Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
Selecting the target year
Estimation of Sludge Reduction and Nitrogen Removal Possibility using OSA Process
Joo, Jae-Young ; Yoon, Su-Chul ; Nam, Duck-Hyun ; Park, Chul-Hwi ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 5, 2008, Pages 497~503
The Oxic-Settling-Anaerobic(OSA) process is a modified activated sludge processes for sludge reduction. It is evaluated that the sludge production in OSA process can decrease to 88% because of biomass decay and kinetic parameter(YH 0.237mgVSS/mgCOD, bH 0.195d-1) in anaerobic reactor, when compared with CAS process. However, it has problems caused by sludge reduction such as increase of nutrient loading. In case that the anoxic condition through the introduction of the intermittent aeration for the enhancement of nitrogen removal ability build up and enough rbCOD is suppled, maximum 88% of nitrogen is removed in the OSA process. If the OSA process optimizing the intermittent aeration cycle is applied to the separate sewage system with high rbCOD fraction, it can be converted to advanced process in terms of the sludge reduction and nitrogen removal, simultaneously.
Sewage sludge conditions for promoting solubilization in the ball mill treatment
Lee, Myoung-Joo ; Kim, Tae-Hyung ; Nam, Yang-Won ; Hwang, Sun-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 5, 2008, Pages 505~510
Excess sludge and raw sludge were treated by ball mill in order to promote solubilization, and it was known that the level of solubilization was higher in excess sludge rather than raw sludge. About solid concentration, with the increase of TS, the amounts of solubilization was increased. And excess sludge was solubilized more effectively with the increase of ball mill treatment time. Especially, in case of excess sludge, within 5 min of ball mill treatment, 6 times of solubilization was achieved compared with raw sludge. The effect of bead size was also tested and 1 mm bead was most desirable when applied to the TS 4% of excess sludge. Particle size decrease by the ball mill treatment was more effective in raw sludge, nevertheless the level of solubilization was always higher in excess sludge. This means that the results of particle analysis could not be understood as a indicator for sludge solubilization. Generally, excess sludge and raw sludge are mixed at the thicker in the STP, but considering a ball mill pretreatment as an alternative for sludge solubilization, it is desirable to treat not raw sludge but excess sludge alone in the aspect of solubilization yield and economical process.
Cost Evaluation for the Decision of Advanced Treatment Processes
Lee , Kyung-Hyuk ; Shin, Heung-Sup ; An , Hyo-Won ; Chae , Sun-Ha ; Lim , Jae-Lim ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 5, 2008, Pages 511~516
Since 1989, Advanced drinking water treatment processes began to build in Korea, especially the water treatment plants around the Nak-dong river stream due to sequential pollutant accidents. Moreover, Advanced drinking water treatment processes, ozone and GAC, are again to be built in water treatment plants around Han-river stream to control taste and odor, micro pollutants. However, there are still a lot of discussion to decide the processes to apply for advanced treatment. Thus there are still need to understand clearly on the cost evaluation of each advanced treatment processes. The cost evaluation was accomplished based on the data of six water treatment plants which are currently being either operating or constructing. Exceptionally, PAC(Powdered Activated Carbon) process was evaluated with cost estimation from construction company. The capital cost per unit volume of ozone process was significantly decreased as the treatment capacity increased. The capital cost was in the order of GAC, ozone and GAC. The operation cost decreased in the order of PAC, GAC and ozone. The total cost considering present value shows that ozone process covers 84% of ozone and GAC process for 30,000 m3/d capacity while it covers less than 35% for over 140 thousands m3/d capacity. Comparing GAC only, and ozone/GAC process, ozone/GAC process is more cost effective for high capacity water treatment plant.
Assesment of Powdered Activated Carbon Effect on PAC+MF Hybrid Membrane Process
Kim, Byung S. ; Wang , Chang K. ; Lim , Jae L. ; Kim, Chung H. ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 5, 2008, Pages 517~522
This study aims at an assessment of the effectiveness of taste & odor removal and transmembrane pressure changes in a pilot membrane plant(500m3/day) by adding PAC to MF process, and at providing a basis for applying it to the advanced water treatment process. The transmembrane pressure showed, in low turbidity of raw water, a tendency to decrease when PAC was injected at the Flux of 1, 1.5㎥/㎡ㆍd, while it increased in high Flux(1.5㎥/㎡ㆍd) in high turbidity of raw water. in addtion, it is shown that the fouling could be reduced more when PAC is injected together with appropriate amount of coagulant, than when PAC is solely injected. Taste & Odor-causing 2-MIB may not be detected in membrane filtered water, if the amount of PAC injection is increased in accordance with the increasing concentration of 2-MIB. Hence, PAC injection, as a pre-treatment process in MF membrane filtering, is supposed to be a suitable process for reducing fouling as well as for improvement effectiveness of taste & odor treatment.
Air stripping of odor causing materials from eutrophic lake water
Park, Noh-Back ; Song, Yong-Hyo ; Na, Gywang-Joo ; Park, Sang-Min ; Jun, Hang-Bae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 5, 2008, Pages 523~529
Algal blooms in a local eutrophic lake often produces the musty and earthy taste & odor problems. Since the odor causing compounds(OCCs) including geosmin and 2-MIB have their own volatility, the OCCs can be removed from water by air stripping methods. Removal of TON(threshold odor number) as an index for OCCs could be fitted well with the first order equations(R2=0.9 above), where the air stripping coefficient of TON, k was in the range between 0.0055 and 0.0097 according to the aeration time. k within 30min aeration tests was 0.0097, while it was 0.0055 where the aeration time extended to 150min. With 15 mg/L of PAC, removal of TON was not simulated with 1st order equation within 30min aeration. Within 30min aeration, OCCs rather than geosmin and/or 2-MIB could be removed easily by air stripping or PAC adsorption, while OCCs such as geosmin and/or 2-MIB could be removed slowly by air stripping after 30min aeration. Geosmin and 2-MIB were not readily removed by air stripping(k of them were 0.0018～0.0047 and 0.0018～0.0034, respectively at different air flow rates). Geosmin could be removed by air stripping a little better than 2-MIB.
Evaluation on Flotation Efficiency of Bubble-floc Agglomerates and Operation Characteristics of Hydraulic Loading Rate Using Population Balance in DAF Process
Kwak, Dong-Heui ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 5, 2008, Pages 531~540
The main advantage of dissolved air flotation (DAF) in water treatment process is the small dimension compared with conventional gravity sedimentation and it can be basically reduced by the separation zone performed with the short solid-liquid separation time. Fine bubbles make such a short time possible to carry out solid from liquid separation as a collector on the course of water treatment. Therefore, the dimension of separation zone in DAF process is practically determined by the rise velocity of the bubble-floc agglomerates, which is a floc attached with several bubbles. To improve flotation velocity and particle removal efficiency in DAF process, many researchers have tried to attach bubbles as much as possible to flocs. Therefore, the maximum number of attached bubble on a floc and the rise velocity of bubble-floc agglomerates considered as the most important factor to design the separation zone of flotation tank in DAF process was simulated based on the population balance theory. According to the simulation results of this study, the size and volume concentration of bubble influenced on the possible number of attached bubble on a floc. The agglomerates attached with smaller bubble was more sensitive to hydraulic loading rate in the separation zone of DAF process. For the design of a high rate DAF process applied over surface loading 40 m/hr. it is required a precise further study on the variation of bubble property and behavior including in terms of bubble size distribution.
Unit Mass Estimation and Analysis from Textile Spinning/Weaving Manufacturing Facility Nearby Nakdong River Basin
Lee, Hong-Shin ; Son, Gon-Tae ; Gu, Jung-Eun ; Konboonraksa , T. ; Lee, Hong-Tae ; Lee, Seung-Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 5, 2008, Pages 541~550
In this investigative study, the unit mass discharge for the major water quality parameters such as flowrate, SS, BOD, CODmn, CODcr, TN, TP from textile spinning/weaving industry nearby Nakdong river basin was estimated. To represent the respective industries, three companies from hundreds of textile spinning/weaving industries located in Nakdong river basin was carefully selected based on its manufacturing goods, flowrate and location for the survey for the estimation of unit mass discharge based on unit operation and process. There was a drastic decrease of unit mass discharge estimation between influents and effluents of water quality parameters, which represents the removal capacity of wastewater treatment plant. With the advent of new regulation on imposed payment proportional to the total amount of pollutants discharge into the water body, the concept of cleaner production technology should be employed in the unit operations/process in wastewater treatment plant as well as textile manufacturing procedure to minimize the levy on the pollutants discharge. Unit mass discharge estimations of unit process (estimated in this study) in major water quality parameters (SS, BOD, COD, TN and TP) based on land were similar to those of composite process (estimated by National Institute of Environmental Research). But the unit mass discharge estimations of unit process in BOD and CODmn based on total sale were much higher than those of composite one while in SS, TN and TP similar to each other. For the detailed estimation of imposed payment, unit mass estimation based on unit process should be further emphasized.
An assessment on feasibility of flotation as a secondary clarifier of an activated sludge process
Chung, Chong-Min ; Kim, Yun-Jung ; Cho, Kang-Woo ; Lee, Sang-Hyup ; Hong, Seok-Won ; Chung, Tai-Hak ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 5, 2008, Pages 551~559
An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the potential of flotation process for the secondary clarifier of an activated sludge process. Flotation techniques, applied in this study, include electrofloation (EF) which generated fine bubbles smaller than 35 µm in average and diffuser flotation (DF) which generated fine bubbles smaller than 55 µm in average. The batch experiments were done with activated sludge displaying various characteristics. It was shown that the efficiency of solids/liquid separation was reduced as the diluted sludge volume index (DSVI30) of activated sludge increased. The dependency, however, gradually decreased as the gas to solids (G/S) ratio increased. Thickening efficiency of EF was more than 2∼10 times and DF process was more than 1.5∼5 times as compared with gravity sedimentation (GS). Stable sludge blanket was maintained regardless of sludge settleability when the G/S ratio was 0.019 in the EF. On the other hand, Serious deterioration in the sludge blanket was observed in the DF depends on G/S ratio and sludge settleability. And For EF and DF, the suspended solids concentration of effluent was not nearly influenced on settleability of activated sludge and more clear than GS. A biological nutrient removal (BNR) process, combined with EF as a secondary clarifier was operated for three months. The mean MLSS (mixed liquid suspended solids) concentration in the reactor and mean solids concentration of return sludge were estimated to be 5,340 mg/L and 16,770 mg/L, respectively. The water quality of effluent was considerably stable and low value was accomplished, that was, standard suspended solids concentration 0.07 ± 0.51 mg/L and standard turbidity 1.44 ± 0.56 NTU. The EF could be applicable for enhancement of efficiency of activated sludge system as well as improvement of the water quality of effluent.
Study on precipitate formation and the change of cations and anions in domestic bottled water
Lee, Eun-Kyeong ; Jang, Seong-Il ; Jung, Yeon-Wook ; Jeon, Seong-Sook ; Ju, Myeong-Hui ; Lee, Soon-Ae ; Park, Jong-Sook ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 5, 2008, Pages 561~569
We analyzed contents of cations and anions for the domestic bottled drinking water. Results showed that total cation content was 45.81 mg/L and contained 40% of Ca. The content of cations were decreased in the order of Ca>Si>Na>Mg>K. Total anion content was 12.20 mg/L and contained 90% of SO42- and Cl-. F- and NO3-N were a little contained. While Si content was reduced 2.3~75.7%(mean value:38.5%) after freezing, Ca content was reduced 45.2% after boiling. It showed that water containing higher Ca content was significantly decreased after boiling. Precipitates formed by freezing and boiling is composed of minerals such as Si and Ca. Compared to minerals from food intake, concentrations of minerals from water intake are expected to be less influenced. It is recommended Bottled Water that contains more than 20 mg/L of Ca(exceeding water-quality standard for turbidity) is safe to drink without thawing and boiling.
Biological Hydrogen Production from Mixed Waste of Food and Activated Sludge
Chung, Chong-Min ; Hong, Seok-Won ; Park, Chul-Hee ; Kim, Young-O ; Lee, Sang-Hyup ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 5, 2008, Pages 571~580
The influence of bacterial stress on anaerobic hydrogen-producing microorganisms was investigated in batch tests using serum bottles. Several physical and chemical stresses (i.e., heating, adding methane producing inhibitor and chemical acidification) were adapted as a pretreament of the seed sludge. In this experiment, the cultivation temperature were set at mesophilic (35℃) and thermophilic conditions (55℃) with adjusting pH at 5, 6, and 7 when using the mixture of food waste and activated sludge as a substrate. In conjunction with the pretreatment, hydrogen production was significantly enhanced as compared with that from untreated sludge. However, less biogas (hydrogen and methane) was produced without the pH control, resulted from the decrease of pH to below 4, mainly due to the formation of VFAs. Hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas were analyzed as main components of the biogas while methane not detected. With an application of chemical acidification, the highest hydrogen production value of 248 ml/l/day achieved at pH 7 and 35℃. In addition, more hydrogen gas produced when the ratio of butyric/acetic acid ratio increased. The optimum pH and temperature for hydrogen production were found to be 7 and 35℃, respectively.
Buffering effects of shock loads in sequencing batch reactor
Ji, Dae-Hyun ; Lee , Kwang-Ho ; Lee, Jae-Kune ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 5, 2008, Pages 581~587
In this study, we investigated the buffering effect with different COD, NH4+-N and TP shock loads on the performance of lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor(SBR) using synthetic wastewater. This study was operated under the following conditions : HRT, 12 hrs : MLSS, 2,000 mg/L : F/M ratio, 0.2 kgCOD/kgMLSSㆍd : SRT, 20days, and was increased by a factor, COD : ranging from 200-2000 mg/L, NH4+-N : ranging from 30-300 mg/L, T-P : ranging from 5-50 mg/L in the reactor. As results, COD removal rate at different shock loads was decreased until 42.1%(stable state : 95%) and concentration with effluent was higher than 695 mg/L(at Run 6). In case of NH4+-N removal rate was decreased until 35.8% from 97.0% and also T-P removal rate was decreased until 5.0%. Effluent concentrations of COD, NH4+-N and T-P were rapidly increased according to shock loads and needed 3, 4 and 6 additional cycle times for recovering the stable condition.