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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 25, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
Flow behaviors of square jets surface discharged and submerged discharged into shallow water
Kim, Dae-Geun ; Kim, Dong-Ok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 627~634
In the present study, the flow behaviors of square jets surface discharged and submerged discharged into shallow water were each simulated using computational fluid dynamics, and the results were compared. As for the verification of the models, the results of the hydraulic experiment conducted by Sankar, et al. (2009) were used. According to the results of the verification, the present application of computational fluid dynamics to the flow analysis of square jets discharged into shallow water was valid. As for the wall jet, which is one form of submerged discharges, at the bottom wall boundary, the peak velocity of the jet rapidly moved from the center of the jet to the bottom wall boundary due to the restriction of jet entrainment and the no-slip condition of the bottom wall boundary, and, as for the surface discharge, because jet entrainment is limited on the free water surface, the peak velocity of the jet moved from the center of the jet to the free water surface. This is because jet entrainment is restricted at the bottom wall boundary and the surface so that the momentum of the central core of the jet is preserved for considerable time at the bottom wall boundary and the surface. In addition, due to the effect of the bottom wall boundary and the free water surface, the jet discharged into shallow water had a smaller velocity diminution rate near the discharge outlet than did the free jet; at a location where it was so distant from the discharge outlet that the vertical profile of the velocity was nearly equal (b/x =20~30), moreover, it had a far smaller velocity diminution rate than did the free jet due to the effect of the finite depth.
Case study comparisons of computational fluid dynamics modeling versus tracer test to evaluate the hydraulic efficiency of clearwell
Kim, Tae-Kyun ; Choi, Young-June ; Jo, Young-Mahn ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 635~642
Hydraulic efficiency was a vital component in evaluating the disinfection capability of clearwell. Current practice evaluates these system based on the tracer test only. In this paper, CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) was applied on the clearwell for alternating or supplementing the tracer test. The baffle factor derived from the CFD modeling closely matched the values obtained from full scale tracer testing. And, for suggesting proper numerical model in clearwell; the turbulence model, discretization scheme, convergence criteria were investigated through separate simulation runs. The model validation was conducted by comparing the simulated data with experimental data. In the turbulence model, the realizable
model and the standard
model were found to be more appropriate than RNG
model. The residuals of convergence criteria should be used as not
. In discretization scheme, the difference of simulated values in 1st, 2nd, 3rd upwind scheme was found to be insignificant. Moreover, the result of this study suggest that CFD modeling can be a reliable alternative to tracer testing for evaluating the hydraulic efficiency.
Degradation of Benzothiophene by Potassium Ferrate(VI)
Lee, Kwon-Chul ; Kim, Il-Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 643~649
Degradation of benzothiophene(BT) in the aqueous phase by potassium ferrate(VI) was investigated. Potassium ferrate(VI) was prepared by the wet oxidation method. The degradation efficiency of BT was measured at various values of pH, ferrate(VI) dosage and initial concentration of BT. BT was degraded rapidly within 30 seconds by ferrate(VI). While the highest degradation efficiency was achieved at pH 5, the lowest degradation efficiency was achieved at pH 9. Also, the initial rate constant of BT increased with decreasing of the BT initial concentration. In addition, the intermediate analysis for the reaction of BT and ferrate(VI) has been conducted using GC-MS. Benzene, styrene, benzaldehyde, formaldehyde, benzoic acid, formic acid, and acetic acid were identified as reaction intermediates, and
was identified as an end product.
Continuous Removal of Nitrate and Coliform using Bipolar ZVI Packed Bed Electrolytic Cell
Jeong, Joo-Young ; Park, Jeong-Ho ; Choi, Won-Ho ; Park, Joo-Yang ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 651~658
Nitrate is a common contaminant in industrial wastewater and ground water. The maximum contaminant level set by EPA for nitrate of 10 mg/L as N. In this study, nitrate was removed using bipolar ZVI packed bed electrolytic cell that maximized the contact area between each electrode and contaminants under 600 V. Also this study investigates the simultaneously deals with removal of ammonia by operating air stripping tower. In addition to the air stripping also helped to precipitate iron ions to the form of iron oxides. Bipolar ZVI packed bed electrolytic cell was also effective in removing coliform by electrical power. In the continuous experiments for the simulated wastewater (initial nitrate for 25 mg/L as N), maximum 96.3% removal of nitrate was achieved in the applied 600 V at the flow rate of 6 mL/min.
The treatment of sewage using DAF pump system with micro bubble and non-powered flotation tank
Kim, Dong-Ha ; Lee, Soo-Young ; Jung, Eui-Taek ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 659~666
Although DAF(Dissolved Air Flotation) has been successfully accepted for water and wastewater treatment, the fundamental characteristics of the process have not been fully investigated. Water is saturated with compressed air to dissolve the air into the water at high pressure in saturation tank. Then the water containing dissolved air is released into a floatation tank at a lower pressure, generating micro-bubbles that rise gently through the water and carry the suspended matter to the surface. This study investigated the removal of sewage using automatic mixture type DAF pump and non-powered flotation tank. Characteristics of two devices were compared and analyzed with samples. The results showed that the PAC exhibited higher performance than other coagulants. When air dosage was 2.5ml/l/min, treatment was stable in operation. In the DAF pump with a pressure of 4 atm., the average size of bubbles was 36.2
. Removal efficiency of SS was 80%. At this time removal efficiency of COD was about 80%, of T-N was 30% and T-P was 70% in stable operation. It was concluded that DAF pump system with micro bubble performed higher efficiencies compared to general DAF system for treating wastewater.
Water Quality Modeling for Intake Station by 2-dimensional Advection-Dispersion Model
Kim, Jae-Dong ; Kim, Ji-Hoon ; Kim, Young-Do ; Song, Chang-Geun ; Seo, Il-Won ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 667~679
In this study, the influences of pollutant from Dae-po Stream and So-gam Stream located at the downstream of Nak-dong River on the water quality at Mul-geum water intake station were analyzed using RAMS model. Field measurements of velocity by ADCP, and water quality distribution of BOD and TP by water sampling were carried out to present the input and verification data for numerical simulations. The comparison between RAM2 and ADCP measurement, which aimed for the analysis of 2-D velocity distribution around Mul-geum water intake station showed that two results matched well along the spanwise direction. The prediction of pollutant concentration by RAM4 agreed fairly well with the measured data except for the points nearby right banks in the vicinity of tributary pollutant source. Flushing effect by the increase of mainstream discharge in Nak-dong River was analyzed to provide the damage mitigation in preparation for the accidental water pollution. With increasing mainstream discharge, high velocity and increased water quantity induced increasing dilution effect, thereby decreasing the inflow pollutant concentration rapidly.
A Study on Membrane Fouling by COD fraction of Influent in Submerged MBR
Li, Sang-Jeong ; Joo, Jae-Young ; Bae, Yoon-Sun ; Jung, In-Ho ; Lee, Hae-Goon ; Jeong, Chang-Hwa ; Park, Chul-Hwi ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 681~689
Submerged membrane bio-reactor (SMBR) has several advantages such as high MLSS, long SRT, and low F/M ratio at wastewater treatment. So, this has widely applied over the world and many studies have been conducted. However, membrane fouling remains an inevitable problem. This study was investigated using bench-scale SMBR with three poeration modes. Raw waters were prepared by addition of starch, acetic and fibric acid to recovery water of zeolite. The efficiency of nitrification and COD were very stable as about 95% and 80%, respectively. And critical flux was 128.8L/
/hr. The result of biodegradability test was following values at the each mode : Ss+Xs/
=81.7%, 35.1% and 45.3%,
, 64.9% and 54.7%. When particulate matters such as
in influent are increased, membrane fouling will take place more and more. A relative ratio of filtration resistance to the fouling occurred by the cake layer was increased when increased the portion of
and polysaccharide. It was thought that the formation of cake layer was promoted due to bond between
and vicid material s generated from the polysaccharide.
A Study on the Evaluation of Water Consumption in Electric Appliances using Water Footprint - Focusing on Washing Machine -
Jo, Hyun-Jung ; Kim, Woo-Ram ; Park, Ji-Hyoung ; Hwang, Young-Woo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 691~697
In this study, by using the Water footprint technique, the water consumption by washing machines, which holds higher ranks in using water than any other electric appliances, was analyzed during their life cycle. The life cycle is defined as raw materials production step, manufacturing step, and using step. In raw materials production step, Input materials were researched by using LCI DB(Life Cycle Inventory Database) and the water consumption was calculated with consideration of approximately 65% Input materials which were based weight. In manufacturing step, the water consumption was calculated by the amount of energy used in assembly factories and components subcontractors and emission factor of energy. In using step, referring to guidelines on carbon footprint labeling, the life cycle is applied as 5 years for a washing machine and 218 cycles for annual bounds of usage. The water and power consumption for operating was calculated by referring to posted materials on the manufacture's websites. The water consumption by nation unit was calculated with the result of water consumption by a unit of washing machine. As a result, it shows that water consumption per life cycle s 110,105 kg/unit. The water consumption of each step is 90,495 kg/unit for using, 18,603 kg for raw materials production and 1,006 kg/unit for manufacturing, which apparently shows that the using step consume the most water resource. The water consumption by nation unit is 371,269,584tons in total based on 2006, 83,385,649 tons in both steps of raw material production and manufacturing, and 287,883,935 tons in using step.
Study on decentralized options of the in-stream flow for restoring the Gyobang cheon: application of the Urban Volume and Quality (UVQ) model to examine feasibilities in water quantity and quality
Shin, Sang-Min ; Choi, Go-Eun ; Lee, Sang-Eun ; Park, Hee-Kyung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 699~706
This study has a purpose of examining technical feasibility of supplying the in-stream flow for the Gyobang cheon by using treated water from small wastewater treatment facilities as a decentralized option. To do this, the water and contaminant flow in study areas of the Gyobang cheon are defined from the context of the integrated urban water cycle, and analyzed by using the Urban Volume and Quality (UVQ) model. First, the UVQ model was built for the study areas of the Gyobang cheon and calibrated with observation data. Second, the decentralized options of the in-stream flow was explored with consideration of availability of water sources. The UVQ simulation then led to selecting the best option which would meet the criteria of water quantity and quality. It was finally concluded that using water sources out of study areas 1 and 2, adjoining the upper part of the Gyobang cheon, in the decentralized manner can be a feasible option for in-stream flow. It also seems that the UVQ model is useful to understand the water cycle in study areas of the Gyobang cheon.
Introduction of Corrosion Index System for Stability of Drinking Water Quality
Kim, Yeong-Kwan ; Kim, Jin-Keun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 707~717
Replacement of old water distribution pipes for protecting water quality induced by pipe corrosion requires enormous budget. Even after the replacement, however, corrosion can occur again at any times and, therefore, inhibitive measure of the corrosion will be not only economical but needed to diminish the consumers' distrust on tap water quality. In 2008, National Environmental Research Institute did a survey on 8 major drinking water source and proposed to establish the Langelier Saturation Index(LI) as a corrosion index in Drinking Water Quality Criteria. Among the water industries of Korea, K-Water is the only one that set up the level of pH over 7.0 and LI above -1.5 on yearly average basis. However, no systematic regulation including LI to inhibit the corrosive tendency has been established yet. In this paper, LI values out of 31 drinking water treatment plants were analyzed and two-stage control of LI value as a measure of corrosive tendency of water is proposed. Primarily, water treatment facilities may operate the system at a target LI value below -1.5. Following the investigation on the effect caused by adjusting the LI value on water quality and corrosiveness, it will be desirable to improve LI value below -1.0 in the long run. In addition to the LI, supplemental use of Larson's modified ratio (LMR) which incorporates hydraulic detention time will be necessary. Several methods to prove the inhibitive effect of improving the LI value on water quality have been also suggested.
Surface modified mesoporous silica (SBA-15) for phosphate adsorbents in water
Lee, Seung-Yeon ; Choi, Jae-Woo ; Lee, Sang-Hyup ; Lee, Hae-Goon ; Lee, Ki-Bong ; Hong, Seok-Won ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 719~724
The excessive phosphate in water causes eutrophication which destroys water environment. In this study, mesoporous silica was synthesized and several functional groups were attached on it. Samples were tested to identify the ability to remove phosphate. The structures of synthesized materials were analyzed by X-ray diffractions (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) and surface area analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). To determine the maximum phosphate adsorption capacities and sorption rate, the equilibrium test and kinetic test was conducted. Among functionalized SBA-15 samples, pure SBA-15 didn't adsorb phosphate but Al-SBA-15 and Ti-SBA-15 showed good performances to remove phosphate. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity of Al-SBA-15 was efficient compared to other adsorbents.
Phosphate removal in water by mesostructure based on titanium and silica
Lee, Seung-Yeon ; Choi, Jae-Woo ; Lee, Sang-Hyup ; Lee, Ki-Bong ; Hong, Seok-Won ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 725~730
In this study, it was investigated that the feasibility of utilizing inorganic mesostructures for removal of phosphate in water. The comparison of the efficiency for phosphate adsorption between inorganic mesostructures was conducted. X-ray diffraction(XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller(BET) methods were used to characterize these mesostructures. The efficiencies of silica and titanium mesostructures for the removal of phosphate from aqueous solution were investigated. Equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacities of mesostructure adsorbents were found to be 49.3 and 19.5 mg
for the titanium and silica mesostructures, respectively. The adsorption kinetics was described by a pseudo third-order kinetic model. The results from this study indicated that the titanium mesostructure has the potential to be utilized for the cost-effective removal of phosphate from wastewater.
Characteristics and Improvement of Tap Water Corrosivity in Korea
Kim, Jin-Keun ; Kim, Yeong-Kwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 731~739
To investigate corrosivity characteristics of tap water in Korea, Langelier index (LI) of 30 multi-regional water treatment plants (WTPs) were evaluated. Weekly LI values of 30 WTPs were all negative, which means tap water in Korea might be very corrosive. Maximum LI decrease through water treatment processes was 0.95 under no additional corrosion control process. Based on the correlation results between LI and tap water qualities, pH and calcium concentration were confirmed as major parameters for LI control. Addition of calcium hydroxide with
or calcium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide can be chosen based on water quality. Continuous monitoring of LI and related parameters is recommended in water distribution system.
Complex odor removal in pilot-scale biofilter with microorganisms immobilized on polymer gel media
Kim, Sun-Jin ; Kim, Tae-Hyeong ; Lee, Yun-Hee ; Jang, Hyun-Sup ; Song, Ji-Hyeon ; Hwang, Sun-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 741~750
A pilot-scale biofilter was constructed to discover degradation characteristics of the complex odor discharged from Ansan wastewater treatment plant. Candida tropicalis for volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxidizing bacteria(SOB) for hydrogen sulfide, and bacteria extracted from feces soil were immobilized on a polymer gel media. According to this study, the EBCT was varied from 36 sec to 18 sec. Toluene was removed as 80% along the variations, but it was recovered as 100% within 1 week. All benzene and xylene were removed during the operation while the efficiency of hydrogen sulfur was temporary decreased at 18 sec of EBCT, thereafter it was recovered to 100% within a week. The maximum elimination capacities of the benzene, toluene, xylene, and hydrogen sulfur were 6.6 g/
/hr, 31.7 g/
/hr, 7.8 g/
/hr, and 133.6 g/
/hr, respectively. There were merits on removal both organic and inorganic complex odor using the pilot-scale biofilter embedded with microorganisms immobilized on polymer gel media.
The Flow rate estimation of CSOs using EC Data
Choi, Weon-Suk ; Song, Chang-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 751~757
The monitoring technique based on electrical conductivity (EC) can provide researchers with some advantages in maintenance management and is cost-effective as compared with existing CSOs monitoring. In this study, the flow rate estimation using EC data was executed in two sites where storm overflow chamber had installed. In the result of A-site, R2 of second order multinomial between dilution ratio of EC and observed flow rate was showed the range of 0.68 ~ 0.77. And
of B-site was 0.62 ~ 0.81. On the other hand, cumulative frequency of A-site was 43.4 ~ 52.2% in the relative error level of under 20%. And B-site was 10.1 ~ 46.5%. The flow rate estimation formula was improved through consideration of some parameters including antecedent dry days and rainfall duration. And difference between estimated flow rate and observed flow rate in total rainfall event was very small.
Examining the effects of wall roughness on the hydraulic characteristics of chlorine contactor using Transient CFD Simulation Technique
Chae, Seon-Ha ; Lim, Young-Taek ; Cha, Min-Whan ; Kim, Jong-Oh ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 759~765
In this study, in order to investigate the effects of wall roughness on the hydraulic characteristics of chlorine contactor, CFD simulation and tracer tests were conducted for both of reactors whose walls are made of concrete and lined with PE(Poly Ethylene). In the case of walls contacted with water being lined with PE (relatively lower roughness), the flow within reactor is closer to plug flow than that in the case of concrete walls (relatively higher roughness). Especially, the longer tail of C-curve from the results of transient CFD simulation can tell that Morill index in the case concrete walls is much higher than that in the case of walls be lined with lower roughness material.
Fluoride and nitrate removal in small water treatment plants using electro-coagulation
Han, Song-Hee ; Chang, In-Soung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 767~775
In this study we verified if the electro-coagulation process can treat properly the nitrate and fluoride that are not removed well in the conventional small water treatment plants which usually employ chlorination and filtration only. As we gave a change of electrode material and gap-distance between electrodes, removal efficiency of the nitrate and fluoride was determined by electro-coagulation process which were equipped with aluminum and stainless steel (SUS304) electrodes. In addition, electrode durability was investigated by determination of electrodes mass change during the repetitive experiments. Removal efficiency was great when aluminum was used as an anode material. Nitrate removals increased as electric density and number of electrodes increased, but fluoride removal was less sensitive to both parameters than nitrate. After 10 minutes of contact time with the current density from
, nitrate and fluoride concentration ranged from 9.2 to 1.2mg/L and from 0.02 to 0.01mg/L, which satisfied the regulation limits. Regardless of the repeating number of experiments, removal efficiency of both ions were almost similar and the change of electrode mass ranged within
0.5%, indicating that the loss of the electrode mass is not so much great under the limited circumstances.
Analysis of the sludge thickening characteristics in the thickener using CFD Model
Park, No-Suk ; Moon, Yong-Taik ; Kim, Byung-Goon ; Kim, Hong-Suck ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 777~782
The residual treatment facilities in WTP(water treatment plant) play an important role in solid-liquid separation. At present, it is difficult to solve problems related with thickening and dewatering of WTP sludge, and discharging waste water to river. The quantity of residuals generated from water treatment plants depends upon the raw water quality, dosage of chemicals used, performance of the treatment process, method of sludge removal, efficiency of sedimentation, and backwashing frequency. Sludge production by the physical separation of SS(Suspended Solid) occurs under quiescent conditions in the primary clarifier, where SSs are allowed to settle and to consolidate on the clarifier bottom. Raw primary sludge results when the settled solids are hydraulically removed from the tank. In this study, Drawing characteristics of the sludge thickening in the thickener of Water Treatment Plants was simulated by Using CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics.
Measures to improve water quality of Lake Euiam by controlling the incoming pollutants to the lake
Hwang, Hwan-Min ; Yi, Geon-Ho ; Kim, Mi-Yeon ; Kim, Dong-Jin ; Kim, Yeong-Kwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 783~790
The purpose of this study was to suggest the alternative measures to properly manage the water quality of Lake Euiam, Chuncheon. Current pollution level of Gongji stream (influent to Lake Euiam) and sources of contamination in Lake Euiam were investigated. Particle size, organic matter and nutrient contents, heavy metals were analyzed for sediment samples taken from lower region of Gongji stream. Average organic matter content of nine sediment samples was 5.7%, and for nitrogen and phosphorus it was 750 mg/kg and 977mg/kg, respectively. Heavy metals including aluminum, iron, manganese and zinc were measured, whereas Cd and As were not detected. Effluent from Chuncheon Wastewater Treatment Plant appeared to be one of the main cause of organic matter and nutrients level in Lake Euiam. Inhibition of primary production and consequent reduction of organic matter content within the Lake should be a key measure to protect the water quality of Lake Euiam. Preventive measures to reduce the level of nutrients in wastewater treatment effluent were found necessary.