Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 21, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
Diagnosis of Wastewater Treatment Processes through the Wastewater COD Fractionation and Process Simulation I : Wastewater COD Fractionation
Choi, Young-Gyun ; Chung, Tai-Hak ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 5, 2007, Pages 513~520
The simulation programs used for diagnosis and design of activated sludge process require organic fractions in municipal wastewater as the input variables. However, methods for characterizing organic fractions are still under development, and are not standardized. In this study, total COD of municipal wastewater was experimentally subdivided into readily and slowly biodegradable COD as well as soluble and particulate inert COD. The COD fractionation of the three municipal wastewater for one year shows linear relationship between each COD fraction and TCOD concentration with around 100% COD balance. This result means that the COD fraction do not vary very much with time, although the actual influent concentrations vary significantly with time and day. Therefore, the experimentally subdivided COD fractions can be utilized as wastewater specific parameters for the simulation of activated sludge processes.
Characteristics of Phenolic Wastewater Treatment using Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor in the MLE Process
Kim, Moon-Ho ; Oh, Sung-Mo ; Bae, Yoon-Sun ; Park, Chul-Hwi ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 5, 2007, Pages 521~529
Nutrient removal from synthetic wastewater was investigated using a MLE (Modified-Ludzack Ettinger)type MBBR (Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor), with different phenol (C6H5OH) concentrations, in order todetermine the inhibition effects of phenol on biological nutrient removal and the biodegradation of phenolicwastewater. The wastewater was prepared by mixing a solution of molasses with known amounts of phenol andnutrients. The experiments were conducted in a lab-scale MLE type MBBR, operated with four differentphenol concentrations (0, 67, 100 and 168mg/L) in the synthetic feed. Throughout the experiments, theratio of the phenolic COD concentration to the total COD was varied from 0 to 1. Throughout batch test, theSNR (Specific Nitrification Rate) and SDNR (Specific Denitrification Rate) were significantly influenced bychanges of the phenol concentration. Phenol was inhibitory to the nitrification/denitrification process, andshowed greater inhibition with higher initial phenol concentrations. The SNR observed with 0, 67, 100 and168mg phenol/L were very different like 10.12, 6.95, 1.51 and 0.35mg NH3-N/gMLVSS hr, respectively.Similarly, the SDNR observed at 0, 67, 100 and 168mg phenol/L were different like 0.322, 0.143, 0.049and 0.006mgN/gMLVSS day, respectively.
The Effects of Temperature, Coagulants, and Pre-chlorination on the Removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by Coagulation Process
Park, Sang-Jung ; Chung, Young-Hee ; Chung, Hyen-Mi ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 5, 2007, Pages 531~538
The effects of temperature, coagulants and pre-chlorination on the removal of turbidity and pathogenicprotozoa by coagulation process were investigated using jar test of lab scale. In room temperature (25C),protozoa were removed over 1.0log at the proper concentration range of coagulants, and up to over 2log atthe optimal concentration of coagulants. Considering the 1.5log target removal for Giardiain the processesof coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration, this results implies that the target could be satisfied. However,the removal of protozoa and turbidity was reduced, and optimal PAC concentration was narrowed in lowturbidity and cold temperature (5C). These results suggest that the drop of coagulation efficiency may beoccurred in winter if the conditions are not optimized. Despite the effect of water temperature, the relationof turbidity and protozoa removal appeared to be good. The various kinds of coagulants did not significantlyaffected for removals of turbidity and protozoa when the concentrations of Al2O3 were considered.Prechlorination did not increase or decrease the removal of turbidity and protozoa in optimum condition atroom temperature, pH 7, 15mg/L of PAC concentration.
A Study on Current Energy Consumption and Recycling at Public Wastewater Treatment Plants in Korea
Park, Seung-Ho ; Kim, Byong-Joo ; Bae, Jae-Ho ; Lee, Cheol-Mo ; Kim, Eung-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 5, 2007, Pages 539~549
To establish effective and prompt measures for energy conservation in public wastewater treatmentplants in Korea, energy consumption rates in 233 utilities in 9 provinces and 7 metropolitan cities areinvestigated and compared to the rest of the world. Mean load factor for wastewater treatment utilities is74.9% and those for influent pumps and aeration blowers are 56.2% and 61.0%, respectively. Meanelectrical energy usages as the key performance indicators are 0.243kWh/m3 for overall sewagetreatments and 2.07 kWh per unit kg BOD removal. Digester gas as one of major byproducts in the processamounts to 382,000m3/day nationwide. While major part of the digester gas is used for sludge heating,only 7.3% of the gas is utilized for electricity generation. Both efficiencies for BOD removal and digestiongas generation are considerably lower than those in USA and EU utilities due to low concentration oforganic material in influent wastewater. Such low energy regeneration, in turn, results in significantly higherenergy consumption in Korean plants, compared to that in USA and EU ones.
Evaluation of COD Solubilization and Reduction of Waste Activated Sludge by pH Control
Kim, Youn-Kwon ; Moon, Yong-Taik ; Kim, Ji-Yeon ; Seo, In-Seok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 5, 2007, Pages 551~558
From the view point of biological wastewater treatment, C/N ratio is one of the most important factor inbiological nutrient removal process. However, municipal sewage in Korea is characterized by extremely lowcontent of carbon source and relatively higher portion of N source. Accordingly, it is necessary to doseexternal carbon source in order to obtain higher degree of carbon source within the process. In this study,the effects of pH pretreatment as an alternative plan for increasing carbon source on the cell disruption andCOD solubility of waste activated sludge were conducted under well defined experimental conditions. During5 hours, the value of COD solubilization rate (SR) at pH 11.5 is approximately 4.4 times higher than thevalue of SRat pH 9.5. It is expected that the level of SCOD increased due to the result from cell disruption.However, VSS/TSS ratio was not significantly changed after 5 hours. As Alkalinity changes gradually fromless than 15, 30 and 60 meq NaOH/L, average RBCOD/SCOD fraction showed 34, 36 and 45%,respectively.
Characterization of Membrane Fouling and It`s Optimal Chemical Cleaning Method in MF Process using D dam water
Kim, Chung-H. ; Lim, Jae-L. ; Lee, Byung-G. ; Chae, Seon-H. ; Park, Min-G. ; Park, Sang-H. ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 5, 2007, Pages 559~569
The Remodelling of Hydraulic Structure in a Distribution Channel for Improving the Equality of the Flow Distribution (I): Design Using CFD Simulation
Park, No-Suk ; Kim, Seong-Su ; Park, Jong-Yoon ; Yoon, Cheol-Hwan ; Kim, Chung-Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 5, 2007, Pages 571~579
This study was conducted to qualify the equality of the flow distribution from open channel between rapidmixing basin and flocculation basins in a domestic full-scale water treatment plant, and suggest a remedyfor improving the equality. In order to evaluate the feasibility of the suggested remedy, computational fluiddynamics (CFD) technique are used, and for verifying the CFD simulation results wet tests were carried outfor the pilot scale channel based on geometric similarity. From the results of CFD simulation and wet tests,it was investigated that the modification of hydraulic structure in the distribution channel, which is to installthe longitudinal orifice baffle in flow direction, could improve the equality of the flow distribution. Also, in thecase that Froude number is relatively small (Froude number <<0.03), the open ratio of orifices on theinstalled baffle hardly affects the equality of flow distribution.
The Remodelling of Hydraulic Structure in a Distribution Channel for Improving the Equality of the Flow Distribution (II): Optimization through Wet Tests
Park, No-Suk ; Kim, Seong-Su ; Hwang, Jun-Sick ; Im, Jae-Rim ; Kim, Chung-Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 5, 2007, Pages 581~587
In order to suggest the methodology for improving the equality of flow distribution in a distribution channel, wet tests were carried out for pilot plant which was scaled down to 1/8 of full scale distribution channel being operated in domestic K_water treatment plant. The correlation between various hydraulic variables and their effects on the equality of flow distribution was evaluated through wet tests using pilot plant. From the results of wet tests, the longitudinal baffle with orifices was installed in the distribution channel, the equality of flow distribution was improved on the condition that the Froude number in pilot plant was similar with that in the full scale channel. Also, the opening ratio of the orifices on the longitudinal baffled did not have influence on the performance of the equality of flow distribution when the average flow velocity and Froud number were relatively low (Froude number ≒ 0.01). In the other hand, the performance of the equality of flow distribution was improved with increasing the opening ration of on the longitudinal baffle under conditions of relatively high average flow velocity and high Froud number(.. 0.1).Ⅲ
Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Municipal Wastewater by a Pilot-scale BNR Process
Kim, Young-Chur ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 5, 2007, Pages 589~599
This study was conducted to investigated the removal efficiency of BOD and nutrient for the treatment oflow strength municipal wastewater by a biological nutrient removal system. In this experiment, the effect ofoperating parameter including HRT of 7.0hr, BOD/TN ratios of 2.62~4.08, internal recycle of 50~300%,and return sludge of 50~100%, were studied during winter season. Efficiencies of organic matter and T-Premoval and denitrification were not significantly affected by the change of temperature in winter season.However, the specific nitrification rate and nitrification efficiency decreased at low temperature. Besides,denitrification efficiencies increased with increasing BOD/TN ratios.It was also found that the internal recycle and return sludge ratio below 50% is required for the effectivedenitrification of low strength municipal wastewater. With operating mode 4 of the optimum, the effluentBOD, T-N and T-P concentration were obtained to average 5.8, 14.6, and 0.84 mg/L, respectively.The temperature-activity coefficient (θ) of specific nitrification rate, specific denitrification rate and specificphosphorus uptake rate were obtained 1.044, 1.017, 1.028, respectively.
Prediction Models of Residual Chlorine in Sediment Basin to Control Pre-chlorination in Water Treatment Plant
Lee, Kyung-Hyuk ; Kim, Ju-Hwan ; Lim, Jae-Lim ; Chae, Seon-Ha ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 5, 2007, Pages 601~607
In order to maintain constant residual chlorine in sedimentation basin, It is necessary to develop realtime prediction model of residual chlorine considering water treatment plant data such as water qualities,weather, and plant operation conditions. Based on the operation data acquired from K water treatmentplant, prediction models of residual chlorine in sediment basin were accomplished. The input parametersapplied in the models were water temperature, turbidity, pH, conductivity, flow rate, alkalinity and pre-chlorination dosage. The multiple regression models were established with linear and non-linear model with5,448 data set. The corelation coefficient (R) for the linear and non-linear model were 0.39 and 0.374,respectively. It shows low correlation coefficient, that is, these multiple regression models can notrepresent the residual chlorine with the input parameters which varies independently with time changesrelated to weather condition. Artificial neural network models are applied with three different conditions.Input parameters are consisted of water quality data observed in water treatment process based on thestructure of auto-regressive model type, considering a time lag. The artificial neural network models havebetter ability to predict residual chlorine at sediment basin than conventional linear and nonlinear multi-regression models. The determination coefficients of each model in verification process were shown as0.742, 0.754, and 0.869, respectively. Consequently, comparing the results of each model, neuralnetwork can simulate the residual chlorine in sedimentation basin better than mathematical regressionmodels in terms of prediction performance. This results are expected to contribute into automation controlof water treatment processes.
Feasibility Study on the Conjunctive Operation of Water Transmission Systems from Multiple Source with Applying EPAnet
Ryu, Tae-Sang ; Ha, Sung-Ryong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 5, 2007, Pages 609~619
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the feasibility of conjunctive Operation between Multi-regionalwater supply networks from multiple source as a effective way to meet two conditions: to minimize theelectric cost for providing water demanded and meet the water flow rate for satisfying customers. EPAnetModel is used to calculate a hydraulic water distribution condition based on an integrated operation ofwater supply systems located in short distance. The modeling was conducted on several simulation casesincluding the individual operation by existing inter-regional water supply networks within short distance, theconjunctive operation of more than two existing networks with valve fully closed and full open constraint. As
The Foul Smelling from Sewer Pipe near Large Apartment Complexes and its Countermeasures I: Characteristics of the Foul-Smelling Sewer Pipe in Residential Areas
Lee, Jang-Hown ; Kang, Seon-Hong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 5, 2007, Pages 621~629
This study intends to investigate the characteristics of the foul smell of sewer pipes near large apartmentcomplexes as complaints about offensive odors have drastically increased in urban residential areas.Targeting apartments where people actually complained about foul orders, the study result revealed thatcomponents in the smell of the water-purifier tank of the target apartment were very similar to those ofsewage treatment plants and night soil treatment plants. Measuring components of odors inside themanagement layer of tank showed that the concentration of hydrogen sulfide was 10ppm, which isapproximately 160 times the safety standard of 0.06ppm; the concentration of mercaptan was 0.9ppm,which is about 220 times the safety standard of 0.004ppm.The source materials of foul odors were discharged outside through ducts, and those households livingnear outlets producing bad smell complain that it gets worse depending on the air pressure or winddirection and strength, and they could not even open windows. As well, these source materials were transferred by discharge pumps to public sewer pipes outside theapartment complex. While discharge pumps starts operating, they remain on the sewer pipe and then beginto spread over to roads through small openings of manholes on the road. Then, the smell offends passers-by and residents near the road, leading to a lot of complaints.The study results suggest that, among the sources of foul odors in sewer pipes of residential areas,especially those from the water-purifier tank of large apartments, hydrogen sulfide should be the maintarget for follow-up treatment.
The Foul Smelling from Sewer Pipe near Large Apartment Complexes and its Countermeasures II: The Cause for Foul Odors of Sewer Pipes in Residential Areas
Lee, Jang-Hown ; Kang, Seon-Hong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 5, 2007, Pages 631~639
This study investigated the construction and operation status of sewer pipes and water-purifier tanksnear densely populated areas like large apartment complexes, in order to find out cause for offensiveorders. The study results revealed that the main cause arose from the water-purifier tank and public sewerpipes near ordinary residential areas.First, in case of independent water-purifier tanks, the air is forced into the rotten part of large tanksnearby which should be operated in an anaerobic state, so that the tank changes into an aerobic state, ordirty water, which is returned during the sludge return process, falls on the top of the rotten tank, preventingscum from forming within the tank. Such problems cause incompletely purified water in the purifier tank tobe discharged, which in turn results in filthy water.Second, in case of public sewer pipes, deteriorated or aging pipes, or the mixture of rain water and dirtywater by mixing up combined and separated sewers system can cause foul odors in residential areas.Therefore, offensive odors in residential areas can be radically reduced through the appropriateconstruction and management of facilities including water-purifier tanks. As well, if more separate sewersare installed as part of an improvement project for public sewer pipes, complaints about foul smell can beminimized.
Hydrogen Production and Organic Removal according to Mixture Ratio of Food Wastewater and Swine Wastewater using Anaerobic Batch Reactor
Kim, Choong-Gon ; Kang, Seon-Hong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 21, issue 5, 2007, Pages 641~647
This study aims to find out optimum condition for hydrogen production and organic removal when treatingfood and swine wastewater together. For this purpose, various batch tests were conducted by changingmixture ratio from 6:4 (food wastewater:swine wastewater) to 1:9 without pretreatment process. Forhydrogen production through anaerobic fermentation, the mixture ratios of R-1 (6:4), R-2 (5:5) and R-6 (1:9)were out of pH range appropriate for hydrogen production and mixture ratios of R-3 (4:6), R-4 (3:7), and R-5(2:8) showed appropriate hydrogen production where their pH ranges were 5.1~5.5. Especially in case of R-3, it consistently maintained appropriate pH range for hydrogen production for 72hr and producedmaximum hydrogen. The characteristics of hydrogen production and cumulative hydrogen productionaccording to each mixture ratio showed that R-1, R-2 and R-6 did not produce any hydrogen, and maximumhydrogen productions of R-3, R-4 and R-5 were 593ml, 419ml and 90ml, respectively. Total cumulativehydrogen productions of R-3, R-4 and R-5 were 1690ml, 425ml and 96ml, respectively. Based on previousresults, it was concluded that, the most appropriate mixture ratio of food wastewater and swine wastewaterwas 4:6 (R-3). The experiment for COD removal rate to evaluate organic removal efficiency revealed that R-3, R-4 and R-5 showed high removal efficiencies during the highest hydrogen production amount and the highestefficiency was 41% with R-3.