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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 21, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
Long-Term Runoff Simulation in Consideration of Snow Pack and Snow Melt
Kim, Dae-Geun ; Jeong, Jae-Ung ; Park, Jae-Hyun ; Park, Chang-Geun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 3, 2007, Pages 265~272
This study uses the SWAT model to analyze the characteristics of long-term runoff at the Ssang-cheon Basin located in the city of Sokcho, which is located in the province of Gangwon. The study considers the effect of snow packing and snow melting in a runoff simulation. In this simulation, the study examines the need to introduce a snow pack and snow melt model to evaluate the water resources of the mountainous region of the Gangwon province. The findings of this study indicate that the runoff hydrograph that was produced approximates the true measured flow when the effect of the snow pack and snow melt are considered, compared to when they are not factored in. The analysis of the flow duration curve indicates that the stream flow largely increases when the effect of the snow pack and snow melt are considered. The wet stream flow was shown to increase by nearly 3% due to the melting effect, while the normal stream flow, low stream flow and drought stream flow were shown to increase by slightly more than 10%. Specifically, it was found that as the stream flow decreases, the effect of the snow pack and snow melt on the stream flow increases.
A Study on the Phosphorus Resources Recovery using the MAP + PACT
Kim, Dong-Ha ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 3, 2007, Pages 273~278
Modern society has moved from a phosphorus recycling loop, where animal manure and human wastes were spread on farming land to recycle nutrients, to a once-through system, where phosphates are extracted from mined, non-renewable phosphate rock and end up either in landfill(sewage sludge, incinerator ash) or in surface waters. In this research, crystallization of nitrogen and phosphate with natural sources of Mg2+ in synthetic water was tested. The operational parameters of pH, mixing time, and the magnesium molar ratio were investigated to find optimal conditions of the MAP precipitation using synthetic wastewater. The removal efficiency of phosphate increased with pH up to 11. By MAP precipitaiton of the synthetic waste water, 94% of the phosphate were eliminated at pH 11. It was found that at least 10 minutes mixing time was required and 20 minutes mixing time was recommended for efficient phosphate removal. High efficiency removal of phosphate was possible when the magnesium molar ratio was 1.0 ~ 2.0. The comparative study of different magnesium sources showed that coagulants(PAC) was the more efficient sources than only magnesium. The result showed that 97% of phosphate removal. In conclusion, coagulants(PAC) induced crystallization of struvite and hydroxyapatite was shown to be a technically viable process that could prove cost effective for removing phosphate in wastewater.
Biological Toxicity Evaluation of Heavy Metal using Oxygen Uptake Rate on Activated Sludge Process
Ahn, Woo-Jung ; Baek, Seung-Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 3, 2007, Pages 279~285
Toxicity evaluations using oxygen uptake rate(OUR) on activated sludge process were investigated. On toxicity evaluations of heavy metals, all toxicants in experiments decreased OUR with respect to the concentrations of the toxicants, while high toxicities with cyanide and mercury were observed respectively. On toxicity evaluations of composite heavy metals, composite toxicities had similar results as to the total sum of each toxicants that presents accurate toxicity evaluation using OUR. From these results, it is concluded that activated sludge is effective indicator for toxicity evaluation on wastewater of biological treatment plants.
Analysis of Gradually Varied Flow Considering Relative Depth in Circular Pipe
Kim, Min-Hwan ; Park, Jung-Hee ; Song, Chang-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 3, 2007, Pages 287~294
When we use the circular pipes for wastewater and storm water, we should be known the characteristics of the flow for accurate design. To elevate the design accuracy, we want to know the profile of flow. The roughness coefficient in the Manning equation is constant, but in actuality changed with the relative depth in circular pipe. This study was conducted to calculate the relative normal depth in changing the roughness coefficient (named relative roughness coefficient) with the relative depth in the analysis of gradually varied flow in the circular pipe by Newton-Raphson method. We performed the analysis of gradually varied flow using the relative normal depth and the relative roughness coefficient. We presented the 12 flow profiles with the relative depth and the relative roughness coefficient in circular pipe. The flow classification considering relative depth in circular pipe is available to analyse gradually varied flow profiles.
Estimation of Nitrifiable Nitrogen Compounds in Municipal Wastewater by Respirometry
Kim, Dong-Han ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 3, 2007, Pages 295~303
Nitrogen compounds in municipal wastewater can be divided into biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions with biodegradability. Biodegradable nitrogen compounds can be removed through biological nitrification and denitrification processes, and nonbiodegradable nitrogen compounds affect the effluent quality of biological nutrient removal processes. The amount of nitrifiable nitrogen compounds, which are the sum of ammonia and biodegradable organic nitrogen, has been estimated by respirometry. Respirometry shows good estimation of the concentration of nitrifiable nitrogen when a synthetic sample of ammonium chloride is dosed. The estimated concentration of nitrifiable nitrogen compounds in municipal wastewater is close to ammonia concentration in municipal wastewater, but it is lower than that for the synthetic sample. If nitrogen assimilated into cell synthesis of nitrifiers and heterotrophs is considered, the total amounts of nitrifiable nitrogen compounds, which are nitrified and assimilated, could be more accurately estimated. The concentration of nitrifiable nitrogen compounds, which are biodegradable, is about 31 mg N/l, and this is 119% of ammonia and 94% of total nitrogen. Ammonia, nitrate, biodegradable organic nitrogen, and nonbiodegradable nitrogen are about 79%, 1%, 15%, and 5% of the total nitrogen in municipal wastewater, respectively.
Construction of System for Water Quality Forecasting at Dalchun Using Neural Network Model
Lee, Won-Ho ; Jun, Kye-Wont ; Kim, Jin-Geuk ; Yeon, In-Sung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 3, 2007, Pages 305~314
Forecasting of water quality variation is not an easy process due to the complicated nature of various water quality factors and their interrelationships. The objective of this study is to test the applicability of neural network models to the forecasting of the water quality at Dalchun station in Han River. Input data is consist of monthly data of concentration of DO, BOD, COD, SS and river flow. And this study selected optimal neural network model through changing the number of hidden layer based on input layer(n) from n to 6n. After neural network theory is applied, the models go through training, calibration and verification. The result shows that the proposed model forecast water quality of high efficiency and developed web-based water quality forecasting system after extend model
A Characteristics of Biogas Recovery and Biodegradability of Piggery Wastewater Using Granule of Two-Phase Anaerobic Process with UASB
Oh, Sung-Mo ; Bae, Yoon-Sun ; Park, Chul-Hwi ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 3, 2007, Pages 315~322
The purpose of this study was to investigate the biodegradability and performance of organic removal and methane production rate when treating piggery wastewater using a granule of two-phase anaerobic process applied UASB. BMP test was conducted as simple means to monitor relative biodegradability of substrate and to determine methane production of an organic material.The two-phase anaerobic process is consisted of a continuous flow stirred-tank reactor (CFSTR) for the acidification phase and an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor (UASB) for the methanogenesis. The acidogenic reactor played key roles in reducing the periodically applied shock-loading and in the acidification of the influent organics. A stable maximum biogas production rate was 400mL. The methane contents ranged from 73 to 80% during the experimental period. It is known that most of the removed organic matter was converted to methane gas, and the produced biogas might be high quality for its subsequent use.
Effect of Reactivation of Activated Carbon on Adsorption of Natural Organic Matter
Hong, Seong-Ho ; Choi, Ju-Sol ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 3, 2007, Pages 323~329
There is no certain definition about advanced drinking water treatment but it is generally known as activated carbon process, membrane process or ozone process which can remove non-conventional pollutants such as taste and odor compounds, and micro-pollutants. There are more than 20 processes related to activated carbon as adsorber or biological activated carbon in Korea. The saturated carbon by pollutants can be reused by reactivation. However, the effect of reactivation on activated carbon is not well-understood in terms of changing physical properties of carbon to adsorption capacity of natural organic matter(NOM). In this study, the effects of reactivation on physical properties of activated carbon were investigated by isotherm and breakthrough of NOM. Ash content was increased from 8% to 13.3%. Iodine number is commonly used as an indicator for performance of reactivation. The iodine number was decreased about 20% after reactivating twice. The degree of reactivation can be evaluated by not only iodine number but also apparent density.
A Study on the Evaluation of Two-Phase Anaerobic Process for Public Livestock Wastewater Treatment Plant
Oh, Sung-Mo ; Kim, Moon-Ho ; Bae, Yoon-Sun ; Park, Chul-Hwi ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 3, 2007, Pages 331~339
The purpose of this study was to investigate the biodegradability and performance of organic removal and methane production rate when treating piggery wastewater using a pilot scale two-phase anaerobic system operated up to a volumetric rate of 10m3/day. The pilot scale two-phase anaerobic process is consisted of a continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CFSTR) for the acidification phase and an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor (UASB) for the methanogenesis. The acidogenic reactor played key roles in reducing the periodically applied shock-loading and in the acidification of the influent organics. The acidogenic CFSTR was operated at organic loading rates (OLR) between 1.8 and 14.4 KgCOD/m3day, and the UASB reactor was operated between 0.5 and 5.6 KgCOD/m3day. A stable maximum biogas production rate was 81m3/day and the methane conversion rate of the organic matter varied from 0.30 to 0.42L CH4/g CODremoved(0.40) at hydraulic retention time (HRT) above 3.5days. The methane contents ranged from 73 to 82% during the experimental period. It is known that most of the removed organic matter was converted to methane gas, and the produced biogas might be high quality for its subsequent use.
Evaluation on the Locations of Powdered Activated Carbon Addition for Improvement of Taste and Odor Removal in Drinking Water Supplies
Kim, Young-Il ; Lee, Sang-Jin ; Bae, Byung-Uk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 3, 2007, Pages 341~348
The efficiency of powdered activated carbon (PAC) for removing taste and odor (T&O) in drinking water supplies is dependent on the contact time, quality of mixing, and the presence of competing compounds. All of these are strongly influenced by the stage in the treatment process at which the PAC is added. In conventional water treatment plants (WTPs), PAC is commonly added into the rapid mixing basin where chemicals such as coagulants, alkaline chemicals, and chlorine, are simultaneously applied. In order to prevent interference between PAC and other water treatment chemicals, alternative locations for addition of PAC, such as at transmission pipe in the water intake tower or into a separated PAC contactor, were investigated. Whatever the location, addition of PAC apart from other water treatment chemicals was more effective for geosmin removal than simultaneous addition. Among several combinations, the sequence 'chlorine-PAC-coagulant' produced the best result with respect to geosmin removal efficiency. Consequently, when PAC has to be applied to cope with T&O problems in conventional WTPs, it is very important to prevent interference with other water treatment chemicals, such as chlorine and coagulant. Adequate contact time should also be given for adsorption of the T&O compounds onto the PAC. To satisfy these conditions, installation of a separated PAC contactor would be the superior alternative if there is space available in the WTP. If necessary, PAC could be added at transmission pipe in the water intake tower and still provide some benefit for T&O treatment.
Removal Characteristics of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs), Pharmaceutically Active Compounds (PhACs) and Personal Care Products(PCPs) by NF Membrane
Jang, Hyue-Won ; Park, Chan-Hyuk ; Honl, Seung-Kwan ; Yoon, Yeo-Min ; Jung, Jin-Young ; Chung, Yun-Chul ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 3, 2007, Pages 349~357
Reports of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), and personal care products (PCPs) have raised substantial concern in important potable drinking water quality issues. Our study investigates the removal of EDCs, PhACs, and PCPs of 10 compounds having different physico-chemical properties (e.g., molecular weight, and octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow)) by nanofiltration (NF) membranes. The rejection of micropollutants by NF membranes ranged from 93.9% to 99.9% depending on solute characteristics. A batch adsorption experiments indicated that adsorption is an important mechanism for transport/removal of relatively hydrophobic compounds, and is related to the octanol-water partition coefficient values. The transport phenomenon associated with adsorption may also depend on solution water chemistry such as pH and ionic strength influencing the pKa value of compounds. In addition, it was visually seen that the retention was somewhat higher for the larger compounds based on their molecular weight. These results suggest that the NF membrane retains many organic compounds due to both hydrophobic adsorption and size exclusion mechanisms.
Effects of Mixing Condition and Filtration Velocity on Turbidity Removal in a Contact Roughing Filter
Park, Noh-Back ; Park, Sang-Min ; Hong, Jin-Ah ; Jun, Hang-Bae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 3, 2007, Pages 359~366
Slow sand filtrations have been widely used for water treatment in small communities, however their capacity is often limited by high turbidity in the raw water. For this reason, several pre-treatment facilities were required for a slow sand filter. Turbidity removal from the highly turbid raw water was investigated in roughing filters as a pre-treatment process. The roughing filters followed by rapid mixing tank were operated in the form of a contact filtration. In several jar tests, the predetermined optimum aluminium sulfate(alum) doses for turbid water of 30 and 120 NTU were 30 and 50 mg/L, respectively. At the optimum alum dose, physically optimum parameters including G value of 220 sec-1 and rapid mixing time of 3 minutes were applied to the contact filtration system. Without addition of alum, the filtrate turbidity from the roughing filters, packed respectively with different media such as sand, porous diatomite ball and gravel, was in the range of 5～30 NTU at filtration velocities of 30 and 50 m/day. However, the application of a contact filtration to roughing filters showed stably lower filtrate turbidity below 1.0 NTU at filtration velocity of 30 m/day. Although the filtration velocity increased to 50 m/day, filtrate turbidity was still below 1.0 NTU in both single and double layer roughing filters. At influent turbidity of 120 NTU, the filtrate turbidity was over 5 NTU in the triple layer roughing filter, which shortened the filter run time. The flocs larger than 10 ㎛, formed in the rapid mixing tank, were almost captured through the roughing filter bed, while the almost flocs smaller than 10 ㎛ remained in filtrate.