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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Water Resources Association
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Volume & Issues
Volume 47, Issue 12 - Dec 2014
Volume 47, Issue 11 - Nov 2014
Volume 47, Issue 10 - Oct 2014
Volume 47, Issue 9 - Sep 2014
Volume 47, Issue 8 - Aug 2014
Volume 47, Issue 7 - Jul 2014
Volume 47, Issue 6 - Jun 2014
Volume 47, Issue 5 - May 2014
Volume 47, Issue 4 - Apr 2014
Volume 47, Issue 3 - Mar 2014
Volume 47, Issue 2 - Feb 2014
Volume 47, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
Improvement of Huff's Method Considering Severe Rainstorm Events
Choi, Soyung ; Joo, Kyungwon ; Shin, Hongjoon ; Heo, Jun-Haeng ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 47, issue 11, 2014, Pages 985~996
DOI : 10.3741/JKWRA.2014.47.11.985
When designing hydraulic structures, the chosen method of time distribution in a hyetograph is highly significant. There are several methods used for measuring time distribution. In the case of Huff (1967), which is widely used in Korea, the Ministry of Construction and Transportation (MOCT, 2000), and the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs (MOLTMA, 2011) have long been increasing their use of this method. The MOLTMA uses the conventional Huff method's measurement of 1 inch (25.4 mm) as the threshold. Many researchers have pointed out that this method often leads to underestimation, because of the excessive flatness. Therefore, for this study, a new time distribution method was developed to analyze only extreme rainfall events-those over the standard of severe rainstorms (that is, more than 30 mm per hour or 80 mm per day)-and that was verified using a rainfall-runoff model and applying it to a real basin.
Proposal and Application of Water Deficit-Duration-Frequency Curve using Threshold Level Method
Sung, Jang Hyun ; Chung, Eun-Sung ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 47, issue 11, 2014, Pages 997~1005
DOI : 10.3741/JKWRA.2014.47.11.997
This study evaluated hydrological drought the using the annual minimum flow and the annual maximum deficit method and proposed the new concept of water deficit-duration-frequency curves similar to rainfall intensity-duration-frequency curves. The analysis results of the annual minimum flow, the return periods of hydrological drought in the most duration of 1989 and 1996yr were the longest. The analysis results of the annual maximum deficit, the return periods of 60-days and 90-day deficit which are relatively short duration were the longest in 1995yr, about 35-year, Hydrological drought lasted longer was in 1995, the return period was about 20-year. Though duration as well as magnitude is a key variable in drought analysis, it was found that the method using the annual minimum flow duration not distinguish duration.
Analysis of Flow Characteristics of the Improved-Pneumatic-Movable Weir through the Laboratory Experiments
Lee, Kyung Su ; Jang, Chang-Lae ; Lee, Namjoo ; Ahn, Sang Jin ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 47, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1007~1015
DOI : 10.3741/JKWRA.2014.47.11.1007
This study investigates the discharge coefficient of Improved-Pneumatic-Movable (IPM) weir through the weir, a kind of movable weirs, to estimate much more accurate rating curves using laboratory flume experiments. The discharge coefficient (
) is from 0.613 to 0.634 by the stand-up angle of the weir. The upstream Froude Number (
), relative crest length(
), Headwater Ratio (
), the Overflow depth ratio of weir crest (
) was changed by the upstream. And the downstream Froude number (
), the Overflow depth ratio of weir crest and Downstream Water depth (
) was changed by the downstream. The ratio of Downstream and Up and Downstream water Depth (
) was found to be changed by both of the up and downstream flow. They considered the major influence variables and derived the Discharge coefficient Formula at this study. The Discharge coefficient of the Improved-Pneumatic-Movable (IPM) weir was settled by the height of the Movable weir, that is to say, it was settled by the flow conditions of upstream approach flow head and physical data according to the standing angle.
Assessing the Effect of Upstream Dam Outflows and River Water Uses on the Inflows to the Paldang Dam
Kim, Chul Gyum ; Kim, Nam Won ; Lee, Jeong Eun ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 47, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1017~1026
DOI : 10.3741/JKWRA.2014.47.11.1017
To investigate the effect of upstream dam operation and river water use on the downstream flows, SWAT-K watershed model was applied to the Paldang Dam watershed of the Han River basin. Analysis results from 2001 to 2009 showed that outflows from the multi-purpose dams such as the Soyanggang Dam and Chungju Dam much have a strong influence on the downstream flows during both the low- and high-flow seasons. This resulted an increase of low-flow at the Paldang Dam, the end of Pukhangang, and the Yangpyeong stage station by
, respectively. Whereas, the impact of river water use was hardly found in the Pukhangang, and also was not significant in the (Nam)hangang. Therefore, the effect of small dam such as the Hoengseong Dam or river water use would be able be excluded for long-term runoff analysis. But, in the case of the areas with a large amount of water use, a sufficient information such water-intake and water movement also must be taken into account like this study.
Numerical Analysis of Flow and Bed Changes due to Tributary Inflow Variation at the Confluence of the Namhan River and the Geumdang Stream
Ji, Un ; Jang, Eun Kyung ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 47, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1027~1037
DOI : 10.3741/JKWRA.2014.47.11.1027
Flow and bed changes due to tributary inflow variation at the confluence of the Namhan River and the Geumdang Stream were analyzed in this study using a two-dimensional numerical model. As a result of the numerical analysis, the velocity downstream of the confluence was greater than the velocity upstream of the confluence in the main channel regardless of the magnitude of tributary inflow. However, as tributary discharge increased, the channel erosion was accelerated and the dry area was produced at the tributary. Due to the bed erosion at the tributary, sediment transport was increased and the eroded sediments were deposited in the confluence area. The deposition in the confluence area changed the flow direction at the main channel to the left side and the localized flow eroded the channel bed at the left side. Therefore, it is expected that bank failure due to continuous bed degradation is possible in this area.
Assessing the Performance of CMIP5 GCMs for Various Climatic Elements and Indicators over the Southeast US
Hwang, Syewoon ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 47, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1039~1050
DOI : 10.3741/JKWRA.2014.47.11.1039
The goal of this study is to demonstrate the diversity of model performance for various climatic elements and indicators. We evaluated the skills of the most advanced 17 General Circulation Models (GCMs) i.e., CMIP5 (Climate Model Inter-comparison project, phase 5) climate models in reproducing retrospective climatology from 1950 to 2000 over the Southeast US for the key climatic elements important in the hydrological and agricultural perspectives (i.e., precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, and wind speed). The biases of raw CMIP5 GCMs were estimated for 16 different climatic indicators that imply mean climatology, temporal variability, extreme frequency, etc. using a grid-based observational dataset as reference. Based on the error (RMSE) and correlation (R) of GCM outputs, the error-based GCM ranks were assigned on average over the indicators. Overall, the GCMs showed much better accuracy in representing mean climatology of temperature comparing to other elements whereas few GCM showed acceptable skills for precipitation. It was also found that the model skills and ranks would be substantially different by the climatic elements, error statistics applied for evaluation, and indicators as well. This study presents significance of GCM uncertainty and the needs of considering rational strategies for climate model evaluation and selection.
Parallel Flood Inundation Analysis using MPI Technique
Park, Jae Hong ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 47, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1051~1060
DOI : 10.3741/JKWRA.2014.47.11.1051
This study is attempted to realize an improved computation performance by combining the MPI (Message Passing Interface) Technique, a standard model of the parallel programming in the distributed memory environment, with the DHM(Diffusion Hydrodynamic Model), a inundation analysis model. With parallelizing inundation model, it compared with the existing calculation method about the results of applications to complicate and required long computing time problems. In addition, it attempted to prove the capability to estimate inundation extent, depth and speed-up computing time due to the flooding in protected lowlands and to validate the applicability of the parallel model to the actual flooding analysis by simulating based on various inundation scenarios. To verify the model developed in this study, it was applied to a hypothetical two-dimensional protected land and a real flooding case, and then actually verified the applicability of this model. As a result of this application, this model shows that the improvement effectiveness of calculation time is better up to the maximum of about 41% to 48% in using multi cores than a single core based on the same accuracy. The flood analysis model using the parallel technique in this study can be used for calculating flooding water depth, flooding areas, propagation speed of flooding waves, etc. with a shorter runtime with applying multi cores, and is expected to be actually used for promptly predicting real time flood forecasting and for drawing flood risk maps etc.
Depth Averaged Numerical Model for Sediment Transport by Transcritical Flows
Kim, Boram ; Kim, Dae-Hong ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 47, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1061~1066
DOI : 10.3741/JKWRA.2014.47.11.1061
A stable second-order finite volume method was proposed to predict sediment transport under rapidly varied flow conditions such as transcritical flow. For the use under unsteady flow conditions, a sediment transport model was coupled with shallow water equations. HLLC approximate Riemann solver based on a monotone upstream-centered schemes for conservation laws (MUSCL) reconstruction was used for the computation of the flux terms. From the comparisons of dam break flow experiments on erodible beds in one- and two-dimensional channels, good agreements were obtained when proper parameters were provided. Lastly, dam surface erosion problem by overtopped water was simulated. Overall, the numerical solutions showed reasonable results, which demonstrated that the proposed numerical scheme could provide stable and physical results in the cases of subcritical and supercritical flow conditions.
Laboratory Experiments for Solitary Wave Force on Vertical Structures
Han, Sejong ; Seo, Gyu-Hak ; Cho, Yong-Sik ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 47, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1067~1076
DOI : 10.3741/JKWRA.2014.47.11.1067
In this study, a series of hydraulic experiments are conducted to measure wave pressure on vertical structures with incident solitary waves that well represent characteristics of tsunamis. The pressure transducers measure time histories of wave pressure according to wave height to see pressure distribution. The force of incident solitary wave is estimated from integrated pressure distributions and represented with square and cylindrical columns. Experimental measurements are compared with the predictions of existing empirical formulas frequently used to design of coastal structures.
Hydraulic Characteristics of Dam Break Flow by Flow Resistance Stresses and Initial Depths
Song, Chang Geun ; Lee, Seung Oh ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 47, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1077~1086
DOI : 10.3741/JKWRA.2014.47.11.1077
The flood wave generated due to dam break is affected by initial depth upstream since it is related with hydraulic characteristics propagating downstream, and flow resistance stress has influence on the celerity, travel distance, and approaching depth of shock wave in implementing numerical simulation. In this study, a shallow water flow model employing SU/PG scheme was developed and verified by analytic solutions; propagation characteristics of dam break according to flow resistance and initial depth were analyzed. When bottom frictional stress was applied, the flow depth was relatively higher while the travel distance of shock wave was shorter. In the case of Coulomb stress, the flow velocity behind the location of dam break became lower compared with other cases, and showed values between no stress and turbulent stress at the reach of shock wave. The value of Froude number obtained by no frictional stress at the discontinuous boundary was the closest to 1.0 regardless of initial depth. The adaption of Coulomb stress gave more appropriate results compared with turbulent stress at low initial depth. However, as the initial depth became increased, the dominance of flow resistance terms was weakened and the opposite result was observed.
Effectiveness of Double Negative Barriers for Mitigation of Sewater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifer: Sharp-Interface Modeling Investigation
Jung, Eun Tae ; Lee, Sung Jun ; Lee, Mi Ji ; Park, Namsik ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 47, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1087~1094
DOI : 10.3741/JKWRA.2014.47.11.1087
Saltwater pumping method can be used to mitigate saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers. However, the saltwater pumping well may discharge large freshwater along with saltwater, thereby wasting precious resources. A double negative barrier was proposed: an inland well to capture freshwater and a saltwater well near the coastline to pump saltwater. A previous study anaylzed effects of double negative barriers in dispersion-dominated coastal aquifers and determined the critical pumping rate at the saltwater well which minimized the saltwater ratio at the freshwater well. However, the study resulted in 1~15% of saltwater ratios, which were too high, for example, for drinking water standards. This study analyzed cases that were considered in the previous study, but for advection-dominated cases, and found that freshwater with sufficiently low saltwater ratios could be developed at the freshwater well. In addition, for optimal groundwater management of a watershed not only the minimum saltwater ratio at the freshwater well but also the least freshwater wasted at the saltwater well must be pursued.
Spatial Downscaling of Grid Precipitation Using Support Vector Machine Regression
Moon, Heewon ; Baik, Jongjin ; Hwang, Sukhwan ; Choi, Minha ;
Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, volume 47, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1095~1105
DOI : 10.3741/JKWRA.2014.47.11.1095
A spatial downscaling method using the Support Vector Machine (SVM) Regression for 25 km Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Monthly precipitation is proposed. The nonlinear relationship among hydrometeorological variables and precipitation was effectively depicted by the SVM for predicting downscaled grid precipitation. The accuracy of spatially downscaled precipitation was estimated by comparing with rain gauge data from sixty-four stations and found to be improved than the original TRMM data in overall. Especially the positive bias of the original TRMM data was effectively removed after the downscaling procedure. The spatial distributions of 25 km and 1 km grid precipitation were generally similar, while the local spatial trend was better detected by 1 km grid precipitation. The downscaled grid data derived from the proposed method can be applied in hydrological modelling for higher accuracy and further be studied for developing optimized downscaling method incorporation other regression methods.