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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 26, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
Determination of Optimal Pressure Monitoring Locations of Water Distribution Systems Using Entropy Theory and Genetic Algorithm
Chang, Dong-Eil ; Ha, Keum-Ryul ; Jun, Hwan-Don ; Kang, Ki-Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 26, issue 1, 2012, Pages 1~12
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2012.26.1.001
The purpose of water distribution system is supplying water to users by maintaining appropriate pressure and water quality. For efficient monitoring of the water distribution system, determination of optimal locations for pressure monitoring is essential. In this study, entropy theory was applied to determine the optimal locations for pressure monitoring. The entropy which is defined as the amount of information was calculated from the pressure change due to the variation of demand reflected the abnormal conditions at nodes, and the emitter function (fire hydrant) was used to reproduce actual pressure change pattern in EPANET. The optimal combination of monitoring points for pressure detection was determined by selecting the nodes receiving maximum information from other nodes using genetic algorithm. The Ozger's and a real network were evaluated using the proposed model. From the results, it was found that the entropy theory can provide general guideline to select the locations of pressure sensors installation for optimal design and monitoring of the water distribution systems. During decision-making phase, optimal combination of monitoring points can be selected by comparing total amount of information at each point especially when there are some constraints of installation such as limitation of available budget.
Pipe Stiffness Prediction of Buried Flexible Pipes
Park, Joon-Seok ; Kim, Sun-Hee ; Kim, Eung-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 26, issue 1, 2012, Pages 13~20
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2012.26.1.013
In this paper, we present the result of an investigation pertaining to the pipe stiffness of buried flexible pipes. Pipe stiffness (PS) formula for the parallel plate loading condition is derived based on the elasticity theory. Vertical and horizontal displacements are also derived. Vertical deflection is always larger than the horizontal deflection because some of energy due to overburden load is stored in the pipe but the difference is negligibly small. In the study, mechanical properties of the flexible pipes produced in the domestic manufacturer are tested and the results are reported in this paper. In addition, pipe stiffness is determined by the parallel plate loading tests and the finite element analysis. The difference between test and analysis is less than 14% although there are significant variations in the mechanical properties of the pipe material. Therefore, it was found that the finite element analysis can be used to predict the pipe stiffness instead of conducting parallel plate loading test.
Evaluation of a Thermophilic Two-Phase Anaerobic Digestion Coupled with Membrane Process for Garbage Leachate Treatment
Lee, Eun-Young ; Jun, Duk-Woo ; Lee, Sang-Hwa ; Bae, Jae-Ho ; Kim, Jeong-Hwan ; Kim, Young-O ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 26, issue 1, 2012, Pages 21~27
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2012.26.1.021
This study evaluated the performance of a thermophilic two-phase anaerobic digestion (TTPAD) coupled with membrane process treating garbage leachate. The pilot-scale treatment system is consisted of thermophilic acidogenic reactor (TAR) and thermophilic methanogenic reactor (TMR) coupled with an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane unit. The hydraulic retention time of TAR and TMR were 4 and 20 days, respectively. Effluent TCOD and SCOD of the TTPAD were
g/L, respectively, and the corresponding TCOD and SCOD removal efficiencies were 77% and 81%, respectively. Propionate was major acids as 75% in the effluent. Scum formation was not observed in TTPAD, which might be resulted from complete lipid degradation. However, TTPAD was appeared to be sensitive to free ammonia toxicity. The UF membrane was operated with constant pressure filtration at average TMP 1.3 atm. Permeate flux had a range of 15-30
. With UF membrane, TCOD removal increased from 77% to 93%, and this SS free effluent would be beneficial to subsequent processes such as ammonia stripping.
Development of Optimal Bio-encapsulated Media for Organic/Inorganic Odor Reduction
Kim, Sun-jin ; Kim, Tae-Hyeong ; Lee, Yun-Hee ; Jang, Hyun-Sup ; Song, Ji-Hyeon ; Hwan, Sun-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 26, issue 1, 2012, Pages 29~35
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2012.26.1.029
A bio-encapsuled media was developed to apply on reducing odors produced from organic waste treatment process. The microorganism, candida tropicalis, was encapsulated in sponge media consisted of polyurethane material. Sodium alginate as a natural polymer which does not affect to hydrophilic microbes and PEGDA(poly ethylene glycol diacrylate) as a artificial polymer were used for the encapsuled media. The media was evaluated with TMEDA (N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine, 0.02~0.1%) as a catalyst at different temperature 25 and
. The best performance was achieved with 0.02% of TMEDA at
. The microbes' activity in the media was examined by Live/Dead cell method.
Degradation of Trichloroethylene by Ferrate(VI)
Nam, Ju-Hee ; Kwon, Jae-Hyun ; Yim, Soo-Bin ; Kim, Il-Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 26, issue 1, 2012, Pages 37~46
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2012.26.1.037
The degradation characteristics of TCE by Ferrate(VI) oxidation have been studied. The degradation efficiency of TCE in aqueous solution was investigated at various pH values, Ferrate(VI) doses, initial concentrations of TCE and aqueous solution temperature values. GC-ECD was used to analyze TCE. The optimum conditions of TCE degradation were obtained pH 7.0 and
in aqueous solution. Also, the experimental results showed that TCE removal efficiency increased with the decrease of initial concentration of TCE. And intermediate products were identified by GC-MS techniques. Ethyl Chloride, Chloroform, Ethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane and 1,1,2-trichloroethane were identified as a reaction intermediate, and
was identified as an end product.
Relationship between Pollutant and Influence Factors in Highway runoff
Kang, Hee-Man ; Lee, Doo-Jin ; Bae, Woo-Keun ; Kang, Hye-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 26, issue 1, 2012, Pages 47~54
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2012.26.1.047
This study analyzed influence factors and the correlation among pollutants which affect occurrence of leaked pollution based on the long-term runoff flow and water quality investigation results to understand the characteristics of highway rainfall runoff pollution load. According to the result of correlation analysis on TSS (Total Suspended Solid) concentration, anteceded dry days, rainfall intensity, traffic volume and etc. as major influence factors of highway rainfall runoff pollution loads, the correlations were weak or scarce in most items. These results might be attributed that runoff pollutant concentration changes vary severely on changes of rainfall intensity and rainfall duration within rainfall and it is affected by disturbances of vehicles and street cleaning and etc. as characteristics of the highway. While Cu, Fe and Zn which are discharged with high concentrations out of heavy metals showed high correlation with particulate matter, organic matter(COD), nutrient(TN, TP), Ni and Pb showed relatively low correlation in a correlation evaluation by pollutant. Significant correlation with traffic volumes was not shown and TSS concentration even decreased in accordance with increase of the traffic volume. In the comparison with precedent studies, it was considered necessary additional analysis of the effects of rainfall section analysis, road type, disturbances of surface contaminants by vehicles, rainfall and climate conditions, surrounding terrains etc.
Analysis of Unit Pollution Load on Highway runoff
Kang, Hee-Man ; Lee, Doo-Jin ; Bae, Woo-Keun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 26, issue 1, 2012, Pages 55~68
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2012.26.1.055
Impervious surface increase due to urbanization, one of the leading causes of pavement increased the runoff coefficient, peak flow, and reducing the infiltration flow and thereby causing flooding and river erosion is occurring in aquatic ecosystems are known to impair. This study aimed to classify use type of detailed land into the road, reststop, tollgates and etc. focused on major domestic highways, to understand the characteristics of rainfall runoff pollutants and to calculate applicable unit pollution load. Because of high runoff coefficient and short travel time to drainage. first flush occurred clearly. Average EMCs of runoff in the highway was investigated as TSS 108.47 mg / L, COD 28.16 mg / L, BOD 13.61 mg / L, TN 6.38 mg / L, TP 0.03 mg / L, Cu 118.17
/ L, Pb 345.3
/ L, Zn 349.47
/ L. Unit pollution loads calculated by detailed land use area of highways based on average annual rainfall, EMCs, applicable basin areas and etc. were 46.6 kg/km2/day of BOD, 1.4 kg/km2/day of TP, 8.81 kg / km2/day of TN and these were BOD 50.8%, TP 66.7%, TN 64.4%in comparison of the unit pollution loads which applies fallow land standards of the TMDL(Total Maximum Daily Load). It was considered that discharged loads can be excessively calculated in case highway non-point management plans based on unit pollution load of the current land standard.
Degradation of methyl orange by pulsed corona discharges in aqueous solution
Lee, Hyeon-Don ; Kim, Jong-Oh ; Kim, Hyoung-Kab ; Chung, Jae-Woo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 26, issue 1, 2012, Pages 69~76
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2012.26.1.069
A laboratory experiment on methyl orange degradation in pulsed corona discharges was carried out. Effects of operating parameters such as applied voltage, pH, conductivity and initial concentration on methyl orange degradation were investigated. The pulsed corona discharges decreased the pH of solution and increased conductivity, probably due to products generated from methyl orange degradation by corona discharges. The decrease of initial pH enhanced the methyl orange degradation. The methyl orange degradation was fastest in
conductivity solution, followed by 50 and
, indicating that
is the most favorable in the aspect of radical generation among the experimented conditions. The methyl orange of initial concentration from 20 to 60mg/L was effectively degraded in pulsed corona discharges. The lower initial concentration of methyl orange, the faster degradation was observed.
Arsenic Removal using the Surface Modified Granular Activated Carbon treated with Ferric Chloride
Park, Y.R. ; Hong, S.H. ; Kim, J.H. ; Park, J.Y. ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 26, issue 1, 2012, Pages 77~85
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2012.26.1.077
The present study investigates treatment methods for removal of arsenic from wastewater. The granular activated carbon (GAC) with the coating of iron chloride (
) was used for the treatment of a low concentration of arsenic from wastewater. Batch experiments were performed to investigate the synthesis of Fe-GAC (Iron coated granular activated carbon), effects of pH, adsorption kinetics and the Langmuir model. The synthesized Fe-GAC with 0.1 M
shows best removal efficiency. Adsorption studies were carried out in the optimum pH range of 4-6 for arsenic removal. The Fe-GAC showed promising results by removing 99.4% of arsenic. In the adsorption isotherm studies, the observed data fitted well with the Langmuir models. In continuous column study showed that As(V) could be removed to below 0.25 mg/L within 1,020 pore volume. Our results suggest that the surface modified granular activated carbon treated with
for effective removal of arsenic from wastewater.
Simulation of Sediment Deposition Behavior in a Reservoir using a SED2D model: Focusing on Sensitivity of Simulation Time Step
Kim, Dae Guen ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 26, issue 1, 2012, Pages 87~95
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2012.26.1.087
In this study, the following conclusions were obtained from an investigation of the effect of the simulation time step on the simulation results of the two-dimensional, vertically averaged sediment transport model SED2D and an analysis of the deposited sediment distribution in suspended sediments of reservoirs according to grain size. The simulation time step has a significant effect on the deposited sediment distribution in a reservoir. In particular, if the simulation time step is set to be excessively large, physically invalid results are obtained. Additionally, in order to determine an appropriate simulation time step for SED2D, the selection of a simulation time step that will allow the analysis of the suspended sediment concentration profile at the main points of the simulation domain is necessary. The deposited sediment distribution in a reservoir according to grain size, including suspended sediments of clay, silt, and sand, was successfully simulated. Such information will prove valuable in application to the establishment of efficient management and reduction measures of reservoir sediment deposits.
Coating formation of water supply pipes by inhibitor and water quality improvement effect
Lim, Jae-Cheol ; Kim, Jin-Keun ; Koo, Ja-Yong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 26, issue 1, 2012, Pages 97~106
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2012.26.1.097
To investigate the application of corrosion inhibitor on water supply pipes, turbidity, magnitude of corrosion, composition of scale and concentration of metals from an old steel pipe were analysed under inhibitor addition. The concentration of turbidity, iron and copper from the pipes under inhibitor application was 12 ~ 14% of the case which no inhibitor was applied, which suggests the application of inhibitor was very effective for internal corrosion control. In addition, SEM, EDX, XRD and XRF test results showed that application of inhibitor was effective for the decrease of iron concentration and increase of oxygen, phosphorus and calcium concentration, which suggested the existence of protective layer. Therefore, the occurrence of red water will be significantly decreased when inhibitor was applied to the old steel pipes.
Analysis of the operating factors of dissolved air flotation (DAF) process for effluent quality improvement from aquaculture rearing tank
Ki, Jae-Hong ; Kim, Hyoung-Jun ; Lee, Ju-Young ; Han, Moo-Young ; Gang, Hee-Woong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 26, issue 1, 2012, Pages 107~113
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2012.26.1.107
Pollutants in aquaculture system effluent mostly originated from solid wastes including uneaten feed and excreta of cultured species. In this research, DAF(Dissolved Air Flotation) unit is suggested as an integrated solid control unit especially as a form of IIBG(Inline Injection Bubble Generation) process in aquaculture system. Solid removal performance of DAF unit was examined under various operation and salinity conditions with turbidity and suspended solid. Solid waste removal efficiencies were found to be affected by operation conditions including saturator pressure, recycle ratio, coagulant concentration. Solid removal efficiency was higher under higher saturator pressure and recycle ratio under which condition larger number of bubbles is generated. Coagulant is thought to have important role in creating bubble-particle aggregate by showing better removal efficiency with higher concentration. However higher saline water showed less effectiveness in removing solids by DAF(IIBG). Application of DAF(IIBG) process also showed additional effect in phosphate removal and DO(Dissolved Oxygen) supply. Phosphate existed in polluted water was removed up to 46% after treatment, which is thought to attribute to aluminium phosphate precipitation. And DO concentration was found to increase over 50% of initial saturation concentration after the injection of micro-bubbles. Through experiments on solid removal from aquaculture effluent, DAF(IIBG) process is estimated to be effective solid control method. This property can help aquaculture system being installed and operated simply and effectively.
The usability evaluation of domestic urban sewage sludge as feedstock for biodiesel production( I ) - Comparison of the yields and composition of fatty acid methyl esters -
Kim, Nack-Joo ; Jung, You-Won ; Lee, Ik-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 26, issue 1, 2012, Pages 115~121
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2012.26.1.115
This study was performed to assess the possibility of application of sewage sludge which is the side-product from domestic sewage treatment plant to the materials for biodiesels by investigating the yields and composition of the lipids and fatty acid methyl esters(FAMEs) from soxhlet extraction and in-situ transesterification. As the results, yields of in-situ transesterification were higher than soxhlet extraction. In comparison by sewage sludge type, yields of sewage sludge mixed nightsoil or livestock were higher than a single sewage sludge. And maximum yield showed up to 14 wt%. Fatty acid composition of extracted lipids and synthesized FAMEs consists of palmitic acid(C16:0), palmitoleic acid(C16:1), stearic acid(C18:0), oleic acid(C18:1), and linoleic acid(C18:2).
An Experimental Investigation for Efficient Operation of Septic Tank
Lee, Jang-Hown ; Lee, Kyeong-Soo ; Kho, Soo-Hoon ; Song, Min-Hee ; Lee, Soo-Hyun ; Lee, Yong-Hoon ; Kang, Seon-Hong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 26, issue 1, 2012, Pages 123~129
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2012.26.1.123
A septic tank is a purification treatment system where night soil and other waste matter is converted into harmless material by the activities of bacteria. Effluent from the septic tank flows into the sewer pipe, and then this effluent affects the quality of water environment and makes foul smell. In this study, through the proper maintenance of septic tank it was tried to minimize the impact of sewer pipe on water quality and fouling smell. BOD removal rate from the septic tank's effluent which exceeded legal cleaning period was investigated for the proper maintenance. BOD Removal rate of the twelve septic tank's effluent is -62.5% to 43.9%. According to the result of BOD removal rate, septic tank cleaning should be done at least once a year. And the pathogenic coliform bacillus in the twelve septic tank's effluent is average 768,000 (MPN/
). The chlorine disinfection is needed to remove the pathogenic coliform bacillus in septic tank effluent.
Evaluation of Pollutants Removal for Treated Wastewater Effluent and River Water by Meandering Constructed Wetland System
Lee, Sang-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 26, issue 1, 2012, Pages 131~139
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2012.26.1.131
Field experiment was performed from June 2010 to July 2011 to evaluate pollutants removal efficiency in the constructed wetland system for the treated wastewater and the river water. The wetland systems were constructed near Gyungan river. Two different systems with meandering shape were compared for seasonal base and operational period base. Several kinds of aquaculture are planted through the corridor of wetland system. Average removal rate of BOD, T-N and T-P for A system were 15.8%, 14.8% and 26.5%, respectively. Average removal rate of BOD, T-N and T-P for C system were 23.5%, 27.8% and 10.6%, respectively. The effluent from two wetland systems often exceeded effluent water quality standards for wastewater influent, however effluent water quality standards for river water. However, the wetland system can be useful to treat polluted river water and effluent from wastewater plant. Removal rate of pollutants in seasonal variation was the highest in summer for BOD and T-N, however the removal rates of T-P were higher in spring and autumn than in summer.
Arsenic removal from artificial arsenic water using CaAl-monosulfate and CaAl-ettringite
Shim, Jae-Ho ; Kim, Ki-Baek ; Choi, Won-Ho ; Park, Joo-Yang ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 26, issue 1, 2012, Pages 141~148
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2012.26.1.141
The objective of this study is to remove arsenate from artificially contaminated wastewater using CaAl-ettringite and CaAl-monosulfate which were synthesized in laboratory. The study was carried on the basis of solidification/stabilization of waste using cement. Monosulfate and ettringite are constituents of cement paste. The CaAl-ettringite has a chemical formula of
and has a needle like morphology. Whereas CaAl-monosulfate
has layered double hydroxide structure (LDH) in which the mainlayer consists of Ca and Al and S as interlayer. Ettringite and monosulfate were synthesized by reaction of tricalcium aluminate and gypsum and hydrating this mixture at elevated temperature. The synthesized mineral were characterized by PXRD and FESEM to ensure purity. It was found that concentrations of As(V) in contaminated water were reduced from initial concentration of 1.335 mmol/L to 0.054 mmol/L and 0.300 mmol/L by CaAl-monosulfate and CaAl-ettringite respectively. The post experimental results of PXRD and FESEM analysis indicate that arsenate removal was by ion exchange.
The investigation of As(V) removal mechanism using monosulfate ((
) and its characteristics
Kim, K.B. ; Shim, J.H. ; Choi, W.H. ; Park, J.Y. ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 26, issue 1, 2012, Pages 149~157
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2012.26.1.149
Experiments for As(V) removal using synthesized
-monosulfate was performed from the water contaminated with arsenate. Monosulfate is known as LDHs (Layered Double Hydroxides) which is one of the anionic clay minerals. Monosulfate was synthesized mixing
(tricalcium aluminate), gypsum (calcium sulfate), and water with an intercalation method. The product form the synthesis was characterized by FE-SEM, WDXRF, PXRD, and FT-IR. Experiments with different doses of monosulfate were carried out for kinetic. As a result of experiment, the concentration of As(V) was reduced from 0.67 mM to 0.19 mM (0.67mM of monosulfate) and 0.178 mM (1.34 mM of monosulfate). The concentration of sulfate was increased with As(V) decrease. The result of PXRD showed that the d-spacing of inter layer (
peak) was shifted from 8.927
because the sulfate in the inter layer of monosulfate was exchanged arsenate with water molecules bonded. From the FT-IR results, a new single band (800 cm-1) was observed after the reaction of monosulfate and As(V). The arsenic removal can be regarded as anion exchange mechanism that is one of the characteristics of LDHs from the results of PXRD and FT-IR analysis.