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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
Selecting the target year
Activity Report of "KSWW TF Committee on Seoul-Busan Waterway"
Choi, Suing-Il ; Hyun, In-Hwan ; Yoon, Je-Yong ; Seo, Dong-Il ; Oh, Hyun-Je ; Kyung, Kuk-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 6, 2008, Pages 599~606
Reliability Analysis for Probability of Pipe Breakage in Water Distribution System
Kwon, Hyuk-Jae ; Lee, Cheol-Eung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 6, 2008, Pages 609~617
Water pipes are supposed to deliver the predetermined demand safely to a certain point in water distribution system. However, pipe burst or crack can be happened due to so many reasons such as the water hammer, natural pipe ageing, external impact force, soil condition, and various environments of pipe installation. In the present study, the reliability model which can calculate the probability of pipe breakage was developed regarding unsteady effect such as water hammer. For the reliability model, reliability function was formulated by Barlow formula. AFDA method was applied to calculate the probability of pipe breakage. It was found that the statistical distribution for internal pressure among the random variables of reliability function has a good agreement with the Gumbel distribution after unsteady analysis was performed. Using the present model, the probability of pipe breakage was quantitatively calculated according to random variables such as the pipe diameter, thickness, allowable stress, and internal pressure. Furthermore, it was found that unsteady effect significantly increases the probability of pipe breakage. If this reliability model is used for the design of water distribution system, safe and economical design can be accomplished. And it also can be effectively used for the management and maintenance of water distribution system.
An Experimental Study for Drainage Capacity Increment at Surcharged Square Manholes
Kim, Jung-Soo ; Song, Ju-Il ; Yoon, Sei-Eui ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 6, 2008, Pages 619~625
Urban sewer systems are designed to operate in open-channel flow regime and energy loss at square manholes are usually not significant. However, the energy loss at surcharged manholes is considered as one of the major causes of inundation in urban area. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the head loss associated with manholes, especially in surcharged flow. Hydraulic experimental apparatus which can be changed the manhole inner profile(CASEⅠ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ, and Ⅳ) and the invert types(CASE A, B, C) were installed for this study. The experimental discharge was 16ℓ/sec. As the ratio of b/D(manhole width/inflow pipe diameter) increases, head loss coefficient increases due to strong horizontal swirl motion. The head loss coefficients for CASEⅠ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and Ⅳ were 0.46, 0.38, 0.28 and 0.37, respectively. Side covers increase considerably drainage capacity at surcharged square manhole when the ratio of d/D(side cover diameter/inflow pipe diameter) was 1.0. The head loss coefficients for CASE A, B, and C were 0.45, 0.37, and 0.30, respectively. Accordingly, U-invert is the most effective for energy loss reduction at surcharged square manhole. This head loss coefficients could be available to evaluate the urban sewer system with surcharged flow.
Settling Characteristics of Water Treatment Plant Sludges by Pretreatment Methods
Moon, Yong-Taik ; Lee, Sun-Ju ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 6, 2008, Pages 627~632
It is necessary to investigate methods for improvement by diagnosing sludge settling characteristics on inflow of slurry to thickener. The results of the settling tests are correlated to determine zone settling velocities at the various sludge solids concentrations. Conditioning of WTP residuals is generally done by either chemical or physical treatment. The settling test was conducted with 1m columns dosing polymer to WTP residuals at various solids concentration. The estimated results for dosing to WTP residuals for a sludge of 2,100~ 16,012 mg/L solids concentration were the zone settling velocities of 48.38 ~ 6.8 m/day, supernatant solid concentration of 3.2 ~ 19 mg/L and solid flux of 101.6 ~ 317.61 kg/㎡․day. The values for non-polymer treatment were the zone settling velocities of 28.37 ~ 0.12 m/day, supernatent solid concentration of 8.5 ~ 108 mg/L and solid flux of 59.58 ~ 1.92 kg/㎡․day. The limiting solid flux value by Yoshioka methods was 4.0 kg TS /㎥․day for Non-polymer and 228.0 kg TS /㎥․day for dosing polymer. These results are to indicate a possibility of improvement on the thickening characteristics and the quality of supernatant as increasing the settling velocities by dosing polymer to WTP residuals.
Study of a hybrid process combining ozonation and ceramic membrane for drinking water treatment (Ⅰ): manganese removal
Jin, Kwang-Ho ; Lim, Jae-Lim ; Lee, Kyung-Hyuk ; Wang, Chang-Gun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 6, 2008, Pages 633~640
In this research, the 3.6 m3/day scale pilot plant consisting preozonation, coagulation, flocculation, and ceramic membrane processes was operated for long term period to evaluate the validity of ceramic membrane filtration process for treating lake water containing high concentration manganese. The higher concentration of dissolved manganese(Mn2+) was effectively oxidized to the bigger insoluble colloidal manganese (MnO2) by 1~2mg/L ozone. The colloidal manganese reacted with coagulant (poly aluminium chlorid, PAC) and then formed the big floc. Ceramic membrane rejected effectively manganese floc during membrane filtration. Dissolved organic carbon(DOC) removal was dependent upon Mn2+ concentration. While average Mn2+ concentration was 0.43 and 0.85 mg/L in raw water, DOC removal rate in preozonation was 26.5 and 13.5%, respectively. The decrease rate of membrane permeability was faster without preozonation than with preozonation while membrane fouling decreased with NOM oxidation by ozone. In conclusion, raw water containing high concentration of manganese can be effectively treated in preozonation-coagulation-ceramic membrane filtration system.
Recovery of high quality external carbon sources using crystallization from pretreated excess activated sludge by alkali and ozone
Seo, In S. ; Kim, Hong S. ; Kim, Byung G. ; Kim, Youn K. ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 6, 2008, Pages 641~646
In this research, recovery of high quality organics from excess activated sludge and its potential as a external carbon sources for BNR process was studied. By simultaneous treatment of alkali and ozone, TSS concentration was reduced by 32%, and RBDCOD fraction was increased by 76.2%, and major constitute of produced organic were acetic acid and propionic acid. Also, nitrogen and phosphorus were greatly solubilized. However, because acid-hydrolyzable phosphorus(AHP) was major part of solubilized phosphorus, NH4+-N and PO43--P concentration were insufficient for effective formation of crystal like as MAP(Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate) and hydroxyapatite. By placing BPR reactor before alkali-ozone treatment reactor, PO43--P concentration in pretreated sludge was increased by 1.8 times, and improved potential of phosphorus recovery by crystallization. In experiment of crystallization, hydroxyapatite formation was more easily applied than MAP. By hydroxyapatite formation, SCOD/PO4-P ratio was greatly increased from 32.7 at control to 141.9 at Ca2+/PO43--P mole ratio of 2.4. The results based on this study indicated that the proposed system configuration has potential to reduce the excess sludge production, to recover phosphorus in usable forms as well as utilize organics as a external carbon source in BNR process.
Evaluation of influent changing effect on the STP performance using Dr. Wastewater
Kim, Youn-Kwon ; Kim, Hong-Suck ; Seo, In-Seok ; Kim, Byung-Goon ; Han, In-Sun ; Kim, Jin-Sang ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 6, 2008, Pages 647~655
Sewer Rehabilitation Project (SRP) is planed, designed and constructed to perform its intended performance as sewerage delivery systems. Recently, a subject of performance evaluation methodology development for SRP has become a great deal of concern among researchers in Korea. From the view point of Sewage Treatment Plant (STP), however, the estimation of improvement efficiency for SRP is in lack of reliability due to the fact that affections for the treatment efficiency and operating condition are not reflected on SRP design and construction. In this study, statistical methodology was used in the analysis of data, which are taken during 1,186 days (1st Jan. 2005 - 31th Mar. 2008) from the influent, effluent and operating conditions of full-scale STP(25,000m3/d). Then the effect of SRP on the influent characteristics and operating conditions changing was compared and evaluated. Results from the statistical evaluation show that SRP causes characteristic changes in influent and exerts a significant effect especially on the performance of STP.
Transient Analysis of Pipeline System Considering Unsteady Friction Models
Jang, Il ; Kim, Sang-Hyun ; Kim, Ji-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 6, 2008, Pages 657~664
This research compared several unsteady friction models for transient analysis of pipeline system. Unsteady friction is an important factor for accurate simulation of hydraulic transient. Steady friction, quasi-steady friction, Zielke's model and two versions of Brunone model were compared with measurement data of identical pipeline conditions. This study showed that the existing simple steady friction model can be useful for the safer design of pipeline system due to its overestimation of waterhammer, but introduction of more elaborate models are required for advanced analysis such as inverse transient analysis of friction or leakage and the preliminary analysis of water quality prediction of water distribution system.
Management Plan for the Production of Safe and High Quality Drinking Water From the Paldang Lake
Cho, Deok-Hee ; Kim, Jong-Soo ; Lee, Woo-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 6, 2008, Pages 665~672
It is necessary to implement the management plan for the production of safe and high quality drinking water from lake Paldang. To set up the plan, the water quality items such as BOD, T-P, SS and coliform were monitored for ten years, 1997～2006, and the influence of raw water quality on the drinking water treatment process and the treated water quality was also evaluated from 2004 to 2006. In conclusion, water quality items such as turbidity(SS), T-P(eutrophication), pathogens(fecal coliforms, enterovirus, reovirus, giardia, cryptosporidium), DOC(precursor of disinfection by-products), and micro-pollutants(phthalates, VOCs, heavy metals) are should be managed to get safe and high quality drinking water from lake Paldang.
A study on characteristics analysis of autotrophic denitrification microbial community using sulfur granule
Yoon, Su-Chul ; Joo, Jae-Young ; Nam, Duck-Hyun ; Park, Chul-Hwi ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 6, 2008, Pages 673~679
The representative microorganism of autotrophic denitrification using sulfur granule, oxidizes the reduction from S and performs denitrification by reducing NO3--N to N2 gas. The sampling of autotrophic denitrification microorganisms has been performed from foreshore sludge, condensed sludge, and active sludge, but the analysis of autotrophic denitrification microbial community characteristics has been lacking. Based on the separation and identification of each sample using the PCR and DGGE methodologies, many types of sulfuric microorganisms and autotrophic denitrification microorganisms were found.
Effects of Air Drain and Confined Conditions to Infiltration Rate in Unsaturated Soils
Kim, Sang-Rae ; Ki, Jae-Hong ; Kim, Young-Jin ; Han, Moo-Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 6, 2008, Pages 681~687
It is well known that the water infiltration rate depends on soil properties such as soil water content, water head, capillary suction, density, hydraulic conductivity, and porosity. However, most of proposed infiltration models assume that the air phase is continuous and in equilibrium with the atmosphere or air compression and air entrapment on infiltration was not considered. This study presents experimental results on unsaturated water infiltration to relate air entrapment and hydraulic conductivity function based on soil air properties. The objectives of this study were to measure change of soil air pressure ahead of wetting front under air drain and air confined condition to find the confined air effect on infiltration rate, to reduce the entrapped air volume related with soil air pressure to increase the soil permeability, and to make a basis of infiltration process model for the purpose of improvement of infiltration rate in the homogeneous soil column. The results of the work show that soil air pressure increases according to increasement of the saturated soil depth rather than the wetting front depth during infiltration process.
Characteristics of coagulants dispersion within In-Line Orifice Mixer
Lim, Kyeong-Ho ; Park, Young-Oh ; Park, Dae-Jin ; Park, No-Suk ; Ko, Tae-Kon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 6, 2008, Pages 689~696
In a water treatment process a complete and homogeneous dispersion of the coagulants in the raw water could be most important factor. This research was performed to evaluate coagulation performance of the in-line-orifice mixer which was recently introduced as a rapid mixing device. The test was to determine the actual coagulant dispersion distribution on the overall cross-section at a distance of 1.6~3D from the chemical injection point by measuring zeta potential. From the results of zeta potential test, it was shown that the coagulant dispersion within the in-line orifice mixer was occurred very unevenly. The results have confirmed that it is necessary to increase the velocity of coagulants injection or pressurized water rates, in order to reduce nonuniform distribution of chemicals.
A study on the headloss of filter media for treatment of Road Runoff
Choi, Weon-Suk ; Song, Chang-Soo ; Kim, Seog-Ku ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 6, 2008, Pages 697~704
Stormwater runoff from urban road area as non-point source has a tendency of including lots of pollutants at initial rain period. Recently, there are several cases of having installed treatment facilities for reducing pollution discharge from the impervious cover in urban area to prevent watershed environment from getting worse. The filtration type among non-point source treatment systems has been known as one of the most efficient system for treatment of non-point source pollutants. Therefore, various kinds of filter media such as expanded polypropylene(EPP), granular activated carbon, zeolite, perlite, illite, sand, gravel has been developed. This study was conducted to verify performance and hydraulic characteristics of filter media as measures for non-point source. The experiment was carried out to evaluate applicability and variation of 4 kind of most popular filter media(EPP, GAC, Zeolite, Perlite) in headloss with elapsed time and influent flow rate and to obtain data base that could be used to establish management plan for road runoff treatment. In experiment by tap water, it showed that EPP and perlite those are floatable materials showed stable operating performance and lower headloss than the others. The removal efficiency was high over than 95% and stable for EPP in experiment for road runoff. Headloss and removal efficiency with elapsed time for GAC and zeolite was highly unstable.
A Study on the treatment efficiency of A2O Process coupled with Mesh Screening Reactor
Whang, Gye-Dae ; Lim, Dong-Min ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 22, issue 6, 2008, Pages 705~714
Three Mesh Screenning Reactors (MSRs) were operated in three different modes to investigate the effect of the mesh opening size and the filtrate flux on the removal of particulate matters and the production of soluble organic matters. The mesh opening size was 82 ㎛ (Mode 1), 61 ㎛ (Mode 2) and 38 ㎛ (Mode 3), respectively, and each mode has three different filtrate flux; 0.47 m3/m2/d, 0.95 m3/m2/d and 1.42 m3/m2/d, respectively. TSS removal efficiency of mode 1, 2, and 3 fed with 191 mgTSS/L was 27%, 36%, and 60%, respectively. The SCOD concentration of 91mg/L in influent for the mode 1, 2, and 3 increased to 117 mg/L, 127 mg/L, and 155 mg/L, respectively. For the all MSRs, there was no significant effect of filtrate flux on the removal of particulate matters and the production of soluble organic matters. However, the mesh opening size greatly affected the removal of particulate matters and the production of soluble organic matters in wastewater. Three parallel A2O processes consisting of anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic reactors maintaining mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) of 3,000 mg/L were operated to investigate the effectiveness of MSR on the removal efficiencies of the organic matters, nitrogen, and phosphorus; MSR influent was introduced to System 1 (183 mgTSS/L, 324 mgTCOD/L, 87 mgSCOD/L, 45.2 mgTKN/L, and 6.6 mgTP/L) and MSR efluent was introduced to System 2 and 3(72 mgTSS/L, 289 mgTCOD/L, 141 mgSCOD/L, 40.2 mgTKN/L, and 4.2 mgTP/L). HRTs of the anaerobic reactors in systems 1, 2 and 3 were 1 h, 1 h and 0.6 h, respectively and anoxic reactors were 2 h in all systems. HRTs of the aerobic reactors in systems 1, 2 and 3 were 5 h, 3 h and 3 h, respectively. TSS concentration in effluent of both system 2 and 3 is about 8 mg/L and lower than that of system 1 effluent. Despite higher TCOD loading and SCOD loading, both Systems 2 and 3 had a greater TCOD and SCOD removal efficiency at 91% and 92% than System 1 was at 88% and 82%, respectively. The nitrification efficiency for system 2 was greater than observed for System 1 (99% verses 97%). The denitrification efficiency for systems 1, 2 and 3 was 78%, 88% and 87%, respectively. System 2 and 3 showed about 12% higher TN removal efficiency than system 1 (85% verses 73%). The effluent TP concentration for system 2 was less than observed for system 1 and 3.