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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 23, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Effect of the Inclined Structure on the Hydraulic BehaviorIndex within Sedimentation basin
Lim, Seong-Ho ; Hwang, Jun-Sik ; Park, No-Suk ; Kim, Seong-Su ; Lim, Kyung-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 23, issue 5, 2009, Pages 517~526
This research has been conducted to investigate the characteristics of hydraulic behavior within the PAC contactor, the rectangular shape sedimentation basin without inclined tube and the other one with inclined tube those are parts of demonstration plants(capacity : 2,000m3/d) in Korea Institute of Water and Environment. As results of tracer tests, the flow within PAC contactor was evaluated to divided into plug flow and dead space distinctly, and characteristics of dead space was close to that of CSTR(Complete/continuous Stirred Tank Reactor). Also, considering Reynolds number, Froude number, Morill, Modal, NCSTR Inex and plug flow/mixed flow fraction, in the case of the rectangular shape sedimentation basin without inclined tube, the characteristics of flow pattern was close to CSTR. On the other hand, in the case of the basin with inclined tube, the region of CSTR decreased precisely compared with the case of no-tube. Until now we have recognized that the inclined hydraulic structure just reduces the surface loading rate within a sedimentation basin. Actually besides, the inclined structure have an important effect on the hydraulic behavior within the basin.
The Effects of HRT, MLSS and DO on Nitrogen Removal Efficiency in MBR Process with Internal Baffle
Whang, Gye-Dae ; Park, Joo-Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 23, issue 5, 2009, Pages 527~537
Three sets of parallel MBRs (reactor No.1, reactor No.2, reactor No.3) maintaining an MLSS of 4,000 mg/L, 6,000 mg/L and 8,000 mg/L, respectively, were operated to investigate the effect of various HRTs and DO concentration of MBRs on the removal efficiency of organic matters and nitrogen. The HRTs were operated on 4 hr, 6 hr, 8 hr. DO concentrations were ranged 1.5
2.0 mg/L and 0.5
1.0 mg/L respectively on each HRT conditions. MBR was divided into an aerated part and non-aerated part by baffle placed under the water. DO concentrations were controlled by altering the position of baffle. In terms of TSS and CODCr, all systems had a similar level of the removal under varied HRTs and MLSS. TSS removal efficiency was more than 99% and CODCr removal was ranged 94
97% under all conditions. Under the same condition on the HRT and MLSS concentrations, DO concentrations did not affect the organic removal efficiency. On the nitrification efficiency, with high DO concentration, as HRT or MLSS increased, the slight increment of nitrification efficiency was observed. However, under the low DO concentration, increase of MLSS and HRT resulted in larger increase of the nitrification efficiency. At the same HRT and MLSS, the nitrification efficiency increased greatly with up to 16% as DO increased. When the HRT increased from 4hr to 8hr, the denitrification efficiency slightly increased under most of conditions. However, the increase of MLSS resulted in about 19
39% denitrification efficiency increment. MLSS concentrations showed great effect on the denitrification. The increase of the DO concentration at the same HRT and MLSS resulted in decrease of denitrification efficiency with up to 27%. In all systems, the denitrification efficiency had more influence on the TN removal efficiency than nitrification efficiency. So, MLSS concentration has greater effect on the TN removal than HRT and DO. The TN removal efficiency increased as MLSS increased with up to 37%. As a result, the highest TN removal efficiency was observed 79.0% at the condition showed the highest denitrification efficiency that DO of 0.5
1.0 mg/L, an HRT of 8 hr, and 8,000 mg/L of MLSS concentration were maintained.
A feasibility study of a pilot scale two-phase anaerobic digestion with ultra filtration for the treatment of garbage leachate
Lee, Eun-Young ; Heo, Ahn-Hee ; Kim, Hyung-Kuk ; Kim, Hee-Jun ; Bae, Jae-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 23, issue 5, 2009, Pages 539~545
A feasibility of a pilot scale two-phase anaerobic digestion with ultra filtration system treating garbage leachate were evaluated. The treatment system consisted of a thermophilic acidogenic reactor, a mesophilic methanogenic reactor, and an UF membrane. The average COD removal efficiency of the treatment system was 95% up to the OLR of 3.1 g COD/L/d. The higher COD removal efficiency with membrane unit resulted from the removal of some portion of soluble organics by membrane as well as particulate materials. When the membrane unit was in operation, bulk liquid in acidogenic and methanogenic reactors was partially interchanged, which maintained the acidogenic reactor pH over 5.0 without external chemical addition. Also, with the production of methane in the acidogenic reactor, the organic loading rate of the methanogenic reactor reduced. The initial flux of the membrane unit was 50
/hr, but decreased to 5 L/
/hr after 95 days of operation due to clogging caused by particulate materials such as fibrous materials in garbage leachate. To prevent clogging caused by particulate materials, a pretreatment system such as screening is required. With the improvement with membrane unit operation, the two-phase anaerobic digestion with ultra filtration system is expected to have the possibility of treating garbage leachate.
Effects of Operational Condition on
Production from Biological Nitrogen Removal Process
Jang, Hyun-Sup ; Kim, Tae-Hyeong ; Lee, Myoung-Joo ; Hwang, Sun-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 23, issue 5, 2009, Pages 547~555
The objectives of this research were focused on the effects of various operating parameters on nitrous oxide emission such as C/N ratio, ammonia concentration and HRT in the hybrid and suspension reactors. With the decreasing of C/N ratios,
emission rates in the both processes were increased because organic carbon source for denitrification was depleted. In case of biofilm reactor operated using medium,
release from the nitrification was not affected by the variation of ammonia concentration. But in the suspension reactor,
production from the nitrification was rapidly increased with the increase of ammonia. Nitrite accumulation caused by undesirable nitrification conditions could be a important reason for the increase in the
production from the aerobic reactor. And rapid increase in
production was reflected by the decrease of HRT, similar to the results observed in the results of ammonia loading changes. So it could be said that it is very important to put in consideration both its optimum conditions for wastewater treatment efficiency and suitable conditions for
diminish, simultaneously, in order to development an eco-friendly and advanced wastewater treatment, especially in BNR process.
Optimal Operating Condition of Vortex Separator for Combined Sewer Overflows Treatment
Han, Jung-Kyun ; Joo, Jae-Young ; Lee, Bum-Joon ; Na, Ji-Hun ; Park, Chul-Hwi ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 23, issue 5, 2009, Pages 557~564
A combined sewer system can quickly drain both storm water and sewage, improve the living environment and resolve flood measures. A combined sewer system is much superior to separate sewer system in reduction of the non-point source pollutant load. However, during rainfall. it is impossible in time, space and economic terms to cope with the entire volume of storm water. A sewage system that exceeds the capacity of the sewer facilities drain into the river mixed with storm-water. In addition, high concentration of CSOs by first-flush increase pollution load and reduce treatment efficiency in sewage treatment plant. The aim of this study was to develope a processing unit for the removal of high CSOs concentrations in relation to water quality during rainfall events in a combined sewer. The most suitable operational design for processing facilities under various conditions was also determined. With a designed discharge of 19.89 m/min, the removal efficiency was good, without excessive overflow, but it was less effective in relation to underflow, and decreased with decreasing particle size and specific gravity. It was necessary to lessen radius of vortex separator for increasing inlet velocity in optimum range for efficient performance, and removal efficiency was considered to high because of rotation increases through enlargement of comparing height of vortex separator in diameter. By distribution of influent particle size, the actual turbulent flow and experimental results was a little different from the theoretical removal efficiency due to turbulent effect in device.
Evaluation of Sewer Capacity using Kinetic Hydraulic Model
Yang, Hae-Jin ; Jun, Hang-Bae ; Son, Dae-Ik ; Lee, Joon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 23, issue 5, 2009, Pages 565~572
Hydraulic modeling is widely used to simulate wastewater flow. The simulated models are used to prevent flood and many other problems associated with wastewater flow in planning or rehabilitating sewer systems. In this study, MAKESW (An engineer, South Korea), MOUSE (DHI, Denmark), and SWMM (XPSoftware, USA) are used to for hydraulic modeling of wastewater in C-city, South Korea and E-city, Iraq. These modeling tools produced different results. SWMM comparably overpredicted runoff and peak flow. In using SWMM, use of accurate data with a high confidential level, detail examination over the target basin surface, and the careful selection of a runoff model, which describes Korea's unique hydraulic characteristics are recommended. Modification of existing models through the optimization of variables cannot be achieved at this moment. Setting up an integrated modeling environment is considered to be essential to utilize modeling and further apply the results for various projects. Standardization of GIS database, the criteria for and the scope of model application, and database management systems need to be prepared to expand modeling application.
Evaluation of the Effects of the Longitudinal Baffle on Settling Efficiency within Rectangular-shaped Sedimentation Basin
Park, No-Suk ; Kim, Seong-Su ; Seo, In-Seok ; Min, Kyong-En ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 23, issue 5, 2009, Pages 573~581
In the case that the average velocity within rectangular-shaped sedimentation basin is less than 1.5cm/sec, and Froude number less than
, it can not be expected that the longitudinal baffle improves the sedimentation efficiency. Also, since relatively lower velocity increases the effect of geostrophic body force, asymmetric flow pattern on a plane occurs within the basin. From the results of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation, in the case that the highest velocity within rectangular-shaped sedimentation basin is over 1.5cm/sec, and Froude number over
, it can be expected that the longitudinal baffle installed within rectangular-shaped sedimentation basin improves the sedimentation efficiency.
Adaptive Management of Water Supply Systems to Deal with Climate Changes: A Gwangdong Dam Case Study
Lee, Sang-Eun ; Choi, Dong-Jin ; Park, Hee-Kyung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 23, issue 5, 2009, Pages 583~598
From the engineering standpoint, this study puts a special emphasis on application of adaptive management. To do this, we analyze the recent issue about water scarcity of the Gwangdong dam. Using the system dynamics model, we defined the system including water balance in the dam, dam manager's operation rules, regional water supply and local water distribution, and customer damage. I t was expected that the model is useful to explain the real case, and also water scarcity of Gwangdong led to total damage of about 2.56 billion won, mainly to customers in the Taebaeck city. Two adaptive management options (i.e., optimal allocation of limited water resources, and early control of dam storage) were applied to the model in order to examine whether adaptive management is effective to mitigate the damage, it is concluded that the case study could largely reduce or entirely avoid the damage with adaptive engineering options.
Performance Evaluation of a Double Layer Biofilter System to Control Urban Road Runoff (I) - System Design -
Cho, Kang-Woo ; Kim, Tae-Gyun ; Lee, Byung-Ha ; Lee, Seul-Bi ; Song, Kyung-Guen ; Ahn, Kyu-Hong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 23, issue 5, 2009, Pages 599~608
This manuscript covers the results of field investigation and lab-scale experiments to design a double-layered biofilter system to control urban storm runoff. The biofilter system consisted of a coarse soil layer (CSL) for filtration and fine soil layer (FSL) for adsorption and biological degradation. The variations of flow rate and water quality of runoff from a local expressway were monitored for seven storm events. Laboratory column experiments were performed using seven kinds of soil and mulch to maximize pollutants removal. The site mean concentration (SMC) of storm runoff from the drainage area (runoff coefficient: 0.92) was measured to be 203 mg/L for SS, 307 mg/L for TCODCr, 12.3 mg/L for TN, 7.3 mg/L for
-N, and 0.79 mg/L for TP, respectively. This study employed a new design concept, to cover the maximum rainfall intensity with one month recurrence interval. Effective storms for last ten years (1998-2007) in seoul suggested the design rainfull intensity to be 8.8 mm/hr Single layer soil column showed the maximum removal rate of pollutants load when the uniformity coefficient of CSL was 1.58 and the silt/clay contents of FSL was virtually 7%. The removal efficiency during operation of double layer soil column was 98% for SS and turbidity, 75% for TCODCr, 56% for
-N, 87% for TP, and 73-91% for heavy metals. The hydraulic conductivity of the soil column, 0.023 cm/sec, suggested that the surface area of the biofilter system should be about 1% of the drainage area to treat the rainfall intensity of one month recurrence interval.
Evaluation of Water Treament System for Phenol Removal in the Nakdong River Basin
Kang, Byung-Jae ; Chae, Seon-Ha ; Lee, Kyung-Hyuk ; Jeon, Hang-Bae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 23, issue 5, 2009, Pages 609~618
Repeated phenol spill in the Nakdong River has been a big issue in Korea since 1991. In this study, treatment of phenol in each water treatment process and total water treatment system is evaluated. Phenol was highly volatile, easily oxidized by ozone, and readily absorbed onto GAC. When there was phenol of 0.3mg/L in water, by ozonation of 1mg/L or by GAC adsorption with EBCT of 10minutes or longer, it could be treated to lower than 0.005mg/L, the national drinking water standard of phenol. Even when a sufficient contact time(70minutes) was allowed, only 35 to 40% of phenol could be removed by powdered activated carbon(PAC). Based on the test results, it can be concluded that 1.0mg/L or less concentration of phenol can be treated at the plants adopting the combination process of ozone and GAC down to the safe level. In this study, removal characteristics for phenol were evaluated with the existing pilot plant and demo plant in different advanced water treatment processes(AWTPs). In the future, studies on changes in oxidation and adsorption characteristics caused by competitive matters such as DOC and removal characteristics by other various AWTPs including ozone/filter adsorber need to be performed.
A Study on the Application of Regional Environmental Assessment to Small Area Development -The case of small area development in Hwasung-City, Gyunggi-Do-
Oh, Seung-Ryun ; Kang, Seon-Hong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 23, issue 5, 2009, Pages 619~630
The study area investigated in this research is Hwaseong city, Gyeonggi-Do where small scale development is currently in progress. For the last three years, we carried out the environmental and ecological assessment by using data from The Ministry of Environment and Han River Basin Environmental Office. Most of development works in Hwaseong city, Gyeonggi-Do are small scale developments which are related with factory and distribution complex based on individual laws and regulations. However, environmental and ecological assessment is not being sufficiently reflected beforehand. Especially, because the development takes place mainly in the outskirts of the city, the fine forest is continuously being damaged. We analyzed changes in green zone caused by the developments. As a result, the percentage of original green zone was decreasing while the percentage of artificial green zone was increasing. We should maintain the percentage of the original green zone in order to conserve natural environment. In the past three years, the damage of the DGN (Degree of Green Naturality, 7) area that has high conservative value was little, but, there was serious damage in the area of DGN 6. In order to conserve natural environment, political and institutional investigation should be seriously carried out for mitigation of environmental and ecological damages.
Water Quality Characteristics of Nonpoint Pollutants based on the Road Type
Jang, Dae-Chang ; Kang, Seon-Hong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 23, issue 5, 2009, Pages 631~636
This study has its intention to investigate the water quality of non-point source which is runoff from roads. We have classified and selected twelve sites as city road, industrial road, national road and mountain road by considering their traffic volume and surroundings. Water quality was analyzed based on BOD, COD, SS, T-N and T-P and the concentrations were measured by sampling after rainfall with the interval of 10 minutes, 20 minutes, and 30 minutes. BOD was the highest in city road with 57.6 mg/L and the lowest in mountain road with 45.0 mg/L. For COD, the highest concentration in industrial road was 146.5 mg/L and the lowest was in mountain road with 98.0 mg/L. The run off concentration of SS was up to maximum 630.0 mg/L (average 280.4 mg/L) which was remarkable compared to other types of road. It showed its lowest concentration in national road with 76.0 mg/L. T-N and T-P were the highest in industrial road and the lowest in mountain road. We found out that the runoff concentration was high with large amount of traffic volume and it seemed to be high in city road and industrial road where they were largely affected by their surroundings. Relatively, national road and mountain road seemed to show low concentration as they have less traffic volume and less affected by their surroundings.
Current Status and Policies for Improvement of Korean Water works Basedon the Analyis of Revenue and Operation Costs
Jeong, Tae-Un ; Yang, Seung-Heun ; Kim, Jin-Min ; Choi, Suing-Il ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 23, issue 5, 2009, Pages 637~645
To understand the financial situation of waterworks, the revenue and operation cost from 1996 have been analyzed. The budget of waterworks was 3,775 billion won in 1996 and grew up to 5,774 billion won in 2007. The budget has grown about 1.53 times during 11 years. Based on 2007, total cost for supplying water, rehabilitating old facilities and returning debt and its interest was 4146 billion won. The cost was recovered by 2,825 billion won of water revenue, 827 billion won of various fees revenue, 571 billion won of financial grant and 89 billion won of loan. Until 2007, the 15.3% of operation cost for waterworks was covered by government grant and loan. The renovation cost for old non-efficient facilities was 1,356 billion won in 1996 and was 1,486 billion won in 2007. The renovation cost was not increased remarkably during 10 years. Since the total operation cost was increased about 1.5 times, the percentage for renovating old facilities was decreased from 36% to 25.7%. This trend need to be alerted because the renovation has been slow down when the facilities for water supply need more rehabilitation.
Recycling of a discarded septic tank as a rainwater management systemand it's economic feasibility analysis
Kim, Mi-Kyeong ; Kwak, Dong-Geun ; Han, Moo-Young ; Yang, Ji-Chung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 23, issue 5, 2009, Pages 647~654
Since the end of the 1990s, sewer pipe improvement works have been going on: most septic tanks have been thrown away and discarded. These discarded septic tanks amounts up to 370,000 based on the project plan 2005-2008: it is a serious squander of nation´s resources, a contaminating means that buries toxins under soil, and a cause of a expensive waste. Research on recycling of discarded septic tank as a new resource is in urgent need. This research suggests plans to recycle discarded septic tank as a rainwater management facility, solutions to water cycle recovery in the limelight, and economic analysis of the plan. In the case of a recycling discarded septic tank as a rainwater management facility will socially benefit to support economical adequacy, discard cost saving of septic tank and water supply and sewage cost reduction will come out. Consequently a rainwater management facility converted from a discarded septic tank leads to decentralization of the rainwater management system, which anticipates a positive effect on recovery of urban water cycle.
SS Removal-rate Efficiency of Storm-water Detention Storage Tank Depending upon Length, Inside Training Wall and Gravel Filling
Lee, Jong-Tae ; Seo, Hong-Joon ; Seo, Kyung-A. ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 23, issue 5, 2009, Pages 655~667
An experimental study is performed on reducing the pollutants supplied by storm water through enhancing efficiency of SS from the detention storage tank where
are kept temporarily before discharge to the receiving water system. SS removal efficiency is investigated in accordance with various conditions of the detention pond-such as its length, the existence of training wall, and the use of gravel filling. The removal efficiency is strongly affected by the detention pond`s length until the critical falling distance of the suspended solids is reached. For cases where the tank has a length longer than this critical condition, the removal rate shows less sensitivity. To enhance the SS removal efficiency of tanks of shorter than the critical length, we studied alternative types of tank in which inside training walls are installed. The results showed improvement of 14 to 37% in removal efficiency in 2hours detention(2 training walls). The important factor in achieving a high SS removal rate is ensuring the critical length of the detention pond, but for the cases where the basin length cannot be guaranteed, baffles or a gravel filling scheme may be introduced to attain considerable efficiency. The results of studying and comparing different storage tank conditions show that, in terms of elimination efficiency, a storage tank with gravel filling and training walls > a storage tank with gravel filling > a storage tank with training walls > an empty tank. The experimental results should contribute to development of related further research, by empirically verifying the already assumed importance of critical falling distance, training walls, and gravel filling schemes.
A study on reduction of excess sludge in activated sludge system from a petrochemical plant using electro fenton process
Chung, Chong-Min ; Kim, Kyung-Il ; Shim, Natalia ; Park, Chul-Hee ; Lee, Sang-Hyup ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 23, issue 5, 2009, Pages 669~678
The reduction of excess activated sludge from petrochemical plant was investigated by the electro fenton (E-Fenton) process using electrogenerated hydroxyl radicals which lead to mineralization of activated sludge to
, water and inorganic ions. Factors affecting the disintegration efficiency of excess activated sludge in E-Fenton process were examined in terms of five criteria: pH,
molar ratio, current density, initial MLSS (mixed liquid suspended solids) concentration,
feeding mode. TSS total suspended solid and
reduction rate increased with the increasing
molar ratio and current density until 42 and 6.7 mA/
, respectively but further increase of
molar ratio and current density would reduce the reduction rate. On the other hand, as expected, increasing pH and initial MLSS concentration of activated sludge decreas TSS and
reduction rate. The E-Fenton process was gradually increased during first 30 minutes and then linearly proceed till 120 minutes. The optimal E-Fenton condition showed TSS reduction rate of 62
(total chemical oxygen demand) reduction rate of 55
56%. Molar ratio
= 42 was determined as optimal E-Fenton condition with initial
dose of 5.4 mM and current density of 6.7
, initial MLSS of 7,600 mg/L and pH 2 were chosen as the most efficient E-Fenton condition.