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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
Selecting the target year
Simplification of ASM No. 2 using Anaerobic-Aerobic-Anoxic SBR
Kim, Shin-Geol ; Choi, In-Su ; Koo, Ja-Yong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 3~14
ASM No. 2(Activated sludge model No. 2) is very useful model to analyze the wastewater treatment which removes nitrogen and phosphorus. But, it is difficult to apply ASM No. 2 to control of wastewater treatment since it has 17 material divisions and 46 parameters. So the purpose of this study was the simplification of ASM No. 2 and the provement of simplification model. Firstly ASM No. 2 was simplified with 5 material division and three phases(Anaerobic, aerobic, anoxic phases). The simplified model was proved by R-square using track study data. As a result of provement, the values of R-square in NH4+ were 0.9815 in ASM No. 2 and 0.9250 in simplified model and in NO3- were 0.8679 in ASM No. 2 and 0.7914 in simplified model and in PO43- are 0.9745 in ASM No. 2 and 0.9187 in the simplified model when the ability to express the material variation was compared by R-square. So, the simplified model has enough ability to express the variation of NH4+, NO3- and PO43-.
Distribution of average rainfall event-depth for overflow risk-based design of detention storage basin
Kim, Dae-Geun ; Park, Sun-Jung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 15~22
This study collected the latest 30-year (1976~2005) continuous rainfall data hourly recorded at 61 meterological observatories in Korea, and the continuous rainfall data was divided into individual rainfall events. In addition, distribution charts of average rainfall event-depth were created to facilitate the application to the overflow risk-based design of detention storage basin. This study shows that 4 hour is appropriate for SST (storm separation time) to separate individual rainfall events from the continuous rainfall data, and the one-parameter exponential distribution is suitable for the frequency distribution of rainfall event depths for the domestic rainfall data. The analysis of the domestic rainfall data using SST of 4 hour showed that the individual rainfall event was 1380 to 2031 times, the average rainfall event-depth was 19.1 to 32.4mm, and ranged between 0.877 and 0.926. Distribution charts of average rainfall event-depth were created for 4hour and 6 hour of SST, respectively. The inland Gyeongsangbuk-do, Western coastal area and inland of Jeollabuk-do had relatively lower average rainfall event-depth, whereas Southern coastal area, such as Namhae, Yeosu, and Jeju-do had relatively higher average rainfall event-depth.
Analysis of Domestic Water Consumption Characteristics for Water Usage Purpose
Choi, Sun-Hee ; Son, Mi-Na ; Kim, Sang-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 23~29
Throughout the analysis of field data from water distribution system, valid parameters were determined that can be included in the water service and design plan. This study investigates water consumption patterns to understand the variation of water-demand structures utilizing the pattern analysis of domestic purpose water. Water use data were collected by a public water resources management firm in Korea, Kwater, for 140 houses monitored during three years. Flow meters were installed at the faucet for drinking water, the shower booth, the laundry machine, bathroom sink, toilet, and garden faucet. Data was filtered using multiple physically meaningful criteria to improve analysis credibility. MannKendall and Spearman’s Rho tests were used to carry out the analysis. Distinct factors of water consumption patterns can be determined for both increasing and decreasing trends of water use. Throughout the data analysis, the characterization of terms was classified and analyzed by the condition of the location of water-demand. Analysis of this data provide a physical basis for the parameter configuration of a reasonable design for a domestic waterdemand prediction model.
Evaluation of Granular Activated Carbon Process Focusing on Molar mass and size distribution of DOM
Chae, Seon H. ; Lee, Kyung H . ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 31~38
The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the variation of the molecular size distribution by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. GAC adsorption was assessed by using the rapid small-scale column test (RSSCT) and high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) was used to analyze the molecular size distribution (MSD) in the effluent of GAC column. RSSCT study suggested that GAC adsorption exhibited excellent interrelationship between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) breakthrough and MSD as function of bed volumes passed. After GAC treatment, the nonadsorbable fraction which was about 25percents of influent DOC corresponded to the hydrophilic (HPI) natural organic carbon (NOM) of NOM fractions and was composed entirely of <300 molecular weight (MW) in the HPSEC at the initial stage of the RSSCT operation. The dominant MW fraction in the source water was 1,000~5,000daltons. At the bed volumes 2,500, MW <500 of GAC treated water was risen rather than it of source water. After the bed volumes 7,300 of operation, the MW 1,000~3,000 fraction was closed to about 80percents of DOC found in the GAC influent. The Number-average molecular weight (Mn) value determined using HPSEC for the effluent of GAC column was gently increased as DOC breakthrough progress. The quotient ρ(Mw/Mn) can be used to estimate the degree of polydispersity was shown greatest value for the GAC effluent at the initial stage of the RSSCT operation.
Characteristics of Non-point Pollutant Discharge from Upper Watershed of Seomjin Dam during Rainy Season
Kwak, Dong-Heui ; Yoo, Seung-Joon ; Kim, Ji-Hoon ; Lim, Ik-Hyun ; Kwon, Ji-Young ; Chung, Paul-Gene ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 39~48
This study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of the pollutant discharge from non-point source and to estimate the unit loads of the pollutant discharge from the upper watershed of Seomjin Dam during rainy season. The upper watershed of Seomjin Dam is located in the middle of Jeonbuk province is formed two tributaries mainly. A sub-branch stream of those tributaries is Imsil stream of which flow rate is about 13% of the main stream of Seomjin reservoir normally.On the basis of measurement result in this study, the water quality of Imsil stream was fluctuated much highly than the main stream and the quantity of measured pollutant discharge was higher than the value calculated with the proportion of flow rate during dry season. On the contrary, during rainy season the mean values of flow rate and water quality were higher than the quartile according to the statistical analysis. That means rainfall influenced strongly on the water quality of the upper watershed of Seomjin reservoir. Among the several criteria of water quality, SS discharge was most sensitive to the flow rate variation of stream, which was fluctuated in proportion of rainfall, basically.It was evaluated the event mean concentration (EMC) of non-point source pollutants depending on rainfall events as well. Though the pollutant discharge unit of Imsil stream was lower than the main stream of Seomjin reservoir, the EMC value of Imsil stream was higher than the main stream of Seomjin reservoir.
Evaluation of Coagulants Dispersion in Pump Diffusion Mixer for Water Treatment
Park, Young-Oh ; Park, No-Suk ; Kim, Seong-Su ; Kim, Ki-Don ; Lim, Kyung-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 49~63
The objectives of this research were to evaluate the pressurized/the main inlet water flowrate ratio which have been used as the most important parameter for operating the pump diffusion mixer until now, to suggest the alternative operating parameter and the relating criteria if the flowrate ratio was not inadequate. For the objectives of this research, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was conducted for 21 cases of flowrate ratio in full-scaled pump diffusion mixer. From the results of CFD simulation, the local velocity gradient values were calculated in each case in order to analyze the simulation results in more detail. For verifying CFD simulation, wet test was conducted. The wet test was to measure the factual coagulant dispersion distribution at a distance of 5.4m from deflector. From both results of CFD simulation and wet test, flowrate ratio was inadequate as operating parameter or criteria, on the other hand the pressurized/the main inlet velocity ratio(dimensionless) was useful in predicting the performance of pump diffusion mixer. Also, the injected coagulant could be dispersed evenly in overall cross section on the condition that pressurized/the main inlet velocity ratio(dimensionless) is over at least 20.
Characteristics of Coagulants Distribution by the Pumping Rate in Pump Diffusion Mixer
Park, Young-Oh ; Kim, Ki-Don ; Park, No-Suk ; Lim, Jae-Lim ; Lim, Kyung-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 65~71
This research was conducted to investigate the coagulant dispersion distribution in the selected full-scale pump diffusion mixers(PDM), and to evaluate their performance through wet test experimentally. The wet tests was to measure the factual zeta-potential all over the cross section at a distance of 4.5D(D=1,200mm) from deflector in the selected PDMs on various conditions of the pressurized/the main water inlet flow-rate ratios. From the wet tests, in the case that the pressurized / the main water inlet flow rate ratio was less than 2%, the injected coagulant was distributed unevenly and dispersed locally. On the other hand, in the case of 4% the coagulant dispersion distribution was relatively even. Also, in the case of over 8%, comparing with any other condition, the injected coagulant was dispersed most equitably all over cross section.
On-line identification of the toxicological substance in the water system using Baysian technique
Jung, Ha-Kyu ; Jung, Jong-Hyuk ; Lee, Hyun-Wook ; Kwon, Won-Tae ; Kim, Sang-Gil ; Jeon, Sook-Lye ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 73~78
Water resource can be examined using biological sensors. Algae has been one of the biological sensors used to evaluate and to monitor the water pollution. The monitoring system, however, has not been used to determine what kind of the toxicological substance is in the water. It needs additional expensive chemical test to figure out the cause of the water pollution. In this study, an endeavor is made to identify the toxicant in the water using the shape of the chlorophyll fluorescence induction curve(FIC) from algae using monitoring system. Fundamental curves are obtained from the experiments with specified amount of toxicant. Baysian method is utilized to determine the unknown toxicant in the water by comparing it with the fundamental curves. The results shows that the proposed method works fairly well.
Comparition of Submerged : Pressurized Type Membrane System by DRF and Long-Term Results in MF Drinking Water Treatment
Ha, Keum-Ryul ; Kim, Kwan-Yeop ; Kim, Hyo-Sang ; Lee, Yong-Soo ; Song, June-Sup ; Kim, Chung-Hwan ; Yeom, Ick-Tae ; Lee, Yong-Hoon ; Kim, Hyung-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 79~86
In Korea, most of the drinking water treatment relied upon the availability of the surface water, of which the raw water quality varied significantly by season and location. Therefore, the comparison of two operation modes (Pressurized type and Submerged type membrane system) must be estimated before the long-term establishment of two systems. In this study, two pilot-scale microfiltration systems with the capacity of 50㎥/day were installed and operated in two different modes, and the applicability of the system was determined based on the results such as the TMP (Trans-Membrane Pressure) and flux. For quantitatively comparing the two systems, a new concept, DRF (Differential Resistance Fraction) was introduced. The accumulated sum of the permeate after each cycle of chemical cleaning was also used as a tool for the system comparison.
Operational Performance of Submerged Membrane Bioreactor Combined with Periodic Chemical Backwash
Kim, Kwan-Yeop ; Lee, Eui-Jong ; Song, June-Sup ; Kim, Ji-Hoon ; Kim, Hyung-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 87~92
Purposes of this study were to evaluate operational performance of submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) combined with periodic chemical backwash. Five lab-scale submerged MBRs were performed in accordance with NaOH dose, backwash solution volume. While filtration resistance of MBR system without backwash (Control) was increased persistently from startup, those of four MBR systems (RUN 1-4) with chemical backwash were maintained at (1.4±0.16)×1012, (8.6±0.90)×1011, (1.9±0.10)×1012, (1.4±0.10)×1012 1/m, respectively. Under chemical backwash condition of 0.0230 M, 375 mL, permeability of membrane was highest at flux of 30 L/m2/hr. According to results from experiment that changing condition of dose and volume, it was estimated that effect of chemical dose acts more greatly than backwash solution volume. Because COD removal rates of all MBR systems with chemical backwash were more than 96%, it was proved that NaOH added to backwash solution did not affect microorganism.
Hydraulics and water quality characteristics of flushing in distribution pipes
Ahn, Jae-Chan ; Lee, Su-Won ; Baek, Kwang-In ; Choi, Young-June ; Choi, Jae-Ho ; Jeong, Eui-Sun ; Park, Hyeon ; Koo, Ja-Yong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 93~103
This study was conducted to optimize a unidirectional flushing program in distribution pipes by analysis of water pressure, velocity, quality, and other parameters during flushing. As a result, correlation coefficient between flushed pipe length and the flushing duration was obtained R2 = 0.83 and the equation YTime = 0.0571XPipe length ＋ 4.7648 for 10 pipes. The averaged flushing velocity in the pipes, 1.1 m/s, was enough to remove loose deposits on the inner wall of the pipes. 3 of 92 water samples taken during flushing met the National Drinking Water Quality Standard for Fe and Mn, but not for Al. Turbidity less than 1 NTU is suggested for the appropriate criteria to finish flushing in pipes. The coefficient of determination (R2) between turbidity and TSS was 0.95 and the equation was induced as YTSS = 1.2068XTurbidity. The amount of removed deposits could be estimated from the turbidity data of discharged water in field because turbidity and TSS in the discharged water is highly correlated.
Internal Short-circuiting Estimation in Clearwell : Part A. Improving
Using Intra Basin and Diffuser Wall by Applying ISEM to Field
Shin, Eun-Her ; Lee, Seung-Jae ; Kim, Sung-Hoon ; Park, Hee-Kyung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 105~112
Disinfection is a basic and effective microorganism inactivation method and historically contributed a decrease in waterborne diseases. To guarantee the disinfection ability, improving T in CT value is important. Many indexes are used to estimate the hydraulic efficiency, however, these are black-box analysis. Therefore it is need to develope new estimation method. In this study, internal short-circuiting estimation method (ISEM) is developed using CFD and we inquire into the factor which causes increase of T10/T value as LW ratio increases. And the effect of shape on the relation of LW ratio and T10/T is analyzed. As LW ratio increases, internal short-circuiting index (ISI) of influent and effluent zone is rapidly reduced and recirculation and dead zone are reduced in channel zone. Therefore, as the T10/T value converges maximum value, ISI curve is changed from "V" shape to "U" shape and hydraulic efficiency is improved especially in downstream portion of clearwell. The less the shape ratio(width/length of clearwell) is the less the T10/T value is at a same LW ratio because the portion of turning zone increases as shape ration decreases, therefore more boundary separation is generated.
Internal Short-circuiting Estimation in Clearwell : Part B. Improving
Using Intra Basin and Diffuser Wall by Applying ISEM to Field
Shin, Eun-Her ; Lee, Seung-Jae ; Kim, Sung-Hoon ; Park, Hee-Kyung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 113~120
A large majority of clearwell must be modified with maintaining the present baffles since they were underground built with the material like concrete. Therefore it is unreasonable to apply the previous research in clearwell modification which is studied with the assumption that distance between baffles is constant. In this study, internal short-circuiting estimation method (ISEM), which has the advantage of being applied at any condition, is applied to evaluate modification of A clearwell and modify B and C clerwell which have unusual characteristics. After analyzing the hydraulic efficiency at current state, modifications, where baffles, intra basins and diffuser walls are additionally installed, are considered and evaluate using ISEM. And the effect of intra basin and diffuser wall on T10/T is estimated and application feasibility of ISEM is evaluated. The improvement of intra basins is almost same with that of baffles. Also, short-circuiting in effluent zone can be reduced with the same level of channel zone if intra basin is added in effluent zone. However, effect range is restricted to the next channel zone. Diffuser wall can obtain the lower ISI than minimum ISI of cases where baffles and intra basins are installed. Therefore, additional improvement of T10/T value can be expected after T10/T value converges maximum only using baffles
Comparative Analysis of QUAL2E. QUAL2K and CAP Steady State Water Quality Modeling Results in Downstream Areas of the Geum River, Korea
Seo, Dong-Il ; Yun, Jong-Uk ; Lee, Jae-Woon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 121~129
Major factors affecting water quality in rivers are transportation, input of pollutant loads and kinetic transformation of pollutants. Government level decision makings on water quality management are based on steady state water quality modeling. However, it is more than often that a such steady state assumption is far from real situations in rivers. Therefore, it is unavoidable to have modeling errors in water quality modeling especially for steady state modeling for longer period of time. Authors attempted to identify sources of errors in results of steady state models and thus tried to find out ways to minimize those errors. Three water quality models, QUAL2E (Brown et al., 1983), QUAL2K (Chapra et al., 2006) and CAP (Seo and Lee, 2000) were applied to the lower stream of the Geum River in this study. In general, BOD5 and COD tend to underestimate observed data while TN and TP showed relatively smaller errors. QUAL2E model provided best calibration results for BOD5 and TP and QUAL2K model showed best calibration results for TN. Since these errors are only relative values, it was difficult to conclude which model is better performing in certain situations. The most probable reasons for errors in water quality modeling are; 1) inappropriate consideration on flow characteristics, 2) lack of information on incoming pollutant load and 3) inappropriate location of sampling for water quality analysis.
Effects of magnetic ion exchange resin with PACT coagulation on removal of natural organic matter and MF fouling
Choi, Yang-Hun ; Jeong, Young-Mi ; Kim, Young-Sam ; Lee, Seung-Ryul ; Kweon, Ji-Hyang ; Kwon, Soon-Buhm ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 131~140
The application of magnetic ion exchange resin(MIEX) is effective for natural organic matter(NOM) removal and for control of the formation of disinfection byproducts(DBPs). NOM removal is also enhanced by adding MIEX with coagulant such as polyaluminium chloride(PACl) in conventional drinking water treatment systems. In the application of MIEX, it is important to understand changes of NOM characteristics such as hydrophobicity and molecular weight distributions with MIEX or MIEX+coagulant treatment.To observe characteristics of NOM by treatment with MIEX or MIEX+coagulant, four major drinking water sources were employed. Results showed that the addition of MIEX to coagulation significantly reduced the amount of coagulant required for the optimum removal of dissolved organic matter(DOC) and turbidity in the all four waters. The DOC removal was also increased approximately 20%, compared to coagulant treatment alone. The process with MIEX and coagulant showed that complementary removal of hydrophobic and hydrophilic fraction of DOC. The combined processes preferentially removed the fractions of intermediate (3,000-10,000 Da) and low (< 500 Da) molecular weight. The microfiltration test showed that membrane cake resistance was decreased for waters with flocs from MIEX+coagulant. A porous layer was formed to MIEX on the membrane surface and the layer consequently inhibited settling of coagulant flocs, which could act on a foulant.
Effect of powder activated carbon replacement on HCPAC-MBR system operation
Lee, Chae-Ha ; Kim, Jin-Tae ; Lee, Jung-Hyun ; Seo, Gyu-Tae ; Kim, In S. ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 141~148
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of PAC(Powder Activated Carbon) retention time on stable operation of high concentration powered activated carbon(HCPAC-MBR) in the treatment of secondary domestic wastewater. The pilot scale HCPAC-MBR system was operated at two different SRTs, 25 days and 100 days. The main drawback of HCPAC-MBR system was the rapid increase of trans-membrane pressure. The increase rate of trans-membrane pressure was proportional to SRT value at constant flux. This result seemed to be caused by reduced amount of EPS adsorbed on the PAC in the reactor by decreasing the SRT of the PAC. The particle size of the PAC was also influenced by SRT. The PAC size was decreased as SRT was increased. The change of particle size could be one reason for the change of trans-membrane pressure. The pore volume in the cake-layer formed on the membrane surface became to be increased by reducing SRT, because the cake-layer was highly composed of the PAC. Therefore, increased pore volume might play a role to reduce the trans-membrane pressure. The removal rate of E260 and TOC was also inversely proportional to SRT value.
Search Method for Optimal Valve Setting and Location to Reduce Leakage in Water Distribution Networks
Choi, Jong-Sub ; Kala, Vairavamoorthy ; Ahn, Hyo-Won ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 149~157
The reduction of leakage is a major issue of the South Korea water industry. The inclusion of pressure dependent leakage terms in network analysis allows the application of optimization techniques to identify the most effective means of reducing water leakage in distribution networks. This paper proposes a method to find optimal setting and location of control valve for reducing leakage efficiently. The proposed search method differs from previous methods for addressing optimal valve location problem and improves the GA simulation time with guaranteeing for getting the global optimal solution. The strength of this method has been demonstrated by means of case studies. This allows the procedure of optimization to be more robust and computational efficient.
Effect of Dry Deposition on Water Quality : The comparison of several methodologies for estimating dry deposition flux
Cheong, Jang-Pyo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 159~168
A special field experiment has been carried out from March 2001 to June 2001 at the Changhowon in Kyunggi to investigate a better methodology for the estimation of dry deposition of pollutions applicable in Korea. In this study, dry deposition plate was used to measure of total and water soluble acidic mass fluxes, and CPRI(Coarse Particle Rotary Impactor), CI(Cascade Impactor) were also used to measure ambient concentrations in various particle size ranges. Sehmel-Hodgson model was used to estimate dry depostion velocity and Weibull probability distribution function was applied to get generalized particle size distribution for the size fractioned concentration data sampled by CPRI and CI.Atmospheric dry deposition fluxes of mass and ionic matters estimated by the various techniques(one-step, multi-step, equi-concentration, subdivision for only the coarse particle range, applying Weibull distribution function, etc.) were compared to flux data sampled by DDP. It was found out that the deposition fluxes estimation methodology calculated by the each particle size range devided by particle size distribution characteristics and the rapidly changed points of deposition velocity using Weibull probability distribution function was the most applicable.
Characteristics of water quality and extra-cellular polymeric substances in trickling filter system using plastic fiber media
Dockko, Seok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 169~174
In this study a trickling filter system was developed by using polypropylene media and polypropylene nylon media that has recently been developed. The experiment analyzed an ability of water purification of the two plastic media and the effects of biomass on the final effluent. As recycling ratio increases, polypropylene nylon suspender showed higher efficiency by 20%; and, when media height was lengthened two times, efficiency increased about 10%. EPS and biomass increased in proportion to the increase of recycling ratio, and bound-TOC showed a similar trend with bound-EPS (extra-cellular polymeric substances) concentration.