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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society on Water Quality
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Nov 2015
Volume 31, Issue 5 - Sep 2015
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Jul 2015
Volume 31, Issue 3 - May 2015
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Mar 2015
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
Selecting the target year
Intracellular Concentrations of NAD(P), NAD(P)H, and ATP in a Simulated Oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) Process
Ventura, Jey-R Sabado ; Nam, Ji-Hyun ; Yang, Benqin ; Na, Ri ; Kil, Hyejin ; Nam, Deok-Hyeon ; Kang, Ki-Hoon ; Jahng, Deokjin ;
Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 599~609
DOI : 10.15681/KSWE.2015.31.6.599
In order to investigate why OSA (oxic-settling-anaerobic) process produces less sludge than CAS (conventional activated sludge) process, sequential cultivation through 1
aerobic conditions, were carried out. Then, the intracellular concentrations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD and NADH), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP and NADPH) were monitored for these three stages. Results showed that the concentrations of these energy substances rapidly decreased through time in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions but the anaerobic culture contained the lower energy level than aerobic culture. The 2
aerobic culture that experienced anaerobic condition showed lower concentration of these energy substances than those of the 1
aerobic culture. Meanwhile, the anaerobic culture corresponding to the sludge holding stage of OSA was subjected to different soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) levels, detention time, and temperature to evaluate the effects of these variations on the energy level difference between the 1
aerobic stages. The lower the SCOD concentration, the longer detention time; and the higher temperature in the anaerobic stage tended to further reduce the intracellular level of the 2
aerobic culture. On the average, the intracellular energy level of the anaerobic and 2
aerobic stage were 57.73% and 39.12% of the 1st aerobic culture, respectively. These indicated that the insertion of an anaerobic stage between two aerobic stages could lower the intracellular energy levels, hence the lower the sludge in OSA than CAS process. Moreover, manipulation of the operating conditions of the intervening anaerobic stage can change intracellular energy levels thereby controlling sludge production.
Analysis on the Relationship between Biological Indices and Survey Area of Benthic Macroinvertebrates Using Mathematical Model
Kong, Dongsoo ; Kim, Ah Reum ;
Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 610~618
DOI : 10.15681/KSWE.2015.31.6.610
This study was conducted to find out the influence of sample size (accumulated survey areas) on the seven biological indices of benthic macroinvertebrates. BMI, the index similar to Zeilika-Marvan’s saprobic index, tended to be independent on the variations of sample size. The other indices (Shannon-Weaver’s diversity, Margalef’s richness, Menhinick’s richness, Pielou’s evenness, and Lenat’s EPT index) showed the considerable variations along with the increase of sample size and environmental conditions. To get the appropriate index values, it should be sampled at least 6 replicates more based on 30×30cm Surber sampler. In addition, the habitat heterogeneity index of benthic macroinvertebrates suggested in this study, it will be able to be used for evaluating the heterogeneity of habitats.
Optimization of TiCl
Concentration and Initial pH for Phosphorus Removal in Synthetic Wastewater
Shin, So-Yeun ; Kim, Jong-Ho ; Ahn, Johng-Hwa ;
Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 619~624
DOI : 10.15681/KSWE.2015.31.6.619
This study experimentally determined the effect of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl
) concentration ([TiCl
]) (0.25-0.55 mM) and initial pH (3-11) on phosphorus (P) removal in synthetic wastewater (2 mg P/L). The P removal efficiency increased when [TiCl
] increased. The P removal efficiency showed a parabolic trend with an inflection point at pH 7. At the molar ratio of TiCl
and P>6.2, the P removal efficiency was over 90% and the residual P concentration was less than 0.2 mg/L. Within the design boundaries, the complete P removal could be achieved at 7.0≤initial pH≤8.5 and 0.43≤[TiCl
]≤0.55 mM. The final pH was over 5.8 at initial pH≥7.7 and [TiCl
]≥0.35 mM. The results showed that TiCl4 was effective in P removal in water so that it could be an alternative chemical for P removal.
A Comparative Study on Microalgae Recovery Rates in Response to Different Low Cost Bio-flocculant Applications
Choi, Hee-Jeong ;
Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 625~631
DOI : 10.15681/KSWE.2015.31.6.625
In this study, low cost bio-flocculants, chitosan, cationic starch and Mg-sericite, were used as a flocculant to harvest freshwater microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris. Chitosan, cationic starch and Mg-sericite separated successfully >98% of C. vulgaris at following optimal parameters: 90 mg/L chitosan at pH 6-7, 70 mg/L cationic starch at pH 9-10 and 50 mg/L Mg-sericite at pH 4-5. A relatively high correlation coefficient (R
) of 0.9993 for chitosan, 0.9971 for catonic starch and 0.9924 for Mg-sericite was obtained. The investigated flocculants amount increased linearly with increasing the microalgae amount. The biopolymer, Mg-sericite, was more effective than that of other investigated flocculants. These results indicated that a bio-flocculants, chitosan, cationic starch and Mg-sericite, could prove to be an effective flocculant for economical production of microalgae biomass. In addition, Mg-sericite was more effective comparing to the other investigated flocculants.
A Study on the Arsenic Removal Characteristics of TiO
Powders in Ground Water
Lee, Dong Ho ; Kim, Sung Su ;
Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 632~636
DOI : 10.15681/KSWE.2015.31.6.632
This study aims to evaluate arsenic adsorption efficiencies over various metal oxides (CeO
, AlOOH, SiO
, and γ-Al
) and investigate the correlation between physico-chemical characteristics of metal oxides and their efficiencies. From XPS, XRD BET analysis and isotherm adsorption test, TiO
powder showed that the best adsorption efficiency, and it's mechanism was highly depended on the chemical adsorption.
Variation of Water Quality around the Chudong Intake Tower in Daechung Reservoir
Ma, Xin-Chao ; Lim, Bong-Su ; Heo, Soon-Uk ; Kwak, Mi-Ae ;
Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 637~643
DOI : 10.15681/KSWE.2015.31.6.637
This study has been carried out to provide the basic data obtained from the evaluation of the variation of water quality around the Chudong intake tower in Daechung resevoir, which may be able to help the establishment of a pure water supply policy. Five sites around the Chudong intake tower were selected, and the average data for recent ten years(from year 2004 to year 2013) were analysed. The average water quality around Chudong intake tower are as followed; pH 7.5, DO 8.7 mg/L, BOD 1.0 mg/L, COD 3.0 mg/L, SS 3.0 mg/L, TN 1.495 mg/L, TP 0.017 mg/L, and Chlorophyll-a 6.5 mg/m
were matched the good class by comparing with the living environment standard of reservoir. COD values of higher than 3.0 mg/L after July were likely due to non-point pollutants and algae outbreak during rainy summer season. Total phosphorus rose sharply in the summer season, and then algae watch was issued consistently for average 40 days. Total nitrogen to total phosphorus ratio was average 90, and it is important to control the inflow phosphrous from small stream for proper management to block an algae growth according to eutrophication. It was recommended to operate the algae removing boats around intake tower from July to October, and was required advanced water treatment processes to remove NBD COD and bad odor and taste due to algae growth.
A Study on the Nutrient Release Characteristics from Sediments in Nak-dong River
Lee, Kyu Yeol ; Lee, Kwon Choel ; Kim, Ju Eon ; Kim, Shin ; Ahn, Jung Min ; Im, Tae Hyo ;
Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 644~652
DOI : 10.15681/KSWE.2015.31.6.644
In this study the releasing of nutrients from sediments of Nak-dong River were investigated. We perfomed lab-scale simulation experiments using field sediment and ware. Nutrients, orgarni matter, particle size of the sediments and nutrients of released water were analyzed. Analyzed results of the sediments, mainly composed of mS(muddy Sand) sedimentary facies and IL were 2.46~6.83%, T-N were 1.189~2.492 mg/kg, and T-P were 333~726 mg/kg in the study area. Analyzed results of the nutrients of released water, pH and TOC were each 7.8~9.2% and 31.7~40.8% decreased after 20 days. T-N increased steadily, and NH
-N increased steadily then decreased, at this time NO
-N increase. Also NH
-N increased steadily, then decreased at this time. Furthermore release of phosphorus were mostly decreased.
Study on Estimation and Application of Discharge Coefficient about Nonpoint Source Pollutants using Watershed Model
Hwang, Ha-Sun ; Rhee, Han-Pil ; Park, Jihyung ; Kim, Yong-Seok ; Lee, Sung-Jun ; Ahn, Ki Hong ;
Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 653~664
DOI : 10.15681/KSWE.2015.31.6.653
TPLMS (Total water pollutant load management system) that is the most powerful water-quality protection program have been implemented since 2004. In the implementation of TPLMS, target water-quality and permissible discharged load from each unit watershed can be decided by water-quality modeling. And NPS (Non-point sources) discharge coefficients associated with certain (standard) flow are used on estimation of input data for model. National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) recommend NPS discharge coefficients as 0.15 (Q
) and 0.50 (Q
) in common for whole watershed in Korea. But, uniform coefficient is difficult to reflect various NPS characteristics of individual watershed. Monthly NPS discharge coefficients were predicted and estimated using surface flow and water-quality from HSPF watershed model in this study. Those coefficients were plotted in flow duration curve of study area (Palger stream and Geumho C watershed) with monthly average flow. Linear regression analysis was performed about NPS discharge coefficients of BOD, T-N and T-P associated with flow, and R
of regression were distributed in 0.893~0.930 (Palger stream) and 0.939~0.959 (Geumho C). NPS Discharge coefficient through regression can be estimated flexibly according to flow, and be considered characteristics of watershed with watershed model.
Survey on Lake Environments in the Yeongsan and Seomjin River Basins - Based on 10 lakes such as Hadong and Sangsa -
Kim, Shin-Jo ; Song, Hyo-Jeong ; Park, Tae-Jin ; Hwang, Moon-Young ; Cho, Hang-Soo ; Song, Kwang-Duck ; Lee, Hyung-Jin ; Kim, Young-Suk ;
Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 665~679
DOI : 10.15681/KSWE.2015.31.6.665
Yearly mean temperature in the 29 lakes surveyed ranges from 12.6 (Suncheon) to 13.9℃ (Mokpo), the lowest in −2.7℃ (January) and the highest in 25.9℃ (July). Monthly mean the amount of rainfall recorded the highest of 336.7 mm in August and the lowest with 4.9 mm in January. A total of 424 species of phytoplankton were identified. They were 157 Chlorophyceae, 161 Bacillariophyceae, 39 Cyanophyceae, and 67 other algal taxa. The phytoplankton diversity were low in stream type reservoirs such as Guemho, Youngsan and Youngam. The population density of phytoplankton ranged from 19 to 53,161 cells/ml. Annual mean of total zooplankton abundance in 45 sites was 369±827 ind./L (n=180). Rotifers were the most common taxa and their relative abundance was high (65~77%). The benthic microinvertebrate fauna of 10 reservoirs of Jeonnam province were 71 species of 61 genera of 44 families of 16 orders of 7 classes of 4 phyla. Aquatic insects of Phylum Arthropoda were 50 species of 44 genera of 28 families of 6 orders. The number of individuals was 6,132. Diptera was highiest (41.3%), and Ephemeroptera (31.0%), Trichoptera (17.5%), Anellida (3.8%), Mollusca (3.3%), Crustacea (0.4%). Large hydrophytes were identified 32 taxa, 2 varieties 30 species 26 genera and 20 families. Especially, Jijung and Juam lakes require management such as physical remove of this ecosystem disturbance field plants. Fishes were identified total 44 taxa, such as 25 Cyprinidae (56.8%), 8 Cobitidae (17.0%), 3 Gobiidae (6.4%), 2 Bagridae (4.3%), 2 Osmeridae (4.3%), 2 Odontobutidae (4.3%), 2 Centrachidae (4.3%), 1 Siluridae (2.1%), and 1 Centropomidae (2.1%). A pale chub was dominant species (18.9%).
Diagnosis on the Riparian Vegetation in the Downstream Reach of the Gyungan Stream for Creating Vegetation Belt
An, Ji Hong ; Lim, Chi Hong ; Lim, Yun Kyung ; Nam, Kyeong Bae ; Pi, Jung Hun ; Moon, Jeong Sook ; Bang, Je Yong ; Lee, Chang Seok ;
Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 680~692
DOI : 10.15681/KSWE.2015.31.6.680
A landcover map watershed of downstream reach in the Gyungan stream was made by using the existing land use map and interpreting satellite images and aerial photos. Based on the map, we analyzed land use patterns of this basin. Broad-leaved forest occupied the largest area among landscape elements established in this watershed. The total area of the zone designated as the waterside district by the central government was 4.7 km
, and broad-leaved forest occupied the largest area as 33.9% in this zone. Therefore, the area did not meet the qualifications of riparian zones. Riparian vegetation established in the Gyungan stream watershed was composed of Phragmites communis, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, Salix gracilistyla, Salix koreensis. But terrestrial vegetation elements such as Ambrosia trifida, Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia also appeared in this area. On the other hand, Phragmites japonica, Salix gracilistyla, Salix koreensis, Salix integra, Ulmus davidiana and so on appeared in the riparian zone the reference streams. Differently from the vegetation established on the reference streams, terrestrial vegetation elements appeared frequently in the Gyungan stream watershed. This result would be due to that the Gyungan stream watershed is exposed to excessive human interferences.
Development of Composite Soil Quality Index Evaluation System based on Web GIS
Sung, Yunsoo ; Yang, Jae E ; Kim, Sung Chul ; Ryu, Jichul ; Jang, Wonseok ; Kum, Donghyuk ; Lim, Kyoung Jae ;
Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 693~699
DOI : 10.15681/KSWE.2015.31.6.693
It has been known that torrential rainfall events have been occurring worldwide due to climate change. The accelerated soil erosion has caused negative impacts on water quality and ecosystem of receiving waterbodies. Since soil security issues have been arising in various areas of the world, intensive interests have been given to topsoil management in Korea. Thus in this study, Web GIS-based computing system of physical, chemical, and biological topsoil quality indices were developed. In this study, five soil quality maps at national scale and top soil erosion potential were prepared for evaluation of soil quality based on soil erosion potential. For this system, the open source Web GIS engine, OpenGeo, was used as core engine of the system. With this system, decision makers or related personnel in areas of soil erosion Best Management Practices (BMPs) would be able to find the most appropriate soil erosion BMPs based on soil erosion potential and soil quality at the area of interest. The Web GIS system would be efficiently used in decision making processes because of ease-of-use interface and scientific data used in this system. This Web GIS system would be efficiently used because this system could provide scientific knowledge to decision makers or stakeholders. Currently various BMP database are being built to be used as a decision support system in topsoil management and topsoil quality areas.
A Study on the Spatial Strength and Cluster Analysis at the Unit Watershed for the Management of Total Maximum Daily Loads
Choi, Ok Youn ; Kim, Ki Hoon ; Han, Ihn Sup ;
Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 700~714
DOI : 10.15681/KSWE.2015.31.6.700
The characteristic of the water quality and pollutant discharge was analyzed at the units watershed of the total amount management in Han-river basin, and after classified in a similar area by multivariate statistical analysis, the main trend such as the water quality trend and pollutant discharge characteristic were analyzed. As a result of this study, the density of the pollutant at the unit watershed is not necessarily identified as discharge density, and the primary management watershed and targeted substances were analyzed depending on the operating status of the environmental infrastructure in watershed and the main pollution factor and discharge path per pollutants. As a result of cluster analysis, watersheds were classified into four groups according to discharge characteristics. It will be used when selecting target area of primary management that is appropriate to the characteristics of each river and establishing efficient water quality improvement plans.
A Study on the Activation of Non-government Participation in Total Maximum Daily Load System using Private Discharge Facilities Reduction Potential Analysis
Kim, Hongtae ; Shin, Dongseok ; Kim, Hyeonjeong ; Choi, Inuk ; Lee, Miseon ; Kim, Yongseok ;
Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 715~722
DOI : 10.15681/KSWE.2015.31.6.715
Four major river basin in Korea has been managed with Total Maximum Daily Load(TMDL) System. Water quality indicators as targeted pollutants for TMDL were BOD and TP. In order to satisfy water quality criteria, government allocation using public treatment facilities and its action plan has been used. However, the role to improve water quality were recently faced to its limitation. It is time to require the role of non-government allocation in private discharge facilities to control good water quality. This study investigated three different scenarios in reduction demands of non-government allocations about industry and private sewages. The three different scenarios were discharge under 1) legal water quality standard, 2) water quality level in 2011 and 3) current water quality level with maximum value in group. The results showed that reduction potential in water discharge for TP indicator was 1,118kg/day, under second scenario with 20% of deduction. This results arrived at 42% of whole reduction potential costs and 0.012mg/L improvement in water quality. In conclusion, to intrigue voluntary participation in non-government allocation, various benefits such as tax reduction, tax exemption, and water quality trading should be provided.
A Study on Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Water Quality in the Middle Area of the Nakdong River, Korea
Na, Eun Hye ; Park, Suyoung ; Kim, Jongha ; Im, Seongsoo ; Kim, Kyunghyun ;
Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 723~731
DOI : 10.15681/KSWE.2015.31.6.723
We investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of water quality in the Gangjung-Goryoung weir that is located in the middle area of the Nakdong river, Korea. The monitoring results indicated that there are discernible vertical differences in water quality during the pre- and post-monsoon periods (May to September). During this period, it was observed that the weak thermal stratification formed at the maximum level, and pH, Chl-a, and DO concentrations in the surface layer were higher than those in the bottom layer. This vertical difference was especially noticeable for DO concentrations: there were DO depletions at the bottom layer in late June to early August. During the summer monsoon period with heavy rainfall, there was a decline in vertical differences in water quality. From this study, it was suggested that continuous monitoring of vertical profiles could become a useful tool for identifying the spatial and temporal distributions of water quality and for developing the best management policy for water quality in the Nakdong river.
Application of the Load Duration Curve (LDC) to Evaluate the Achievement Rate of Target Water Quality in the Han-River Watersheds
Kim, Eunkyoung ; Ryu, Jichul ; Kim, Hongtae ; Kim, Yongseok ; Shin, Dongseok ;
Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 732~738
DOI : 10.15681/KSWE.2015.31.6.732
Water quality in four major river basin in Korea was managed with Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) System. The unit watershed in TMDL system has been evaluated with Target Water Quality (TWQ) assessment using average water quality, without considering its volume of water quantity. As results, although unit watershed are obtained its TWQ, its allocated loads were not satisfied and vice versa. To solve these problems, a number of TWQ assessments with using Load Duration Curve (LDC) have been studied at other watersheds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate achievement of TWQ with Flow Duration Curve (FDC) and Load Duration Curve(LDC) at 26 unit watersheds in Han river basin. The results showed that achievement rates in TWQ assessment with current method and with LDC were 50~56 % and 69~73%, respectively. Because of increasing about 20% of achievement rates with using LDC, the number of exceeded unit watershed at Han river Basin was decreased about 4~6 unit watersheds.