m/s for the chosen bucket shape and number of buckets in a 30 m high building was confirmed.
Factors Associating Major Burn in Chemical Injury Patients due to Industrial Place Incident : A Retrospective study
Shin, Hee-Jun ; Oh, Se-Kwang ; Lee, Han-You ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 332~339
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.332
This study examined the intensity of the association of factors affecting major burns by statistical analysis for patients injured by the release of chemical hazards. A total of 446 patients were evaluated as chemical injury patients, who had visited the emergency room from 1/Jan/2010 to 31/Dec/2014. The major burn was used as a dependent variable representing the severity of chemical injury. A chi-square test (CST) and binary logistic regression test (BLRA) were used as the statistical analysis method for determining the association between major burns and the independent variables. In CST, female and their presence at an incident scene, multiple site injury were associated with major burn (p<0.05). In BLRA, the presence at an incident scene and spills (comparing explosion), discharge (comparing admission) were associated with major burns (p<0.05). In this study, the presence at an incident scene was the most significant factor concerning major burns. Furthermore, gender and injury number, exposure mechanism (spill comparing explosion), and disposition (discharge comparing admission) were also associated with major burns.
Enhancement of Korea medical delivery system : Two policy proposals and healthcare policy making governance
O, Dongil ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 340~350
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.340
The Medical Service Act of Korea describes a clinic as providing services primarily to outpatients, while a large general hospital provides specialized medical services requiring a high level of expertise for treating serious diseases. The portion of medical revenue for clinics has been decreasing gradually compared with large hospitals. This article proposes two fundamental medical policies to fix the distorted medical delivery system of Korea. Firstly, uniform additional medical remuneration rates based on the type of medial institution should be divided into outpatient additional rates and inpatient additional rates. Secondly, to normalize the function of clinics and large general hospitals, an outpatient medical target budget system should be introduced. Finally, to properly implement the proposal, it is important to establish healthcare policy-making governance. The success of policy implementation strongly depends on the participation and incentives of the government, suppliers, and patients. Healthcare policy-making governance must be designed to encompass this fact and improve quality of care.
Study on the Characteristics of EEG in Resting State on Visuo-Spatial Working Memory Performance
Jung, Chul-Woo ; Lee, Hyeob-Eui ; Wi, Hyun-Wook ; Choi, Nam-Sook ; Park, Pyong-Woon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 351~360
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.351
The purpose of this study is to predict visual-spatial working memory performance through the characteristics of an electroencephalogram (EEG) in the resting state. The 31 study participants, middle school students with various to academic performance, were underwent visual-spatial working memory test in the Comprehensive Attention Test (CAT) on December in 2014. Each 7 and 6 participants were divided into an Excellent Working Memory (EWM) group and Poor Working Memory (PWM) group depending on the forward/backward working memory scores. The EEG measurements and analysis of the data from a Brain Function Tester were performed by the two groups. A Mann-Whitney Test was used to examine the statistical differences between them. The activation of high beta (
) at the Fp1 and Fp2 sites in the left and right hemisphere, and that of the low beta (
) in the right hemisphere in the EWM group was significantly higher than that in the PWM group. In conclusion, there is a correlation between the visual-spatial working memory performance and the activation of
in the resting state and a close correlation that of
in the right hemisphere in terms of mental activity and faculty. Therefore, the visual-spatial working memory performance can be predicted by the activation of
in the resting state. The activation of EEG can be applied as an assessment tool and provide basis data for visual-spatial working memory performance.
The effects of S-STEAM program on creativity and multiple intelligences of young children
Song, Min-Seo ; Kim, Hyoung-Jai ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 361~372
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.361
The purpose of this study was to develop a STEAM-based science education program for children and to verify its effectiveness. An S-STEAM-based science education program for young children was developed through careful analysis of prior research on science education for young children and S-STEAM. The participants were 29 four-year-old children from daycare centers located in Seoul (an experimental group of 14 and comparative group of 15). The S-STEAM program was applied to the experimental group, while the control group went through a general science education course provided by the government. TTCT of Creative Thinking (TTCT: Figures A and B) was used as a research tool, and a multiple intelligence test tool was applied to teachers of the groups. Afterwards, analysis of covariance was implemented to find the S-STEAM program's effects. First, the results showed positive effects on overall creativity, as well as in fluency, originality, abstractness, elaboration, and openness components of creativity. Second, the results showed positive effects on overall multiple intelligences and its components of linguistic, musical, spatial, logical/mathematical, physical exercise, interpersonal, and naturalist intelligence.
Hand Cream purchase consumer awareness of Domestic and Foreign Brands and effect of Sebum and Moisture in the Skin
Seo, Hyun-Woo ; You, Seon-Hee ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 373~381
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.373
To investigate the influence of hand cream of domestic and foreign brands on the purchase tendency, a survey was conducted on hand cream application, purchase tendency, and perception of 105 women in a metropolitan area. Market research was then conducted to compare the hand cream cost, quantity, and total substance, and the hand creams were sorted according to high-price and low-price, and foreign brand and domestic brand, and a clinical demonstration was conducted by back-hand application on 17 recipients to analyze the moisture and skin oil differences and the moisture endurance. As a result, the percentage of subjects who perceived that the price and brand of hand cream affects the quality was higher than those who did not, and the hand cream prize per 1mg (g) varied as much as fourfold among the high-price and low-price, and among foreign and domestic brands. The result of the total substance comparison, glycerin the moisturizer and cetearyl alcohol the skin conditioner were included in all hand creams. As a result of the clinical demonstration, the difference in moisture and skin oil difference and moisture endurance between the high-price and low-price and foreign brand did not show a statistically significant difference. These results show that there are no relationships between skin moisture and sebeum of the brand. Therefore, considering that hand cream is a highly consumptive product that is used multiple times on a daily basis, these results might provide fundamental data that could contribute to the increase in hand cream product quality by determining the consumers' needs.
On the Development of Safety Requirements Based on Functional Analysis of LRT Stations in Concept Development Stage
Kim, Joo-Uk ; Jung, Ho-Jeon ; Park, Kee-Jun ; Kim, Joorak ; Han, Seok Youn ; Lee, Jae-Chon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 382~391
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.382
For safety-critical systems including railways, there has been a growing need for effective and systematic safety management processes. The outcomes of efforts in this area are international safety standards, such as IEC 61508, 62278, and ISO 26262. One of the principal activities in the safety process is hazard analysis. For this reason, considerable efforts have been directed toward methods of hazard analysis. On the other hand, the hazard analysis methods reported thus far appear to be unclear in terms of their relationship with the system design process. In addition, in some cases, the methods appear to rely heavily on information regarding the hardware and software components, the number of which is increasing. These aspects can become troublesome when design changes are necessary. To improve the situation, in this paper, hazard analysis was carried out using the result of functional analysis early in the concept development stage for a safety-critical system design. Because hazard analysis is carried out at the system level and the result is then used to develop the safety requirements, improvements can be expected in terms of the development time and cost when design changes are required due to changes in the requirements. As a case study, the generation of safety requirements for the development of light rail transit stations is presented.
Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and its Related Factors of Elderly People in Korea
Song, Young-Soo ; Bae, Nam-Kyu ; Cho, Young-Chae ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 392~399
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.392
This study examined the distribution of metabolic syndrome according to the age groups among the elderly people to reveal the sociodemographic and health related factors. The survey in 2011~2014 from the National Health Insurance Corporation under regular medical check-ups, which received a recognition survey targeted 1,756 people aged over 70. Multiple logistic regression was performed on the relation metabolic syndrome and its related factors. As a result, the risk ratio for metabolic syndrome increased significantly in females than in males, living with a family than living alone, high economic status than in the low group, obese than in the normal weight group, have a history of stroke group than the no history group, smoking group than the non-smoking group, and drinking group than the non-drinking group. The distribution of metabolic syndrome differed significantly according to the sociodemographic characteristics and health-related variables.
Experimental Study on Structural Behavior of Interfaces of Double Composite Girder Using the 80 MPa Concrete
Yang, In-Wook ; Lim, Eol ; Ha, Tae-Yul ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 400~413
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.400
The horizontal shear capacity when the flange of a steel girder is replaced with 80 MPa concrete is important for its structural safety. In this study, 6 specimens with different interface conditions were designed and fabricated based on the Limit State Design Code on Korean Highway Bridges and static tests were performed to measure the horizontal shear capacity. Not only the resistance factors of the stud shear connector, concrete and reinforcement, but also the surface conditions of the casing concrete and spacing of the horizontal shear reinforcements were used as the experimental variables. The experiments showed that the interfaces between the steel girder and the concrete flange have stronger joint performance than those between the concrete flange and deck slab. To ensure the composite action in the plastic zone, the conservative horizontal shear reinforcement is more important than the roughness in the concrete face.
Injection Unit Precision Inspection according to Control Method of Injection Molding Machine
Jung, Hyun-Suk ; Yoo, Joong-Hak ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 414~419
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.414
A study of a precision test according to the control method of an injection molding machine was carried out. The effects of the screw stroke, holding pressure, melt temperature on both the hydraulic and electric injection molding machine were examined. In addition, hypothesis testing was performed to determine the deviation of the data obtained in the experiments. The conclusions obtained in this study were as follows. Significant deviations in the screw stroke, melt temperature and holding pressure occurred in that order. The hydraulic type showed significantly more variation between the products compared to the electric type. In addition, using a mini tab from the statistics program, a hypothesis was proposed and the P value of the injection stroke, holding pressure, melting temperature injection stroke and melting temperature had adopted a null hypothesis (
). The holding pressure, which showed mutual differences, adopted an alternative hypothesis (
A Study on the Perceived Affordance of Kim, Ju-Tae House in Eum-Seong through Analysis of Visual Structure
Hong, You-Sun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 420~425
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.420
This study discusses the architectural space's phenomenology, focusing on the physical environment and psychological behavior. Kim, Ju-Tae House, which is divided by special relationship, was analyzed by method of constructing space, and behavioral meaning with the perspective of visual structure. Kim, Ju-Tae House was constructed in a clear way by reflecting the users social, and cultural relationship. It has a relational and independent territories by physically surrounding Chae and wall. Each independent limited space is suggesting the space being opened by accessing the space stage by stage. This method of constructing the space makes the user aware of the relative difference from the induced space experience, and recognize the incremental strong isolation. Between the yard, which is located in the center of the house, forms a three-dimensional layer between Sarangchae and Anchae, emphasizing the spacial depth. The physical space is relatively small but because of the environmental conditions, such as the positioning of the observer's perspective, short cycle reorientation, and overlapped layer, it is recognized as far or deep compared to the actual size. This is the relative method as a visual perspective that is intended, and is understood as an active element that induces the psychological attitude by the recognized environment affordability of the user.
Validity and Reliability of a Korean Version of Behavior Health Care Competency on Non-psychiatric Nurse
Han, Jung-Won ; Woo, Hee-Yeong ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 426~432
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.426
This is a methodological study that verifies the validity and reliability by translating and modifying the Korean version of Behavior Health Care Competency (BHCC) tool. This study verified the content validity, construct validity, and reliability of 230 nurses working in general hospitals. The BHCC tool was analyzed using a total of 4 factors and 16 items. The tool had a high level of reliability and validity. The BHCC is a measurement tool considering the mental health care of non-psychiatric nurses, and it has meaning in that it establishes basic material so non-psychiatric nurses can manage the patient's physical and potential psychiatric problems effectively.
Impact of Job-stress on Fatigue Among 119 Rescue Workers
Choi, Sung-Soo ; Kim, Gyoung Wan ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 433~439
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.433
The purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of job-stress factors associated with fatigue among emergency rescue workers. A self-reported questionnaire was completed by 264 rescue workers in J province from January 5 to March 14, 2015. The questionnaire consisted of general characteristics about the subjects, health-related characteristics, a job stress instrument, and a subjective fatigue instrument. The results were analyzed using a t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression analysis to determine the factors related to fatigue. Fatigue was influenced by the personal characteristics of the rescue workers and job stress. To reduce fatigue, effort to manage and relieve stress is required after a job is done in the field. In addition, it is expected that fatigue can be reduced by providing methods that can improve the healthcare capacity of the rescue workers.
A study on B2B relationship values with customers in the Korean and Taiwan B2B market
Park, Changhyun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 440~447
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.440
Faced with the recent global economic recession, academics looked to the industrial B2B and B2C markets as potential new growth engines. In the B2B market, focusing on the relationship with customers, the relationship benefits are important, and institutional factors will affect the relationship and relationship values with customers. In this study, the relationship values between South Korea and Taiwan are compared by considering their national characteristics. By applying a mixed research method based on sequential exploratory design, 6 relationship values (supplier knowhow, service support, time to market, delivery performance, personal interaction, and product quality) are extracted. In particular, South Korea and Taiwan give priority to supplier knowhow and service support, respectively. Our research findings have both theoretical and practical implications for other emerging countries, as well as developed countries.
A Process Optimization of HVOF on ALBC3 by Experiments Design
Kim, Young-Moon ; Lim, Byung-Chul ; Kim, Min-Tae ; Park, Sang-Heup ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 448~453
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.448
Erosion and abrasion caused by cavitation damage occur in fluid equipment, such as ships or impellers. Similarly, the equipment damage from noise and vibration can shorten its life. This study analyzed the importance of the parameter characteristics of the process optimization of HVOF (High Velocity Oxygen Fuel spraying), which is generally used in a variety of industries for enhancing the resistibility from the cavitation phenomenon. The surface of the ALBC3 substrate was coated with an amorphous powder as a filler metal according to the experimental design using the Taguchi method, and then the characteristics with each parameter were analyzed using a porosity measurement test. The optimal process conditions was a combustion pressure of 80psi, coating distance of 270mm, gun speed of 200mm/s, and powder feed rate of 25g/min as a result of the HVOF coating by applying the experimental design. The combustion pressure, coating distance and powder feed rate were more than 25% and indicated a similar contribution rate, but the contribution rate of the gun speed was 19%, which was slightly less than the others. The contribution rate with each parameter was only slightly significant. On the other hand, all four parameters were found to be important in the contribution rate aspects of the HVOF coating process.
The Effects of Climacteric Symptoms and Hardiness on Mid-Life Crisis
Seo, Eun-Hui ; Kim, Eun-Young ; Jung, Eun-Young ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 454~463
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.454
This study examined the degree of climacteric symptoms, hardiness and middle-life crises. The survey period was from 25 May to 10 September, 2013 with workers in small business workplaces in Jeonnam. The data was collected by a self-questionnaire and SPSS Win 18.0 was used for data analysis. As an accounting hierarchical analysis result, middle-life crisis was affected by exercise, and the relationship with the spouse and child with an explanatory power of 25.1%. Additional input climacteric symptoms showed more explanatory power (21.1%). In addition, exercise, education, relationship with the spouse, relationship with child, income, and climacteric symptoms were predictors of a mid-life crisis with explanatory power of 42.7%. Therefore, to successfully overcome mid-life crises, a range of nursing interventions should be provided to make a positive self-control and intimate relationship with the spouse of middle-aged men.
A Study on Estimation of Design Tidal level Considering Sea Level Change in the Korean Peninsula
Choo, Tai Ho ; Sim, Su Yong ; Yang, Da Un ; Park, Sang Jin ; Kwak, Kil Sin ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 464~473
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.464
The air temperatures of the coast and inland are rising due to an increase in carbon dioxide emissions and abnormal climate phenomena caused by global warming, El Nino, La Nina and so on. The sea levels of the Earth are rising by approximately 2.0 mm per year (global average value) due to the thermal expansion of sea water, melting of glaciers and other causes by global warming. On the other hand, when it comes to designing a hydraulic structure or coastal hydraulic structure, the standard of the design water level is decided by analyzing four largeness tide values and a harmonic constant with the observed tidal water level or simulating numerical model. Therefore, the design tidal water level needs to consider an increasing speed of the seawater level, which corresponds to the design frequency. In the present study, the observed tidal water levels targeting 46 tidal stations operated by the Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Administration (KHOA) from the beginning of observations to 2015 per hour were collected. The variation of the monthly and yearly and increasing ratio were performed and divided into 7 seas, such as east and west part of the Southern Sea, south part and middle of the East Sea, south part and middle of the Western Sea, and Jeju Sea. The current study could be used to determine the cause of local seawater rises and reflect the design tidal water level as basic data.
Electric Fan Heater Design for Eco-Energy Saving
Sul, Yong-Tae ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 474~479
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.474
As the Eco-energy is recently required, electrical energy is fast increased. Several induction heating methods are attractive for Eco-energy and energy saving. In this paper, electrical fan heater was designed and developed with new concept for energy saving by electromagnetic induction heating. Proposed system was composed of three module, blast part, induction heating part and power transformation part. Induction heating method was adapted for heating and the resonant inverter was used for increasing of the power transformation efficiency. Full-bridge resonant inverter was adopted to resonant inverter. This system was composed of induction heating part made with metal(SUS 40 series), and power transformation part made with rectifier module, filter module and resonant inverter. From these results, the proposed new electric heater could be saved the energy from faster increasing the temperature compared to commercial gas and other electric heater. This electrical fan heater is possible to be used in field of home, commercial and agricultural area for eco-energy saving heater.
An Analysis on the Influence of the Financial Market Fluctuations on the Housing Market before and after the Global Financial Crisis
Kim, Sang-Hyeon ; Kim, Jae-Jun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 480~488
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.480
As the subprime mortgage crisis spread globally, it depressed not only the financial market, but also the construction business in Korea. In fact, according to CERIK, the BSI of the construction businesses plunged from 80 points in December 2006 to 14.6 points in November 2008, and the extent of the depression in the housing sector was particularly serious. In this respect, this paper analyzes the influence of the financial market fluctuation on the housing market before and after the Global Financial Crisis using VECM. The periods from January 2000 to December 2007 and January 2008 to October 2015, before and after the financial crisis, were set as Models 1 and 2, respectively. The results are as follows. First, when the economy is good, the Gangnam housing market is an attractive one for investment. However, when it is depressed, the Gangnam housing market changes in response to the macroeconomic fluctuations. Second, the Gangbuk and Gangnam housing markets showed different responses to fluctuations in the financial market. Third, when the economy is bad, the effect of low interest rates is limited, due to the housing market risk.
The Effects of the Forest Environment on Internet Addition Treatment
Oh, Chang-Hong ; Park, Sang-Gyu ; Park, Jung-Hwan ; Oh, In-Ja ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 489~499
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.489
This study examined the effects of a forest environment on internet addition and the self-esteem of internet-addicted adolescents. For comparison, the same group counseling programs were conducted in a classroom not in the forest. Twenty-four second grade students from a Middle School in S-city were grouped with 8 members in each group. Each group joined this program 6 times. The group results were then compared over a follow-up period. The dependent variables were the internet addiction scores and self-esteem scores. In the research results, the experimental group that undertook this program in the forest environment showed significantly different internet addiction scores compared to the control group immediately after the program and during the follow-up period. According to the period, the experimental group showed a significant difference in the internet addiction scores compared to the previous scores, immediately after the program and during the follow-up period. The comparison group showed no significant difference compared to the control group immediately after the program and during the follow-up period. The program in the forest environment showed a significant difference in the self-esteem scores compared to the comparison group and the control group immediately after the program and during the follow-up period. The self-esteem scores of the experimental group increased significantly compared to the comparison group and control group. In addition, the self-esteem scores of the comparison group also increased significantly, compared to the control group. The self-esteem scores of the experimental group also increased significantly, compared to the previous scores, immediately after the program and during the follow-up period. These results suggest that a natural environment, such as a forest, has therapeutic effects on decreasing the addiction symptoms' of internet addiction adolescents and also helps raise their self-esteem. Nevertheless, more study will be needed to verify what effects the forest environment have on the therapeutic mechanism on various addicts. Lastly, the constraints and implications of this research are described.
Analysis of the Influence of Physical and Mental Function, and Oral Health Impact Profiles on Quality of Life in the Elderly People in Long-term Care Centers using the Structural Equation Model
Shin, Min-Woo ; Lee, Young-Ok ; Cho, Young-Chae ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 500~511
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.500
This study examined the effects of the physical functions (ADL, IADL), mental functions (CES-D, MMSE-K) and oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) on the quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) of the elderly in long-term care facilities. The study subjects were 602 elderly people, who were surveyed at the entrance to the long-term care facilities. The interviews were conducted using a questionnaire during the period from May 1, to June 30, 2014. As a result, the quality of life was affected more by the CES-D and MMSE-K than by the ADL and IADL or by OHIP-14; the quality of life improved with a higher ADL, IADL, and OHIP-14 and a higher CES-D and MMSE-K. A higher OHIP-14, ADL and IADL resulted in a higher CES-D and MMSE-K. These results suggested that the quality of life is correlated significantly with the physical functions (ADL, IADL), mental functions (CES-D, MMSE-K), and the oral health impact profile (OHIP-14).
Exercise for reducing and controlling lymphedema in Women with breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Oh, Ki Young ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 512~520
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.512
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, and lymphedema is one of the most common postoperative complications of breast surgery. Exercises are usually prescribed to prevent this occurrence. On the other hand, conflicting results regarding the effects and timing of such exercises have been reported. This study reviewed systematically the contemporary literature, peer-reviewed publications, and web sites of professional organizations that examined exercise for lymphedema prevention or therapy to determine the effects of exercise on lymphedema providing the best evidence for the treatment of patients. Exercise or training groups have strategies that appear to reduce the development of secondary lymphedema and altering its progression compared to the control group. Advances in cancer treatment, cancer and exercise research, and lymphedema management require physicians to have a basic understanding of the current evidence to provide the appropriate patient education and specialist referral.
Finding high utility old itemsets in web-click streams
Chang, Joong-Hyuk ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 521~528
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.521
Web-based services are used widely in many computer application fields due to the increasing use of PCs and mobile devices. Accordingly, topics on the analysis of access logs generated in the application fields have been researched actively to support personalized services in the field, and analyzing techniques based on the weight differentiation of information in access logs have been proposed. This paper outlines an analysis technique for web-click streams, which is useful for finding high utility old item sets in web-click streams, whose data elements are generated at a rapid rate. Using the technique, interesting information can be found, which is difficult to find in conventional techniques for analyzing web-click streams and is used effectively in target marketing. The proposed technique can be adapted widely to analyzing the data generated in a range of computing application fields, such as IoT environments, bio-informatics, etc., which generated data as a form of data streams.
Development of Program to improve the Positive Psychology Capital of University Student' and its Effects
Jo, Yun-Seo ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 529~546
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.529
The aim of this study was to development a program to improve the positive psychological capital of university students and its effects. The program to improve the positive psychological capital of university students was developed based on the systemic counseling program development model. For this purpose, the program to improve the positive psychological capital was carried out a total of 6 times (90 minutes per session) once a week for 24 university students at "C"university located in Gangwon-do, which was divided into 2 groups. In this study, the data were collected through a pretest and a posttest and, data analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0 ver. Based on the results, the program to improve the positive psychology capital was effective in increasing the positive psychology capital. Finally, the implications of the results, as well as the significance and limitations of the present study are discussed.
An Integrative Review on Korean Studies Related to Character Education Program for University Students
Kim, Jeong-Seon ; Kim, Han-Na ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 547~555
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.547
This study examined the characteristics of a character education program for university students by reviewing the Korean studies and incorporating the results. The research method was an integrated literature review, and for the study, 13 articles were selected by searching with key words, such as 'university student', 'character', and 'program' in 3 research databases, spanning between 2000 and 2015. The results showed that research on the character education program for university students is common, and have been studied for the purpose of self-knowledge and improvement of sociality. Regarding the effective variables, research on self-esteem has attracted the most attention. Based on the research result, the development of a program including various aspects of character is needed, and character education should be arranged over a long period of time with the cooperation of home, school, and whole society, not a one-time and temporary education.
Influence of Satisfaction with Clinical practice and Image of nurses on Nursing professionalism of Nursing students
Lim, Kyoung-Min ; Jo, Eun-Joo ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 556~566
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.556
This study examined the influence of satisfaction with clinical practice and the image of nurses on the nursing professionalism of nursing students. The subjects were 184 nursing students in B city who had experienced clinical practice. The data were collected from November 15 to December 15, 2014 and, analyzed using a t-test, ANOVA, Scheff's test, Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regression. Significant differences in the nursing professionalism by gender, religion, age, and school record were observed. Nursing professionalism was positively related to the satisfaction with clinical practice. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the nursing professionalism and image of nurses. Meaningful variables that influenced the nursing professionalism were satisfaction with the contents of clinical practice, image of nurses, satisfaction with the course of clinical practice, satisfaction with the environment of clinical practice, and school record. These factors comprised 75.8% of the total variance in the nursing professionalism of nursing students, and the satisfaction with contents of clinical practice was the most influential factor. In conclusion, to increase the nursing professionalism of nursing students, it is necessary to develop educational programs and institutional strategies to improve the satisfaction with clinical practice and the image of nurses.
Analysis of Positioning Performance According to the Condition of Multi-constellation GNSS
Park, Joon-Kyu ; Um, Dae-Yong ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 567~572
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.567
Many studies have been performed since the introduction of GPS in Korea. As a result, positioning using GNSS was fully proposed. On the other hand, most of these studies focused on accuracy but analytical studies on the GNSS status and the national GNSS infrastructure of Korea are lacking. In this study, the status of multi-constellation GNSS and National Geographic Information Institute's CORS (Continuous Operating Reference Station) were identified for the benefit and direction of GNSS infrastructure enhancement. As a result, it has been operating Multi-constellation GNSS, such as GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, COMPASS, and QZSS for surveying. In addition, improvement was presented by the number of satellites, precision, PDOP, etc. through the experiment about VRS and RTK using Multi-constellation GNSS. Upgrading the infrastructure for satellite surveying was identified as a priority consideration. In the future, if a Multi-constellation GNSS service is possible in VRS service, the satisfaction of public administration service will improve, which will contribute greatly to the advancement of a surveying infrastructure.
The Effects of Job Environment and Job Esteem on Job Satisfaction in Skin Beauticians
Lee, Jung-Yoon ; Lee, In-Hee ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 573~586
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.573
This study attempted to look into the effects of the job environment and job esteem on job satisfaction in the field of skin beauticians. To achieve this, a survey of their characteristics, job environment, job esteem and job satisfaction was carried out on 470 women in their 20s~50s working at skin care shops in the Seoul and Gyeonggi areas. First, it was found that the effects of the working environment on their vocational satisfaction, sense of belonging, level of contribution, wages and welfare, which are sub-factors of job satisfaction, are relatively high. This result shows that it is important to ensure proper resting facilities and resting areas. Second, it was shown that the higher the social evaluation, self-(implicit) assessment, future value, and self-fulfillment orientation, the higher the sub-factors of job satisfaction. This means that it is important to treat skin beauticians as professionals in order to improve their social recognition. The sub-factors of job environment-working conditions, organizational environment and job stability, and sub-factors of job environment-social evaluation, self(intrinsic) evaluation, future value and self-achievement orientation, had a major effect on the sub-factors of job satisfaction, respectively. Together with the general improvement in the sub-factors of job environment, the future value, as well as social evaluation, self(intrinsic) evaluation and self-achievement orientation, which together constituted the current value of job esteem, were the major factors affecting job satisfaction. Consequently, this study hopes to contribute to the development of the skin beauty industry by providing basic data on personnel management for skin care managers to improve skin beauticians' job satisfaction.
Factors Affecting Nursing College Students' Satisfaction with their Department
Cho, Jung-Ae ; kim, Jeong-Seon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 587~595
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.587
The purpose of this study was to provide basic information for the development of an educational program and a school adaptation program both of which aim to improve the nursing college students' satisfaction with their department. The participants were 235 nursing students at four different colleges located in B U City. A questionnaire survey was conducted on those students to determine their ego-resiliency, view of the nursing profession, and satisfaction with the nursing department. The data were collected from October 16th to November 25th, 2015. The collected data were analyzed using a t-test and ANOVA in accordance with SPSS 18.0. A post-test was then conducted through a
test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the stepwise multiple regression. These findings can be summarized as follows. All factors affecting nursing the students' satisfaction with their department had an explanatory power of 25.3%. Of those factors, the view of the nursing profession was highest in the explanatory power, or 19.9%. That power increased to 24.4% when ego-resiliency was added as another factor. This also increased to 25.3% when peer relations were added. Based on the study results, this study suggests that it is necessary to develop and apply an educational strategy to improve the nursing profession for the nursing department.
Study on the Biodegradable ability of Biodegradable Plastics PLA(Polylactic acid) by composting
Moon, Jayoung ; Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Lee, Young-Tae ; Lee, Hyun-Hee ; Rho, You-Han ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 596~605
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.596
In previous years, practice hand grenades were composed of non-degradable plastics and caused environmental pollution. Therefore, this study applied PLA(Polylactic acid) to practice hand grenades that would biodegradable within a short time. High expectations are being placed on PLA as a substitute for plastics because it can decompose to water and carbon dioxide. The aim of this study was to confirm that the PLA material of a practice hand grenade has biodegradability in a pilot-scale composting unit and estimate the applicability for other items. A composting test was progressed according to ISO 16929(2013). The test process was found to be valid. At the end of the composting test (after 12 weeks), the entire content of the test bin with the test sheet was sieved, sorted and analyzed. A disintegration percentage of 99.2% was obtained after 12 weeks of composting. Therefore, the 90% pass level required by ISO 17088(2013), EN 13432(2000), and ASTM D 6400-12 was easily reached. On the other hand, more research will be needed to determine additional applications of PLA material for consumables.
Research and development of the V-World packaged goods model for the overseas expansion of the spatial information industry
Lim, Yong-Min ; Lee, Jae-Yong ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 606~614
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.606
In order to expand the market of the domestic space information industry, which is currently saturated, overseas expansion is essential, but the prospects are limited. Therefore, an effective strategy of overseas expansion is needed. Given the current state of such spatial information industry, V-World is expected to play a very important role. In the world market for space information, in order to ensure the export competitiveness of the domestic space information industry, in the present study, research and development was carried out on the V-World-based packaged goods model as one possible method. First of all, to analyze the current situation and characteristics of the spatial information industry, to grasp V-World as a commodity and derive the relationship between foreign demand and V-World, the sales destinations and methods were defined. To formulate the basic strategy of the fusion-composite package export utilizing V-World on the basis of the basic concept of the product, the necessary components were designed. In response to this fusion-composite package product mix, the overseas promotion of spatial information-related companies it to be expected.
The empirical study on relationship between agency problem and beneficiary's performance
Yang, Dong-Woo ; Choi, Woo-Seok ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 615~621
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.615
This study examines whether there is agency cost in a public R&D subsidy program by applying agency theory. If there is agency cost, the composition ratio of the government subsidy and the firm's own R&D fund would have a significant (-) effect on technological performance. Companies that received a public R&D subsidy in Korea from 2000 to 2009 were selected as a sample. Frequency analysis and multiple regression analysis were used. The independent variables was the ratio of public R&D subsidy cost to the Firm's own R&D cost, and the dependent variables were the number of patent applications and the number of patents registered. The control variables were firm size and R&D cost. The results show that there are agency problems in the government-sponsored R&D system. A future study is needed to examine how much agency problems deteriorate the efficiency of the system.
Victims of Bullying in the Military and its Relationship with Frustration: Mediation Effects of Social Support
Shin, So-Hong ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 622~631
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.622
This study examined 316 soldiers in the South Korean Army and the mediation effects of social support on bullying and frustration. Bullying, social support, and frustration showed average scores of 2.23, 3.60, and 2.75 points, respectively. There was a positive correlation between bullying, social support, and frustration. All of the subordinate variables of bullying showed significant impacts on frustration (p<.05), with psychological harassment showing the greatest impact (
), followed by bullying in interpersonal relationships (
) and bullying at work (
). In all the interaction items of the subordinate variable bullying
social support, bullying had a significant impact on frustration at p<.01, while the highest impact was shown in the interaction item of bullying
member support (
). The results imply that intangible combat power and solidarity among soldiers can be guaranteed only when superiors and peers provide full support for soldiers who are victims of bullying.
Study on the Development of LED streetlight control system using GPS satellite communication and Arduino
Lee, Wan-Bum ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 632~637
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.632
A streetlight control system was developed using information technology and LED lights for efficient management and energy savings. The proposed system can control the power usage of an LED streetlight luminaire using GPS satellite communication and an Arduino with a built-in microprocessor. A control circuit was designed to control the current using GPS, a control unit, transistor, resistor, and constant-current supply circuit. The circuit was validated through experiments with normal operation. Using GPS, the control system extracts accurate time and location information according to the season, and it controls the current supplied to the LED streetlight according to the extracted time. Power consumption was reduced by more than 11%. The control system could reduce accidents caused by conventional lighting systems used to save energy, and it could improve the inefficient management of energy by preserving constant brightness of a streetlight at times and in areas that have less traffic.
A Study on Visiting Caregiver's Perception of Elder Abuse
Oh, Chung-uk ; Kang, Hye-kyung ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 638~645
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.638
This study describes visiting caregivers' perceptions and reporting of elder abuse. From January 13 to February 10, 2014, data were collected from 249 visiting caregivers working at homes by using a structured questionnaire. The caregivers' perceptions of abuse were high overall. Physical abuse was the most common type, followed by financial, verbal, negligence, and emotional abuse. Most visitors recognized that it is important to require reporting for the prevention of elder abuse, but most of them had no experience with reporting abuse, and the agencies that they knew were mostly the police. A majority of the visiting caregivers had attended an elder abuse program and recognized the importance of such programs. The caregivers hoped that the programs would have specific examples of how to deal with elder abuse and family counseling methods, and other practical content for their work. Programs should focus on coping with individual cases, proper counseling methods, and awareness of elder abuse.
A Study on the environmental factors that affect married life and life satisfaction of elderly couple - Moderating Effect of Spouse Support -
Na, Yei-Won ; Kim, Hyoung-Soo ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 646~662
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.646
This study of elderly couples examined the main environmental factors affecting the married life satisfaction and life satisfaction of the spouses. The survey was conducted on 60-year-old elderly couples who live in the metropolitan area of Seoul and Gyeonggi. A total of 400 questionnaires were used to analyze the exception of a number of 12 388 additional missing data. The results were as follows. First, environmental factors affecting the marital satisfaction of spouses' personality suitability and gender role attitudes appeared in the economic conditions. Second, the spouses environmental factors affecting the life satisfaction turned out to be the gender role attitude, reliability and economic conditions. Third, the major environmental factors affecting both spouses married life satisfaction and life satisfaction was found to be the gender role attitude and economic conditions. Fourth, the environmental factors representing a moderating effect on the supporting spouse between environmental factors and life satisfaction appeared to be the personality suitability and economic conditions. These results suggest that the recent increases in the twilight divorce rate may be due to the marriage satisfaction and common factors of gender role attitudes. Therefore, to improve the lives and economic conditions as well as the satisfaction of the spouse, the support of important factors are needed to adjust the crisis of old age couples. Therefore, a relevant policy that targets elderly couples through counseling and education will be needed.
Asymmetric Impacts of the Crude Oil Price Changes on Korea's Export Prices
Hong, Sung-Wook ; Kim, Hwa-Nyeon ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 663~670
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.663
This paper analyzes the asymmetric pass-through effects of crude oil price changes on export prices in Korea's manufacturing sector using a nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model. These pass-through effects are important for Korean companies that are highly dependent on exports. Because the effects differ by industry, eight sectors of the manufacturing industry were examined. The model is effective for separately testing the long-term and short-term differences between the export-price pass-through effects when crude oil prices increase and decrease. The estimation results show that there is positive pass-through to export prices as crude oil prices change, and there are asymmetric effects in some manufacturing sectors. Short-term asymmetries were detected in the export prices of five sectors that include general machinery and transport equipment, and significant long-term asymmetries were found for petroleum and coal products and for textile and leather products. The long-term export price of oil and coal products rose by 0.992% with a 1% increase in the oil price and fell by 0.977% with 1% decrease. Therefore, corporate strategies and government export policies should be established in accordance with these asymmetric pass-through effects.
Mediating Effects of Help-Seeking and Concealment on the Relations between Perfectionism and Depression, Anxiety in University Students
Jung, Eun-Sun ; Ha, Jung-Hee ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 671~681
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.671
The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of help-seeking and concealment in the relationship between perfectionism, depression, and anxiety. The participants were 252 university students, and analyses were conducted using PASW 18.0 and Amos 8.0. Help-seeking was confirmed to be a mediating variable between self-oriented perfectionism, depression, and anxiety. That is, self-oriented perfectionism had an effect on depression and anxiety through help-seeking. Also, concealment was a partially mediating variable between socially prescribed perfectionism, depression, and anxiety. The need to develop counseling and education approaches as a special intervention is discussed. The approaches are meant to reduce socially prescribed perfectionism and concealment. Limitations and implications for further study are suggested.
Study on the Causality and Lead-lag relationship between Size of House sub market and the Consumer Sentiment Survey
Kim, Gu-Hoi ; Kim, Ki-Hong ; Lee, Joo-Hyung ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 682~691
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.682
The purpose of this study is to explore the causal and precedence relationships between the housing sub-market and the results of a consumer sentiment survey about the housing market. This study investigates the relationships between the survey results and an apartment deal price index by size and bidding price rate in apartment auctions by extending research related to consumer sentiment surveys. We surveyed the Seoul Metropolitan Area and analyzed the results using a unit root test, cointegration test, Granger causality test, and cross-correlation test. It was confirmed that causality exists between the survey results and apartment deal price index by size and bidding price rate, and it was also confirmed that there are correlation and precedence relationships between them.
Effect of salinity and used medium on the induction of sexual reproduction in the rotifer Brachionus rotundiformis
Lee, Kyun-Woo ; Sim, So-Myung ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 692~697
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.692
This study examined the effects of salinity and medium used on the induction of sexual reproduction for the mass production of the resting eggs in the marine rotifer Brachionus rotundiformis for 9 days. After exposure to various salinities, the mixis rate in all treatments began to increase on the third day and decreased after the 4th or 5th day. The resting eggs appeared on the 4th day at 10‰, 15‰, 20‰, 25‰. In particular, the fertilization rates with 33.3% and 31.3% at 20‰ and 25‰ on day 6 were higher than those of the others, respectively. Mean mixis rate for 9 day at 0‰ and 20‰ were the highest with 25.3% and 20.2%, respectively, and the fertilization rate (14.0%) at 25‰ was the highest. In the medium experiment used, the mixis rate in all treatments were similar to the results of the salinity experiment. The resting eggs were only found at 0% and 25% of the used medium treatments. While there were no significant differences in the mean fertilization rate of all treatments, the mean mixis rate (22.3%) in the 25% treatment was higher than that of the control (0% treatment). As a result, salt stress was more effective than using the used medium to induce sexual reproduction in B. rotundiformis. The optimal salinity was considered to be 20-25‰, which caused a high mixis and fertilization rate in the rotifer. These results provide basic data for the mass production of rotifer resting eggs.
A Study on Influential Factors to the Career Maturity and Entrepreneurial Intention in Youth Entrepreneurship Education
Lee, Hye-Jin ; Hwang, In-Ho ; Kim, Jin-Soo ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 698~709
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.698
Career maturity and the acquisition of entrepreneurial knowledge are important in entrepreneurship education for youth, and the environments surrounding youths influence their mental state and academic achievement. This study aims to analyze the influences of an educational program and environment in entrepreneurship education for youths on the mindset and the entrepreneurial intention for proper career decisions according to the education climate and entrepreneurial knowledge. A total of 216 questionnaires were collected from students who participated in a creative and entrepreneurial tour of Incheon. After excluding 30 questionnaires with unreliable responses, 186 were empirically analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and Amos 18.0. The results show that the quality of education service and education environment decide the education climate, and the entrepreneurial knowledge has a positive influence on entrepreneurial intention. This research is significant because it strategically establishes directions for entrepreneurial education and as practical research for achieving outcomes of entrepreneurial education.
The Effects of Trauma-patient Training Education Using Simulation on Knowledge, Satisfaction and Problem-solving in Emergency medical Students
Moon, Tae-Young ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 710~717
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.710
This study was progessed from March 3, 2015 to March 31 for purpose of evaluating the effects of the trauma-patient practice education using simulation on knowledge, satisfaction and problem-solving in paramedic students. To closely examine the adequacy of education for paramedic students in one university, a comparison was made by dividing 28 male and female students into two groups of experimental group with 14 students and control group with 14 students. The experimental group was carried out the practice education of the trauma-patient simulation using simulator. The control group was conducted the theoretical and practical education through a traditional instructor-led class. As a result of the research, the experimental group can be known to be significantly higher(t=2.09, p<.05) than the control group in the post-knowledge survey and satisfaction following the development in each educational method for 4 weeks. Also, in consequence of the variable-based correlation in the sub-factors of satisfaction, a correlation was shown between interest and clinical help or between interest and problem-solving ability(p<.05, p<.01). Based on the results of this study, it is considered that the simulation practice education in the emergency department is demanded and that the practice education will need to be continuously applied through developing a proper scenario.
Evaluation of plastic flow curve of pure titanium sheet using hydraulic bulge test
Kim, Young-Suk ; Kim, Jin-Jae ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 718~725
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.718
In this study, the plastic flow curve of commercially pure titanium sheet (CP Ti) actively used in the plate heat exchanger etc., was evaluated. The plastic flow curve known as hardening curve is a key factor needed in conducting finite element analyses (FEA) for the forming process of a sheet material. A hydraulic bulge test was performed on the CP Ti sheet and the strain in this test was measured using the DIC method and ARAMIS system. The measured true stress-true strain curve from the hydraulic bulge test (HBT) was compared with that from the tensile test. The measured true stress-true strain curve from the hydraulic bulge test showed stable plastic flow curve over the strain range of 0.7 which cannot be obtained in the case of the uniaxial tensile test. The measured true stress-true strain curve from the hydraulic bulge test can be fitted well by the hardening equation known as the Kim-Tuan model.
Evaluation of an Applicability of HEC-RAS 5.0 for 2-D Flood Inundation Analysis
Lee, Choon-Ho ; Lee, Tae-Geun ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 726~733
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.726
Recently, the flood frequency and magnitude have increased due to heavy rainfall. Considering the present condition, a flood risk map has been published in many countries to raise awareness about flood damage to people. A flood inundation analysis model, which is used to publish the flood risk map, can be classified as river and inland inundation models according to the inundation cause. Although a variety of flood inundation analysis models are utilized both domestically and overseas, their usability is limited by the expensive price, except for the HEC-RAS model developed by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). In the situation, the USACE has developed a 2-D HEC-RAS model that can be linked to the existing 1-D model. This model has been released as a beta version under the name, HEC-RAS 5.0. In this study, the HEC-RAS 5.0 model's features, usability, applicability, and accuracy were evaluated by comparing the performances on Gokgyo-cheon with the FLUMEN model, which is used for domestic flood risk mapping. The results of this study will contribute to river inundation analysis in many different ways after the HEC-RAS 5.0 model is stabilized.
Study on the Natural Frequency of Wind Turbine Tower Based on Soil Pile interaction to Evaluate Resonant Avoidance Frequency
Kim, Pyoung-Hwa ; Kang, Sung-Yong ; Lee, Yun-Woo ; Kang, Young-jong ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 734~742
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.734
Global warming and the depletion of fossil fuels have been caused by decades of reckless development. Wind energy is one form of renewable energy and is considered a future energy source. The wind tower is designed with a fundamental frequency in the soft-stiff design between the 1P and 3P range to avoid resonance. Usually, to perform natural frequency analysis of a wind tower, the boundary condition is set to the Fixed-End, and soil-pile interaction is not considered. In this study, consideration of the effect of soil-pile interaction on the wind tower was included and the difference in the natural frequency was studied. The fixed boundary condition was not affected by the soil condition and depth of the pile and the coupled spring boundary condition was unaffected by the depth of pile but affected by the depth of the pile, and the Winkler spring boundary condition is affected by both the soil condition and the depth of the pile. Therefore, the coupled spring boundary condition should be used in shallow depth soil conditions because the soil condition does not take the shallow depth soil into consideration.
The Maintenance Process Model using BPMN Method in Public Rental Housing
Park, Kyung-Mo ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 743~751
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.743
It is critical to effectively change the measures of prevention from the breakdown maintenance proceeding an apartment housing maintenance task scope. It is necessary that systematization be performed for a series of tasks, such as facility inspection, diagnosis and replacement. In addition, it is preceded by establishing a standardization for maintenance work scope. Therefore, this study examined the problems related to public rental housing maintenance work scope to manage it more systematically. In addition, the study suggests a work process section for facility repairs, long term replacement and general maintenance using one on one interviews with experts to classify the occupants, management office and head office. This study's standard work system is expected to provide fairness and transparency in addition to improving the productivity in public rental housing maintenance via an efficiency promotion plan. In addition, it is used as the basic reference for developing a system of public rental housing maintenance costs and diagnosis actions. Finally, it is necessary to create improvements that provide a more objective work system standardization throughout the analysis of the productivity data according to the work flow and the review of the occupants, management office and head office in the future applications of the pilot site.
M2M Network Platform Using the MSRP
Kim, Jung-Ho ; Been, Jae-Man ; Kang, Seung-Chan ; Lee, Jae-Oh ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 752~757
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.752
Machine to Machine (M2M) communications is communications between a business application and devices via a communication network without any direct human interaction. The aim of our research is to connect any M2M device with an M2M AS (Application server) through an IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) Network Core using a M2M Gateway, in order to develop an M2M Horizontal Services Platform over IMS. An IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is an architectural framework defined by the wireless standards body of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for delivering IP multimedia services to mobile users. This paper shows the design and implementation of a Horizontal M2M Network Services Platform over an IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) using the Message Session Relay Protocol (MSRP). We summarize the protocols and architectures that formed the basis for the creation of our architecture. We provide a detailed description of our architecture design, describing the call flow of the proposed architecture and the entities operating in each process. We also describe the design and implementation process detailing the different tools used, explaining the selection of each component and its importance; also how we designed and implemented the M2M gateway, M2M Application Server, Open IMS Core, business application and M2M devices.
Development of Tunnel-Environment Monitoring System and Its Installation II -Measurement in Gumjung Tunnel-
Park, Won-Hee ; Cho, Youngmin ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 758~765
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.758
This paper is a follow-up paper to the publication, "Development of Tunnel-Environment Monitoring System and Its Installation I - Monitoring System and Measurement in Subway Tunnel" . An environment monitoring system was installed in the 20.3-km-long Gumjung tunnel, which has the general structure of a high-speed double-track railway tunnel. Data were collected for approximately one year. Monthly and daily data were obtained and analyzed for the temperature and relative humidity in summer and winter months. This paper discusses the environmental characteristics at different positions in the tunnel. The results are expected to be widely used in studies on tunnel ventilation and the improvement of air quality and thermal environments.
The Long-term Durability Evaluation of PC Box for Near-surface Transit System manufactured by Microwave Heat curing
Koh, Tae-Hoon ; Yoo, Han-Ju ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 766~771
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.766
This study examined the long-term durability of PC boxes, which was manufactured by low-carbon eco-friendly concrete using an alternative binder to cement and alternative fine aggregate to sand and microwave heat curing system to reduce the construction cost of a near-surface transit system. Based on the test results, the initial compressive strength of microwave heat cured concrete was higher than that of the steam cured concrete, but those were similar in the long-term age. In addition, there was no significant difference between the two curing conditions in the chemical resistance and the freeze-thawing resistance, and the chloride ion penetration level of the concrete cured by two methods was very low. Therefore, low-carbon eco-friendly concrete and microwave heat curing technology are expected to contribute to the economic construction of a near-surface transit system, and reduce carbon dioxide emissions and environmental impact.
A Study on Synthesis and Dispersion of Silver Nano Particle Using Trisodium Citrate
Lee, Jong Jib ;
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, volume 17, issue 4, 2016, Pages 772~779
DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.4.772
Silver nanoparticles were prepared by reacting silver nitrate and trisodium citrate in an aqueous solution. Their size and shape were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The synthesis was carried with different silver nitrate concentration, addition of TSC, solvent, surfactant, ultrasonication, and dispersing agent. With higher concentration of silver nitrate or TSC, the particles became large or agglomerated. The SEM results showed that the nanoparticles have spherical and pseudospherical shape with a narrow size distribution. The hydrophobic solvent did not affect the dispersibility, but the hydrophilic solvent enhanced it. The addition of HPMC surfactant caused the size to increase (50-100 nm) with non-uniform shapes and partial agglomeration. The dispersibility was significantly improved by ultrasonication for over 3 hours after the addition of a dispersing agent. Complete dispersion was achieved by adding the dispersant, and the nanoparticle sizes were as follows: 30-40 nm (BYK-182) < 42-78 nm (BYK-192) < 51-113 nm (BYK-142). The nanoparticles were 38.45-46.28 nm after the addition of 2-4 wt% TSC in 0.002 M silver nitrate solution.