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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 6 - 00 2006
Volume 20, Issue 5 - 00 2006
Volume 20, Issue 4 - 00 2006
Volume 20, Issue 3 - 00 2006
Volume 20, Issue 2 - 00 2006
Volume 20, Issue 1 - 00 2006
Volume 16, Issue 3 - 00 2006
Selecting the target year
Application of rehabilitation technologies of water mains in Korea
Bae, Chul-Ho ; Kim, Ju-Hwan ; Lee, Kyung-Jae ; Hong, Seong-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 6, 2006, Pages 779~786
Establishment of the Refined Model for Prediction of Flocculation/Sedimentation Efficiency Using Model Tree Technique
Park, No-Suk ; Park, Sang-Young ; Kim, Seong-Su ; Jeong, Nam-Jeong ; Lee, Sun-Ju ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 6, 2006, Pages 789~797
This study was conducted to establish the refined model for prediction of flocculation/sedimentation efficiency in factual drinking water treatment plants using model tree technique. In order to carry out machine leaning for determining each linear model, five parameters; time, coagulant dose, raw water turbidity, SCD and conductivity, which were measured and collected from the field (K_DWTP), were selected and used. The existing analytical models developed by previous researchers were used only to examine closely the mechanism of flocculation rather than to apply it for practical purpose. The refined model established using model tree technique in this study could predict the factual sedimentation efficiency accurately (below 9% of average absolute error). Also, in aspect of engineering convenience, without any additional manipulation of parameters, it can be applied to practical works.
Probabilistic Neural Network for Prediction of Leakage in Water Distribution Network
Ha, Sung-Ryong ; Ryu, Youn-Hee ; Park, Sang-Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 6, 2006, Pages 799~811
As an alternative measure to replace reactive stance with proactive one, a risk based management scheme has been commonly applied to enhance public satisfaction on water service by providing a higher creditable solution to handle a rehabilitation problem of pipe having high potential risk of leaks. This study intended to examine the feasibility of a simulation model to predict a recurrence probability of pipe leaks. As a branch of the data mining technique, probabilistic neural network (PNN) algorithm was applied to infer the extent of leaking recurrence probability of water network. PNN model could classify the leaking level of each unit segment of the pipe network. Pipe material, diameter, C value, road width, pressure, installation age as input variable and 5 classes by pipe leaking probability as output variable were built in PNN model. The study results indicated that it is important to pay higher attention to the pipe segment with the leak record. By increase the hydraulic pipe pressure to meet the required water demand from each node, simulation results indicated that about 6.9% of total number of pipe would additionally be classified into higher class of recurrence risk than present as the reference year. Consequently, it was convinced that the application of PNN model incorporated with a data base management system of pipe network to manage municipal water distribution network could make a promise to enhance the management efficiency by providing the essential knowledge for decision making rehabilitation of network.
Soluble Manganese Removal Using Manganese Oxide Coated Media (MOCM)
Kim, Jinkeun ; Jeong, Sechae ; Ko, Suhyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 6, 2006, Pages 813~822
Soluble manganese removal was analyzed as a function of filter media, filter depth, presence or absence of chlorination, and surface manganese oxide concentration in water treatment processes. Sand, manganese oxide coated sand (MOCS), sand+MOCS, and granular activated carbon(GAC) were used as filter media. Manganese removal, surface manganese oxide concentration, turbidity removal, and regeneration of MOCS in various filter media were investigated. Results indicated that soluble manganese removal in MOCS was rapid and efficient, and most of the removal happened at the top of the filter. When filter influent (residual chlorine 1.0mg/L) with an average manganese concentration of 0.204mg/L was fed through a filter column, the sand+MOCS and MOCS columns can remove 98.9% and 99.2% of manganese respectively on an annual basis. On the other hand, manganese removal in sand and the GAC column was minimal during the initial stage of filtration, but after 8 months of filter run they removed 99% and 35% of manganese, respectively. Sand turned into MOCS after a certain period of filtration, while GAC did not. In MOCS, the manganese adsorption rate on the filter media was inversely proportional to the filter depth, while the density of media was proportional to the filter depth.
Evaluation of Biological Activated Carbon Using Particle Counter
Kim, Hee gune ; Ryon, Dong choon ; Kim, Hyun sil ; Ryu, Byung soon ; Moon, Seong yong ; Kim, Seung Hyun ; Kim, Won Kyong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 6, 2006, Pages 823~828
For this study, an online particle counter was installed before and after the activated carbon filtration process of D water treatment plant where has advanced water treatment processes, produces average 900,000ton/day of drinking water and supply the produced drinking water to Busan citizens. We collected and analyzed particle count data for about 1 year. We inspected particle breakthrough in three out of sixteen filter processes operated at same conditions, i.e. 5th filter, 6th filter and 7th filter. According to the monitoring results, 6th and 7th filters showed similar results while 5th filter showed different results. When compared seasonal effect, the particle count for dry season was below 10 particles/ml while the particle count for August when monthly average rainfall is over 200mm was much higher than for dry season. In January and August, there was a difference in breakthrough particle size. In January, small particles in 2~3um were mainly detected while in August 10um particles were mainly detected and the size distribution was 40% of total count.
Adaptive Control of Denitrification by the Extended Kalman Filter in a Sequencing Batch Reactor
Kim, Dong Han ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 6, 2006, Pages 829~836
The reaction rate of denitrification is primarily affected by the utilization of organics that are usually limited in the anoxic period in a sequencing batch reactor. It is necessary to add an extemal carbon source for sufficient denitrification. An adaptive model of state-space based on the extended Kalman filter is applied to manipulate the dosage rate of extemal carbon automatically. Control strategies for denitrification have been studied to improve control performance through simulations. The normal control strategy of the constant set-point results in the overdosage of external carbon and deterioration of water quality. To prevent the overdosage of external carbon, improved control strategies such as the constrained control action, variable set-point, and variable set-point after dissolved oxygen depletion are required. More stable control is obtained through the application of the variable set-point after dissolved oxygen depletion. The converging value of the estimated denitrification coefficient reflects conditions in the reactor.
Treatment Characteristics of Biological Aerated Filter Process Using the Upflow and Downflow System
Lee, Yang-Kyoo ; Kim, Gun-Hyub ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 6, 2006, Pages 837~848
This paper presents the test results of biological aerated filtration(BAF) process to replace activated sludge process by enhancing treated effluent quality and reducing the costs. In BAF process both BOD and SS compounds in wastewater are degraded and removed by biological reaction and filtration. Upflow BAF with expanded polypropylene media and downflow BAF with ceramic media were used to investigate the effects of hydraulic and organic loads on effluent quality. As a result, in BAF processes which has different media, upflow BAF reactor shows 5% higher efficiency than downflow BAF and this phenomena caused by backwashing methods and operational conditions. The results of influence factors analyzed by Factor Analysis Method in BOD and SS treatment efficiency are the size of media, hight of media bed and type of media. The quantitative effects of media size are 5.73% in TBOD, 5.78% in SBOD and 7.65% in TSS, so we confirmed the main factor is media size.
Determination of Optimum Operational Parameters on Early Warning Device for Early Detection of Taste and Odor in Drinking Water Supplies
Kim, Young-Il ; Bae, Byung-Uk ; Ju, Dae-Sung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 6, 2006, Pages 849~855
Taste and odor (T&O) problems in drinking water supplies caused by eutrophication have become increasingly important because aesthetic qualities are the primary measures by which consumers estimate the quality of their drinking water. In order to overcome T&O problem, it is necessary to early detection method for T&O compounds before these compounds enter to water treatment plant. In this background, a early waming device for T&O compounds was developed and its performance tested under different operating condition. According to the experimental results on the adsorption efficiency of T&O compounds, when the raw water flowrate was 5 mL/min, the optimum stripping time and air flowrate were 5 hrs and 0.5 L/min, respectively. Comparison of activated carbon showed that foreign activated carbon was better than domestic activated carbon in terms of adsorption efficiency.
Sludge Transportation by the Submerged Barrier
Park, Suk Gyun ; Kang, Seon-Hong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 6, 2006, Pages 857~865
The submerged barrier, employed in a reactor, divided a reactor into sludge settling zone and mixing zone according to flow type. In spite of mixing in the mixing zone, the lower part of sludge settling zone than the top of barrier was in a steady flow due to the barrier, which prevented the turbulent flow, produced from the mixing zone, from being diffused into the sludge settling zone. Therefore, the sludges in the mixing zone flowed backward over the barrier into the upper part of the sludge settling zone by turbulent flow and settled down in the sludge settling zone by the force of gravity. When barrier/water level ratio was 0.5, most sludges almost did not settle down in tile sludge settling zone because the sludges were directly affected by the turbulent flow, generated from mixer in the mixing zone. At 0.63 of barrier/water level ratio, sludge in the middle part of sludge settling zone rocked from side to side weakly. And sludge in the lower part became piled up on the bottom over this ratio. After 10minutes of sludge settling, the lower part of sludge settling zone was over 5000mg/L of sludge concentration although intial sludge concentration was 2300mg/L. By using the submerged barrier and the flow types, it could transfer sludge from this to that.
Assessment of Residual Tensile Strength on Cast Iron Water Pipes
Bae, Cheol-Ho ; Kim, Ju-Hwan ; Kim, Jeong-Hyun ; Hong, Seong-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 6, 2006, Pages 867~874
The goal of this study is to assess cast iron pipes (CIPs) and present a residual tensile strength prediction model using pit characteristics and fracture toughness. The results is the followings. First, average pit depths of collected CIPs were in the range from 0.63 to 6.49 mm, loss of tensile strength compared with net metallic tensile strength were from -7.06 to 67.91 percent. Second, fracture toughness for NS-CR-1, NS-CR-2, and NS(2)-CR-1 were in the range from 62.85 to
, and average of those samples was
on CIPs. Third, the models developed in this study by using pit characteristics and fracture toughness showed a little good correlation for measured residual tensile strength, and the results will be expected to help for water utilities to manage CIPs in the aspect of rehabilitation and assessment of structural safety on CIPs.
A Study on the Operation Condition for Carbon-Nitrogen Removal in Wastewater and Sludge Reduction using PVA-gel Immobilized Microorganism
Lee, Jin-Sook ; Park, Hyung-Whan ; Nam, Duk-Hyun ; Park, Chul-Hwi ; Jung, In-Ho ; Yoo, Young-Kwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 6, 2006, Pages 875~883
The carbon and nitrogen removal process using PVA-gel (Polyvinyl Alcohol) immobilized microorganisms was studied. The process has been operated under diverse process conditions for 12 months. The process consists of denitrification with internal recycle of 300%, nitrification, aerobic digestion reactors and settling tank. Nitrificatoin and nitrogen removal efficiency according to gel packing ratio and temperature were studied. Yield for Heterotrophs (
), decay coefficient for Heterotrophs(
) in aerobic digestion reactor were determined to seize sludge reduction mechanism and compared with typical data of activated sludge process. Then SRT in aerobic digestion reactor was determined on an experimental basis and sludge reduction efficiency was calculated. The process was implemented successfully with sludge reduction efficiency of 92.0~98.5% on a basis of biomass.
Total Coliforms and Fecal Coliforms as Microbial Indicators of Waterborne Enteric Viruses in Korean Surface Water
Lee, Gyucheol ; Lee, Heesuk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 6, 2006, Pages 885~892
In order to investigate whether or not Total Coliforms (T.C.) and Fecal Coliforms (F.C.) are compatible as indicator microorganisms of waterbome enteric viruses, a total of 192 surface water samples from 24 locations in Korea were tested for T.C., F.C., and human enteric viruses from July 2003 to January 2006. Altogether, the number of T.C. in each samples was ranged from
colony forming unit(CFU)/100mL, and the number of F.C. ranged from
per sample. Thirty-three percent of the samples tested positive for human enteric viruses after the total culturable virus assay. The results of the statistical analysis showed that T.C. and F.C. had a significant correlation with turbidity and temperature, but the waterbome enteric viruses did not. When compared to the number of T.C. or F.C. per sample, the concentration of waterbome enteric viruses was not found to be correlated. In conclusion, it is suggested that T.C. and F.C. may not be sufficient microbial indicators of waterbome enteric viruses in the samples analyzed in this study. However, further research is needed to find other microbial indicators of waterbome enteric viruses and to develop more advanced and sensitive methods to detect waterborne enteric viruses.
Improvement of the Biosensor for Detection of Endocrine Disruptors by Combination of Human Estrogen Receptorα and Co-Activator
Lee, Haeng-Seog ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 6, 2006, Pages 893~904
To improve sensitivity of biosensor as yeast two-hybrid detection system for estrogenic activity of suspected chemicals, we tested effects of several combinations of the bait and fish components in the two-hybrid system on Saccharomyces cerevisiae inducted a chromosome-integrated lacZ reporter gene that was under the control of CYC1 promoter and the upstream Gal4p-binding element
. The bait components that were fused with the Gal4p DNA binding domain are full-length human estrogen receptor
and its ligand-binding domain. The fish components that were fused with the Gal4p transcriptional activation domain were nuclear receptor-binding domains of co-activators SRC1 and TIF2. We found that the combination of the full-length human estrogen receptor
with the nuclear receptor-binding domain of co-activator SRC1 was most effective for the estrogen-dependent induction of reporter activity among the two-hybrid systems so far reported. The relative strength of transcriptional activation by representative natural and xenobiotic chemicals was well correlated with their estrogenic potency that had been reported with other assay systems.
Evaluation of Bromate Formation Pathway by Ozonation in Domestic Raw Waters
Lee, Kyung-Hyuk ; Lim, Jae-Lim ; Park, Sang-Yeon ; Kim, Seong-Su ; Kang, Joon-Wun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 6, 2006, Pages 905~910
In order to evaluate the optimum operation condition of ozonation to minimize bromate formation, based on the NOM characteristics of raw waters, the pathway of bromate formation by ozonation in domestic raw waters was investigated. Considering the bromate formation reactions, the fractions of bromate formation from bromide by OH radical and molecular ozone were calculated with measured values of ozone decay rate (
) and Rct. The results showed that molecular ozone is more important role in the formation of bromate in domestic raw waters than OH radical. The ratio of bromide oxidation reaction by molecular ozone ranged 73~88%. Fractions of
reaction with both molecular ozone and OH radical were also determined. OH radical reaction with
was dominant. The differential equations based on the stoichiometry of bromate formation were established to predict the formation rate of bromate by ozonation. The results shows good correlation with experimental results.
Case Study on Remodeling Outlet Structure within a Sedimentation Basin for Improving Performance
Kim, Seong-Su ; Park, No-Suk ; Moon, Yong-Taik ; Lee, Sun-Ju ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 6, 2006, Pages 911~918
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the launder type on settling performance and hydrodynamic behavior within the two certain full-scale sedimentation basins (each flow rate/one basin;
); one is the transverse typed launder(existing basin) and the other is building the finger type launder in combination with the longitudinal baffle. Comparative experimental investigations have been carried out through residual turbidity and particle concentration measurements in each effluent from two basins with the transverse and the finger type launders, respectively. From the experimental results, we could observe that turbidity removal rate in the finger type launder basin (modified basin) is about 30% higher than that in the transverse type launder basin (existing basin). Also, from the measurement of total particle concentration in each effluent, the removal efficiency was improved about 27% within modified basin compared to the existing basin. In order to explain the comparative experimental results and investigate the hydridynamic behavior within each basin in more detail, we conducted computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation and verified simulation results with acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) technique. From the CFD simulation, it was investigated that extreme upward flow occurs underneath of the transverse launder. On the other hand, in the case of modified basin, the upward flow, which occurred in the beneath of launder, was much less than that in the existing basins.
The Environmental Impact Assessment for Sustainable Urban Infrastructure Construction - A Case Study on Wastewater Treatment Plant, Sewerage System and Tailrace -
Park, Kwang-Ho ; Kim, Chang-Hee ; Hwang, Yong-Woo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 20, issue 6, 2006, Pages 919~926
In this study, environmental impact assessments of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), sewerage system, and tailrace were performed using LCA methodology. The life cycle stages were divided into 3 categories; construction stage, maintenance stage and demolition & disposal stage. As a tool of impact assessment, Ecoindicator99 containing fate analysis, exposure & effect analysis and damage analysis, was used. As tile results of WWTP LCA, more than 80% of environmental impact was produced from maintenance stage. On the other hand, most of environmental impact was produced from construction stage in the case of tailrace and sewerage system construction.