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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 25, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
Characteristics of Red Tide Blooms in the Lower reaches of Taehwa River
Cho, Hong-Je ; Yoon, Yeong-Bae ; Kang, Ho-Seon ; Yoon, Sung-Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 453~462
This study was analyzed to determine the cause of red tide at 10 and 30 days antecedental rainfall, stage and discharge in the Taehwa River, tidal data of Ulsan port, also, it was analyzed variation of red tide population, salinity, BOD, COD, T-N, T-P at S1, S2 each point. Most of the red tide in the Taehwa River occurred by provision of proper nutrients with antecedent, the proximity between discharge and low-flow capacity, and stage and discharge of stabilized condition after the sea water was inflowed by maximum tide difference. Red tide population is not nearly related to the change of salinity, the Taehwa River seems specific features of Non-coastal rivers downstream, because red tide was occurred when salinity quite low-end condition.
Degradation Of 4-chlorophenol By Photo-Fenton Process and Fenton Process in Aqueous Solutions
Kim, Hyun-Seung ; Kim, Il-Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 463~469
The degradation of 4-chlorophenol by various AOPs(Advanced Oxidation Processes) including the Fenton and the photo-Fenton process has been examined. In sole Fe, UV or
process without combination, low removal efficiencies have been achieved. But the photo-Fenton process showed higher removal efficiency for degradation of 4-chlorophenol than those of other AOPs including the Fenton process. Generally more hydrogen peroxide was required to achieve higher removal efficiencies of 4-CP at constant dosage of
in both of the Fenton and the photo-Fenton processes. Based on the results, The photo-Fenton process is proposed to be the most efficient alternative for degradation of 4-chlorophenol among the processes studied in this research.
Particle Separation and Flotation Efficiency by Dissolved Carbon Dioxide Flotation Process
Kwak, Dong-Heui ; Kim, Seong-Jin ; Jung, Heung-Jo ; Park, Yang-Kyun ; Yoo, Young-Hoon ; Lee, Young-Dong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 471~478
A series of laboratory experiments carried out to investigate the particle separation efficiency and flotation characteristics using
bubbles. The primary objective of this study was to find out the feasibility of
bubbles as an applicable unit of flotation process in tap-water and wastewater treatment plant. The fundamental measurements were conducted to characterize the
bubble from the physical viewpoint in water including bubble size distribution and rising velocity under various operational conditions. In addition, the removal efficiency of solid was experimented using the lab scale plant applied
bubbles, namely the dissolved carbon dioxide flotation (DCF) process. The DCF process using carbon dioxide bubble, which is an advantage as the decrease and the reuse of Green-House gas, can be a promising technology as an water treatment process. On the other hand, the further research to decrease the bubble size distribution of
is required to enhance the particle separation efficiency.
Influence of inorganic compounds on nanofiltration membrane fouling with Al hydrolysis products
Choi, Yang-Hun ; Kweon, Ji-Hyang ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 479~488
Nanofiltration was performed with polyaluminium chloride solutions at different pH conditions to understand effects of inorganic compounds on aluminum hydrolysis products, i.e., three distinctive groups of aluminum species: polymeric Al at low pH;
at neutral pH; and
at high pH. The PACl solution was prepared to be approximately 4.0mM and adjusted to the designated pH. The influence of inorganic compounds on Al species fouling was investigated with 4.9mM
are the most common inorganics in the drinking water. NF membrane fouling was measured by flux decline rate. The impact of
was not significant on the individual Al hydrolysis products fouling. However, the flux decline rate was drastically changed in the presence of
. The concentration of particulate matters was considerably increased possibly due to interaction between Al species and
was introduced. The particulates were accumulated on the membrane and enhanced the hydraulic resistance of the cake layer. In addition, conductivity removal of the membrane was decreased when Al-hydroxide was dominant due to reduction of membrane surface charge. The rejection of
were considerably different, which implys that composition of inorganics paly a role on conductivity removal.
Verification of Silt Density Index (SDI) as a fouling index for reverse osmosis (RO) feed water
Kim, Su-Han ; Kim, Chung-H. ; Kang, Suk-H. ; Lee, Won-T. ; Lim, Jae-L. ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 489~495
Silt Density Index (SDI) has been used as a fouling index for reverse osmosis (RO) processes for decades. In order to decrease RO fouling, feed water should meet SDI standard, which was used to select a proper pretreatment system for RO processes. However, SDI is supposed to be sensitive only to particles larger than 0.45
in terms of diameters while nanoparticles and dissolved organic matter can be potent foulants for RO processes. Our study started from the suspected performance of SDI as a RO fouling index. SDI data from pilot plants located world wide including South Korea were collected and analyzed. Suspended partcle concentration (i.e., turbidity and particle counts), and dissolved organic matter concentration (i.e., dissolved orgnaic carbon (DOC) concentration) data were also collected and compared to SDI values of same water samples. We found that SDI values were not only affected by suspended particle concentration but also by dissolved organic matter concentration. Therefore SDI can be used as a reasonable fouling index for RO feed water because the main foulants for RO processes are suspended particle and dissolved organic matter.
Case study on Hydraulic characteristics within Chlorine Contactors in Series
Kang, Tea-Hun ; Chae, Seon-Ha ; Kim, Seong-Su ; Wang, Chang-Keun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 497~502
In order to examine the effects of combination of plug flow reactors in series on hydraulic characteristics, comparative tracer tests were conducted for the cases of the existing clear well and clear wells combined in series. From the results of tests,
/T within existing clear well was 0.62~0.68 depending on inlet flowrate, and that in the case of combination in series was 0.69~0.78. While it would be minor improvement in contact efficiency, it would be appropriate to combine two clearwell with pipe in series for expansion.
Modeling of Ammonia Mass Transfer Using a Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactor
Oh, Dae-Yang ; Jeong, Joo-Young ; Choi, Won-Ho ; Park, Joo-Yang ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 503~510
Ammonia in water which is toxic to human, its concentration is regulated below 0.5 mg/L in drinking water. Current study aimed to develop appropriate models for ammonia stripping using hollow fiber membrane contactor. Two different models were developed during the study. Model 1 was assumed only free ammonia (
) transfer in stripping process, whereas the Model 2 was assumed with total ammonia (
) transfer. Ammonium chloride (
), sodium hydroxide(NaOH) were used to make ammonia solution, which was concentration of 25 mg as N/L at a pH of 10.5. The experimental conditions were such that, the liquid flow was in tube-side in upward direction and t he gas flow was on shell-side in downward direction a t room temperature. The experimental and modeling results showed that marginal difference were observed at low gas flux. However the difference between the both models and experimental value were increased when the gas flux was increased. The study concludes that the Model 1 with free ammonia is more appropriate when both models were compared and useful in ammonia stripping process at low gas flux.
Carbon Emission Evaluation of Tap Water
Kim, Jin-Keun ; Jeon, Hong-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 511~517
To evaluate carbon emission in water treatment processes, LCA (life cycle assessment) was applied to 8 multi-regional water treatment plants (WTPs) from intake to supply of tap water. Investigation of 8 WTPs revealed that average carbon emission for 1
of tap water was 221 g. Major carbon emission sources in water supply system were intake and supply processes. Meanwhile, mixing process was the main carbon emission source in unit water treatment processes. Carbon emission was proportional to the turbidity and COD of raw water. Intake of better raw water and minimization of energy consumption in unit processes are needed to reduce carbon emission in the WTPs. In addition, comparison of carbon emission among WTPs can be used as a parameter for optimization of operation and maintenance of water treatment processes.
Improvement of sampling method for bacteriological test in tap water
Lee, Eun-Sook ; Lee, Dong-Sik ; Lee, Mok-Young ; Lee, Man-Ho ; Han, Sun-Hee ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 519~525
We studied on the effect of faucet cleanliness, faucet conditions (screen, mixing faucet), and flushing time for bacterial detection in tap water. As results, tap water should be left to run to waste for 2 to 3 minutes and if a questionable cleanliness is questionable, disinfect the faucet by using flaming or other methods before sampling. We proposed sampling method to decrease effect of factors associated with bacterial detection in tap water and contributed to be evaluated more accurate water quality.
Photocatalytic Degradation of Dibenzothiophene in Aqueous Phase
Jo, Sung-Hye ; Yoe, Seok-Jun ; Kim, Il-Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 527~534
In this research, the photocatalytic degradation of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in
aqueous suspension has been studied.
photocatalysts are prepared by a sol-gel method. The dominant anatase-structure on
particles is observed after calcining the
for 1hr. Photocatalysts with various transition metals (Nd, Pd and Pt) loading are tested to evaluate the effect of transition metal impurities on photodegradation. The photodegradation efficiencies with
including Pt and Pd are higher than pure
powder. Also we investigated the applicability of
to increase the efficiency of the
photocatalytic degradation of dibenzothiophene. The degradation efficiency increases with increasing dosage of
in the range of 0.01M to 0.1M . The effect of pH is investigated; we obtained the maximum photodegradation efficiency at pH 5. In addition, the intermediate analysis found dihydroxyl -dibenzothiophene as a reaction intermediate of dibenzothiophene during the photodegradation.
A Study on the Environmental Assessment for Regional-Based Green Area Conservation
Oh, Seung-Ryun ; Kang, Seon-Hong ; Lee, Chun-Won ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 535~546
The study area investigated in this research is Hwaseong city, Gyeonggi-Do where small scale development is currently in progress. For the last three years, we carried out the environmental and ecological assessment by using data from The Ministry of Environment and Han River Basin Environmental Office. Most of development works in Hwaseong city, Gyeonggi-Do are small scale developments which are related with factory and distribution complex based on individual laws and regulations. However, environmental and ecological assessment is not being sufficiently reflected beforehand. Especially, because the development takes place mainly in the outskirts of the city, the fine forest is continuously being damaged. We analyzed changes in green zone area caused by the developments. As a result, the percentage of original green zone was decreasing while the percentage of artificial green zone was increasing. We should maintain the percentage of the original green zone in order to conserve natural environment. In the past three years, the damage of the DGN (Degree of Green Naturality) 7 area that has high conservative value was little, but, there was serious damage in the area of DGN 6. In order to conserve natural environment, political and institutional investigation should be seriously carried out for mitigation of environmental and ecological damages.
Estimation for Raw Water Quality of Manganese Concentrations from Archived Data in Small-scale Water Systems
Min, Byung-Dae ; Yamazaki Kimiko ; Koizumi Akira ; Koo, Ja-Yong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 547~554
In small-scale water systems, the measurement of quality of raw water in running water is generally implemented when the quality of water is stable and frequency of measurement is low. However, units such as water temperature and pH, which are easily monitored, are frequently measured. In establishing an improvement plan for a water treatment system, the range of concentration of the target material present in the raw water of the running water provides relevant information. If the concentration of target material can be specified by the quality of water of data items that are measured daily, inverse estimation of the range of concentration is possible as well. In this paper, we took note of manganese in the raw water from Ogasawara-mura, Tokyo, and estimated the manganese concentration in the raw water of the running water for the past five years. Based on the results obtained, we have proposed a manganese removal system, considering the current situation and geographical conditions of Ogasawara-mura.
Photocatalytic Degradation of Trichloroethylene in Aqueous Phase
Jo, Sung-Hye ; Nam, Ju-Hee ; Kim, Il-Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 555~564
The photocatalytic degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in
aqueous suspension has been studied.
photocatalysts are prepared by a sol-gel method. The dominant anatase-structure on
particles is observed after calcining the
for 1hr. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood model is applicable to describe the photodegradation, which indicates that adsorptionof the solute on the surface of
particles plays an important role in photodegradation. Photocatalysts with various transition metals (Nd, Pd and Pt) loading are tested to evaluate the effect of transition metal impurities on photodegradation. The photodegradation efficiencies with
including Pt, Pd and Nd are lower than pure
powder. The effect of pH is investigated and the maximum photodegradation efficiency is obtained at pH 7. In addition, the intermediates such as dichloromethane, chloroform, and trichloroethane are detected during the photodegradation of TCE.
Effects of Sludge Pre-Treatment on the Excess Sludge Production in a Membrane-Coupled Bioreactor
Lee, Kang-Hoon ; Kim, Ju-Hyun ; Nguyen, Hai ; Yeom, Ick-Tae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 565~572
The effects of chemical pretreatments on the excess sludge production in the membrane-coupled bioreactor were investigated. In addition, their effects on membrane fouling were also evaluated. Two membrane bioreactors were operated. In one reactor, a part of the mixed liquor was t reated with NaOH and ozone gas consecutively and was returned to the reactor. T he f lowrate of the chemical pretreatment stream was 1.5% of the influent flowrate. During the 200days of operation, the MLSS level in the bioreactor with mixed liquor pretreatment was maintained relatively constant at the range of 8,000 ~ 10,000
while it increased steadily up to 26,000
in the absence of the pretreatment. Each reactor was equipped with two laboratory membrane modules where the flux for each module was 20, and 30
, respectively. With pretreatment, almost constant transmembrane pressure(TMP) was observed throughout the operation at the flux of 20
. Without pretreatment the membrane module at the same flux could also be operated at relatively stable condition. However, as the MLSS increases up to 25,000
, a fast TMP increase was observed. In conclusion, a complete control of excess sludge production in the membrane-coupled bioreactor was possible without significant deterioration of the treated water quality. In addition, it was shown that stable operation in terms of TMP is possible with sludge pretreatment and recirculation.
Energy Recovery Technologies for Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Systems : A Review
Kim, Yeong-Min ; Lee, Won-Tae ; Choi, June-Seok ; Kang, Man-Gon ; Lee, Sang-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 573~579
As rapid advances in technologies continue, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination systems are now more energy-efficient than conventional thermal processes. Some SWRO desalination plants can achieve the specific energy consumption (SEC) below 2 kWh/
. Along with the development of new membranes and high-performance pumps, energy recovery devices (ERD), which recover the hydraulic energy of brine, have been developed to enhance energy efficiency. In this work, we reviewed general aspects of ERD technologies and their market trends. The advantages and disadvantages of various EDR technologies were compared to explore the future directions of ERD development.
Development of Water Demand Forecasting Simulator and Performance Evaluation
Shin, Gang-Wook ; Kim, Ju-Hwan ; Yang, Jae-Rheen ; Hong, Sung-Taek ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 581~589
Generally, treated water or raw water is transported into storage reservoirs which are receiving facilities of local governments from multi-regional water supply systems. A water supply control and operation center is operated not only to manage the water facilities more economically and efficiently but also to mitigate the shortage of water resources due to the increase in water consumption. To achieve the goal, important information such as the flow-rate in the systems, water levels of storage reservoirs or tanks, and pump-operation schedule should be considered based on the resonable water demand forecasting. However, it is difficult to acquire the pattern of water demand used in local government, since the operating information is not shared between multi-regional and local water systems. The pattern of water demand is irregular and unpredictable. Also, additional changes such as an abrupt accident and frequent changes of electric power rates could occur. Consequently, it is not easy to forecast accurate water demands. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce a short-term water demands forecasting and to develop an application of the forecasting models. In this study, the forecasting simulator for water demand is developed based on mathematical and neural network methods as linear and non-linear models to implement the optimal water demands forecasting. It is shown that MLP(Multi-Layered Perceptron) and ANFIS(Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) can be applied to obtain better forecasting results in multi-regional water supply systems with a large scale and local water supply systems with small or medium scale than conventional methods, respectively.
Electricity generation from surface floating air cathode microbial fuel cell according to the wastewater flow-rate and the ratio of cathode surface area to anode surface area
Yoo, Kyu-Seon ; Song, Young-Chae ; Woo, Jung-Hui ; Chung, Jae-Woo ; Lee, Chae-Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 591~596
Surface floating air cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) having horizontal flow was developed for the application of MFC technology. RVC (Reticulated vitreous carbon) coated with anyline was used as anode electrode and carbon cloth coated with Pt (5.0 g Pt/
, GDE LT250EW, E-TEK) was used as cathode electrode. As results of continuous operation with changing the flow rate from 4.3 mL/min to 9.5 mL/min, maximum power density of 4.5 W/
was acquired at 5.4 mL/min, which was at 0.35 m/hr of flow velocity under anode electrode. When the ratio of cathode surface area to anode surface area(
) was changed to 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25, the maximum power density of 2.7 W/
was shown at the ratio of 1.0. As the ratio decreased from 1.0 to 0.25, the power density also decreased, which is caused by increasing the internal resistance resulted from reducing the surface area to contact with oxygen. Actually, internal resistances of the ratio of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 were 63.75
, and 206.12
Efficiency Evaluation of Different Processes in Drinking Water Treatment
Kim, Hyung-Suk ; Lee, Byoung-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 597~604
This study was performed to compare finished water quality among three different processes. A detailed assessment of performance was carried out during the five months of operation. Finished water quality was evaluated on the basis of parameters such as Dissolved organic carbon (DOC),
absorbance, haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAFP), geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB), heterotrophic bacteria and total coliform bacteria. The treatment processes were Process 1 (coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation-sand filtration-ozone-GAC), Process 2 (coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation -microfiltration-ozone-GAC), and Process 3 (coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation- sand filtration-GAC), compared side by side in the pilot testing. Process 2 was found to have better removal efficiency of DOC,
absorbance, HAAFP and heterotrophic bacteria in comparison with process 1 and process 3 under identical conditions. Geosmin, 2-MIB and total coliform bacteria were not detected in finished water from each process.
Formation behaviour of Bromate in Processes of Advanced Water Treatment System using Nakdong river water
Kim, Young-Jin ; Hyun, Kil-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 605~610
The objectives of this study are to investigate a bromate behaviour in the processes of advanced water treatment system (AWTS: preozonation, coagulator-settler, rapid sand filter, postozonation, biological activated carbon (BAC) beds) and to investigate the effects of ozonation, pH and ammonia nitrogen on bromate (
) formation. As a result,
was not detected in the processes of the AWTS without ozonation, while it was detected in a preozonated and postozonated water. For
formation during June to November, the
concentration of <9.4
was observed in postozonated water, while it was reduced to about 46% by BAC beds. When applied ozone dosage and ozone contact time for influent with
of <0.3mg/L were 0.5-2.0mg/L.min and 10 min.,
concentration increased with increasing ozone dosage. Longer contact time and lower ozone level also was needed to inhibit the formation of
. At ozone dosage of 1.4 mg/L.min, the formation rate of
increased with increase of pH value. When
concentration increased from 0.1mg/L to 0.4mg/L,
concentration decreased to about 38%. These results revealed that
concentration increased with increasing Br level, ozone dosage, and pH value, while it decreased with increase of
Effects of Ultrasonic Pretreatment on Sludge Biodegradability
Kim, Ju-Hyun ; Lee, Kang-Hoon ; Nguyen, Hai ; Yeom, Ick-Tae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 611~616
The impacts of ultrasonic pretreatment on the biodegradability of domestic sewage sludge were evaluated through a series of anaerobic digestion experiments in batch system. The gas and methane production from the sludge samples pretreated by an ultrasonic tool with different durations were measured with time. Although the biogas production increased with the extent of sludge solubilization and the period of ultrasonic pretreatment, the enhancement of sludge biodegradability was much more sensitive to the pretreatment for the relatively short periods. Most of the enhanced biodegradability by the pretreatment was appeared in the early stage of anaerobic digestion, less than 6 days. The maximum biogas production per day was observed between 4 to 6 days when the sludge was pretreated less than 10 minutes while it was obtained in the beginning for the sludge pretreated longer periods. The results suggest that the repeated alternation of low strength ultrasonic pretreatment and anaerobic digestion may be more effective than the combination of one time pretreatment for a relatively long period and following anaerobic digestion.