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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 25, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
Development of a Probability Model for Burst Risks of Water Main using the Analysis Methods of Leakage Type
Park, Sang-Bong ; Choi, Tae-Ho ; Koo, Ja-Yong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 2, 2011, Pages 141~152
In this study, we extracted effective factors of pipe burst from the status data of water asset, operating data of pressure, volume and etc. and 7 years' pipe burst and repair records. The extracted factors were sorted by each attribution and then a statistical analysis was performed to generate a pipe burst probability function using the logistic regression model. As the result, material, diameter, length, laying year, pressure and road width affected to pipe burst significantly. Especially, in case of small diameter, laying year was most effective factor and in case of steel pipe, external loading was main cause of burst, and in case of cast iron, PE, PC, HP pipes, the deterioration of joint was main cause. The other side, as a result of Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test the models are turned out significant statistically. Also the classification criteria were determined to minimize the total cost from classification errors, when the predicted probability was more than 18% this pipe could have a chance of burst.
Study on Water Treatment Improvement Measures based on Case Studies of Ozone Disinfection at Domestic Water Treatment Plants
Noh, Hee-Su ; Lee, Kyung-Hyuk ; Wang, Chang-Keun ; Son, Dae-Ik ; Kang, Joon-Wun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 2, 2011, Pages 153~160
Ozone process is currently applied in 24 water treatment plants in Korea to control micropollutants and taste & odor compounds. However, one of the chlorine resistant protozoa, cryptosporidium, is not being considered as ozone disinfection performance whereas U.S. is already regulate Cryptosporidium by ozone disinfection. two ozone plants(PH, UH WTP) operation conditions are investigated for disinfection performance comparing Korea disinfection regulation and U.S. regulation. The ozone plants are unable to get Cryptosporidium inactivation credits by Korea disinfection regulation. However, the inactivation credit for Cryptosporidum was increased when the U.S. disinfection regulation was applied. The Korea disinfection credit regulation need revision to practical aspects.
A Study on Design Factors of Air Diffuser Systems in Reservoirs: Application of Field Conditions to the CFD Simulation
Shin, Sang-Min ; Lee, Seung-Jae ; Lee, Sang-Eun ; Park, Hee-Kyung ; Yum, Kyung-Taek ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 2, 2011, Pages 161~169
This study aims at examining the design factors of the air diffuser system in a particular view of field conditions, and thus improving the procedures currently applied to design the system. First, the CFD model is built for an air diffuser system suitable for field conditions of real reservoirs. Then, the design factors, including destratification number, destratification radius and efficiency of the air diffuser system, are analyzed after a series of simulations over various field conditions. The result shows successful correlations of design factors with DN at the condition, and they lead to estimate of the destratification radius and efficiency of air diffuser system based on DN. It is finally concluded that the design factors are improved such that the air diffuser system is suitable for the field conditions of dam reservoirs.
Factors related to Performance of Reverse Osmosis Membrane in Seawater Desalination Process
Park, Jun-Young ; Hong, Sung-Ho ; Kim, Ji-Hoon ; Jeong, Woo-Won ; Nam, Jong-Woo ; Kim, Young-Hoon ; Lee, Chang-Ha ; Kim, Hyung-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 2, 2011, Pages 171~176
Organic matters that comprise a tiny part of seawater generally occur over 50% of membrane fouling in Reverse Osmosis Process. This study evaluates Foundation efficiency of reverse osmosis membranes under brackish and seawater conditions and resistance of organic fouling. Moreover, analyzing the membrane surface through roughness, contact angle and zeta potential results in roughness and contact angle are proportional to flux decline rate (FDR), yet FDR has high value when zeta potential is low level. Furthermore, with various membrane fouling of different raw water conditions, the flux tends to improve when pH value is high and raw water which is complex with organic and cation pollutes membrane faster than organic separated raw water condition.
Evaluation on Chemical Cleaning Efficiency of Organic-fouled SWRO Membrane in Seawater Desalination Process
Park, Jun-Young ; Hong, Sung-Ho ; Kim, Ji-Hoon ; Jeong, Woo-Won ; Nam, Jong-Woo ; Kim, Young-Hoon ; Jeon, Min-Jung ; Kim, Hyung-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 2, 2011, Pages 177~184
Membrane fouling is an unavoidable phenomenon in operation of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) and major obstacle for economic and efficient operation. When fouling occurs on the membrane surface, the permeate flux is decreased, on the contrary, the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) is increased, therefore operation and maintaining costs and potential damage of membranes are able to the pivotal risks of the process. Chemical cleaning process is essential to prevent interruptions for effective RO membrane filtration process. This study focused on proper chemical cleaning condition for polyamide RO membranes of 4 companies. Several chemical agents were applied for chemical cleaning under numbers of operating conditions. Additionally, a monitoring tool of FEEM as autopsy analysis method is adapted for the prediction of organic bio-fouling.
Factor analysis on infiltration using correlations
Ryu, Jae-Na ; Oh, Je-Ill ; Choi, Ick-Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 2, 2011, Pages 185~192
Pearson's correlation was used to determine relations between infiltration and affecting factors using flow monitoring data measured in 24 areas with different characteristics. Factors showed relatively high correlations than others were indexed to determine infiltration rates of the study area. Among 8 factors(service area, sewer length, sewer diameter, multiplier of sewer length and diameter, number of manholes, population, number of properties, number of households) tested, the multiplier of sewer length and diameter, the number of population and the number of household in each service area indicated higher correlation coefficient(>0.8) than others. The goodness of fitness of linear regressions between infiltration and the factors followed the order: sewer length and diameter(0.68)> population(0.65)> number of household(0.60). Infiltration rates calculated by the multiplier of sewer length and diameter, the number of population and the number of household in each service area were 0.046~1.0396
respectively. After sewerage rehabilitation work of the area, the infiltration rates calculated by above factors with high correlations are expected to be used for comparing effectiveness of the work once they are estimated under the same flow measuring conditions.
A study on the corrosion control of tap water by lime and carbon dioxide
Cheong, Won-Suk ; Kim, Jin-Keun ; Park, Duk-Joon ; Kim, Sun-Wook ; Jeong, Sang-Gi ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 2, 2011, Pages 193~199
A method to improve internal corrosion control efficiency by adding lime and carbon dioxide, which, in turn increases the Langelier Index (LI) for filtered water at a conventional drinking water treatment plant (WTP) was investigated. The SJ WTP (Q=100,000
/d) has been operating an internal corrosion control system since 2006. The system has achieved stable operation through technical development and trial and error over a period of several years. As a result of the operation, the LI of treated water has increased up to 29% by adjusting pH of filtered water to 7.8 with the addition of lime and carbon dioxide. Coupon tests in the distribution system indicated that the corrosion rate has been delayed by 24% when the internal corrosion method was implemented. The increase of LI by lime and carbon dioxide has been proven to be a practical method for controlling corrosion.
Review of Nanoparticles in Drinking Water: Risk Assessment and Treatment
Kim, Seung-Hyun ; Hong, Seung-kwan ; Yoon, Je-Yong ; Kim, Doo-Il ; Lee, Sang-Ho ; Kweon, Ji-Hyang ; Kim, Hyung-Soo ; ko, Seok-Dock ; Kuk, Ji-Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 2, 2011, Pages 201~212
Nanotechnology is the applied science which develops new materials and systems sized within 1 to 100 nanometer, and improves their physical, chemical, and biological characteristics by manipulating on an atomic and molecular scale. This nanotechnology has been applied to wide spectrum of industries resulting in production of various nanoparticles. It is expected that more nanoparticles will be generated and enter to natural water bodies, imposing great threat to potable water resources. However their toxicity and treatment options have not been throughly investigated, despite the significant growth of nanotechnology-based industries. The objective of this study is to provide fundamental information for the management of nanoparticles in water supply systems through extensive literature survey. More specifically, two types of nanoparticles are selected to be a potential problem for drinking water treatment. They are carbon nanoparticles such as carbon nanotube and fullerene, and metal nanoparticles including silver, gold, silica and titanium oxide. In this study, basic characteristics and toxicity of these nanoparticles were first investigated systematically. Their monitoring techniques and treatment efficiencies in conventional water treatment plants were also studied to examine our capability to mitigate the risk associated with nanoparticles. This study suggests that the technologies monitoring nanopartilces need to be greatly improved in water supply systems, and more advanced water treatment processes should be adopted for better control of these nanoparticles.
Analysis on the result of I/I calculation by the exiting method and the standardized maual method
An, Byung-Mo ; Song, Ho-Myun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 2, 2011, Pages 213~221
The purpose of sewer system is to separate rain water from sewage water. Through this, it is possible to prevent the flood and preserve public water territory. For the past few years, many problems of the sewer system have been solved by the execution of sewer rehabilitation project. However, they still exist in sewer system caused by I/I, which are divided into infiltration and inflow. Infiltration means the rain water and underground water that infiltrate through breakage point on pipes, inflow means the water that flows in through misconnection on pipes. This study shows how the I/I calculation has changed according to the new standardized manual and identifies the I/I difference between the new calculation and the existing one. Through the analysis on the two calculation methods we examined the appropriacy of the new method by comparing it to the old one. The result points out that the new standardized manual is more appropriate than the old in aspect of objectivity and reproducibility(establish standardization), rationality(alteration of inflow unit).
Removal of nitrogen and sulfur odorous compounds and their precursors using an electrolytic oxidation process
Shin, Seung-Kyu ; An, Hea-Yung ; Kim, Han-Seung ; Song, Ji-Hyeon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 2, 2011, Pages 223~230
An electrolytic oxidation process was applied to remove odorous compounds from non-point odor sources including wastewater pipelines and manholes. In this study, a distance between the anode and the cathode of the electrolytic process was varied as a system operating parameters, and its effects on odor removal efficiencies and reaction characteristics were investigated. Odor precursors such as sediment organic matters and reduced sulfur/nitrogen compounds were effectively oxidized in the electrolytic process, and a change in oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) indicated that an stringent anaerobic condition shifted to a mild anoxic condition rapidly. At an electrode distance of 1 cm and an applied voltage of 30 V, a system current was maintained at 1 A, and the current density was 23.1
. Under the condition, the removal efficiency of hydrogen sulfide in gas phase was found to be 100%, and 93% of ammonium ion was removed from the liquid phase during the 120 minute operating period. Moreover, the sulfate ion (
) concentration increased about three times from its initial value due to the active oxidation. As the specific power consumption (i.e., the energy input normalized by the effective volume) increased, the oxidation progressed rapidly, however, the oxidation rate was varied depending on target compounds. Consequently, a threshold power consumption for each odorous compound needs to be experimentally determined for an effective application of the electrolytic oxidation.
Impact of Characteristics of Polymeric Al Coagulants PACl and Alum on Membrane Flux and Fouling of Microfiltration
Jin, Yong-Chul ; Choi, Yang-Hun ; Kweon, Ji-Hyang ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 2, 2011, Pages 231~240
The objectives of this research are to investigate coagulation efficiencies of two coagulants l.e., alum and polyaluminum chloride and to understand effects of the coagulants on membrane fouling in microfiltration. The turbidity of supernatant from alum coagulation was increased with increasing doses whereas the turbidity from PACl coagulation was maintained at the low values. The observed injection volume of PACl for the same removal was approximately 30 percent less than alum, which produced a low sludge volume. The settling velocity of PACl flocs was greater than alum flocs. The results corresponded well with floc size measurements. Flux decline from alum coagulation was significant due in part to small sizes of flocs. At the low dose, alum floc had less specific cake resistance than PACl floc. However, as the dosage was increased, the increases in specific cake resistances of alum was substantial. Alum coagulation pretreatment needs careful operation to reduce membrane fouling by flocs. In general, PACl coagulants were more effective than alum coagulants for pretreatment of membrane processes because PACl showed the better performance in coagulation and membrane fouling.
Phosphate Removal from Wastewater by Surface-Modified Pinus rigida Powder
Jeong, Myoung-Sun ; Kim, Yeong-Kwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 2, 2011, Pages 241~248
This research was performed to evaluate the efficacy of phosphate removal from wastewater by surface-modified wood powder and to clarify the removal mechanisms. In this work, Pinus rigida which is abundant in Korea and has little economic value was used in preparation of the wood powder as a sorbent material. The experiments were carried out in 2 phases, isothermal adsorption test and column test. The results of adsorption test fitted well both the Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal equations. Adsorption capacity was highest with the bark powder followed by the mixed powder(50% bark powder and 50% woody powder) and woody powder. Phosphate removal efficiency was as high as 98% at initial phosphate concentration of 50mg/L. Specific surface area of the powder increased following the experiment and phosphate removal was speculated to occur through adsorption mechanism. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis(EDXA) revealed that the phosphate adsorbed onto the surface of the powder was in the form of strengite(
Effect of pore characteristics of activated carbon on adsorption of natural organic matter
Pak, Jung-Sun ; Hong, Seong-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 2, 2011, Pages 249~255
It is complicate problem to optimize removing natural organic matter (NOM) by activated carbon in drinking water treatment because the activated carbon has heterogeneous surface area and pore structure. Seven different coals based activated carbons which have different pore structures were used in the study. Sand filtered effluents which normally used as GAC adsorber influent were used. The molecular weight distribution showed that most of the NOM was bigger than 10,000Da. In this study, systematical approaches such as characteristics of surface area and pore volume were evaluated on NOM adsorption. Especially, the adsorption capacities for NOM were evaluated by effect of micro-pores and meso-pores in surface area and pore structure. The results show that the higher ratio of meso-pore compare to the micro-pore has not only the better adsorption capacities for NOM but also the higher strongly-adsorbable fraction. Therefore, the overall adsorption capacity is increased with higher meso-pore ratio with existing of reasonable micro-pore surface area and volume.
A Study on Bio-solids Applicability as Soil Stabilizer
Yang, Joo-Kyung ; Kang, Seon-Hong ; Lee, Chun-Won ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 2, 2011, Pages 257~264
Recycling of industrial products as the stabilizers can be proper handling of industrial products and has positive side in terms of recycling of wastes. In this study, the final aims were to evaluate the usability as stabilizer of Bio-solids which was generated from contaminated soil with heavy metals after primary process and to compare the treatment efficiency with slag being currently applied in many existing sites. Soluble and exchangeable forms have closely related to pollution of groundwater and plant growth and they can be used to determine the effect of the stabilization efficiency. Slag and Bio-solids were tested to investigate the capacity of stabilizing arsenic. Slag treatment process 4 (PS-ball 5%) showed higher leachate concentration rather to 0.84% compared to treatment 1 (blank) based on an average of 0.63%. The other hand treatment 4 (Bio-solids 5%) showed the lowest soluble and exchangeable forms to 0.57% when Bio-solids was applied to stabilize arsenic. Thus, the leaching of arsenic will be more reduced if the Bio-solids are used as stabilizer in stead of slag which is being currently used in many fields.
Runoff Characteristics and Non-point Source Pollution Loads from Cheongyang-Hongseong Road
Lee, Chun-Won ; Kang, Seon-Hong ; Ahn, Tae-Woong ; Yang, Joo-Kyung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 2, 2011, Pages 265~274
Nowadays, the importance of non-point source pollution treatment is being emphasized. Especially, the easy runoff characteristic of highly concentrated pollutants in the roads makes the circumstance more complicated due to impermeability of roads. When the pollutants flow into steam it could make water quality in stream worse and it also causes a bad influence in the aquatic ecosystem because the effluents of rainfall-runoff may contain indecomposable materials like oil and heavy metals. Therefore, we tried to figure out the property of non-point source pollution when it is raining and carried out an assessment for the property of runoff for non-point source pollution and EMC (Event Mean Concentrations) of the essential pollutants during this study. As the result of the study, the EMC was BOD 5.2~21.7 mg/L, COD 7.5~35.4 mg/L, TSS 71.5~466.1 mg/L, T-N 0.682~1.789 mg/L and T-P 0.174~0.378 mg/L, respectively. The decreasing rate of non-point pollutant in Chungyang-Hongsung road indicates the maximum decrease of 80% until 5 mm of rainfall based on SS concentration; by the rainy time within 20~30 minutes, the decreasing rate of SS concentration was shown as 88.0~97.6%. Therefore it was concluded that it seems to be possibly control non-point pollutants if we install equipments to treat non-point pollutants with holding capacity of 30 min. It is supposed that the result of this study could be used for non-point pollutants treatment of roads in Chungyang-Hongsung area. We also want to systematically study and consistently prepare the efficient management of runoff from non-point source pollution and pollutant loading because the characteristics of non-point source pollution runoff changes depending on different characteristics and situations of roads and rainfall.