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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 6 - 00 2006
Volume 20, Issue 5 - 00 2006
Volume 20, Issue 4 - 00 2006
Volume 20, Issue 3 - 00 2006
Volume 20, Issue 2 - 00 2006
Volume 20, Issue 1 - 00 2006
Volume 16, Issue 3 - 00 2006
Selecting the target year
Overseas Water Visions and Management of Domestic Waterworks
Choi, Suing-il ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 475~485
Application of Iron-Catalyzed Air Oxidation Process for Organics and Color Removals in Recalcitrance Flexographic Inks Wastewater
Cho, Yong Duck ; Yoon, Hyon Hee ; Park, Sang Joong ; Kim, Jong Sung ; Lee, Sang-Wha ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 487~498
The oxidation processes of metal catalysis were practically applied into the flexographic inks wastewater treatment to derive the most effective and economical system among all the processes of iron-salts coagulation, iron-catalyzed air oxidation, and coagulation followed by biological treatment. The iron concentration and pH were optimized as
and 5.5~6.0, respectively, for all the oxidation processes. At the optimal reaction conditions, the removal efficiencies of
and Color were as follows for the respective process: i) 75%
and 77% Color removals for iron-salts coagulation, ii) 91% TCODMn and 90% Color removals for iron-catalyzed air oxidation, iii) 74~92%
and 81~90% Color removals for coagulation followed by biological treatment. Based on the economical and technological aspects, iron-catalyzed air oxidation was confirmed as the most effective process in the treatment of industrial wastewater.
Flotation Characteristics of Activated Sludge by Micro-bubbles
Kim, Seong-Jin ; Kang, Byoung-Jun ; Park, Sang-Wook ; Lee, Jae-Wook ; Jung, Heung-Joe ; Kwak, Dong-Heui ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 501~507
Dissolved air flotation (DAF) has been well known for the gravity separation process. The solids to be separated are transferred from the water body to the water surface using micro-air bubbles. DAF has also been used for enhancing solids-liquid separation of industrial and municipal wastewater by adding a its unit parallel to a sedimentation unit to reduce the hydraulic loading in the sedimentation clarifier. This study was to investigate flotation characteristics of activated sludge by the recent DAF technique without chemical agents. In addition, the effect on temperature in flotation of activated sludge and the thickening degree of activated sludge were studied.
Approaches to Internal Corrosion Control Technologies by Controlling Water Quality in Water Treatment Systems
Seo, Dae-Keun ; Wang, Chang-Keun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 509~518
Although final water of domestic water treatment plants almost contains highly corrosive characteristics, the countermeasures for eliminating internal corrosion of pipeline system have not been conducted yet by controlling water quality in plants. The technologies of internal corrosion control are to control water quality parameters(pH, Alkalinity, and Calcium Hardness etc.) and to use corrosion inhibitor. Under the conditions of domestic water treatment, first of all, the technologies of adjusting water quality parameters has to be considered. Otherwise, The technology of using corrosion inhibitor is favorably thought to be applied with the technology of adjusting water quality parameters in accordance with the result of availability for water treatment process. Since the technology of adjusting water quality parameter influences on other water treatment processes, the guideline of water quality management to be apt for water quality characteristic is required to be estabilished. While the selection of proper chemicals and technologies is dependent upon the raw water characteristics and water treatment process, typically, the technology of
additions is considered more effective than other technologies in order to adjust pH and Alkalinity, increase
Nitrogen Removal Performance at Various DO Concentrations in the Bioreactor Packed with Submerged Cilia Media and Granular Sulfur
Moon, Jin-Young ; Hwang, Yong-Woo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 519~526
In this study, the major operating factors in SND(simultaneous nitrification and denitrification) using bioreactor packed with submerged cilia media and granular sulfur such as variation of nitrification rate, organic matter removal efficiency and denitrification efficiency in different DO concentration were mainly evaluated. Synthetic wastewater and actual sewage were used as influent wastewater. Experiment with synthetic wastewater as influent wastewater was divided into three phases with the adjustment of DO concentration. As the results, nitrification efficiency and T-N removal efficiency in the Phase 3(DO 1.0~2.0 mg/L) were 99% and 52.3%, which is significantly greater than those in other two phases. Also, loading rate and denitrification efficiency of SCPGS(Submerged Cilia media Packed with Granular Sulfur) were calculated as
and 50%, respectively. On the other hand, nitrification rate was decreased from 99% to 64% according to the DO concentration with the variation from 3.0~3.5 mg/L(phase1) to 0.4~0.6mg/L(phase2). Although the nitrification rate was decreased in 64% according to the variation of the DO concentration, T-N removal rate was rapidly increased to 49% by increasing of the denitrification efficiency. Experiment with actual sewage as influent wastewater was carried out to evaluate efficiency of SCPGS in real operation condition of full-scale sewage water treatment plant. At the time, T-N removal rate in this experiment and full-scale wastewater treatment plants were given by 43% and 20%, respectively. The above results indicate that SCPGS can be used as an advanced treatment process for economical efficiency considered.
Panel Estimation of Price Elasticities on Residential Water Demand in Korea
Park, Dooho ; Choi, Hanjoo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 527~534
Demand side management(DSM) is the newly raised issues in the water resources management in recent. Many of the policy tools among demand management, the most important measures might be a pricing system. Furthermore, the responses of consumers on the price for water consumption level is the key factor for policy making. Here, we estimated panel data for 167 regions and over 7 years periods in Korea. Compare to other previous studies the price elasticities were somewhat low. The estimated price elasticity was -0.05. It was because the short term estimated period may derive lower elasticities. However, it might be a recent trend after the continuous increment of water pricing and consumers not willing to decrease their residential water consumption with increasing water pricing. According to this results, water saving effect might be much smaller than we expect with pricing policy. However, It does not imply there is no price effects on water consumption and it's still meaningful as a tool of water management.
Effect of Ozonation in Microfiltration Membrane for Wastewater Reuse
Moon, Seong-Yong ; Ahn, Se-Hyuk ; Lee, Sang-Hyup ; Park, Jong-Hoon ; Hong, Suk-Won ; Choi, Yong-Su ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 535~543
The Ozone oxidation process was applied to increase the efficiency of reuse process when treating the secondary effluent by the membrane system. This paper focus on decreasing efficiency of membrane fouling, because of membrane fouling reduction by ozone and evaluation of application of the ozone oxidation. The feed water was secondary effluent from BNR process. The result shows that the ozone pretreatment can reduce membrane fouling effectively. Also, the improvement of treated water quality was obvious. The reduction of the membrane fouling led decrease of following pollutant and increase of lnner adsorptive ability of hydrophilic organic matter and decrease of molecular weight. MF membrane process alone can meet the domestic reuse water standards. And ozone pretreatment process also can increase the removal rates of turbidity, COD, nitrogen, and color.
Investigation and Assessment of the Deterioration on Aging Large Water Mains
Kim, Ju-Hwan ; Bae, Chul-Ho ; Kim, Jung-Hyun ; Hong, Sung-Ho ; Lee, Kyung-Jae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 545~558
The current conditions of large water mains are evaluated by deteriorations and the causes of deterioration are investigated through visual assessments in the field, mechanical tests and analysis of chemical compositions in laboratory for each pipe material, unlined cast iron pipes (CIPs), ductile iron pipes (DCIPs) and steel pipes (SPs) Tubercles and scales from internal and external corrosion of unlined cast iron pipes were identified as the causes of functional performance limitations in large water mains. It is investigated that main causes of internal and external corrosion of water pipes are from lots of depositions of organic and inorganic substances on pipe surface, concentrated pitting, and uniform corrosion by local or global exfoliation or detachment of lining and coatings of DCIPs and SPs. Internal and external corrosion depths of CIPs were higher than those of DCIPs and SPs. Consequently, total corrosion rate summed internal and external corrosion rates of CIPs also were shown to be higher than those of DCIPs and SPs. The failure time from hole generation of CIPs by total corrosion rate was predicted to be taken sixteen years, and DCIPs and SPs were twenty-six years and one hundred and fifty three years. And longitudinal deflection of investigated water mains were not happened and mechanical strengths such as tensile strength, elongation, and hardness also were mostly suited to Korea Standards. It was thought that the weakness of tensile strength of one sample(S-11) was, however, due to higher carbon contents(%) in CIPs. Pipe deterioration score of S-46 was 55.2 and was preferentially assessed to be rehabilitated.
Characterization of Natural Organic matter by Rapid Mixing Condition
Song, Yu-Kyung ; Jung, Chul-Woo ; Son, Hee-Jong ; Sohn, In-Shik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 559~571
The overall objective of this research was to find out the interrelation of coagulant and organic matter during rapid mixing process and to identify the change of organic matter by mixing condition and to evaluate the effect of coagulation pH. During the coagulation, substantial changes in dissolved organics must be occurred by coagulation due to the simultaneous formation of microflocs and NOM precipitates. Increase in the organic removal efficiency should be mainly caused by the removal of microflocs formed during coagulant injection. That is, during the mixing period, substantial amount of dissolved organics were transformed into microflocs due to the simultaneous formation of microflocs and NOM precipitates. The results also showed that 40 to 80% of dissolved organic matter was converted into particulate material after rapid mixing process of coagulation. During the rapid mixing period, for purewater, formation of dissolved Al(III) (monomer and polymer) constant by rapid mixing condition, but for raw water, the species of Al hydrolysis showed different result. During the rapid mixing period, for high coagulant dose, Al-ferron reaction increases rapidly. At A/D(Adsorption and Destabilization) and sweep condition, both
and dissolved Al(III) (monomer and polymer) exist, concurrent reactions by both mechanism appear to cause simultaneous precipitation.
Causes of Fish Kill in the Urban Streams I - Field Surveys and Laboratory Experiments
Lee, Eun-hyoung ; Seo, Dongil ; Hwang, Hyun-dong ; Yun, Jin-hyuk ; Choi, Jae-hun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 573~584
This study was carried out to investigate the causes of fish kills in the Yudeung Stream in Daejeon, Korea using literature reviews, governmental and our water quality monitoring data of the study site, rainfall data, intensive water quality monitoring during rainfall events, sediment pollutant contents and laboratory bioassay tests. Fish kill in urban streams can be caused by combined effect of reduction in dissolved oxygen concentration, increase in toxic material or increase in turbidity in waterbody due to introduction of surface runoff or effluent of combined sewer overflows after rainfall from the watershed areas. Despite of extensive and intensive field surveys and laboratory tests, it was found that those conventional methods have limitations to identify causes of fish kills in urban streams. It would be necessary to use dynamic water quality modeling to predetermine the range and level of water pollution in the stream and automatic water quality monitoring system that can collect water samples and detect water quality continuously.
Causes of Fish Kill in the Urban Stream and Prevention Methods II - Application of Automatic Water Quality Monitoring Systen and Water Quality Modeling
Lee, Eun-hyoung ; Seo, Dongil ; Hwang, Hyun-dong ; Yun, Jin-hyuk ; Choi, Jae-hun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 585~594
This study focused on the causes of fish kills and its prevention methods in Yudeung Stream, Daejeon, Korea. Intense field data, continuous water quality monitoring system and water quality modeling were applied to analyze the causes. Pollutant can be delivered to urban streams by surface runoff and combined sewer overflows in rainfall events. However, water quality analysis and water quality modeling results indicate that the abrupt fish kills in the Yudeung stream seems to be caused by combined effect of DO depletion, increase in turbidity and other toxic material. Excessive fish population in the study area may harm the aesthetic value of the stream and also has greater potential for massive fish kills. It is suggested to implement methods to reduce delivery of pollutants to the stream not only to prevent fish kills but also to keep balance of ecosystem including human uses. Frequent clean up of the urban surface and CSO, installation of detention basin will be helpful. In the long run, it seems combined sewer system has be replaced with separate sewer system for more effective pollutant removal in the urban area.
A Study on the Growth Characteristics of Commercially Developed Nitrifying Bacteria and its Application to Activated Sludge Process
Whang, Gyu-Dae ; Lee, Bong-Hee ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 595~604
The growth characteristics of Commercially Developed Nitrifying Bacteria (CDNB) were studied in laboratoryscale. CDNB, a pure, artificially isolated bacterium, was cultivated to produce Cultivated Nitrifying Bacterium Group (CNBG). The average ammonia removal rate of CDNB was 0.0234g
MLSS/hr. CNBG was produced in the batch reactor and Specific Nitrification Rate (SNR) was determined at 0.0107g
MLSS/hr. The SNR of CNBG was lower than the SNR of CDNB because the diverse and multi-cultured microbial growth took place during cultivation. The effect of the temperatures and the mixing ratios of sewage and culture solution on the SNR of CNBG was studied. The SNR of CNBG, 0.0107g
, decreased to 0.0048g
, and temperature coefficient (
) was calculated to be 1.07. With the varied sewage mixing ratios, the SNR of CNBG remained unchanged. Activated sludge reactors maintaining an MLSS of 2,000mg/L at HRT of 4 h were operated under conditions in which dosage of Concentrated CNBG Solution (CCNBGS, 10,000mg MLSS/L) and application method of CNBG were varied. The reactor with 20mL of CCNBGS took shorter time to oxidize
reaching 1mg/L than the reactor with 5mL of CCNBGS showing that higher dosages were associated with greater mass removal of
. However, the total removal was not great. In terms of different methods of CNBG application, reactor seeded with 20mL of CCNBGS took 3days to reach 1mg/L of effluent ammonia concentration while reactor dosed with 20% (v/v) CNBG implanted media took 2days. Both the control reactor and the reactor dosed with 20% (v/v) media only did not reach 1mg
after operating 18days. The reactor with CNBG implanted media had the highest
removal rate because of maintaining high concentration of Nitrifying Oxidizing Bacteria (NOM), and is regarded as an appropriate method for the activated sludge process.
Analyzing Effects of Transparency on a Water Business Case Using System Dynamics
Lee, Sangeun ; Kim, Hyunok ; Park, Heekyung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 605~616
This study focused on analyzing effects of transparency on the water system specifically and quantitatively. It was observed that transparency can give a water utility considerable motives for improving its performance and make the service price meet the production cost. System simulation made sure that these functions of transparency will eventually result in the better service for customers and the more favorable finance for a water utility. Results of this study can help some decision makers and utilities to sort out positive countermeasure for improving transparency.
Thickening of Sludge from DAF process by Flotation; Application of Solid Flux Theory and Effective Factors
Park, Sangcheol ; Han, Mooyoung ; Dockko, Seok ; Kwon, Soonbuhm ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 617~626
Compared with the sludge from gravity sedimentation, it is difficult for operations to settle the sludge occurred from dissolved-air-flotation (DAF). Even though there are some problems in treating DAF sludge with conventional gravity thickeners, those has been used until now. In this study, Solid Flux theory for gravity thickening was applied to the Solid Flux of DAF sludge through flotation in order to develop new methodology for treatment of DAF sludge. Also, characteristics of DAF sludge were investigated. From the experiment results, it was revealed that the higher the polymer dosage, at fixed the solid concentration, the greater the rising velocity becomes. When we applied solid flux theory, the relationship, which is similar to that of gravity thickening, has been achieved. Also, we could find the proper polymer dosage from the rising velocity is about 50 mg/L. Consequently, the limiting solid flux can be derived from the relationship between the total solid flux and the withdrawal velocity of DAF sludge. Furthermore, the factors, such as solid concentrations, bubble volume, pH, zeta potential, and temperature, have effects on the flotation and sedimentation for DAF sludge treatment.
Discharge Characteristics of the Indicator Microorganisms of Combined Sewer Overflows
Kim, Geonha ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 627~635
Combined sewer overflow (CSOs) is a primary diffuse source degrading water quality of urban streams. In this study, CSOs caused by 5 different rainfall events at an urban watershed located in Daejeon city were monitored for the indicator microorganism concentrations. Event mean concentration (EMC) of the indicator microorganisms were: total coliform =
; fecal coliform =
; E.coli =
; and Fecal Streptococci =
. In addition, coliform concentrations were well correlated with suspended solid concentrations and the first flush effects were identified. Settling tests were carried out to estimate removal rate of indicator organisms by sedimentation from CSOs. As microorganisms are discharged in association with suspended solid, ten minutes of settlement can lower 44% of indicator microorganism leading.
Combined Effects of Metal Coagulants and Monochloramine on Polyamide RO Membrane Performance
Kim, Kyunghwa ; Hong, Seungkwan ; Park, Chanhyuk ; Yoon, Seongro ; Hong, Seongpyuo ; Lee, Jonghwa ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 637~643
The bench-scale chlorine exposure study was performed to investigate the effect of pretreatment by free chlorine and monochloramine (
) on the performance of RO membranes made of polyamide (PA). Feed monochloramination at 2mg/L did not cause significant productivity loss compared to free chlorine. However, metal coagulants reacted with monochloramine, the PA membrane suffered from a gradual loss of membrane integrity by chlorine oxidation, which was characterized as a decrease in salt rejection. Especially, RO membranes exposed to alum coagulants with monochloramine revealed the salt rejection lower than those exposed to iron coagulants. XPS membrane surface analysis demonstrated that the chlorine uptake on the membrane surface increased and carbon peaks were shifted significantly when exposed to alum coagulants with monochloramine.