Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
Hydraulic Adequacy of Connection Pipes in Water Supply Systems for Contingencies
Han, Wanseob ; Jung, Kwansoo ; Kim, Juhwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 679~687
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2013.27.6.679
Although stable and safe drinking water supply to the customers is a basic function of multi-regional water supply systems in Korea, most systems have their vulnerabilities in emergency time due to the branch-type. Application of connections from the other water supply system can provide a solutions for these tentative problems. This paper describes reduction planning of water supply accidents that can minimize a service interruption to customers in multi-regional water supply system by connecting pipe lines between local water supply systems in Mokpo city areas. The result of this study shows that Juam dam multi-regional water supply systems can cover all of the water shortage in southern parts of Jeonnam multi-regional water supply systems by transmitting water through connected pipes between local networks. This can be effective to supply water interactively in various contingencies, when a pipe line accident occurs in southern area of Jeonnam multi-regional water supply systems. On the contrary, southern area of Jeonnam multi-regional water supply systems can cover 99.5 %(
) of the water shortage of Juam dam multi-regional water supply systems when service interruptions caused by various pipe accidents occur in the system.
Bacterial growth and carbon-to-phosphorus consumption in drinking water with different carbon and phosphorus levels
Choi, Sung-Chan ; Park, e-Keun ; Kim, Yeong-Kwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 689~701
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2013.27.6.689
Bacterial growth and corresponding consumption of carbon and phosphorus were examined in which tap water samples containing a very low concentration of free chlorine were supplemented with organic carbon and/or phosphorus. The experiments were performed in a fed-batch mode under a controlled temperature of
. In the phosphorus alone-added water, there was no significant increase in bacterial numbers measured as heterotrophic plate count (HPC) in the bulk water. However, bacterial growth was stimulated by the addition of carbon (e.g., bulk HPC levels increased to
) and further stimulated by the combined addition of carbon and phosphorus (e.g., bulk HPC to
). The same effects were observed in biofilm HPC and biomass formed on polyethylene (PE) slide surfaces. In the water where organic carbon and phosphorus were added together, the highest biofilm HPC and biomass (measured as extracellular polymeric substance components) densities were observed which were
, respectively. In addition to the bacterial growth, additions of organic carbon and/or phosphorus resulted in different bacterial carbon-to-phosphorus (C/P) consumption ratios. Compared to a typical bacterial C/P consumption ratio of 100:1, a higher C/P ratio (590:1) occurred in the carbon alone-added water, while a lower ratio (40:1) in phosphorus alone-added water. Comparative value (80:1) of C/P ratio was also observed in the water where organic carbon and phosphorus were added together. At the given experimental conditions, bacterial growth was deemed to be more sensitive to microbially available organic carbon than phosphorus. The effect of phosphorus addition, which resulted in a lower C/P consumption ratio, seemed to be tightly associated with the presence of microbially available organic carbon. These results suggested that the control of extrinsic carbon influx seemed to be more important to minimize bacterial regrowth in drinking water system, since even low content of phosphorus naturally occurring in drinking water was enough to allow a bacterial growth.
Effects of pH on the growth, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and organic compound removal in heterotrophic culture of Chlorella sorokiniana applied wastewater treatment
Park, Jeong-Eun ; Cho, Yong-Beom ; Zhang, Shan ; Hwang, Sun-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 703~709
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2013.27.6.703
Among many microalgae cultivation types, heterotrophic culture with low cost carbon sources and energy saving culture method is crucial. A result of estimating the effects of pH on wastewater treatment using heterotrophic growing microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana shows that there was no difference in microalgae growth amount and nitrogen, phosphorus removal rate by wide range of pH(5 ~ 9). From pH 5 to 9, total nitrogen, phosphorous and glucose removal rates were 10.5 mg-N/L/d, 2 mg-P/L/d, 800 ~ 1000 mg/L respectively. This study reveals that C. sorokiniana cannot metabolite glycerol heterotrophically, however, glucose and acetate were proper carbon sources for growth and T-N, T-P and TOC removal. This research highlights the potential of heterotrophic microalgal growth with wastewater treatment plant with wide range of pH and carbon sources.
Methods for an application of real-time network control on distributed storage facilities
Beak, Hyunwook ; Ryu, Jaena ; Oh, Jeill ; Kim, Tae-Hyoung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 711~721
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2013.27.6.711
Optimal operation of a combined sewer network with distributed storage facilities aims to use the whole retention capacity of all reservoirs efficiently before overflows take place somewhere in the considered network system. An efficient real-time network control (RTNC) strategy has been emerging as an attractive approach for reducing substantially the overflows from a sewer network compared to the conventional fixed or manually adjusted gate setting method, but the related concrete framework for RTC development has not been throughly introduced so far. The main goal of this study is to give a detailed description of the RTNC systems via reviewing several guidelines published abroad, and finally to suggest methods for the proper application of RTNC on distributed storage facilities. Especially, this study is focused on emphasizing the importance of hierarchical structure of RTNC system that consists of three control layers (management, global control and local control). Further, with regard to the global control layer which is responsible for the central overall network control, the wide-ranging details of two components (adaption and optimization layers) are also presented. This study can provide the valuable basis for the RTNC implementation in the particular sewer network with distributed multiple storage facilities.
Development of Guidelines for Physical Security Systems of Small-scale Water Supplies
Kim, Youngil ; Yi, Sangjin ; Lee, Doojin ; Lee, Wontae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 723~730
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2013.27.6.723
Due to the event of hazardous chemical injection into a water storage tank in Hongseong, Chungcheongnam-do in 2012, the Korean Ministry of Environment has revised the enforcement rules of the Water Supply and Waterworks Installation Act to install surveillance equipments such as closed-circuit television(CCTV). However, the enforcement rules still do not provide concrete provision for installation of physical security equipments. Thus we studied vulnerability of small-scale water supplies in Korea and developed guidelines for the physical security system of the facilities. The guidelines include selection and recommendation of the physical security approaches and measures to detect, delay and response to the presence of an intruder in small-scale water supplies. The security features include protection utilities(e.g., fencing and fence topping), exterior intrusion detectors and alarms, locks and padlocks, surveillance utilities(e.g., CCTV), and others.
Failure Risk Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Sewer Pipes on Crack-Related Defects
Han, Sangjong ; Shin, Hyunjun ; Hwang, Hwankook ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 731~741
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2013.27.6.731
CCTV inspection method has been used in Korea for more than 20 years, but there is no proper assessment system for sewer failure severity that considers the domestic circumstances. This study classified the defects caused by the overburden load of reinforced concrete sewer pipes depending on severity and developed defect code by analyzing the domestic CCTV inspection videos. The defect score was assigned to each defect code, and it was classified into 5 grades for the decision-making of repair and rehabilitation. The result of this study is expected to be useful for domestic CCTV inspectors to assess the sewer condition and helpful for managers to make a decision of repair and rehabilitation.
Study on Manufacturing Characteristics of Carbonated lightweight Aggregate using Sewage Sludge
Yoo, Yeong-Seok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 743~750
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2013.27.6.743
In this study, the carbonized aggregate of light weight and high mechanical strength using sewage sludge was evaluated with changing carbonation variables of temperature, detention time and feed condition. Porosity and mechanical strength was simultaneously increased according to increase of carbonization temperature unexpectedly. Carbonization detention time above 1 hour nearly affect on the porosity, but mainly on mechanical strength of the carbonized aggregate in case of clay addition. On
, porosity and mechanical strength was increased rapidly, but above
, porosity began to decrease. Clay addition was very effective on increase of mechanical strength following much loss in porosity. The carbonized aggregate manufactured at
adding 30 % clay in sewage sludge was higher a little in porosity and 3 times in mechanical strength than those at
not adding clay. Consequently, in manufacturing the carbonized aggregate having simultaneously high porosity and mechanical strength, it is desirable to have operational condition of
temperature and 1 hour time, and clay addition within 30 % for further higher mechanical strength.
Phosphate Removal in Wastewater by Tobermolite
Lim, Bongsu ; Kim, Deahyun ; Yi, Teawoo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 751~759
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2013.27.6.751
This study is carried out to get the basic design parameters for phospate removal facilites from wastewater by Tobermolite. The phosphate removal by the apatite formation on the surface was affected by several important factors, temperature, ions present in wastewater stream, contact time, recirculation rate, and etc. In case of the temperature, with the increase of temperature, the apatite formation was accelerated. When temperature increased from
, removal efficiency of phosphate increased from 83 % to 93 %. An increase of calcium and fluoride ion content increase the apatite formation, however, bicarbonate and magnesium ion inhibited the crystallization of apatite. As expected, when the recirculation rate was increased from 1 Q to 3 Q, at EBCT (Empty Bed Contact Time) 60min enhanced removal efficiency was observed. The more the recirculation rate increased, the more the removal efficiency increased. According to the results of column experiment using an actual wastewater with low and high phosphate concentration (5 mg/L and 50 mg/L-P), the removal efficiency was 77 % at EBCT of 45 min, and 80 % at 60 min. It was suggested that optimum EBCT was 45 min.
Prediction of Water Quality at the Inlet of Saemangeum Bay by using Non-point Sources Runoff Simulation in the Mankyeong River Watershed
Ryu, Bum-Soo ; Lee, Chae-Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 761~770
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2013.27.6.761
This study was carried out to forecast the flow rate and water quality at the inlet of the Saemangeum bay in Korea using the SWMM(Storm Water Management Model) and the WASP(Water Analysis Simulation Program), and to analyze the impacts of pollutant loading from non-point source on the water quality of the bay. The calibration and validation of flow rate and water quality were performed using those from two monitoring points in the Mankyeong river administrated by Korean Ministry of Environment as part of the national water quality monitoring network. When the river flow rate was calibrated and validated using the rainfall intensities during 2011-2012,
(i.e., coefficient of determination) was ranged from 0.91 to 0.96. For water qualities, it was shown that
of BOD(Biochemical Oxygen Demand) was ranged from 0.56 to 0.86, and
of T-N(Total Nitrogen) was from 0.64 to 0.75, and
of T-P(Total Phosphorus) was from 0.67 to 0.89. The integrated modeling system showed significant advances in the accuracy to estimate the water quality. Finally, further simulations showed that annual average flow of the river running into the bay was estimated to be
. The discharged load of BOD, T-N, and T-P into the bay were anticipated to be 618.7 ton/year, 331.5 ton/year, and 40.4 ton/year, respectively.
Effect of gas hydrate process on energy saving for reverse osmosis process in seawater desalination plant
Kim, Suhan ; Lim, Jun-Heok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 771~778
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2013.27.6.771
Gas hydrate (GH) process is a new desalination technology, where GH is a non- stoichiometric crystalline inclusion compounds formed by water and a number of gas molecules. Seawater GH is produced in a low temperature and a high pressure condition and they are separated from the concentrated seawater. The drawback of the GH process so far is that salt contents contained in its product does not meet the fresh water quality standard. This means that the GH process is not a standalone process for seawater desalination and it needs the help of other desalting process like reverse osmosis (RO). The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of GH process on energy saving for RO process in seawater desalination. The GH product water quality data, which were obtained from a literature, were used as input data for RO process simulation. The simulation results show that the energy saving effect by the GH process is in a range of 68 % to 81 %, which increases as the salt removal efficiency of the GH process increases. Boron (B) and total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations of the final product of the hybrid process of GH and RO were also investigated through the RO process simulation to find relavant salt rejection efficiency of the GH process. In conclusion, the salt rejection efficiency of the GH process should exceed at least 78% in order to meet the product water quality standards and to increase the energy saving effect.
Feasibility of a two step microfiltration and reverse osmosis membrane system for reuse of tunnel wastewater
Lee, Jae-Hyun ; Jeong, Se-Uk ; Kim, Young Mo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 779~785
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2013.27.6.779
This study investigated the applicability of a two step microfiltration(MF) and reverse osmosis(RO) membrane system for reuse of tunnel wastewater. In this two step process, the MF system first treated only micropollutants in tunnel wastewater such as suspended solids(SS) and heavy metals, achieving less than 0.2 NTU turbidity, less than 1.1 mg/L chemical oxygen demand(
) and less than 0.8 mg/L total manganese(Mn). The RO system then removed over 95 % of the remaining pollutnats and particles, resulting in less than 0.02 NTU turbidity, less than 0.5 mg/L chemical oxygen demand(
), less than 0.04 mg/L total nitrogen(T-N) and less than 0.01 mg/L total phosphorus(T-P). In particular, addition of an RO system could lead to markedly reduced high salt concentrations in tunnel wastewater, approaching almost zero. Thus, reclaimed water using the combined membrane system could satisfy current South Korean regulations concerning wastewater reuse(turbidity
Failure Risk Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Sewer Pipes on Joint-Related Defects
Han, Sangjong ; Shin, Hyunjun ; Hwang, Hwankook ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 787~796
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2013.27.6.787
Sewer joint-related defect is one of the most common domestic sewer defects along with the lateral pipe problem. However, there are currently no criteria that precisely assess the joint-related sewer defects. Therefore, this study examined the joint-related sewer defects found in domestic circumstances, classified them according to the suggested defect code, and presented the examples of defect pictures. Each defect code was organized as the process of out of pipeline alignment (OPA) which shows the progress in deterioration. Each defect was classified into 5 grades depending on appropriate repair and rehabilitation method. The result of this study is expected to be useful for domestic CCTV inspectors to assess the sewer condition and helpful for managers to make a decision of repair and rehabilitation.
The Comparison of Disinfection Technologies for Managing Antibiotic Resistance ; Chlrorination, Ozonation and Electron Beam
Oh, Junsik ; Kim, Sungpyo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 797~803
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2013.27.6.797
Recently, a number of countries are now considering the reuse of effluents from wastewater treatment for various water applications. To improve the reuse of wastewater effluent, the development of appropriate micro-pollutant removal technology is necessary. Although several researche have been studied for removing micro-pollutants in water, little study has been conducted for the removal of emerging contaminant such as antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) by disinfection processes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare the capacity of disinfection technologies such as chlorination, ozone, and electron beam, for removing antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and ARGs. Based on this study, better ARG removal can be achieved by ozonation and electron beam. Relatively, high CT values of chlorination or ozonation are needed to remove ARB and ARG compared to conventional pathogens.
Molecular size distribution of NOM after ozonation and its effect on adsorption with activated carbon
Lee, Hyung-Jik ; Hong, Seong-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 805~813
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2013.27.6.805
In this study, molecular size distribution of natural organic matter (NOM) after ozonation was measured and its effect on adsorption capacity of activated carbon was investigated. According to the results, the molecular size of NOM was limitedly changed. Specifically, the molecular size of NOM between 5,000 to 10,000 Da were slightly decreased with increasing ozone doses. The adsorption capacity after ozonation was evaluated using Freundlich isotherm with ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) which simulated the multi components adsorption. Further, mini-column test was conducted. The Freundlich constant, K was reduced after ozonation and the non-adsorbable fraction was increased with ozonation. However, no correlation between K and ozone doses was found. The present study also agreed with the correlation between adsorption capacity and pore size characteristics of activated carbon.
Performance Estimation of SBR Aerobic Digestion Combined with Ultrasonication by Numerical Experiment
Kim, Sunghong ; Kim, Donghan ; Lee, Dongwoo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 815~826
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2013.27.6.815
Using a developed mathematical model and calibrated kinetic constants, numerical experiments for a aerobic digestion of wastewater sludge by SBR aerobic digestion process combined with ultrasonication (USSBR) were performed in this study. It simulated well the phenomena of the decomposition of particulate organics and the release of organic nitrogen and transformation. To achieve 40 % of particulate organics removal, USSBR process requires only 6 days of SRT and 14 W/L of ultrasonic power whereas SBR aerobic digestion process requires 12 days of SRT. Based on the model simulation results, an empirical equation was presented here. This equation will be used to predict digestion efficiency for the given variables of SRT and ultrasonic power dose. USSBR aerobic digestion process can reduce the nitrogen concentration. The optimal operation strategy for the simultaneous removal of solids and soluble nitrogen in this process is estimated to 7 days of SRT with 14 W/L of ultrasonic power dose while anoxic period was 6 hours out of 24 hours of cycle time. In this condition, 40 % of particulate organics as well as 36 % of total nitrogen will be removed and the soluble nitrogen concentration of the centrate will be lower less then 40 mg/L.
Comparison of ACFAS method and DNPH-LC method for quantitative analysis of formaldehyde in Drinking water
Yi, Geon-Ho ; Yun, In-Chul ; Kim, Yeong-Kwan ; Kim, Chong-Chaul ; Choi, Geum-Jong ; Lee, Teak-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 827~836
DOI : 10.11001/jksww.2013.27.6.827
Due to the stringent drinking water quality, formaldehyde will be included in Korean drinking water standard from year 2014. However, its standard analytical method has not yet been established. This study compares two analytical methods, DNPH-LC and ACFAS with respect to their analysis principles, Method Detection Limit (MDL), Limit Of Quantitation(LOQ), precision, accuracy, reproducibility, convenience, number of samples analyzed per hour and analysis cost. These methods measure absorption intensity at 360 nm by using HPLC after DNPH-derivatization (DNPH-LC) and at 410 nm by using Automated Continuous Flow Absorption Spectrophotometer (ACFAS), respectively. Reproducibility was tested by repeating the analysis 7 times using a standard solution for each method. For DNPH-LC method, MDL was
, LOQ was
with standard deviation of
. For ACFAS method, they were
L with standard deviation of
, respectively. Both methods satisfied the requirement set by the Korean drinking water quality standard. Complexity of sample pretreatment procedure for DNPH-LC method may cause large error and, consequently, the analytical result will depend on the level of skill of analyst. In contrast, ACFAS method which used only one reagent equipped with an automated injection device showed little analytical error. It costs about $5.00 and $1.00 for one sample to analyze by the DNPH-LC method and the ACFAS method, respectively. Compared to the DNPH-LC method, ACFAS method provided more reliable analytical results. In terms of convenience, easiness and analytical cost, ACFAS method was demonstrated to be superior to the DNPH-LC method. The results of this study suggested that the ACFAS method could be adapted as a proper method for determining formaldehyde content in drinking water.