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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
Selecting the target year
Effect of cake resistance by first-aggregation of in-line injection system
KIM, Tae-Young ; PARK, Hee-Kyung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 281~288
Cake resistance is influenced by floc size deposited on membrane surface. Enlarging floc size can reduce cake resistance. The small particles are enlarged by coagulation and flocculation process in conventional mixing tank at membrane filtration system. Fully-grown flocs for reducing the cake resistance, however, are ruptured while passing through a pump. In light of this fact, this study aims to experimentally look at the reaggregation phenomenon of mixing system. In addition, reaggregation phenomenon of mixing system is compared with first-aggregation of in-line injection system in which coagulant is injected just before a pump. These results suggest that first-aggregation of in-line injection system is better than reaggregation of mixing system for G-value above 3100sec-1. Since G-value in pipe of actual membrane filtration system are usually larger than 3100sec-1. The performance of in-line injection system is expected to be better than the conventional mixing tank system.
Analysis and effectiveness of biological thin Layer (Schmutzdecke) on the sand surface in slow sand filtration processes
Kim, Seong-Su ; Park, No-Suk ; Kim, Chung-Hwan ; Park, Jong-Keun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 289~298
Because of their simplicity, efficiency, and economy, slow sand filters are appropriate means of water treatment for smallwater systems. Biological activity within the sand bed have the strongest influence on removal efficiency of pollutants by slowsand filtration. This report investigated the microorganisms(algae) of slow sand filtration pilot plant at Y water treatment plant.Data were collected at inflow and slow sand filtration from May to October, 2007. The results indicated that the light exposurewas influenced on microorganism in slow sand filtration according to the formation of algal biofilm. The relative contribution of biomass and accumulated particulates to head loss development in slow sand filters requiresfurther study.
Hydrogen and Methane Production from Mixture of Food Wastewater and Swine Wastewater using Two-Phase Anaerobic Process
Kim, Choong-Gon ; Kang, Seon-Hong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 299~306
This study has been conducted to derive the bio-energy, hydrogen and methane production, from mixture of food wastewater and swine wastewater, the high strength organic wastewater and to increase effluent quality.To overcome this limitation in one-phase anaerobic process, two-phase anaerobic process combining hydrogen fermenter and methane fermenter was applied. In this system 2,323 ml H2/L was produced daily from Run II where 500 ml of heat-treated sludge in methane fermenter was injected, and methane produced from methane fermenter did not show big difference regardless of the amount of returning sludge at each Run. It was concluded that the two-phase anaerobic process was the appropriate process to produce hydrogen and methane simultaneously and stably. Influent TCODcr to two-phase anaerobic process showed the range of 132∼145 g/L(average 140 g/L), and effluent TCODcr range was 25∼40 g/L(average 32 g/L), and organic removal efficiency showed 71∼82%(average 76.3%).
The removal of Nitrate-nitrogen from ground water by electrodialysis
Min, Ji-Hee ; Kim, Han-Seung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 307~314
In this study, the effects of applied voltage, solution pH and coexistence of other ions such as sulfate ion (SO42-) and chlorideion (Cl-) were investigated on the removal of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) from ground water by electrodialysis. The examinedoperating conditions were evaluated for optimizing the removal efficiency of NO3--N. Real ground water samples taken from arural area of Yongin city and artificial ones with components similar to the real ground water were tested for the study, whichcontained NO3--N concentration of 17mg/L that exceeds current drinking water quality standard of 10 mg/L. The increase in theremoval rate of NO3--N was observed as the applied voltage increased from 5V to 30V, while no significant increase in theremoval rate appeared at the applied voltage beyond 20V during a given operating time. The removal rate appeared to getlower at both acidic and basic condition, compared to neutral pH. Coexistence of of SO42-and Cl-demanded much longeroperating time to achieve a given removal rate or to meet a certain level of treated water concentration. When nitrate ion wascombined with SO42-and Cl-, the removal rate was reduced by 4.29% and 10.83%, respectively.
Evaluation of the qualities of rainwater collected from the top of vinyl house : A Case Study in Jeju Island
Lee, Bong-Joo ; Moon, Sang-Ho ; Kim, Yong-Cheol ; Kim, Gee-Pyo ; Kang, Bong-Rae ; Koh, Gi-Won ; Park, Ki-Hwa ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 315~322
Recently there has been a great deal of interest in promotion of the utilization of rainwater. In this paper, we comparedqualities of the rainwater collected from the top of vinyl houses to those of precipitated rainwater itself in Jeju Island. The pH ofthe collected rainwater was acidic and lower than the precipitated one. As a storm progresses, the pH of the collected watergradually increases. Ranges of EC of the precipitated and collected rainwater were 1-118 and 1-475 μS/cm. Most of Cl andturbidity values of the collected rainwater were less than 20 mg/L and 20 NTU, while those of the precipitated rainwater wereless than 10 mg/L and 5 NTU. Differences in qualities between precipitated and collected rainwater indicate that qualities of thecollected rainwater should be changed by the first flush effects, and imply that long term continuous monitoring for thequalities of collected rainwater is essential to quantify the first flush phenomenon more accurately.
Full-scale Case Study on the Relationship between Surface Characteristics of GAC and TOC Removal
Baek, Young-Ae ; Joe, Woo-Hyun ; Hong, Byung-Eui ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ; Choi, Young-June ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 323~328
During the full-scale water treatment operation at "G" Water Treatment Plant in Seoul, we investigated changes in pore volume distribution and specific surface area of GAC with time. The pore volume of the used GAC decreased to the level below 0.6 cc/g while that of the brand new GAC was ranged 0.7～0.9 cc/g. The specific surface area of GAC pores changed within the range between 1100～1200 m2/g and 700～800 m2/g. Bacteria attached to the surface of GAC shows a gradual increase (0.4x106～8.5x106 CFU/g) under scanninig electron microscope (SEM). TOC removal was enhanced due to growth of the attached bacteria on GAC. It was found that TOC removal was closely related with physical parameters (pore volume, specific surface area) linearly under the investigated conditions. The used GAC need to be exchanged into new one or re-generated to remove organic matters (TOC) effectively from the finished drinking water.
A Pilot Study on Air Flotation Processes for Retrofitting of Conventional Wastewater Treatment Facilities
Park, Chan-Hyuk ; Hong, Seok-Won ; Lee, Sang-Hyup ; Choi, Yong-Su ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 329~336
The pilot study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of air flotation(AF) processes combined with biological nutrient removal(BNR) for the retrofitting of conventional wastewater treatment facilities. The BNR system was operated in pre-denitrification and intermittent aeration; developed ceramic membrane diffusers were installed to separate the solid-liquid of activated sludge at the bottom of a flotation tank. Before performing a pilot scale study, the size distribution of microbubbles generated by silica or alumina-based ceramic membrane diffusers was tested to identify the ability of solid-liquid separation. According to the experimental results, the separation and thickening efficiency of the alumina-based ceramic membrane diffuser was higher than the silica-based ceramic membrane diffuser. In a 100m3/d pilot plant, thickened and return sludge concentration was measured to be higher than 15,000mg SS/L, therefore, the MLSS in the bioreactor was maintained at over 3,000mg SS/L. The effluent quality of the AF-BNR process was 4.2mg/L, 3.7mg/L, 10.6mg/L and 1.6mg/L for BOD5, SS, T-N and T-P, respectively. Lastly, it was revealed that the unit treatment cost by flotation process is lower than about 1won/m3 compared to a gravity sedimentation process.
An analyze of oversea desalination plant order result
Sohn, Jin-Sik ; Yang, Jeong-Seok ; Lee, Sun-Jae ; Jang, Jin-Koo ; Lim, Jae-Han ; Kim, Dong-Ha ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 337~342
A population growth and industry advances are increasing the demand for water while improving the quality of life. By turning seawater into freshwater it is an alternative for the water shortage problem.The study analyzes the orders and makes suggestions on the outlook of an enterprise that can supply desalination plants both inside and outside the country. It compares the production capacity of enterprises in the desalination industry who deal with the thermal and RO methods. We compare 7 enterprises in the thermal method which includes Doosan Heavy Industries, and the top 10 enterprises in the RO method which includes General Electric Corp. Now that the markets in the Middle East have opened and markets in other regions are gradually growing, demand for water will grow especially in developing countries that are in the process of industrialization. Also, the market share of thermal method desalination has been falling, gradually, because too much energy is spent during the process. On the other hand, the market share of the RO method will rise from 37% in 2005 to 57% in 2015. Recently, the desalination market shows that changing from thermal method to RO method is the trend in the Middle East. Growth and demand in other regions are growing at the same pace as the Middle East. Due to this trend, if the RO system, which is highly effective and uses less energy, were to be continuously developed it would be possible to supply water using sea water and would be a viable alternative water resource.
Patents Review on the Seawater Desalination Plant and Technology Using Reverse Osmosis Membrane Process
Cho, Jin-Woo ; Han, Ji-Hee ; Lee, Seock-Heon ; Sohn, Jin-Sik ; Yang, Jeong-Seok ; Kim, Dong-Ha ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 343~350
Many reports have warned of insufficient water supply in most countries in future and prospected providing safe and clean water become more difficult by lack of access to sustainable drinking water resources. Several facts and figures explained the impact by natural climate change and human activity results in the water scarcity and deterioration. Among many scientific solutions, the seawater desalination using a reverse osmosis membrane, so called SWRO (Seawater Reverse Osmosis) process, has been recognized as one of the most promising alternatives because of its stability and efficiency in producing large amount of drinking water from seawater through desalination by membrane filtration. Recently, in Korea, numerous researches are conducted to develop more productive and cost effective SWRO process for its wide implementation. The objective of this paper is to review the patents concerning SWRO technologies involving the plant engineering, maintenance including pretreatment of seawater and fouling control, module design, and mechanical units development for energy saving. The patents in Korea, U.S., Japan, Europe, and PCT were intensively researched and analyzed to provide the state of the art as well as leading edge technology on SWRO. This information can hopefully suggest meaningful guidelines on future research and development.
Evaluation of Flow Characteristics within In-Line Mixer for Water Treatment using CFD Technique
Park, Dae-Jin ; Park, Young-Oh ; Park, No-Suk ; Kim, Seong-Su ; Wang, Chang-Kuen ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 351~358
The modified in-line mixer which was suggested in this study for small water treatment facilities was evaluated on the performance of coagulation. For the objectives of this research, computational fluid dynamics(CFD) simulation was applied for analysis of flow characteristics within the modified in-line mixer. For verifying the results of CFD simulation, wet tests for the pilot plant were conducted. The wet test was to measure the actual coagulant dispersion distribution on the overall cross-section at a distance of 5.5D from the chemical injection point. From the results of CFD simulation and wet test, it was shown that the coagulant dispersion within the modified in-line mixer was occurred more uniformly than within the existing PDM(Pump diffusion Mixer). The results have confirmed the modified in-line mixer had several advantages compared with the existing PDM in terms of dispersion efficiency.
Solid Separation and Flotation Characteristics of Livestock Wastewater Using DAF Process
Kang, Byong-Jun ; Yoo, Seung-Joon ; Lee, Se-il ; Kwak, Dong-Heui ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 359~366
The series of experiments under the various conditions were carried out to evaluate the feasibility of dissolved air flotation (DAF) as an alternative of conventional gravity sedimentation (CGS) and to investigate the decrease of the loadings following to biological wastewater treatment processes in livestock wastewater system.On the basis of the experiment result between CGS and DAF processes, for the other water quality criteria as well as suspended solid the removal efficiency of DAF process was about 20∽25 % better than CGS process on average. In addition, the particle removal efficiency of DAF process became higher in proportion as the increase of air to solid (A/S) ratio and the general wastewater treatment efficiency of DAF process was enough to meet the requirement of loading decrease to following biological process even at low A/S ratio range. Though DAF process is widely known as an solid separation unit, there was not the notable relationship between particle separation efficiency and several pollutant removal efficiencies like CODCr and nutrients (T-N, T-P). Assume that the CODCr was removed as the fraction of particle separation in this experiment, the removal efficiency of T-N and T-P were sensitive to removal efficiency of CODCr, especially.
A study on Applicable to Advanced treatment of using Side Stream Plug-Flow Reactor
Kim, sam-Ju ; Hyun, In-Hwan ; Dockko, Suk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 367~372
This study configured the conventional A2O (Anaerobic-Anoxic-Aerobic bioreactor) system which the fixed media immersed into the anoxic reactor(Named PFR system : Plug Flow Reactor) for evaluating the removal efficiency of nitrogen in the wastewater. The experimental equipment was a cylinder which was consist of 4 pleated PE Pipes(Length 330M, Diameter 100mm) including 2 rope shape media.As a result, the average effluent T-N removal efficiency of the conventional A2O system was 17.9, 40.3, 50.6, 44.6% in each mode, but the average effluent T-N removal efficiency of the PFR system could achieve 38.8, 57.1, 71.8, 65.4% in each mode. It indicated that the PFR system caused to the increasing of C/N ratio that effected to the increasing of the denitrification efficiency. Not only the effective T-N removal efficiency but also the controllable install space will give advantages for retrofitting of the wastewater treatment plant with the conventional treatment system to the PFR system.
Corrosion Control in Water Distribution System using Lime and Carbon Dioxide(Ⅰ) - Determination of Optimum Operational Conditions in Lime Adding Process
Sohn, Byung-Young ; Byun, Kyu-Sik ; Kim, Young-Il ; Lee, Doo-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 373~378
The pH & alkalinity adjustment method by lime and carbon dioxide(CO2) for corrosion control in water distribution system was investigated to determine the optimum operational condition in lime adding process in water treatment plant(WTP). The mixing time at dissolution tank and sedimentation time at saturator for maintaining optimal turbidity condition of lime supernatant were 60∼75 minutes and 75∼95 minutes, respectively. There was no difference according to CO2 adding methods such as CO2 saturated water or CO2 gas. But, CO2 saturated water could be convenience at WTP in terms of pH control and quantitative dosing. To minimize generation of calcium carbonate products, the short time interval between adding of lime and CO2 is most important. The lime should be added below 32 mg/L for preventing pH rising and generation of calcium carbonate products at the heating condition
Corrosion Control in Water Distribution System using Lime and Carbon Dioxide(II) - Evaluation on the Characteristics of Corrosion as a Function of Pipe Material
Lee, Doo-Jin ; Kim, Young-Il ; Song, Young-Il ; Park, Hyun-A ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 379~387
The pH & alkalinity adjustment method by lime and carbon dioxide(CO2) for corrosion control in water distribution system was investigated to evaluate the corrosion characteristics of metal pipes, such as galvanized iron, copper, stainless steel, and carbon steel. When the pH in sand filtered and ozone+GAC treated water was increased with lime and CO2 from 7.5 to 8.0, the concentration of residual chlorine decreased at higher pH and longer reaction time; the concentration of trihalomethane increased. The corrosion rate of coupons with corrosion control using lime and carbon dioxide was showed much smaller than those without corrosion control using pilot-scale simulated distribution system. The galvanized iron was corroded much faster than carbon steel, copper, and stainless steel. Especially, copper and stainless steel coupons were hardly corroded. The galvanized iron and carbon steel coupons with corrosion control were produced the corrosion products less than those without corrosion control by the results of environmental scanning electron microscope(ESEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy(EDS) analyses. The galvanized iron coupon with pH and alkalinity adjustment by lime and carbon dioxide was detected about 30 percent of zinc, when the carbon steel was detected about 30 percent of calcium by calcium carbonate products formation. For the results of X-ray diffraction(XRD) analysis, the goethite(α-FeOOH) was identified as primary corrosion product of galvanized iron without corrosion control, while the Zinc oxide(ZnO) was found on corrosion products of galvanized iron coupon with corrosion control as the results of EDS analysis. However, the carbon steel corrosion products regardless of corrosion control were composed predominantly of maghemite(γ-Fe2O3) and hematite(α-Fe2O3).
A Study on Mixing Characteristics of Ocean Outfall System with Rosette Diffuser
Kim, Young-Do ; Seo, Il-Won ; Kwon, Seok-Jae ; Lyu, Si-Wan ; Kwon, Jae-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 389~396
The hybrid model can be used to predict the initial near field mixing and the far field transport of the buoyant jets, which are discharged from the submerged wastewater ocean outfall. In the near field, the jet integral model can be used for single port diffusers while the σ transformed particle tracking model was used in the far field. In this study, the experimental study was performed to verify the developed hybrid model in the previous research. The developed hybrid model properly predict the surface and vertical concentration distribution of the single buoyant jets with various effluent and ambient conditions. The hybrid model can also simulate the surface concentration distribution of the rosette diffuser except for the parallel diffuser with the higher densimetric Froude number due to the assumption that dynamic effects of the effluent plumes are negligible in the far field. The application of the hybrid model to rosette diffusers can predict the concentration near the diffuser more accurately when the line-plume approximation is used.