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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 25, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
Effects of Retention Time on the Simultaneous of Odor Removal and Sludge Solubilization Using a Non-Thermal Plasma System
NamGung, Hyeong-Gyu ; Hwang, Hyun-Jung ; Song, Ji-Hyeon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 6, 2011, Pages 815~824
In this study, a non-thermal plasma system was employed to simultaneously remove odorous compounds and organic sludge. The system consisted of two reactors; the first one was the non-thermal plasma reactor where ozone was produced by the plasma reaction and the ozone oxidized hydrogen sulfide, the model odorous compound, and then the ozone-laden gas stream was introduced to the second reactor where wasted sludge was disintegrated and solubilized by ozone oxidation. In this study, the gas retention time (GRT) and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) were changed in the two-reactor system, and the effects of GRT and HRT on reduction efficiencies of odor and sludge were determined. As the GRT increased, the ozone concentration increased resulting in an increasing efficiency of hydrogen sulfide removal. However, the overall ozone loading rate to the second sludge reactor was the same at any GRT, which resulted in an insignificant change in sludge reduction rate. When HRTs in the sludge reactor were 1, 2, 4 hours, the sludge reduction rates were approximately 30% during the four-hour operation, while the rate increased to 70% at the HRT of 6 hours. Nevertheless, at HRTs greater than 4 hours, the solubilization efficiency was not proportionally increased with increasing specific input energy, indicating that an appropriate sludge retention time needs to be applied to achieve effective solubilization efficiencies at a minimal power consumption for the non-thermal plasma reaction.
A Study on Estimation of Pollutant Loads in Seonakdong River Using SWAT-SWMM Model
Kim, Jeong-Min ; Kim, Young-Do ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 6, 2011, Pages 825~837
Seonakdong river consists of stagnant sections whose flowrate is controlled by the Daejeo and Noksan gates. As a result, there is not a minimum flow during normal times. The Daejeo and Noksan gates are located at the upstream head and the downstream end of Seonakdong river, respectively. Seonakdong river is an estuarine tributary of Nakdong river, which is a reservoir-like river used for agricultural irrigation, with the gate at the estuary of the river to prevent the intrusion of saline. Since the construction of the water gates, the water quality of the river has become degraded. This could also be due to the internal loading of pollutants, especially nutrients, from the sediments of the river because of the elongated detention time by the water gates. This study was thus conducted for the purpose of evaluating the current hydrologic-cycle system and providing measures for the rehabilitation of the hydrologic cycle. In this research, the daily outflow in Seonakdong River was simulated using the SWAT and SWMM models, and the water quality concentration including BOD, SS, TN, and TP were analyzed. The possibility of the application of SWAT-SWMM hybrid simulation was determined through the verification of both models. The error analysis shows that the results of both SWAT and SWAT-SWMM simulations make good agreements with those of field observations. For the single simulation results of SWAT,
and NSE are 0.758, 0.511, respectively. For the hybrid simulation results of SWAT-SWMM, those are 0.880, 0.452, which means that the hybrid simulation can give more accurate results for the watershed where both the agricultural and urban areas exist.
Corrosivity Characteristics of Raw Water in Korea
Kim, Jin-Keun ; Kim, Jae-Won ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 6, 2011, Pages 839~846
To investigate corrosivity characteristics of raw water in Korea, Langelier index (LI) of 30 multi-regional water treatment plants (WTPs) were evaluated. Annual average values of LI at 30 WTPs were all negative, which means raw water in Korea is very corrosive. LI results for 4 major rivers showed that raw water from Han and Nakdong had relatively high values compared to those of Sumjin and Keum. On the other hand, LI values of raw water from the tributaries of four major rivers were relatively low presumably due to geological characteristics, and in some cases the values were less than -4.0 which means increase of LI is urgently needed to minimize red water problem. Based on the correlation results among LI and water quality parameters, pH, water temperature, calcium concentration were confirmed as major components for LI. Therefore, pH and calcium concentration control is an effective method for the improvement of LI in water treatment processes.
Development of Alarm System Using Fault Tree Analysis for Pumping Station and Reservoir of Waterworks
Ahn, Yong-Po ; Song, Moo-Geun ; Lee, Dong-Ik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 6, 2011, Pages 847~859
This paper presents an alarm system for the integrated monitoring and control station of waterworks in Daegu City. An alarm system informs the operator or other responsible individuals about the abnormality in the process so that an appropriate action can be taken. In practice, operators receive far more false and nuisance alarms than valid and useful alarms. Too many false and nuisance alarms can distract the operator from operating the plant, and thus critical alarms may be ignored. This problem can lead to the point that the operator no longer trusts the alarms or even shuts down the whole monitoring system. This paper proposes an efficient method to reduce false and nuisance alarms by prioritizing every fault using the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) technique. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated with a set of computer simulation under various faulty conditions.
Removal of Non-biodegradable Organic Contaminants in Wastewater from crude oil reserve base Using Pulse UV System
Sohn, Jin-Sik ; Park, Soon-Ho ; Jung, Eui-Taek ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 6, 2011, Pages 861~867
Wastewater from crude oil reserve base usually contains large amount of non-biodegradable contaminants. The conventional wastewater treatment progress can hardly meet the regulation of wastewater effluent quality. This study investigated the removal of non-biodegradable organic contaminants in wastewater from crude oil reserve base using a pulse UV treatment. The modified process incorporating pulse UV process was set up to treat the wastewater from crude oil reserve base. The treatment process is composed with coagulation and flocculation, micro-bubble flotation, sand filter, pulse UV system, and GAC filter. The results show CODMn was effectively removed by the process with pulse UV system and it can meet the wastewater effluent regulation. The single effect of pulse UV process in CODMn removal was not significant(9~15% based on sand filtered effluent), however with the subsequent activated carbon filter the removal ratio CODMn was increased up to 28% compared to the process without pulse UV syetem.
A Study for Drainage Pipe Construction Method using a Boring Machine
Chang, Jae-Goo ; Kang, Seon-Hong ; Kim, Dong-Eun ; Jung, Tae-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 6, 2011, Pages 869~875
Ministry of Environment has been promoting BTL business of the sewer rehabilitation which continues from 2005 up to now. Sewer rehabilitation is classified into three parts : wastewater pipe rehabilitation, rainwater pipe rehabilitation and drainage equipment rehabilitation. Drainage equipment rehabilitation is that drainage pipe connects wastewater pipe directly without water-purifier. In the drainage equipment construction, it is inevitable to have the damage of ground structures(wall, gate and U drain, etc) when an open excavation method is used. Therefore it is necessary to develop non-excavation method to connect drainage pipe and wastewater pipe like jacking method to avoid the damage of ground structure. This paper has conducted an analysis of the non-excavation method using a boring machine attached to backhoe, which is issued the verification certificate of environmental technology according to the Development of and Support for Environmental Technology Act, article.7. The index set in this analysis was sectionalized to the condition of construction, the grade of drainage pipe, the size of excavated hole, the amount of waste cement concrete and asphalt concrete and the benefit effect compared to open excavation method.
Analysis of Factors Affecting Peak Loading Coefficient of Sewer Works in Korea
Hyun, In-Hwan ; Lee, Young-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 6, 2011, Pages 877~884
Although peak loading coefficient is one of critical design factors for sewer works, its detailed affecting factors were not analyzed because of limited data availability. This study analyzed the affecting factors on peak loading coefficient with plenty data obtained from several newly constructed sewer works. Simple and multiple regression analysis methods were adopted to analyze the relationships of each variable with or without data filtering. Drainage population, drainage area, population density, and daily sewage flow per person showed very weak relationships under diverse characteristics of cities. However, daily sewage flow per person showed stronger relationships with peak loading when daily sewage flow per person was splitted into two ranges. Population density (i.e., drainage population divided by drainage area) and daily sewage flow per person considerably were related with peak loading coefficient when daily sewage flow per person is less than about 400 Lpcd.
An Analysis of Potential Environmental Impact Reduction for Combined Sewer Overflow Project using a LCA Methodology
Jo, Hyun-Jung ; Song, Jang-Hwan ; Hwang, Yong-Woo ; Park, Ji-Hyoung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 6, 2011, Pages 885~892
In this study, LCA(Life Cycle Assessment) on 'Saemangum CSO Project' was carried out to evaluate environmental impact which occurred during the construction and operation periods and the potential environmental impact reduction was analyzed by comparing production and reduction level of pollution loads. LCA was conducted out according to the procedure of ISO14040 which suggested Goal and Scope Definition, Life Cycle Inventory Analysis, Life Cycle Impact Assessment and Interpretation. In the Goal and Scope Definition, the functional unit was 1 m3 of CSO, the system boundary was construction and operation phases, and the operation period was 20 years. For the data collection and inventory analysis, input energies and materials from civil, architecture, mechanical and electric fields are collected from design sheet but the landscape architecture field is excepted. LCIA(Life Cycle Impact Assessment) was performed following the procedure of Eco-Labelling Type III under 6 categories which were resource depletion, eutrophication, global warming, ozone-layer destruction, and photochemical oxide formation. In the result of LCA, 83.4% of environmental impact occurred in the construction phase and 16.6% in the operation phase. Especially 78% of environmental impact occurred in civil works. The Global warming category showed the highest contribution level in the environmental impact categories. For the analysis on potential environmental impact reduction, the reduction and increased of environmental impact which occurred on construction and operation phases were compared. In the case of considering only the operation phase, the result of the comparison showed that 78% of environmental impact is reduced. On the other hand, when considering both the construction and operation phases, 50% of environmental impact is increase. Therefore, this study showed that eco-friendly material and construction method should be used for reduction of environmental impact during life cycle, and it is strongly necessary to develop technology and skills to reduce environmental impact such as renewable energies.
A Study on Sequential-Frequency Sonication for Improving Anaerobic Digestion
Whang, Gye-Dae ; Park, Sung-Han ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 6, 2011, Pages 893~906
The effect of ultrasound pretreatment on sludge degragability was investigated at different condotions: ultrasonic frequency(28, 40, 50kHz), intensity(10, 25, 50W), sonication time(10, 20, 30, 60min). Total suspended solid(TSS) and soluble chemical oxygen demand(SCOD) concentration were measured for the evaluation of pretreatment efficiency. The pretreated sludge was used as the feedstock for anaerobic digestion process. Biogas production and volatile suspended solid(VSS) removal were determined for evaluating the process performance. 1. TSS concentration of the sludge decreased at a constant rate as sonication operation was applied. The degradation rate of TSS increased when ultrasound frequency was decreased from 50kHz to 28kHz and intensity was increased from 10W to 50W. Efficiency of TSS degradation per input energy increased as ultrasonic frequency and intensity were decreased. At the frequency of 28 and 40kHz, SCOD concentration rapidly increased during the initial 30min of sonication time, and then it gradually increased. At 50kHz, SCOD concentration constantly increased for 60min of the sonication time. The SCOD production rate increased with increasing intensity under all ultrasound frequencies. 2. The optimum condition of ultrasound treatment was 28kHz, 50W and 60min for maximizing the biogas production, methane fraction, VSS removal. The highest values in biogas production, methane fraction in biogas, VSS removal were 370ml, 70%, 2.45g, respectively. Methane production rate per input energy increased at ultrasonic frequency and intensity decreased. 3. When raw sludge was pretreated at the condition of ultrasonic frequency of 28 and 40kHz in series, sequential-frequency sonication, intensity of 50W and 60min, biogas production, methane fraction, VSS removal were about the same that of 28kHz single-frequency sonication. When sequential-frequency sonication of 28 and 50kHz was applied in series, biogas production, methane fraction, VSS removal were 356 ~ 423ml, 69 ~ 71%, 2.41 ~ 2.78g, respectively. The pretreatment efficiency of 28-50kHz sequential-frequency sonication which sonication time of 28kHz and 50kHz was 40min and 20min was higher than that of 28kHz single-frequency sonication.
A comparative study on SBR and MLE Process for RO Retentate Treatment
Kim, Il-Whee ; Lee, Sang-Il ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 6, 2011, Pages 907~915
In this study, the SBR and MLE process was performed for a removal of the RO retentate and the nitrogen removal efficiency was evaluated. The inflow-rate of two processes was set a 10 L/day. The SBR process was operated a two cycle as HRT per one cycle was 12hr and the HRT of the anoxic and aerobic tank was respectively 7.5 hr and 16.5 hr. The methanol was injected for an effective denitrificaion owing to a low C/N ratio of the RO retentate. The two processes were effectively performed for nitrogen removal, but the average removal efficiency of the SBR process was about 94.93% better performance than the MLE process. Therefore, the SBR process demonstrated a good performance more than the MLE process for nitrogen removal of the RO retentate. The kinetic of SNR and SDNR was observed respectively 0.051 kg
and 0.287 kg
, which will be useful to design for the wastewater treatment system with a RO retentate.
Removal of boron in seawater by activated carbon adsoprtion
Kim, Han-Seung ; Kang, Joon-Seok ; Kim, Byung-Ro ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 6, 2011, Pages 917~922
Adsorption characteristics of boron on activated carbon was investigated in order to evaluate the use of activated carbon for the removal of boron in desalination processes using SWRO. Boron was removed ranging from 54~60% when the concentration of activated carbon was 1,000 mg/L in 6 hours under the initial boron concentration of 5 mg/L. The removal of boron increased by 20~22% with the increase of pH from 5 to 9. Organic matter had adverse effect on the adsorption of boron on activated carbon. Boron removal decreased by 10-12% when EDTA was added at 1 mg/L under 5 mg/L of boron and 200mg/L of activated carbon. In this results, activated carbon would be a good candidate for a pretreatment of desalination processes by SWRO from the view of mitigating the feed boron concentration to RO and meeting the effluent boron concentration without post-treatment after RO.
Evaluation of Levels of Service in Wastewater Utilities Considering Customer Value
Han, Sang-Jong ; Hwang, Hwan-Kook ; Chong, Yon-Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 6, 2011, Pages 923~933
In this study, we derived seven customer value factors to evaluate the levels of service in wastewater utilities required by customers. Levels of service according to the customer value were categorized into environmental amenity, accessibility of wastewater service, affordability of wastewater charge, quality of wastewater service, health and safety of wastewater service provision, reliability and responsiveness of wastewater service provision, and satisfaction of customer service. To investigate the levels of wastewater service, questionnaires were prepared according to the customer value factors, and the questionnaire survey was performed with 800 adults in all over Korea including male and female samples. The comprehensive satisfaction score for the wastewater service was 57.5 points, indicating a slightly good satisfaction level. The detailed analysis of the result showed that the satisfaction level was high in the wastewater service accessibility and call center service provision but it was relatively low in the river water quality and nasty smell of wastewater. It was concluded that the quality of wastewater service and customer service satisfaction need to be elevated primarily in order to improve levels of wastewater service required by the customers.
Feasibility Study on Installing a Multi-functional Storage Facility
Ryu, Jae-Na ; Oh, Jei-ll ; Lee, Kyoung-Yong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 6, 2011, Pages 935~947
In the era of climate change, the feasibility of a 'multi-functional storage facility' was evaluated in terms of various key performance indices such as flooding prevention effects, urban pollution reduction effects, and rainwater harvesting effects. As a result, the Korea Ministry of Environment introduced a new concept of 'multi-functional storage facility' for sewer flooding prevention and urban non-point pollution reduction. Prior to introducing these infrastructure (a large underground storage facility), the more details were needed to be examined carefully in all of technical aspects of construction and management. It was also well known that the validity of installation of 'multi-functional storage facility' was sometimes weakened because of a low B/C ratio.
Effect for CSOs Storage Construction - Analysis of Storm Water Run-off Characteristics in combined sewer system
Park, Jin-Kyu ; Lee, Nam-Hoon ; Kim, Hae-Ryong ; Lee, Woong ; Lee, Chae-Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 6, 2011, Pages 949~957
This aim of study was to investigate the characteristics of discharge of pollutants as well as the correlation between flow rate and water quality constituents in a combined sewer system according to the characteristics of rainfall. For the loading rates for each pollutant, the median concentrations of all pollutants except T-N was increased when a CSO took place. The loading rates of BOD, COD, SS, T-N, T-P, Cu and Zn at the CSOs were 328-1255, 25-129, 83-2009, 4-12, 14-51, 5-11 and 5-13 times higher than the DWF (Dry Whether Flow), respectively. Especially, SS loading rate was found to be highest in all pollutants. On the other hand, the range of the first flush coefficient, b for water quality constituents such as BOD, COD, SS, T-N, T-P, Cu and Zn were 0.537-0.878, 0.589-0.888, 0.516-1.062, 0.852-1.031, 0.649-0.954, 0.975-1.015 and 0.900-1.114, respectively. In term of correlation between flow rate and pollutant concentrations, SS concentration was highly correlated to flow rate. However, there was an inverse correlation between EC (Electrical Conductivity) and flow rate because of the high dilution of flow rate. In case of correlation between pollutants, there was a high correlation between SS and T-P.
Operation Strategy for a Multi-functional Storage Facility
Yun, So-Young ; Lim, Yoon-Dae ; Oh, Jei-ll ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 6, 2011, Pages 959~970
The frequent occurrence of sewer flooding and the intermittent discharge of non-point pollutions into the receiving water body are emerging issues recently due to the climate change and urbanization. These problems might be solved by introducing a multifunctional storage facility. Unlike a single-purpose storage facility, a multi-purpose storage facility should be operated at an instant to meet for flood prevention, reduction of non-point pollution and/or rainwater reuse. Considering various operational combinations it is suggested that prevention of sewer flooding coupled with reduction of non-point pollution is the most effective operational strategy for a multi-functional storage facility.
A Comparison of Substrate Removal Kinetics of Anaerobic Reactor systems treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Oh, Dae-Yang ; Shin, Chang-Ha ; Kim, Tae-Hoon ; Park, Joo-Yang ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 6, 2011, Pages 971~979
Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is the mixed organic wastewater generated from palm oil industry. In this study, kinetic analysis with treating POME in an anaerobic hybrid reactor (AHR) was performed. Therefore, the AHR was monitored for its performances with respect to the changes of COD concentrations and hydraulic retention time (HRT). Batch tests were performed to find out the substrate removal kinetics by granular sludge from POME. Modified Stover Kincannon, First-order, Monod, Grau second-order kinetic models were used to analyze the performance of reactor. The results from the batch test indicate that the substrate removal kinetics of granular sludge is corresponds to follow Monod's theory. However, Grau second-order model were the most appropriate models for the continuous test in the AHR. The second order kinetic constant, saturation value constant, maximum substrate removal rate, and first-order kinetic constant were 2.60/day, 41.905 g/L-day, 39.683 g/L-day, and 1.25/day respectively. And the most appropriate model was Grau second-order kinetic model comparing the model prediction values and measured COD concentrations of effluent, whereas modified Stover-Kincannon model showed the lowest correlation.
Comparison of physical cleaning applied to chemical backwashing of wastewater reuse membrane system
Lee, Chang-Ha ; Kim, Young-Hoon ; Jeon, Min-Jung ; Lee, Yong-Soo ; Jang, Am ; Kim Hyung-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 6, 2011, Pages 981~987
Biologically treated water contains a large quantity of organic matters and microorganisms which can cause various problems to membrane. The membrane fouling occurred by these reasons is hard to control by single physical cleaning. This study analyzes the efficiency of aeration with chemical backwashing and foulants removal during chemical backwashing. The cleaning efficiency improves when the chemical concentration is high and the contact time of chemical is long. Chemical backwashing with aeration shows exceptional cleaning efficiency which leads the physical cleaning is required during chemical backwashing since it forms flow inside the membrane submerged tank. From the foulants removal analysis, the particles such as turbidity and TOC removal rate increase when the aeration is applied. Dissolved matter of DOC and UV254 removal is dependent on higher chemical concentration. According to FTIR analysis, one of major foulants, the polysaccharide is controlled by the chemical backwashing with aeration condition.
Removal of Nitrate in Groundwater by Bipolar ZVI Packed Bed Electrolytic Cell at Field Pilot
Na, So-Jeong ; Jeong, Joo-Young ; Kim, Han-Ki ; Park, Joo-Yang ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 25, issue 6, 2011, Pages 989~994
Nitrate contamination of groundwater is a common problem throughout intensive agriculture areas (non-point source pollution). Current processes (e.g. ion exchange and membrane separation) for nitrate removal have various disadvantages. The objective of this study was to evaluate electrochemical method such as electroreduction using bipolar ZVI packed bed electrolytic cell to remove nitrate from groundwater at field pilot. In addition ammonia stripping tower continuously removed up to 77.0% of ammonia. Bipolar ZVI packed bed electrolytic cell also removed E.coli. In the field pilot experiment for groundwater in 'I' city (average nitrate 30~35 mg N/L, pH 6.4), maximum 99.9% removal of nitrate was achieved in the applied 600 V.