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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 25, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
Evaluation on Chemical Cleaning Efficiency of Fouled in
Sea Water Reverse Osmosis Membrane Plant
Park, Jun-Young ; Kim, Ji-Hoon ; Jeong, Woo-Won ; Nam, Jong-Woo ; Kim, Young-Hoon ; Lee, Eui-Jong ; Lee, Yong-Soo ; Jeon, Min-Jung ; Kim, Hyung-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 3, 2011, Pages 285~291
Membrane fouling is an unavoidable phenomenon and major obstacle in the economic and efficient operation under sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO). When fouling occurs on the membrane surface, the permeate quantity and quality decrease, the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and operation costs increase, and the membrane may be damaged. Therefore, chemical cleaning process is important to prevent permeate flow from decreasing in RO membrane filtration process. This study focused on proper chemical cleaning condition for Shuaibah RO plant in Saudi Arabia. Several chemical agents were used for chemical cleaning at different contact time and concentrations of chemicals. Also autopsy analysis was performed using LOI, FT-IR, FEEM, SEM and EDX for assessment of fouling. Specially, FEEM analysis method was thought as analyzing and evaluating tool available for selection of the first applied chemical cleaning dose to predict potential organic fouling. Also, cleaning time should be considered by the condition of RO membrane process since the cleaning time depends on the membrane fouling rate. If the fouling exceeds chemical cleaning guideline, to perfectly remove the fouling, certainly, the chemical cleaning is increased with membrane fouling rate influenced by raw water properties, pre-treatment condition and the point of the chemical cleaning operation time. Also choice of cleaning chemicals applied firstly is important.
Understanding Uncertainties in Projecting Water Demand and Effects of Climate Change for Adaptive Management of Water Supply Risk of the Water Resources System
Lee, Sang-Eun ; Park, Hee-Kyung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 3, 2011, Pages 293~305
A special concern is paid to the risks with which small-sized water resources systems are confronted in supplying water in the far future. Taking the Gwangdong dam reservoir as a case study, the authors seek to understand demand-side and supply-side disturbances of a reservoir, which, respectively, corresponds to effects of water demand changes on the intake amount and those of climate changes on the inflow amount. In result, it is demonstrated that both disturbances in the next 50 years are almost unpredictable. Yet the projection ranges, thought of as relatively reliable information that models offer, reveal that severity and period of water shortage is very likely to change. It is therefore concluded that water resources management requires more rigorous approaches to overcoming high uncertainties. The methods and models for projecting those disturbances are selected, based on practicality and applicability. Nevertheless, they show a large usefulness, especially in dealing with data shortage and reducing the needs for expensive modeling resources.
Effects of sludge and
addition on advanced treatment of swine wastewater by using microalgae
Lim, Byung-Ran ; Park, Ki-Young ; Lee, Ki-Say ; Lee, Soo-Koo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 3, 2011, Pages 307~312
The potential of algal-bacterial culture was investigated for advanced treatment of animal wastewater. Fed-batch experiments were carried out to examine treatability of nitrogen and phosphorus in different microbial consortium: Chlorella vulgaris, activated sludge, three microalgae strains (Scenedesmus, Microcystis, Chlorella) and Bacillus consortium, and three microalgae strains and sludge consortium. Single culture of C. vugaris showed the better efficiency for nitrogen removal but was not good at organic matter and phosphorus removal compared with activated sludge. Three microalgae and Bacillus consortium was best culture among the culture and consortium for pollutants removal tested in this experiment. Effect of
addition was studied by using three microalgae and Bacillus consortium.
addition enhanced T-P removal efficiency up to 60%. However, removal efficiencies of T-N and ammonia nitrogen reduced on the contrary.
Effects of flushing techniques on water quality at extremity with low chlorine residuals in drinking water distribution systems
Ko, Kyung-Hoon ; Kweon, Ji-Hyang ; Kim, In-Ja ; Lim, Woo-Hyuk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 3, 2011, Pages 313~324
Several complaints from consumers on red or turbid waters were often filed at the same places although various efforts were made to improve water quality in the drinking water plant. The red water problems were occurred due to corrosion of main water pipe, especially at extremity. The low concentrations of chlorine indicating poor water quality were detected at the problematic location. To solve the poor water quality at the extremity, flushing techniques, i.e., conventional flushing, unidirectional flushing, and continuous flushing, were recently practiced. In this study, effects of conventional flushing on water qualities were examined by comparing turbidity and residual chlorine before and after flushing. In addition, more detailed analyses on water qualities at the tap water were conducted to learn a reduction pattern during flushing. Five items from geographic information system of water distribution were used to obtain a relationship with water quality, washing duration or amounts of washing water. The flushing was effective to meet the National Drinking Water Quality Standard with simple and relatively short time operation. The key operational parameter in flushing was amounts of washing water which should be estimated based on water quality of the consumer's tap water. The positive relationship between the residual chlorine and pipe length implied that detention time in the pipeline was the main cause of the complaints. More experiments on effectiveness of flushing are needed to determine reasonable strategies of flushing.
An evaluation of local waters productivity by operating types
Kim, Shang-Moon ; Lee, Ik-Gyu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 3, 2011, Pages 325~334
Market Environment around water work industry is rapidly changing. ISO, International Organization for Standardization, announced the international water work service standard for comparison and evaluation between nations and businesses. And developed countries in water work are introducing market principle for growth of nation's water industry and reinforcement of its competitiveness. Also, some local governments entrusted their water utilities for improvement of competitiveness of water work. However, as some failure cases from overseas came out with emphasis, there are many refuting perspective about entrusted operation achievements of domestic water market. Hence, this paper evaluated competitiveness of domestic local water utilities from the perspective of productivity. After evaluating productivity using Malmquist productivity index, the authors compared and analyzed whether there is a difference of productivity between two different operating types by using Mann-Whitney test. As a result of analysis, it has shown that local water utilities achieved higher productivity at entrusted operation type rather than direct operation type. The local water utilities which chose entrusted operation had increased the productivity 13.9% on total factor productivity(TFP) during experimenting period, while the local water utilities which chose direct operation had increased 0.2%. The background of achieving this high productivity in entrusted operation was analyzed as a result of the higher technological effectiveness of a special water company. The result of this study can be referred when local government needs to decide on what operating types they will use.
Evaluation of operating performance of secondary effluents treatment membrane system adapted chemical backwashing
Kim, Young-Hoon ; Lee, Chang-Ha ; Jeon, Min-Jung ; Lee, Yong-Soo ; Lee, Eui-Jong ; Nam, Jong-Woo ; Kim, Hyung-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 3, 2011, Pages 335~342
Secondary effluent contains particle compounds which are comprised of microorganisms that occurs membrane fouling when the water is reused. This study evaluates the characteristics of membrane fouling of secondary effluent reuse. Effects of chemical backwashing are analyzed to reduce membrane fouling by regular chemical backwashing. As the result, major membrane foulants are verified EPS materials which include protein and polysaccharide that cause biofilm cake layer on the membrane. Also, sodium hypochlorite is applied to chemical backwashing. The backwashing improves recover rate when injected chemical concentration is increased and chemical backwashing cycle is amplified. Chemical backwashing cycle affects more than injected chemical concentration yet idle time does not noticeably influence on reducing membrane fouling.
Effects of Pretreatment Time and pH low set value on Continuous Mesophilic Hydrogen Fermentation of Food Waste
Kim, Sang-Hyoun ; Lee, Chae-Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 3, 2011, Pages 343~348
Since 2005, food waste has been separately collected and recycled to animal feed or aerobic compost in South Korea. However, the conventional recycling methods discharge process wastewater, which contain pollutant equivalent to more than 50% of food waste. Therefore, anaerobic digestion is considered as an alternative recycling method of food waste to reduce pollutant and recover renewable energy. Recent studies showed that hydrogen can be produced at acidogenic stage in two-stage anaerobic digestion. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of pretreatment time and pH low set value on continuous mesophilic hydrogen fermentation of food waste. Food waste was successfully converted to
when heat-treated at
for 60 min, which was milder than previous studies using pH 12 for 1 day or
. Organic acid production dropped operational pH below 5.0 and caused a metabolic shift from
fermentation to lactate fermentation. Therefore, alkaline addition for operational pH at or over 5.0 was necessary. At pH 5.3, the result showed that the maximum hydrogen productivity and yield of 1.32
.d and 0.71 mol/mol
. Hydrogen production from food waste would be an effective technology for resource recovery as well as waste treatment.
Numerical Simulation of Water Quality Enhancement by Removal of Contaminated Bed Material
Lee, Nam-Joo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 3, 2011, Pages 349~357
This study has an objective to estimate effect on water-quality enhancement by removal of contaminated river-bed material using a two-dimensional numerical modeling in the Seonakdong River, the Pyunggang River and the Maekdo River. RMA2 and RMA4 models were used for flow and contaminant transport simulation, respectively. After the analysis of the effects of flow restoration plan for the Seonakdong River system made by Lee et al (2008), simulation have been performed about scenarios which contains operations of the Daejeo Gate, the Noksan Gate, the Makdo Gate (on planning), and the Noksan Pumping Station. Because there is no option for elution from bed sediment in the RMA4 model, a simple technique has been used for initial condition modification for elution. The analyses revealed that the effect on water quality improvement due to dredging of bed sediment seemed to be less than 10 % of the total effect. The most efficient measure for the water quality improvement of the river system was the linked operation of water-gates and pumping station.
Adsorption characteristics of lead ion in aqueous solution by volcanic ash
Kim, Mi-Yeon ; So, Myeong-Gi ; Kim, Yeong-Gwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 3, 2011, Pages 359~366
The feasibility of using volcanic ash for lead ion removal from wastewater was evaluated. The adsorption experiments were carried out in batch tests using volcanic ash that was treated with either NaOH or HCl prior to the use. Volcanic ash dose, temperature and initial Pb(II) concentration were chosen as 3 operational variables for a
factorial design. Ash dose and concentration were found to be significant factors affecting Pb(II) adsorption. The removal of Pb(II) was enhanced with increasing volcanic ash dose and with decreasing the initial Pb(II) concentration. Pb(II) adsorption on the volcanic ash surface was spontaneous reaction and favored at high temperatures. Calculation of Gibb's free energy indicated that the adsorption was endothermic reaction. The equilibrium parameters were determined by fitting the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, and Langmuir model better fitted to the data than Freundlich model. BTV(base-treated volcanic ash) showed the maximum adsorption capacity(
) of 47.39mg/g. A pseudo second-order kinetic model was fitted to the data and the calculated
values from the kinetic model were found close to the values obtained from the equilibrium experiments. The results of this study provided useful information about the adsorption characteristics of volcanic ash for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution.
Evaluation of effect of rapid mixing intensity on chemical phosphorus removal using Al hydrolysis speciation
Kim, Seung-Hyun ; Yoon, Dong-Soo ; Moon, Byung-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 3, 2011, Pages 367~373
Mechanism of rapid mixing effect on chemical phosphorus removal is evaluated in this study. Assuming that chemical phosphorus removal is unaffected by mixing time, only rapid mixing intensity is evaluated. In order to find out the mechanism, it is hypothesized that rapid mixing affects the Al hydrolysis speciation, and that formation of more monomeric species (
) results in better removal of phosphorus. According to a ferron assay, more
formed at higher mixing intensity than at lower intensity. Subsequent experiments revealed that better phosphorus removal was obtained at higher intensity than at lower intensity, in terms of the molar ratio of
. The proposed hypothesis was proved in this study. Chemical phosphorus removal is affected by rapid mixing intensity due to its effect on the Al hydrolysis speciation.
The effects of turbulence models on the numerical analysis of CSTR
Im, Yeong-Taek ; Park, No-Seok ; Kim, Seong-Su ; Lee, Beom-Hui ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 3, 2011, Pages 375~382
The usages of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) which is simulating turbulent flows in CSTRs (Complete Stirrer Tank Reactors) have been reported. Considering model strategies and simulation techniques, this paper is focused on the turbulence models. The results of this study would suggest multiple reference frameworks relevant to rotational flow simulation. Specifically, the analysis of turbulence dissipation rates referred to this study would solve the relevant environmental engineering problem and would be beneficial to the CFD in CSTRs using mechanical mixer.
Development of High-rate Nitrogen Removal Process Using Submerged MBR Packed with Granular Sulfur of Pilot Scale Plant
Mun, Jin-Yeong ; Hwang, Yong-U ; Jo, Hyeon-Jeong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 3, 2011, Pages 383~390
In this study, a process combined biofiltration with sulfur-utilizing autotrophic denitrification and membrane separation was proposed to examine the efficiency of nitrogen removal. As an experimental device, hollow-fiber module was installed in the center of reactor to generate the flux forward sulfur layer in the cylinder packed with granular sulfur. In addition, a simple module was installed in activated sludge aeration tank which inside and outside of sulfur-using denitrification module was covered with microfilter and the module was considered as an alternative of clarifier. The experiment for developing new MBR process was carried out for three years totally. As the results of first two-year experiment, successful nitrogen removal performance was revealed with lab-scale test and pliot scale plant using artificial wastewater and actual plating wastewater. In this year, pilot scale test using actual domestic wastewater was performed to prove field applicability. As the results, high-rate nitrogen removal performance was confirmed with about 0.19 kg
day of rate. Also significant fouling and pressure increase were not found during the experiment. And, the production ratio of sulfate and the consumption ratio of alkalinity showed a slightly higher value about 311 mg
and 369 mg
/L, respectively. In conclusion, the developed MBR process can be utilized as an alternative for retrofiting existing wastewater plants as well as new construction of advanced sewage wastewater treatment plants, with cost-effective merit.
A Performance Evaluation of the Highly Efficient Coagulation System for the Treatment of Overflows from Primary Clarifier in WWTP
Gwon, Eun-Mi ; Oh, Seok-Jin ; Kim, Heung-Seup ; Cho, Seung-Ju ; Lee, Seung-Chl ; Ha, Sung-Ryong ; Lim, Chea-Hoan ; Park, Ji-Hoon ; Kang, Seon-Hong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 3, 2011, Pages 391~398
This study is to develop highly efficient coagulation system(HECS) that runs treatment with a short retention time to cover the overflow in the rain, which coagulation, mixing and settling are contacted in a single reactor and to estimate the applicability. Setting up 100ton/day-size pilot scale plant, the results of continuous operation in case of runoff, maintaining 20 minute-retention time at optimum chemical injection condition(Alum 100mg/L, Polymer 1.0mg/L) shows the highest removal efficiency(Turbidity 93.1%, TCODcr 80.6%, BOD 81.8%, SS 92.5%, TN 72.3% and T-P 87.3%). It was estimated that the large amount of cost for separate sewage system and the size of area for system instruction can be reduced if the HECS is applied for CSOs treatment because the HECS is so compact and quickly. When we see the results, HECS from this study could be able to treat the pollutant quickly within a short retention time only with coagulant and polymer, which could show high applicability.
Characteristics of Reverse Flux by using Direct Omosis in RO Membrane Process
Kang, Il-Mo ; Dock-Ko, Seok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 3, 2011, Pages 399~405
In a desalination technology using RO membranes, chemical cleaning makes damage for membrane surface and membrane life be shortened. In this research cleaning technology using direct osmosis (DO) was introduced to apply it under the condition of high pH and high concentration of feed. When the high concentration of feed is injected to the concentrate side after release of operating pressure, then backward flow occurred from treated water toward concentrated for osmotic pressure. This flow reduces fouling on the membrane surface. Namely, flux of DO was monitored under pH 3, 5, 10 and 12 conditions at feed concentrations of NaCl 40,000 mg/L, 120,000 mg/L and 160,000 mg/L. As a result, DO flux in pH 12 increased about 21% than pH 3. DO cleaning was performed under the concentrate NaCl 160,000 mg/L of pH 12 during 20 minutes. Three kinds of synthetic feed water were used as concentrates. They consisted of organic, inorganic and seawater; chemicals of SiO2 (200 mg/L), humic acid (50 mg/L) sodium alginate (50 mg/L) and seawater. As a result, fluxes were recovered to 17% in organic fouling, 15% in inorganic fouling and 14% of seawater fouling after cleaning using DO under the condition of concentrate NaCl 160,000 mg/L of pH 12.
Evaluation of Runoff Loads and Computing of Contribute ratio by First Flush Stormwater from Cheongyang-Hongseong Road
Lee, Chun-Won ; Kang, Seon-Hong ; Choi, I-Song ; An, Tae-Ung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 3, 2011, Pages 407~417
Nowadays, the high land use, mainly used for urbanization, is affecting runoff loads of non-point pollutants to increase. According to this fact, increasing runoff loads seems like to appear that it contributes to high ratio of pollution loads in the whole the pollution loads and that this non-point source is the main cause of water becoming worse quality. Especially, concentrated pollutants on the impermeable roads run off to the public water bodies. Also the coefficient of runoff from roads is high with a fast velocity of runoff, which ends up with consequence that a lot of pollutants runoff happens when it is raining. Therefore it is very important project to evaluate the quantity of pollutant loads. In this study, I computed the pollutant loadings depending on time and rainfall to analyze characteristics of runoff while first flush storm water and evaluated the runoff time while first flush storm water and rainfall based on the change in curves on the graph. I also computed contribution ratio to identify its impact on water quality of stream. I realized that the management and treatment of first flush storm water effluents is very important for the management of road's non-point source pollutants because runoff loads of non-point source pollution are over the 80% of whole loads of stream. Also according to the evaluation of runoff loads of first flush storm water for SS, run off time was shown under the 30 minute and rainfall was shown under the 5mm which is less than 20% of whole rainfall. These are under 5mm which is regarded amount of first flush storm water by the Ministry of Environment and it is judged to be because run off by rainfall is very fast on impermeable roads. Also, run off time and rainfall of BOD is higher than SS. Therefore I realized that the management of non-point source should be managed and done differently depending on each material. Finally, the contribution ratio of pollutants loads by rainfall-runoff was shown SS 12.7%, BOD 12.7%, COD 15.9%, T-N 4.9%, T-P 8.9%, however, the pollutants loads flowing into the steam was shown 4.4%. This represents that the concentration of non-point pollutants is relatively higher and we should find the methodical management and should be concerned about non-point source for improvement on water quality of streams.
A Study on Pre-Red Mud and Bio-Solids Applicability as Soil Stabilizer
Yang, Joo-Kyung ; Kang, Seon-Hong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 3, 2011, Pages 419~428
Recycling as a stabilizer of industrial by-product can be terms of the proper handling of industrial by-product and positive side in terms of recycling of waste. This study was performed to evaluate has the possibility as stabilizer by primary processing Pre-Red Mud and Bio-Solids which are generated as waste in soils contaminated with heavy metals and compared the efficiency with steel slug being applied in an existing site. In evaluation of the arsenic-fixing ability of stabilizer in batch test, Bio-Solids have the similar arsenic-fixing ability with Pre-Red Mud, which shows 17% h igher arsenic-fixing ability than PS Ball. Since the stabilization periods using Bio-Solids and Pre-Red Mud are faster than the PS Ball, they seems to be better stabilizer than PS Ball to decrease the leaching of arsenic in contaiminated soil.