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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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Korea Water Resources Association
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Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 34, Issue 5 - Oct 2001
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Aug 2001
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Apr 2001
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
Selecting the target year
Estimation of the Stormwater Impoundments Volume Dependent on the Durations of Design Rainfall
Yun, Yeo-Jin ; Lee, Jae-Cheol ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 34, issue 5, 2001, Pages 415~426
After Disaster Impact Assessment(DIA) Program was particed, the wide variety of hydrological data are estimated by introducing the concept of critical storm duration to calculate the stormwater impoundments as the alternative of increasing runoff due to many developments. Critical storm duration is varied by a lot of hydraulic structures, drainage characteristics, temporal distribution of design rainfall, return period, and runoff models. In this study the methods of estimating the proper volume to design the stormwater impoundments are proposed to determine the required volume by comparing and analyzing the maximum stormwater impoundments in accordance with the impoundment volume and rainfall duration by using the concept of storage ratio presented in the existing studies. The methods of determining the critical storm duration of design rainfall which cause the maximum load from the runoff hydrograph will be studied as analyzing rainfall-runoff using the various runoff models and observed data.
Efficient Calculation of External Flow for Transient Simulation in Pipe Networks
Park, Jae-Hong ; Han, Geon-Yeon ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 34, issue 5, 2001, Pages 427~438
A numerical model to analyze the unsteady flow in water distribution system was developed by using wave adjustment method. When analyzing the unsteady flow in the real water distribution system, the computational procedures are very complex due to the various boundary condition. Wave adjustment method, which can solve the boundary condition more simply and accurately, was introduced to overcome this difficulty and related equations to solve external flow directly were presented. Using these equations, the numerical model was developed to analyze water hammer. The suggested model was applied to a hypothetical distribution system and a real system with 26 pipes with various external flow boundary condition to evaluate the applicability of the developed model. The simulation results by this model agree with those by Karney's analysis in terms of discharge and pressure.
Simulation of Two-Phase Fluid Flow in a Single Fracture Surrounding an Underground LPG Storage Cavern: I. Numerical Model Development and Parallel Plate Test
Han, Il-Yeong ; Seo, Il-Won ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 34, issue 5, 2001, Pages 439~448
A two-dimensional finite difference numerical model was developed in order to simulate two-phase fluid flow in a single fracture. In the model, variation of viscosity with pressure and that of relative permeability with water saturation can be treated. For the numerical solution, IMPES method was used, from which the pressure and the saturation of water and gas were computed one by one. Seven cases of model test using parallel plates for a single fracture were performed in order to obtain the characteristic equation of relative permeability which would be used in the numerical model. it was difficult to match the characteristic curves of relative permeability from the model tests with the existing emperical equations, consequently a logistic equation was proposed. As the equation is composed of the parameters involving aperture size, it can be applied to any fracture.
Simulation of Two-Phase Fluid Flow in a Single Fracture Surrounding an Underground LPG Storage Cavern: II. Verification of Numerical Model and Field Application
Han, Il-Yeong ; Seo, Il-Won ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 34, issue 5, 2001, Pages 449~458
In order to verify the numerical model, which was developed to simulate the behavior of the two-phase fluid flow in a single fracture, the characteristic equation of relative permeability was incorporated into the developed numerical model, and the computed results were compared with the experimental results of the model test. As results of the sensitivity analysis on the roughness and the aperture size of fracture, the gas velocity was inversely proportional to the fracture roughness, and not proportional to the square of aperture size which is usually observed in single phase flow in a single fracture. The numerical model was applied to the underground LPG storage terminal in order to check the field applicability. The simultaneous flow of water and gas in accordance with the operation pressures in a single fracture near cavern was simulated by the model. It was shown that the leaked gas was able to be controlled in a single fracture neither by the pressure of operation nor by that of groundwater in case the fracture became smoother in roughness and smaller in aperture size.
Characteristics of Depth Filtration for Various Filter-Bed Configurations
An, Jong-Ho ; Yun, Jae-Heung ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 34, issue 5, 2001, Pages 459~472
The objective of this study is to evaluate the filtration efficiency of deep-bed filters by comparing to single and dual media filters. Pilot-plant tests using four-filter columns were conducted for the comparison of head loss development and filtered water quality. The dual-media filter showed greater initial head loss, but less rate of head-loss development than those of the coarse-sand-0deep-bed filters. For 180 m/day of filtration rate, the dual-media filter produces larger unit production rate by 30-40%, and the turbidities of filtered water were below 0.1 NTU. The initial breakthrough could be effectively controlled by the dual-media filter rather than coarse-sand-deep-bed filters.
Estimation of the WGR Multi-dimensional Precipitation Model Parameters using the Genetic Algorithm
Jeong, Gwang-Sik ; Yu, Cheol-Sang ; Kim, Jung-Hun ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 34, issue 5, 2001, Pages 473~486
The WGR model was developed to represent meso-scale precipitation. As a conceptual model, this model shows a good link between atmospheric dynamics and statistical description of meso-scale precipitation(Waymire et al., 1984). However, as it has maximum 18 parameters along with its non-linear structure, its parameter estimation has been remained a difficult problem. There have been several cases of its parameter estimation for different fields using non-linear programming techniques(NLP), which were also difficult tasks to hamper its wide applications. In this study, we estimated the WGR model parameters of the Han river basin using the genetic algorithm(GA) and compared them to the NLP results(Yoo and Kwon, 2000). As a result of the study, we can find that the sum of square error from the GA provide more consistent parameters to the seasonal variation of rainfall. Also, we can find that the higher rainfall amount during summer season is closely related with the arrival rate of rain bands, not the rain cell intensity.
A Scheme of Effective Water Quality Management on Lake Okjeoung
Lee, Yo-Sang ; Kim, U-Gu ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 34, issue 5, 2001, Pages 487~497
Investigated data on Lake Okjeong were used for the simulation of water quality. According to the simulation results, the effective scheme of water quality management on reservoir has been proposed. It has been recognized that the water quality of Lake Okjeong is under eutrophic and mesotrophic condition even though there are seasonal variation. The water quality of lake is mainly affected by the inflow of pollutant load from watershed. Therefore, to estimate and quantify the accurate amounts of pollutants flowing into reservoir is absolutely necessary for the effective management of water quality on Lake Okjeong. When the pollutant load measured during 7 different rainy periods in 1999 was compared with total pollutant load in 1999. TN and TP measured during 7 different rainy periods showed almost 50% of total pollutant load. In case of SS, it was 72.8%. On the other hand, the rainfall amount measured during the 7 different rainy periods was about 17.5% of total rainfall amount in 1999. Release rate of TP shows 11.92 mg/L at fish farm site and 0.2∼1.9 mg/L at monitoring station of water quality on Lake Okjeong, and which is considered to be less than that of other foreign reservoirs under the circumstances of anoxic condition. For the effective management of water quality on Lake Okjeong. WASP5 water quality simulation model has been applied and verified, and the verified model was used to propose the effective scheme of water quality management. In this case, 6 different scenarios were applied, by changing the amount of inflow of pollutant load in each subbasin. The most effective scheme has turned out that pollutant load generated from Imsil and Gwanchon subbasin should be reduced, and the best way to improve the water a quality is to reduce the pollutant load at every subbasin. According to the simulation result, wastewater treatment facility should be located at every subbasin.
Modeling of 2-D Advection-Diffusion in Natural Streams Using Particle Discrete Probability Distribution Model
Kim, Yeong-Do ; Seo, Il-Won ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 34, issue 5, 2001, Pages 499~509
2-D transport model based on a discrete probability distribution for a particle displacement was developed too solve advection-diffusion problems in natural stream. In this proposed model, the probabilities expressed as an average and variance function were used to predict the mass transfer between cells in one time step. The proposed model produces solutions without numerical dispersion for constant velocity, diffusion coefficient, and cross-sectional area. When the stability and positivity restrictions were satisfied, the model produced excellent results compared to analytical solutions and other finite difference methods. The proposed model is tested against the dispersion data collected in the Grand River, Canada. The simulation results show that the proposed model can properly describe the two-dimensional mixing phenomena in the natural stream.
On the Change of Hydrologic Conditions due to Global Warming : 2. An Analysis of Hydrologic Changes in Daehung Dam Basin using Water Balance Model
An, Jae-Hyeon ; Yun, Yong-Nam ; Yu, Cheol-Sang ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 34, issue 5, 2001, Pages 511~519
Global warming has begun since the industrial revolution and it is getting worse recently. Even though the increase of greenhouse gases such as
is thought to be the main cause for glogal warming, its impact on global climate has not been revealed clearly in rather quantitative manners. The objective of this research is to predict the hydrological environment changes in the Daechung Dam basin due to the global warming. A mesoscale atmospheric/hydrologic model (IRSHAM96 model) is used to predict the possible changes in precipitation and temperature in the Daechun Dam basin. The simulation results of IRSHAM96 model and a conceptual water balance model are used to analyze the changes in soil moisture, evapotranspiration and runoff in the Daechung Dam basin. From the simulation results using the water balance model for 1x
situations, it has been found that the runoff would be decreased in dry season, but increased in wet season due to the global warming. Therefore, it is predicted that the frequency of drought and flood occurrences in the Daechung Dam basin would be increased in 2x
Simulation of Nitrogen Movement in the Rainfall Event at an Upland Agricultural Watershed
Kim, Sang-Hyeon ; Kim, Geon-Mok ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 34, issue 5, 2001, Pages 521~532
The propagation patterns of nitrogen during rainfall events are unsteady and heterogeneous due to the characteristics of generation and transport mechanisms. A simulation of non point source pollution was performed using GRASS-AGNPS to examine efficient management methods for diffusive pollution. Digital Elevation Model(DEM) was prepared to estimate the impact of topography on the transport pattern of diffusive pollutant Hanjaechon watershed on the Kyungbook province was selected as a study ares. Water quality samples were collected and analyzed for the calibration of the model. A heuristic approach was employed to improve the model performance. The model could successfully produce spatial distributions of nitrogen. The constructed map-layers may help to decision makers to determine the best management practices.
An Analysis of the Drought Period Using Non-Linear Water Balance Model and Palmer Drought Severity1 Index
Lee, Jae-Su ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 34, issue 5, 2001, Pages 533~542
In order to establish drought policy, the estimation of drought period for each drought situation should be preceded. Non-linear Water Balance Model(NWBM) and palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) can be used for analysis of drought period. As a water balance method considering moisture transfer between land surface and atmosphere, NWBM can be used to estimate transition time between dry and wet period induced by stochastic fluctuations. PDSI is also water balance method to show drought severity comparing actual precipitation with climatically appropriate precipitation based on precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. In this study, the drought periods are estimated using NWBM and PDSI for the Han River Basin. The drought periods according to the soil moisture estimated by NWBS and the drought periods according to drought severity index estimated by PDSI show similar trend. The estimated drought period from extreme drought to wet condition for the Han River Basin is about 3years.
Stream Discharge Estimation by Hydraulic Channel Routing and Stage Measurement
Lee, Sang-Ho ; Gang, Sin-Uk ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 34, issue 5, 2001, Pages 543~549
This research estimated stream discharges indirectly by hydraulic channel routing. Only stage data from three stage stations and river cross section data were used to estimate Manning roughness coefficients and to compute stream discharges. When the discharges were estimated a stage-stage set of conditions was used for upstream-downstream boundary conditions. The research used the data from the upper Mississippi River. The hydraulic channel routings were performed by DWOPER (operational dynamic wave model). The global optimization program of SCE-UA was used to improve the roughness coefficient estimation module of the modified Newton-Raphson method in DWOPER. The results from SCE-US were better. For the case study of a flood, most estimated discharges except a few show errors within 10%.
Determination of Stage-discharge Relations by Hydraulic Channel Routing and Stage Measurement
Lee, Sang-Ho ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 34, issue 5, 2001, Pages 551~560
The research estimated the roughness coefficients for the reach of Hwawon-Goryeonggyo-Hyeongpung stage stations in the Nakdong River through hydraulic channel routing. The data needed were only stage data from the three stations and river cross section data. Stage-discharge relations were determined from the computed discharges by the channel routing. They are better than the previous stage-discharge relations from direct measurements. Discharge computation errors from stage errors were analyzed and a simple method was suggested to limt reach lengths from prohibiting large errors from lateral inflows.
Analysis of Hydraulic Characteristics for Stream Diversion in Small Stream
An, Sang-Jin ; Jeon, Gye-Won ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 34, issue 5, 2001, Pages 561~566
This study is the analysis of hydraulic characteristic for stream diversion reach by numerical model test. Through it we can provide the basis data in flood, and in grasping stream flow characteristics. Analysis of hydraulic characteristics in Seoknam stream were implemented by using computer model HEC-RAS(one-dimensional model) and RMA2(two-dimensional finite element model). As a result we became to known that RMA2 to simulate left, main channel, right in stream is more effective method in analysing flow in channel bends, steep slope, complex bed form effect stream flow characteristics, than HEC-RAS.
Genetic Algorithms for Optimal Augmentation of Water Distribution Networks
Lee, Seung-Cheol ; Lee, Sang-Il ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 34, issue 5, 2001, Pages 567~575
A methodology is developed for designing the minimum-cost water distribution network. The method is based on network simulations and an optimization scheme using genetic algorithms. Being a stochastic optimization scheme, genetic algorithms have advantages over the conventional search algorithms in solving network problems known for their nonlinearities and herculean computational costs. While existing methods focus on the design of either entirely new or parallel augmentation of network systems, the proposed method can be applied to problems having both new branches of tree-type and paralle augmentation in loops. The applicability of the method was shown through a case study for Baekryeon water supply system. The optimized design resulted in the maximum 5.37% savings compared to the conventional design without optimization, while meeting the hydraulic constraints.