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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy
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Journal DOI :
The Plant Taxonomic Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 46, Issue 2 - Jun 2016
Volume 46, Issue 1 - Mar 2016
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Cryptic variation, molecular data, and the challenge of conserving plant diversity in oceanic archipelagos: the critical role of plant systematics
Crawford, Daniel J. ; Stuessy, Tod F. ;
Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy, volume 46, issue 2, 2016, Pages 129~148
DOI : 10.11110/kjpt.2016.46.2.129
Plant species on oceanic islands comprise nearly 25% of described vascular plants on only 5% of the Earth`s land surface yet are among the most rare and endangered plants. Conservation of plant biodiversity on islands poses particular challenges because many species occur in a few and/or small populations, and their habitats on islands are often disturbed by the activity of humans or by natural processes such as landslides and volcanoes. In addition to described species, evidence is accumulating that there are likely significant numbers of "cryptic" species in oceanic archipelagos. Plant systematists, in collaboration with others in the botanical disciplines, are critical to the discovery of the subtle diversity in oceanic island floras. Molecular data will play an ever increasing role in revealing variation in island lineages. However, the input from plant systematists and other organismal biologists will continue to be important in calling attention to morphological and ecological variation in natural populations and in the discovery of "new" populations that can inform sampling for molecular analyses. Conversely, organismal biologists can provide basic information necessary for understanding the biology of the molecular variants, including diagnostic morphological characters, reproductive biology, habitat, etc. Such basic information is important when describing new species and arguing for their protection. Hybridization presents one of the most challenging problems in the conservation of insular plant diversity, with the process having the potential to decrease diversity in several ways including the merging of species into hybrid swarms or conversely hybridization may generate stable novel recombinants that merit recognition as new species. These processes are often operative in recent radiations in which intrinsic barriers to gene flow have not evolved. The knowledge and continued monitoring of plant populations in the dynamic landscapes on oceanic islands are critical to the preservation of their plant diversity.
A taxonomic review of Korean Leontopodium R. Br. ex Cassini (Asteraceae)
Lee, Dong-Hyuk ; Park, Jong-Su ; Choi, Byoung-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy, volume 46, issue 2, 2016, Pages 149~162
DOI : 10.11110/kjpt.2016.46.2.149
Five species of the genus Leontopodium are recognized in Korea, but their taxonomic positions have been controversial. To clarify the taxonomic entity of these Korean species, we examined their morphological characters based on herbarium specimens and field observations. Valuable distinguishing characters for identification included the plant height, the basal shape of cauline leaves, the type and position of inflorescence, the types of hairs, the presence of leaves at the anthesis, and hairs on the phyllaries. Based on our observations, we were able to determine the taxonomic relationships between L. japonicum and its relatives, L. coreanum and L. hallaisanense. We also included the morphological characters of L. seorakensis in continuous variations of L. leiolepis, which we treated as synonyms. Consequently, we classified these Korean Leontopodium species into four taxa - L. coreanum var. coreanum, L. coreanum var. hallaisanense, L. leiolepis, and L. leontopodioides - with appropriate descriptions and illustrations.
Identification of Cambodian Gnetum (Gnetaceae, Gnetales) species by DNA barcoding
Kim, Joo Hwan ; Won, Hyosig ;
Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy, volume 46, issue 2, 2016, Pages 163~174
DOI : 10.11110/kjpt.2016.46.2.163
Gnetum (Gnetaceae, Gnetales) is a gymnosperm genus with ca. 35 species distributed in tropical forests around the world. Due to its dioecious habit and lack of diagnostic characters from vegetative tissue, the identification of Gnetum species is not easy without seeds or reproductive structures. To identify and verify their phylogenetic positions, we applied DNA barcoding to Cambodian Gnetum collections gathered between 2010 and 2015, with previously designed cp matK gene primers. We newly sequenced partial matK sequences from 72 Gnetum collections, 43 out of 72 from Cambodia, and analyzed 115 Gnetum accessions using the neighbor-joining method. The resulting neighbor-joining tree categorized Cambodian Gnetum samples into three clades of species: G. macrostachyum, G. montanum, and G. aff. gracilipes. The recognition of G. aff. gracilipes in Cambodia is reported here for the first time. Taxonomic information for the three recognized Cambodian Gnetum species is provided and the benefits of the taxonomic reevaluation assisted by DNA barcoding are emphasized in this work.
Taxonomic revision of the Artemisia sacrorum group
Park, Myung Soon ; Nam, Bo Mi ; Chung, Gyu Young ;
Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy, volume 46, issue 2, 2016, Pages 175~186
DOI : 10.11110/kjpt.2016.46.2.175
The taxonomic status and scientific names of Artemisia gmelinii and its allied taxa have long been debated. To provide correct names and taxonomic status, A. gmelinii and its allied taxa were reviewed in this study based on morphological characters. After a comparison of original descriptions and type specimens, the names of A. freyniana f. discolor and A. freyniana f. vestita used in Korea were recognized as A. sacrorum var. sacrorum and A. sacrorum var. incana, respectively, based on the characters of the trichome on the leaf, the geographical distributions, the chromosome numbers, and the existence of a pinule connection on the exine of the pollen. A. iwayomogi, the scientific name misused as A. gmelinii, was combined and newly named A. sacrorum var. iwayomogi (Kitam.) M. S. Park & G. Y. Chung based on its morphological similarity to the A. sacrorum group. A description, illustration, and key for each of the taxa are provided here.
Achene wall anatomy and surface sculpturing of Launaea Cass. (Compositae: Cichorieae) with notes on their systematic significance
Zareh, Momen Mustafa ; Faried, Ahmed Mohamed ; Mohamed, Mona Hassan ;
Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy, volume 46, issue 2, 2016, Pages 187~198
DOI : 10.11110/kjpt.2016.46.2.187
This is the first study to deal in-depth with the achene ultra-structure of the genus Launaea Cass. in Egypt. It focuses on 12 taxa belonging to 10 species of this genus. The achene wall anatomy and surface sculpturing of those taxa were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Important aspects of the investigated taxa based on the achene characters as well as SEM micrographs of the achene surface and anatomical sections are given. Main and secondary costa of the inner achenes are used for easy differentiation between L. intybacea and L. massauensis.
Taxonomic significance of the leaf micromorphology in the tribe Sorbarieae (Spiraeoideae: Rosaceae)
Song, Jun-Ho ; Hong, Suk-Pyo ;
Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy, volume 46, issue 2, 2016, Pages 199~212
DOI : 10.11110/kjpt.2016.46.2.199
A comparative study of leaf epidermal microstructures in the tribe Sorbarieae (Adenostoma: 3 spp., Chamaebatiaria: 1 sp., Sorbaria: 11 spp., Spiraeanthus: 1 sp.) including related genera Gillenia (2 spp.) and Lyonothamnus (2 spp.) was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to evaluate their significance in taxonomy. The leaves of Adenostoma, Chamaebatiaria, and Spiraeanthus were amphistomatic, whereas Gillenia, Lyonothamnus, and Sorbaria were hypostomatic. The size range of the guard cells is
; the smallest one was found in Sorbaria tomentosa var. tomentosa (
), while the largest measured example was Adenostoma fasciculatum var. obtusifolium (
). Anomocytic stomata complex were the most frequent type (rarely cyclocytic), with usually both anomocytic and actinocytic types occurring in one leaf. On the surfaces, both the adaxial and abaxial anticlinal walls of the subsidiary cells vary (e.g., straight/curved, undulate, sinuate). Four types (unicellular non-glandular trichome, stellate, glandular trichome, pustular glandular trichome) of trichomes are found in the leaves. The epicuticular wax can be divided two types: membraneous platelets (Lyonothamnus) and platelets (Sorbaria arborea var. arborea, S. arborea var. subtomentosa, S. kirilowii, S. tomentosa var. tomentosa, Spiraeanthus schrenkianus). The trichome diversity (in particular, stellate, gland) and the existence of epicuticular wax may have taxonomic significance, although the leaf epidermal micromorphological characteristics do not provide synapomorphy in this tribe. These leaf micromorphological features are most likely better understood in the Sorbarieae when used in conjunction with external morphological characters.
Floristic study and conservation management strategies of algific talus slopes on the Korean peninsula
Kim, Jin-Seok ; Chung, Jae-Min ; Kim, Jung-Hyun ; Lee, Woong ; Lee, Byoung-Yoon ; Pak, Jae-Hong ;
Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy, volume 46, issue 2, 2016, Pages 213~246
DOI : 10.11110/kjpt.2016.46.2.213
Algific talus slopes tend to occur on steep north-facing slopes with bedrock that retains ice and emits cold air throughout the growing season. Algific talus slopes provide a suitable microclimate for disjunct or relict populations of northern plant species at low altitude habitats in temperate zones. The purpose of this study is to suggest a strategy for the comprehensive conservation of the vegetation of algific talus slopes through studies of the floristics and plant species compositions and threat factors at present and in the future of 15 major algific talus slopes in Korea. As a result, the vascular plants surveyed on 15 major algific talus slopes were recorded, with a total of 587 taxa, 109 families, 323 genera, 531 species, 7 subspecies, 47 varieties 1 form and 1 hybrid. Of them, endemic plants numbered 26 taxa, and threatened species according to the IUCN valuation basis numbered 8 taxa. Fourth (IV) and fifth (V) degree indicator species as specified by floristic subregions numbered 31 taxa. Peculiarly, several subalpine-native plant species, in this case Cystopteris fragilis, Gymnocarpium dryopteris, Huperzia selago, Rosa koreana, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Woodsia hancockii, were distributed on algific talus slopes at 100-600 m above sea level. Numerous and diverse biological resources native to algific talus slopes in Korea have been consistently disturbed or damaged by human activities without some form of protection. An all-taxa biodiversity inventory should be surveyed to provide more information about all biological species living on algific talus slopes. In addition, conservation strategies to ensure biodiversity and effective management of algific talus slopes are discussed in detail.
Comparative phylogenetic relationship between wild and cultivated Prunus yedoensis Matsum. (Rosaceae) with regard to Taquet`s collection
Cho, Myong-Suk ; Kim, Chan-Soo ; Kim, Seon-Hee ; Kim, Seung-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy, volume 46, issue 2, 2016, Pages 247~255
DOI : 10.11110/kjpt.2016.46.2.247
As an attempt to determine the identity of the old trees of flowering cherries planted in the yard of the Catholic Archdiocese of Daegu, we conducted comparative phylogenetic analyses between wild and cultivated Prunus yedoensis Matsum. We generated the phylogeny (MP) and haplotype network (TCS) of 25 individuals, including wild P. yedoensis, from Jeju Island, cultivated P.
yedoensis `Somei-yoshino` from Korea and Japan, and P. spachiana f. ascendens (Makino) Kitam. from Jeju Island and Japan based on highly informative sequences of two cpDNA regions (rpl16 gene and trnS-trnG intergenic spacer). The wild and cultivated P. yedoensis were distinguished from each other in both the phylogeny and haplotype networks, and the old flowering cherry trees in Daegu had a cpDNA haplotype identical to that of the cultivated P.
yedoensis `Someiyoshino`. Compared to the cultivated P.
yedoensis `Somei-yoshino`, wild P. yedoensis appears to have greater haplotype diversity, presumably originating from the genetic diversity of P. spachiana f. ascendens that functioned as a maternal parent in the hybrid origin of wild P. yedoensis. A future detailed study requires extensive sampling of P. spachiana f. ascendens from Japan and Korea to determine their precise phylogenetic relationships relative to wild and cultivated P. yedoensis. We concluded that the old flowering cherry trees planted in the yard of the Catholic Archdiocese of Daegu are highly likely to be of cultivated origin rather than wild types from Jeju Island, as previously speculated.
Restoration of endangered orchid species, Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) Sw. (Orchidaceae) in Korea
Kim, Young-kee ; Kang, Kyung-Won ; Kim, Ki-Joong ;
Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy, volume 46, issue 2, 2016, Pages 256~266
DOI : 10.11110/kjpt.2016.46.2.256
A total of 13,000 individuals of Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) Sw. artificially propagated in laboratories and greenhouses were restored in their natural habitat of Bogildo Island, Wandogun, in the southern part of Korea in June of 2013. The growing conditions of the individuals were monitored for two years. The parental individuals for the restoration were obtained from a wild population in southern Korea, from which seeds were produced via artificial crossings. These seeds were germinated and cultivated in growing media and two-year-old plants were then grown in greenhouse beds. The genetic diversity among the propagated individuals was confirmed by examining DNA sequences of five regions of the chloroplast genome and the nuclear ITS region. The diversity values were as high as the average values of natural populations. All propagated individuals were transplanted into two different sites on Bogildo by research teams with local residents and national park rangers. After restoration, we counted and measured the surviving individuals, vegetative propagated stems, and growth rates in June of both 2014 and 2015. There was no human interference, and 97% of the individuals survived. The number of propagules increased by 227% in two years. In contrast, the average length of the stems decreased during the period. In addition, different survival and propagation rates were recorded depending on the host plants and the restored sites. The shaded sides of rock cliffs and the bark of Quercus salicina showed the best propagation rates, followed by the bark of Camellia japonica. A few individuals of D. moniliforme successfully flowered, pollinated, and fruited after restoration. Overall, our monitoring data over two years indicate that the restored individuals were well adapted and vigorously propagated at the restored sites. In order to prevent human disturbance of the restored sites, a CCTV monitoring system powered by a solar panel was installed after the restoration. In addition, a human surveillance system is operated by national park rangers with local residents.
First record of Schoenoplectiella ×uzenensis (Ohwi ex T. Koyama) Hayasaka (Cyperaceae) from Korea
Kim, Jonghwan ; Kim, Minha ; Kim, Muyeol ;
Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy, volume 46, issue 2, 2016, Pages 267~271
DOI : 10.11110/kjpt.2016.46.2.267
A newly recorded species, Schoenoplectiella
uzenensis (Ohwi ex T. Koyama) Hayasaka, was found in Chosan Lake, Gosu-myeon, Gochang-gun, Jeollabuk-do, Korea. Schoenoplectiella
uzenensis differs from its related species in having short rhizomes and 1 to 3 spikelets showing inflorescence. Schoenoplectiella triangulata has very short rhizomes and 520 spikelets with inflorescence. Schoenoplectiella lineolata has long creeping rhizomes and 1 spikelet showing inflorescence. We propose the new Korean name of `Go-Chang-Go-Rang-Ei` based on its initial collection site. A description, line drawing, color photographs, table, and a species key of Korean Schoenoplectiella are provided for species identification.